Human Dimensions of Wildlife

Published by Taylor & Francis (Routledge)
Print ISSN: 1087-1209
Publications
The impact of vehicles on certain reptile species is well documented and population consequences of associated mortality from collisions with vehicles can be significant. Whether such collisions by motor vehicle drivers are intentional has been speculated on but not studied. The authors documented the response of motor vehicle drivers to a fake turtle, fake snake, an item frequently found on the road (i.e., disposable cup), and an inconspicuous control. Response was documented as a hit, miss, or rescue. Using log-linear analysis the study found evidence that reptile decoys were hit at a higher rate than by chance with approximately 2.7% of motorists intentionally hitting them. These results may be used to improve vehicle-reptile collision probability models and demonstrate the need for highly effective mitigation measures to prevent reptile access to roadways with moderate to heavy traffic volumes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
If humans and mountain lions(Puma concolor)are to coexist, managers need to understand how both use an area and understand the local public's view toward large predators. In spring 2000, the authors conducted a telephone survey of 9 local wildlife managers and a mail survey to assess 493 suburban residents' knowledge of and attitudes toward mountain lions near Tucson, Arizona. All agencies wanted more information that could lead to improved management of mountain lions. The overall response to the public survey was 52% (493 / [1,000-52]). Respondents' knowledge of mountain lion biology was low (M= 2.5 ± 0.07 [SE] out of 7.0). Respondents supported management measures that protect mountain lions in all landscapes and opposed measures that removed protections. There is local support of mountain lion conservation, and it is recommended that educational opportunities be created for the local public so residents are informed about mountain lion research and management.
 
Sample Size Reductions for Each Species-Specific Model
Mean Importance of Motivational Items for Fishing at Tourism Establishments
Parameter Estimates for Predicting Walleye Harvest Rates (ANCOVA Model)
Parameter Estimates for Predicting Northern Pike Harvest Rates (ANCOVA Model)
Parameter Estimates for Predicting Smallmouth Bass Harvest Rates (ANCOVA Model)
This paper examined whether angling catch behaviors, angler characteristics, and angler evaluations could explain the decisions by anglers to harvest caught fish. Particularly, we determined if the propensity of tourist anglers to harvest caught walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), northern pike (Esox lucius), and smallmouth bass (Micropterus Dolomieui) was related to variables that measured catch rates, angling effort, catch rates for substitute fish species, motivational item importance, and/or social group variables. The results showed that catch rates and angling effort were essential for explaining anglers' decisions to harvest caught fish. Although explaining much less of the variation in the harvest behavior among anglers, the results also showed that standard concepts of human dimensions research such as substitution, motivation, and social groups were statistically related to the decisions of harvesting caught fish by anglers.
 
Mean Differences in Marine Protected Area Attitude Scores According to Specialization Level Group Mean Score
This study explored relationships between specialization and anglers' attitudes and beliefs connected to marine protected areas (MPAs). A mail survey questionnaire was sent to 697 private boat saltwater anglers in five northeastern states (62% response, n = 419). Although recreation specialization theory predicts that more specialized participants will indicate greater support for management regulations than will less specialized participants, the authors found no significant difference in attitude toward MPAs across specialization level. Highly specialized anglers were more likely to believe that recreational harvest has a detrimental impact on fish populations than were less specialized anglers. However, the loss of access to specific fishery resources will likely be more consequential for highly specialized (more resource dependent) anglers. This greater resource dependency may have counterbalanced their general tendency to show more support for regulations as compared to less specialized anglers. Incorporation of specialization theory into attitude research can improve the understanding of important cognitive differences that exist among diverse recreation participants. Implications for specialization theory and natural resource management are discussed.
 
We completed a content analysis of newspaper, radio, and television reports (n = 117) available to people in New York State between January 1999 and March 2002, to characterize how news stories differed with regard to problem identification, attributions of responsibility, and proposed solutions to black bear management problems. Nearly all reports could be characterized as episodic rather than thematic (i.e., focused on specific events rather than general outcomes or conditions). Reports identified few bear-related problems, suggested few solutions to problems, and tended to attribute responsibility for solving problems to individuals, not government agencies. We suggest that wildlife managers make efforts to raise stakeholder awareness about a wider array of bear-human interactions and effects of interactions than are reported by mass media as management issues emerge. By improving media relations plans and investing in stakeholder issue education, wildlife agencies can enable communities to create frames for productive dialogue about black bear management.
 
Indicators of Recreational Specialization 
Preferred Destination Attributes by Birder Groups Casual birders Mean Interested birders Mean Active birders Mean Skilled birders Mean F-value Opportunities to Observe Flora and Fauna 
Many rural communities are examining nature tourism options, such as birdwatching (birding), as an economic development strategy. Unfortunately,public media stories, tourism professionals, and biologists often describe birders as a homogeneous group of serious, dedicated, and even fanatical visitors willing to spend large sums of money in their pursuit.Consistent with past research, we contend that birders constitute a hetero-geneous group of recreationists. Using recreational specialization as a conceptual framework, we identified four groups of visitors to a popular birding festival and show that the groups also differ in terms of level of behavioral involvement and setting preferences. Findings from this study will aid community leaders and event organizers in their efforts to target programs, amenities, and promotional materials to distinct segments of the birdwatching population.
 
Principal Components of Variables for Birder Specialization Model 
Specialization Component Scores for Birder Specialization Levels 
Birders represent a significant component of wildlife users, but birders are not a homogeneous group. This study develops a recreation specialization framework for birders in a non-North American setting, and examines how conservation involvement, demographics, and motivations vary among specialization levels. Using questionnaire data from birders in Doi Inthanon National Park, Thailand, three specialization levels—novice, advanced-active, and advanced-experienced - are described. Specialization level was positively, but weakly, related to conservation involvement. Age, income, and percentage male rose with specialization level. Both advanced birder types were less interested in nonbirding activities than novice birders. Advanced-experienced birders were most interested in birding activities. Management and marketing implications are discussed.
 
The wildlife value orientation (WVO) construct has been used to describe deeply held beliefs about how humans should relate to wildlife. As part of a larger effort to test the usefulness of the WVO construct across cultures, we conducted pilot testing of the construct in China. A conceptual and methodological framework developed by the project's international research team was used to collect and analyze data. Specific modifications were made for China's study. We conducted sixteen mixed-method interviews in five cities/towns in China. Participants included individuals from both rural and urban areas with equal numbers of men and women. The results provided supporting evidence for all hypothesized WVO dimensions. Inter-rater reliabilities were reported and representative quotations illustrating each WVO concept were presented. In particular, we discussed the prevalence of materialism in relation to the emerging mutualistic thinking in contemporary China. As a conclusion, we provided our evaluation of the utility of WVO concept as well as the research method.
 
Definitions of Wildlife Value Orientations and Belief Dimensions used for Coding 
Correlations Within and Between Methods for Measuring Wildlife Value Orientations 
The need for cross-cultural research to better understand the relationships between humans and wildlife was one of the driving factors in the instigation of the Wildlife Values Globally project. A fundamental challenge in fulfilling this need is developing appropriate methods that can elicit thoughts about wildlife from people in a variety of cultures. As such, a key goal of this project was to develop a basic cross-cultural instrument that would reveal wildlife value orientations (WVOs). A semi-structured interview instrument was developed using emotional prompts to elicit stories about wildlife. This instrument was tested in the United States and the results were compared to those of a previously developed quantitative survey of WVOs. The interview instrument was successful in revealing WVOs comparable to those identified by the survey instrument and was deemed promising for use cross-culturally.
 
This paper presents a comparison of values of wildlife held by stakeholder groups and public samples in Victoria, Australia, with a sample of wildlife managers' beliefs about these groups. It also examines the managers' views of the importance of utilizing human dimensions information in their decision-making. In-depth interviews were conducted with wildlife/environmental managers in a sample of state and local government agencies and members of wildlife management stakeholder groups. Questionnaires were used to explore values of wildlife held by stakeholder group members and the Victorian public. There are several instances of interviewed managers misunderstanding the values held by stakeholder groups and subsets of the Victorian public. Such discrepancies can be reduced by incorporating systematically obtained human dimensions information into management decisions. Interviewed wildlife managers appear to appreciate the importance of human dimensions information; however, there was some uncertainty about how it could be applied.
 
Comparison of potential for conflict indices for Minnesota waterfowl hunters' attitudes about daily duck bag limits during 2005, 2007, 2010, and 2011 seasons to previous seasons.
Comparison of potential for conflict indices for Minnesota waterfowl hunters' attitudes about hen mallard bag limits during 2005, 2007, 2010, and 2011 seasons to previous seasons. 
Differences between early and late respondents to surveys of Minnesota waterfowl hunters for 2005, 2007, 2010, and 2011 seasons
Few studies have examined response to regulatory change over time, or addressed hunter attitudes about changes in hunting bag limits. This article explores Minnesota waterfowl hunters’ attitudes about duck bag limits, examining attitudes about two state duck bag limits that were initially more restrictive than the maximum set by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), but then increased to match federal limits. Results are from four mail surveys that examined attitudes about bag limits over time. Following two bag limit increases, a greater proportion of hunters rated the new bag limit “too high” and a smaller proportion rated it “too low.” Several years following the first bag limit increase, the proportion of hunters who indicated that the limit was “too high” had declined, suggesting hunter acceptance of the new regulation. Results suggest that waterfowl bag limits may represent legal norms that influence hunter attitudes and gain legitimacy over time.
 
The public trust doctrine (PTD) is the common law basis for governments to hold wildlife in trust for the benefit of current and future generations of Americans. Wildlife as a public trust resource is the foundation of the North American Model of Wildlife Conservation. We examine principles that underlie a trustee’s role in the context of the PTD and governmental responsibility. We evaluate purposes of and needs for human dimensions inquiry in execution of a trustee’s wildlife stewardship responsibility. We conclude human dimensions research is essential for government to fulfill its responsibilities as trustee, particularly considering the breadth and often conflicting interests of stakeholders. Human dimensions research can serve an important function in identifying and affirming core societal values toward wildlife that underpin the PTD and in monitoring shifts in society’s values to ensure resiliency of the trustee role and relevance and legitimacy of institutional norms of wildlife resource governance.
 
Continued. 
North American wildlife is treated as a public trust resource (PTR), managed for the benefit of all people by government. Wildlife managers historically used restrictive regulations and enforced compliance to recover many species. Present-day societal needs include reducing some abundant game populations. Hunters often oppose this objective, creating tension between managing PTRs and gaining trust of hunters upon whose cooperation management depends. We assessed effects of normative and personal gains on cooperation of hunters through their purchase of antlerless deer licenses and their trust in the agency regarding bovine tuberculosis eradication from Michigan white-tailed deer. Logit modeling of hunter survey data indicated trust was influenced by procedural justice and personal gains. Only a single procedural justice variable was a statistically significant cooperation predictor. Findings suggest agencies may gain trust more readily than cooperation through procedurally just exercise of authority. Additional research is needed to identify meaningful gains associated with trust.
 
This article examines the values and motivations of South African biltong hunters. A hierarchical value map of associations between attributes, consequences and values resulted from laddering interviews with 34 hunters. The Means-End Chain approach proved useful in identifying: (a) personal values, (b) wildlife value orientations, and (c) motivations associated with desired benefits and satisfactions. Values reflected socialization, achievement, stimulation, hedonism, universalism, and conformity. Materialism, attraction/interest, respect, environmentalism, and rational/scientific were the predominant wildlife value orientations. Motivations included male identity, escape, appreciation of nature, and bonding with family and friends. The study refuted perceptions that biltong hunters primarily hunt for the meat or for the sake of killing an animal. / This article examines the values and motivations of South African biltong hunters. A hierarchical value map of associations between attributes, consequences and values resulted from laddering interviews with 34 hunters. The Means-End Chain approach proved useful in identifying: (a) personal values, (b) wildlife value orientations, and (c) motivations associated with desired benefits and satisfactions. Values reflected socialization, achievement, stimulation, hedonism, universalism, and conformity. Materialism, attraction/interest, respect, environmentalism, and rational/scientific were the predominant wildlife value orientations. Motivations included male identity, escape, appreciation of nature, and bonding with family and friends. The study refuted perceptions that biltong hunters primarily hunt for the meat or for the sake of killing an animal.
 
State wildlife agencies (SWAs) manage natural resources for the benefit of the common good. However, effective management in today’s complex world requires institutional capacity that can address specific challenges. Nongovernmental organizations can enhance SWAs’ ability to manage wildlife as a public resource for which competing demands exist. The Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) led a participatory process to identify a suite of landscape species representative of habitats and human-caused threats in the Adirondack Park of northern New York. This effort benefitted the management of resources under the public trust doctrine. WCS brought additional capacity, specifically personnel, resources, programming, and credibility with partners, to conservation initiatives focused on boreal birds, moose, and black bears over a 15-year period in the Adirondack Park, NY. This investment resulted in several long-term projects that enhanced the NYS Department of Environmental Conservation’s ability to provide improved management and multiple benefits from these resources to the public.
 
Communities represented by triangles were used to explore community harvest-report ratios by moose hunters in Alaska from 1984 through 2009 ( n = 108). 
Scatter plot of community characteristics (in units of percentage of the households in the community) used to examine harvest-report ratios by moose hunters in Alaska from 1984 through 2009. Pearson correlation coefficients and p -values are within the matrix boxes n = 108. 
Accurate harvest reporting is critical for wildlife management. Rural Alaskan communities reported a median of 42% of moose harvested via traditional harvest tickets compared to those reported in household surveys. This harvest-report ratio did not change over time. Twice as many moose were reported harvested during subsistence household surveys (n = 8,039) than on hunter harvest tickets (n = 3,557). Percentage of the community that was indigenous, used and shared moose, and absence of a wildlife biologist or road access were associated with low harvest-report ratios. Analysis revealed that household surveys provide important information about moose harvest rates and their use should be expanded. Reporting rates might be improved by building trust through respectful dialogue between hunters and managers and by placing more emphasis on the benefits of reporting harvests and less emphasis on enforcement.
 
A thesis submitted to the Faculty of Graduate Studies and Research in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science, Department of Renewable Resources. Thesis (M.Sc.)--University of Alberta, 1997.
 
Recreationists who encounter more people than their normative tolerance for seeing others usually feel more crowded than those encountering fewer than their norm. This research note extends this observation–norm–evaluation relationship (e.g., encounter–norm–crowding) to other evaluations and indicators. Data were from a survey of anglers on the Gulkana National Wild River in Alaska (n = 288). Respondents who encountered more people than their norm felt more crowded than those encountering fewer than their norm. When impacts from other social indicators (e.g., camping within sight or sound of other groups, fishing area competition) exceeded user norms, crowding was higher and satisfaction with overall trip quality was lower than for those experiencing less than their norms. When impacts from resource indicators (e.g., litter, impacted campsites) exceeded norms, satisfaction with both environmental quality and trip quality were lower than for those experiencing less than their norms. The encounter–norm– crowding generalization, therefore, extended to other indicators and evaluations.
 
Animals are strong emotional triggers for us. The goal of this article is to identify causes and mechanisms that constitute liking or disliking animals. By combining deductions from emotion theory with empirical findings, six categories of causes can be distinguished: (1) an innate sensitivity for biological movement, (2) inherited quick learning programs to respond emotionally to some animals, (3) mental dispositions to respond emotionally to animals that result from conditioning, (4) an innate tendency to react emotionally to the emotional expressions of animals, (5) acquired knowledge about animals that influences the way we interpret an automatic bodily emotional reaction to an animal into a conscious experience, and (6) acquired knowledge about animals that can turn on emotional reactions to animals. Because emotions play a central role in the economy of the individual, the study of emotional responses may greatly enhance our understanding of the human dimensions of wildlife in general
 
Despite their popularity and place in our recreational history, in recent years zoos have undergone considerable change in both their structure and function. While remaining attractive places of entertainment, zoos today also emphasize their contribution to wildlife conservation. This article reviews the role of zoos in wildlife conservation and discusses the effectiveness of their present policies and actions. It is apparent that the major contribution comes through their ex situ actions, including education programs, and captive breeding and management of wildlife. However, recently, zoos have also become more involved with in situ conservation, predominantly through recovery programs for endangered species in cooperation with government authorities and local communities. However, such activities are expensive, and a major obstacle for zoos has always been to strike a balance between commercial success and professional conservation credibility. The opportunities for zoos lie in transforming themselves from traditional animal displays to interactive, entertaining conservation centres that bridge the gap between their captive collections and free-range wildlife.
 
Throughout Australia, thousands of people are involved in the rehabilitation of native fauna.This paper reviews the role of wildlife rescue groups in the care and rehabilitation of Australian fauna, and makes recommendations regarding future policy and practice. From the data presented, it is concluded that(1) The majority of wildlife comprise common and widespread species.(2) They usually require care and rehabilitation because of some previous interaction with humans.(3) A significant proportion die during the rehabilitation process.(4) While a large number are eventually released, little information is available about their ultimate survival.(5) This situation is similar to that reported in the United States. However, it is also apparent that the greatest benefit from wildlife rehabilitation is likely to come from the educational message it inspires. In this regard, it is recommended that the profile of wildlife care groups be raised, particularly within government conservation agencies, and that there be additional research into their contribution to wildlife conservation.
 
Median Distance Traveled by Number of Trips Taken 1 
Summary of the Variables Used in the Econometric Model (n = 224) 
Using data from an on-site survey of recreational birders in southern Delaware during the annual horseshoe crab/shorebird spring migration, we estimated four truncated count data models of recreation demand accounting for endogenous stratification due to onsite sampling. We analyzed day-trips only and conducted sensitivity analysis on measurement of the value of time and inclusion of covariates. Our estimates from the models using all covariates were in the range of $40 to $178/trip/household (2008$). The variation is due to differences in the value of time. The average household size is 1.66.
 
Map of Australia showing general location of Mon Repos and Hervey Bay.
Tourism development can have positive and/or negative impacts on wildlife. However, if tourism is developed in accordance with the basic tenets of wildlife tourism such an activity can be sustainable and can aid the conservation of species. Based on two case studies in Queensland, Australia, this article outlines the various economic and conservation benefits arising from wildlife-based tourism. Some of the benefits are direct, such as tangible economic benefits, others are less tangible, such as increased visitors’ willingness to pay in principle for the conservation of species. Wildlife-based tourism is shown to foster political support for the conservation of species utilized for such tourism by various mechanisms. Non-consumptive uses of wildlife are not only sustainable, but may provide a viable alternative to consumptive uses.
 
Structural model demonstrating partial mediation of the birding participation– environmental concern relationship by birding motivation. Values represent standardized regression coefficients. Dotted lines represent non-significant relationships. N = 529. 
Confirmatory factor and reliability analyses of outdoor recreation motivation statements
Discriminant validity of the latent factors for outdoor recreation motivation
Standardized regression weights for the new ecological paradigm (Dunlap et al. 2000) second-order measurement model
of partial mediation, full mediation, and direct effects models for recreational meaning as a mediation in the OR participation-EC relationship
Previous research has generally not found a strong relationship between participation in outdoor recreation and environmental concern. Research has suggested, however, that the motivation underlying recreation can mediate this relationship for some nature-based recreation groups. We hypothesized that the motivation underlying participation in birding mediates the participation–environmental concern relationship. We collected data via mail-back surveys from 529 American Birding Association members. Using structural modeling, we compared a direct effects model with partial and full mediation models with motivation variables as the mediators. The partial mediation model was weakly supported for two out of three motivation variables. Fit indices showed all models to have less than adequate fit. The results suggested that participation may not lead to environmental concern and that other variables, including motivation, may be more influential.
 
There is a growing recognition among wildlife managers that focusing management on wildlife often provides a temporary fix to human-wildlife conflicts, whereas changing human behavior can provide long-term solutions. Human dimensions research of wildlife conflicts frequently focuses on stakeholders' characteristics, problem identification, and acceptability of management, and less frequently on human behavior and evaluation of management actions to change that behavior. Consequently, little information exists to assess overall success of management. We draw on our experience studying human-bear conflicts, and argue for more human dimensions studies that focus on change in human behavior to measure management success. We call for help from social scientists to conduct applied experiments utilizing two methods, direct observation and self-reported data, to measure change in behavior. We are optimistic these approaches will help fill the managers' tool box and lead to better integration of human dimensions into human-wildlife conflict management.
 
The Landscape Conservation Cooperative (LCC) network (Network), comprised of 22 conservation partnerships spanning North America and U.S. Islands, is uniquely positioned to assist government members in fulfilling their public trust obligations to sustain natural and cultural resources for current and future generations by (a) ensuring inclusivity of broad stakeholder participation in conservation decision-making, and (b) building capacity for public trust to work in conservation, thus increasing the chance for successful and lasting conservation outcomes. In this article, we discuss the vision for the Network; challenges individual LCCs and the Network face in achieving the vision of sustaining natural and cultural resources for the benefit of current and future generations, a public trust obligation of most of the members; and ways in which member LCCs are making progress in this regard. We offer recommendations for the Network to consider to improve its ability to meet public trust obligations.
 
The trend in wildlife management over the last two decades has been to develop locally based approaches for responsiveness to local conditions, but some state wildlife agencies are finding the amount of staff time required to service this approach prohibitive. Although local engagement strategies have been lauded as assuring that public trust obligations of state government to citizens are met, we can expect that states with a local focus as their operational level of stakeholder engagement may opt to change their approach to reflect their resource limitations. We argue for comprehensive regional level effort to understand stakeholders augmented with local engagement processes where needed to deal with special circumstances in smaller areas within a region. Such an approach can be anticipated to have implications for stakeholder engagement and human dimensions research needs, which we discuss in the context of public trust resource administration and good governance of wildlife resources.
 
Social network map of individuals involved in South Puget Sound prairie restoration. The size of the circles is proportional to each actor’s degree centrality; the shading indicates the organization. 
Social network map of individuals involved in Great Lakes fish consumption advisories. The size of the circles is proportional to each actor’s degree centrality; the shading indicates the type of organization. 
We consider the implications of public trust administration principles for collaborative fish and wildlife management. Collaboration can increase the capacity of agencies to provide fish- and wildlife-related benefits but increases the ties of agencies to some stakeholders—potentially privileging those stakeholders’ needs. We conducted two case studies of collaborative management in which we identified ways that collaboration enhanced and detracted from agencies’ capacities. We found that collaboration led to benefits for agencies, but that agencies had to make tradeoffs in the goals and objectives they pursued. With regard to meeting public trust responsibilities, we hypothesized that: (a) agencies gain from collaboration when they do not have the capacity to provide a certain type of fish- or wildlife-related benefit on their own; but (b) it is more challenging for agencies to provide benefits through collaborative efforts when they work with organizations that have goals that differ considerably from their own.
 
Communication is an important part of wildlife management. Communication strategies based in knowledge of stakeholder understandings of key issues tend to be particularly effective. We conducted focus groups in five states across the United States to evaluate how laypersons conceptualize wildlife health and wildlife disease management. Based on insights from the focus groups, we identified building blocks of layperson mental models for wildlife health. From the layperson perspective, wildlife health was associated with absence of disease; balanced, sustainable populations; healthy animals; habitat quality; and ecosystem health. Wildlife disease was commonly viewed as a natural phenomenon. Factors influencing support for wildlife disease management included the specific methods used, cost, predicted consequences of management, level of uncertainty, and severity of the disease threat. Knowledge attained from these focus groups provides empirical evidence of beliefs and perceptions that influence public understanding and agreement with wildlife disease management.
 
Three landowner typologies (based on behavior, motivations, and reasoned action) and their component types 
Prevalence (%) of past patch-cutting behavior and future patch-cutting behavioral intention by behavior, motivations, and reasoned action typologies 
Means, Repeated Measures ANOVA, and Scheffe post-hoc analyses for influence of tools of action scales on behavioral intention to patch-cut by behavior, motivations, and reasoned action typologies 
Wildlife organizations often engage landowners in habitat management. Landowner typology research can provide suggestions for how to work with diverse types of landowners. We explored how typologies can inform selection of tools to engage landowners in early successional habitat (ESH) management. Using a survey, effectiveness of three kinds of tools were assessed: (a) basic needs, (b) learning, and (c) social. Across all types and typologies, learning tools were most likely to influence landowner behavior, whereas social tools (e.g., recognition) were least likely. Continuing adopters were the only type of landowners that reported basic needs tools would influence them at the same level as learning tools. In each typology, landowner types with higher behavioral intention were more likely to be influenced by all of the tools. Thus, tools may reinforce behaviors, rather than engage the unengaged. We suggest learning tools be initially prioritized to encourage ESH management.
 
The Public Trust Doctrine (PTD) vests states with a fiduciary responsibility to manage wildlife for the benefit of current and future generations. States have varied approaches to applying the PTD for wildlife management ranging from a traditional focus on hunters, anglers, and trappers to a progressive approach of broad inclusion of all potential stakeholders in their decision-making processes. We argue that states need to gather and incorporate more and better human dimensions (HD) information to fulfill their PTD responsibilities. We describe some of the barriers to increased use of HD and the changes in agency culture, staffing, data gathering, and decision-making processes necessary to integrate HD effectively and comport with the PTD. We conclude that in addition to increasing fulfillment of PTD responsibilities, increased use of HD information will help maintain agency relevance, increase political support, and secure broader agency funding.
 
Comparisons of herder families and wolf predation rates by herd size, Ikh Nart Nature Reserve, Mongolia 
This article links ecological, social, and cultural data to analyze relationships between wolves and herders in a pastoral setting, the Ikh Nart Nature Reserve, Dornogobi Aimag, Mongolia, an area representative of the broader Gobi-Steppe ecosystem in northern Asia. This article is specifically interested in understanding the contemporary lifestyles of herders in this area, their relationships with wolves, and the perceived and actual risks posed by wolves to both livestock and humans. Data show that herders differed in their views of and actions toward wolves based mainly on the size of herds they managed. But, their cultural stories continue to reflect traditional values and images of wolves and herders. This research argues for an appreciation of cultural contexts in conservation planning, especially in transitional societies.
 
Conservation incentive programs have substantial impacts on the nation's forests and wildlife habitat. There are eight major conservation incentive programs. The Forest Stewardship Program (FSP) provides forest landowner assistance by focusing on resource management plans embodying multi-resource stewardship principles. The Forest Land Enhancement Program (FLEP) is the primary vehicle for cost-sharing. The Crop Reserve Program (CRP) provides for conserving covers on eligible farmland. The Forest Legacy Program (FLP) protects environmentally important private forestlands via conservation easements. The Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP) promotes agricultural production and environmental quality as compatible goals. The Landowner Incentive Program (LIP) provides grants to protect and restore habitat on private lands to benefit federally listed, proposed, candidate, or other at-risk species. The Wildlife Habitat Incentives Program (WHIP) provides for development and improvement of upland and wetland wildlife and fish habitat. Finally, the Wetlands Reserve Program (WRP) offers landowners the opportunity to protect, restore, and enhance wetlands.
 
Effective management of the negative impacts of wildlife tourism on wildlife is critical to sustainability, yet apparently is often deficient. This article presents a simple framework to provide guidance on how to set up an effective program for managing such impacts. This includes consideration of an appropriate overall management framework, how to choose appropriate management actions, and how to design a monitoring program. Examples are drawn principally from Australia to illustrate some of these approaches. It is concluded that greater commitment is required to raising the resources required to undertake effective management, supported by research to fill the significant knowledge gaps in this area. Yes Yes
 
Proportion of each license type in the population compared to the Internet proportion of returns for each license type of the mixed-mode survey conducted in 2011, χ 2 (3, n = 143,103) = 5128.17, p < .001, Cramer's V = .189.
Mean return rate to the 2011 mixed-mode (Internet and mail) statewide angler survey analyzed by license type
The appeal of cost savings and faster results has fish and wildlife management agencies considering the use of Internet surveys instead of traditional mail surveys to collect information from their constituents. Internet surveys, however, may suffer from differential age-related response rates, potentially producing biased results if certain age groups respond to Internet surveys differently than they do to mail surveys. We examined this concern using data from a mixed-mode angler survey conducted in South Dakota following the 2011 fishing season. Results indicated that young anglers (16–18) had the lowest return rates and senior anglers (65+) had the highest, regardless of survey mode. Despite this consistency in response rates, we note two concerns: (a) lower Internet response rates and (b) different age groups represented by the Internet and mail survey samples differed dramatically. Findings indicate that constituent groups may be represented differently with the use of various survey modes.
 
Wildlife value orientations among inhabitants of the Netherlands were explored by conducting semi-structured interviews, and using predefined value orientations that were previously revealed in the United States. Special attention was paid to the existence of mutualism orientations, viewing wildlife as capable of relationships of trust with humans and having rights like humans do. Most predefined orientations were expressed by the interviewees. Mutualism was the predominant orientation, detected across subjects and across the interview questions. Within the mutualism orientation different perspectives were found: assignment of human characteristics to wildlife, mutual recognition and interaction with wildlife, a basic ethical position that animals have the same rights as humans, and the perspective that animals deserve respect and should not suffer. The materialism orientation, viewing wildlife as object for human use, was revealed rarely. These results match with the hypothesis of a shift toward mutualism orientations in Western societies.
 
Public trust thinking (PTT) offers a philosophical orientation toward natural resources and a means of addressing persistent and emerging challenges in environmental conservation. It has inspired laws and policies around the world and is receiving increasing attention among scholars and natural resource practitioners. Nevertheless, attempts to develop and implement PTT are hampered by lack of clarity: no clear single statement of principles that unite PTT’s diverse expressions exists. We address this need by synthesizing PTT literature across academic disciplines. We identify four areas that are in need of development and offer five principles that characterize PTT: (1) Human well-being is dependent on benefits provided by ecosystems; (2) Certain resources are not suitable for exclusive private ownership; (3) All beneficiaries are equal; (4) Future generations should be considered in current resource management decisions; and (5) Trustees are bound by fiduciary obligations and are publicly accountable.
 
Gulf of California coastal lagoons (black circles) included in the Pacific Flyway. Gray color represents mangrove cover and dotted lines represent the aircraft track line where migratory wildfowl were counted (see Methods). Coastal lagoons or lagoon complexes are: (a) Tiburón Island to Guaymas, (b) Guayma s to Estero de Lobos, (c) Estero de Lobos, (d) Bahía de Santa Bárbara, (e) Laguna Agiabampo, (f) Bahía de San Esteban / Topolobampo, (g) Bahía de Santa Maria / Ensenada de Pabellón / El Dorado to Dimas, (h) Laguna Huizache-Caimanero, and (i) Marismas Nacionales / Laguna Cuyutlán (color figure available online). 
Correlation between the variables analyzed in this study: (a) Relationship between wintering waterfowl abundance and coastal lagoon area in ten Mexican lagoons ( r = .98; n = 9 lagoons); (b) annual waterfowl harvest in the United States plotted against migratory waterfowl abundance in Mexico ( r = .65; n = 19 years); (c) hunting stamps sold yearly against previous-year waterfowl harvest in the United States ( r = .90; n = 19 years); (d) annual stamp-sale revenue against hunting stamps sold in the United States ( r = .86; n = 19 years). All correlations were significant at the P = .01 level. 
Path analysis: The width of the black arrows and the associated numbers indicate the values of the significant path coefficients. The dotted ellipses correspond to the path analysis of lagoon size and mangrove extent as predictors of waterfowl counts. All other ellipses (continuous lines) correspond to the variables analyzed and significant paths identified as predictors of stamp sales. Total revenue was simply calculated as the product of stamp sales × inflation-adjusted stamp prices. White arrows show path points where other, external variables may have an effect. 
Nominal and inflation-adjusted price values (US$) for duck stamps between 1977 and 1996. The horizontal dotted line marks the time-series average. 
This article explores transnational ecosystem services in North America, provided by winter habitat for waterfowl in western Mexico coastal lagoons, and the hunting industry supported by these birds in the United States. This article shows that the number of waterfowl harvested in the United States is related to the abundance of waterfowl wintering in Mexico. On average, this flow of ecosystem services annually yields US$ 4.68 million in hunting stamp sales in the western United States. A demand curve, fitted to duck hunting licenses as a function of stamp price and previous-year waterfowl harvest, estimated US$3–6 million in consumer surplus produced in addition to governmental stamp sales revenue. This strongly suggests that waterfowl wintering habitat in western Mexico is economically valuable to U.S. hunters. Because hunters may benefit substantially from these habitats they may be willing to pay for conservation efforts in western Mexico that can result in transnational benefits received in the United States.
 
To address the problems associated with the management of increasing numbers of large ungulates in many European countries, more holistic approaches, such as ecosystem or landscape management, are called on to replace, for example, sectoral and single-species management. The implementation of holistic approaches, however, requires changes in societal institutions, which have proven to be both complicated and conflicting. The purpose of this article is to examine the institutional obstacles and incentives associated with the implementation of two holistic approaches to wildlife management, the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the European Landscape Convention (ELC). Examination of the operational guidelines of the two approaches identified a number of challenges associated with multilevel and multiparty decision-making procedures. These institutional challenges need to be addressed in a systematic way in order to increase the adaptive capacity of the management of wildlife in Europe.
 
Factors Influencing NIPF Participation in Hunting Leases-Selection Mechanism
Factors Influencing Lease Fee-Outcome Stage
Continued Coefficient t-ratio Coefficient t-ratio Marginal effect (%)
We used a two-step approach to jointly analyze participation of non-industrial private forest landowners in hunting leases and the determinants of hunting lease fees. Data for this study were obtained from a survey of landowners in Alabama (n = 227). The results show that land ownership type, tract size, and landowners' place of residence, employment status, and concern for personal safety are determinants of participation in hunting leases. Factors influencing hunting lease fees include site-specific characteristics such as share of agricultural land relative to forest land, tract size, year-round water availability, type of access, and enhanced features such as streamside management zone, habitat improvement desirable to wildlife, and provision of services. The study has implications for landowners' land use decisions and economic returns.
 
When large carnivores cause socioeconomic losses in a community, conflict increases, retaliatory killing of the carnivore can occur, and conservation efforts are undermined. We focused on Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) and economic compensation schemes as approaches for managing conflict. PRA is a tool for collecting data on the large carnivore–human conflict and economic compensation schemes for those affected negatively by carnivore presence. We reviewed published papers and reports on large carnivore–human conflicts, PRA, and compensation schemes. This article details insights into common pitfalls, key lessons learned, possible solutions including new approaches for compensation and protocols to be followed while managing large carnivore–human conflict. We hope to contribute to a meaningful dialogue between locals, managers, and researchers and help in effective implementation of conservation programs to mitigate large carnivore–human conflict around the protected areas.
 
Correlation matrices-Individual-level analyses
Correlation matrices-State-level analyses
Recent journalism and scholarship have noted a years-long decline in Americans' participation in rural forms of outdoor recreation such as hunting. While some attempt has been made to understand these declines few have analyzed the causes of these changes in a theoretically rigorous empirical manner. This study addresses this issue in two empirical approaches. First, we analyze survey data on hunting and various theoretical predictors from the General Social Survey. Second, we statistically analyze changes in hunting license acquisitions at the state level for a period of several years. We empirically test the Videophilia hypothesis (Pergams & Zaradic, 200630. Pergams , O. R. W. and Zaradic , P. A. 2006. Is love of nature in the US becoming love of electronic media?. Journal of Environmental Management, 80(4): 387–393. doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2006.02.001 [CrossRef], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]View all references) as one explanation positing a substitution effect involving electronic forms of indoor entertainment. We find evidence that the switch to certain kinds of electronic entertainment as well as the growth in urban living explain the decline in hunting and discuss the implications of these findings and future directions for research.
 
The monk parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus) is among the most important bird pest species causing damage to crops in Argentina and neighboring countries. Traditionally, lethal control has been applied for decreasing monk parakeet damage to crops, but objections are increasing and new methods are required. In this article, we examined farmers' preferences for management of monk parakeet damage to crops in relation to sociopsychological and sociodemographic factors. We conducted 111 personal interviews using face-to-face questionnaires. Farmers preferred reproductive and lethal control for decreasing monk parakeet damage to crops. Attitudes toward monk parakeets were related more strongly to preferences than any other factor considered in this study. Other important sociopsychological factors were perceived efficacy and previous knowledge about management strategies. Perceptions of magnitude of damage had little relation to preferences. Sociodemographic factors, such as age and education, differed in their relationship to preferences, depending on the management strategy.
 
It is with heavy hearts that we announce the unexpected passing of Dr. Wolfgang Haider, who died on August 24, 2015 at the age of 62 following a bicycle accident in Austria. He leaves behind his wife, Dr. Ulrike Pröbstl-Haider, and two children, Jamila and Emanuel Haider. Wolfgang was born in Eisenstadt, Austria in 1953. After receiving a M.Sc. degree from the University of Vienna in geography and history and briefly working as a high school teacher, he traveled to Canada to pursue graduate degrees in geography at Carleton University (M.A.) and McGill (Ph.D. supervised by Dr. Gordon Ewing). Wolfgang’s Ph.D. research was truly innovative, and adapted recent developments from marketing and transportation and tourism to outdoor recreation research. This groundbreaking research ignited Wolfgang’s career-long passion for understanding the unavoidable tradeoffs that underscore most natural resource management issues in a wide range of applications, including many from wildlife and inland and coastal fisheries management. In times where the field of human dimensions of wildlife was still centered on North America, Wolfgang worked with dozens of international collaborators in a range of countries to redefine and apply the choice-modeling approach to wildlife and fisheries management problems across the world. Over the years, he became a respected leader in the field of tradeoff-based decision modeling that nicely complemented the more social–psychological tradition of human dimensions research. His education spanning two continents probably contributed to his amazing ability to interface among different research communities and to contribute to interdisciplinary projects involving natural and social scientists in natural resource management issues. Shortly after finishing his Ph.D.,Wolfgang accepted a social research scientist position with the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (OMNR) in Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada. He built an impressive research program based on theoretically grounded, yet pragmatic, research on decision-making by recreationists. Never content with the status quo, here too, he was an innovator. An outstanding example from his OMNR days was research he conducted with Drs. Terry Daniel, Brian Orland, Jordan Louviere, Michael Williams, and Len Hunt that sought to explain and predict destination choices by nature-based tourists traveling to northern Ontario. By combining choice modeling with the then fledgling approach of photographic manipulation (i.e., digital calibration of images), Wolfgang estimated how changes to the size, number, and orientation (spatial structure) of forest harvests could influence tourists’ destination choices and thus, the bottom line for tourism operators. This and other OMNR experiences shaped his unwavering commitment to ensure practitioners were able to access and use his research products. In 1998, Wolfgang left Ontario to accept a tenure-track position at Simon Fraser University’s School of Resource and Environmental Management (REM) in Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada. He flourished in academia, supervising almost 50 graduate students and eventually becoming the School’s director in 2013. As his reputation for innovative and applicable social science grew, so did his research network of collaborators and partners. He was a regular attendee of international conferences, shaped many of them and took great pleasure from these opportunities to connect with other researchers and dream up new projects. Drawing interest from researchers in many sectors and disciplines, Wolfgang’s research at Simon Fraser increasingly became both interdisciplinary and also international in scope, collaborating on large research grants both in Europe and in North America. For example, in 2006, Wolfgang teamed with Dr. Robert Arlinghaus in Berlin, Germany in a 1 million Euro interdisciplinary grant devoted to study the adaptive dynamics of recreational fisheries as social-ecological systems (Adaptfish). This project also co-funded a Ph.D. student (Dr. Ben Beardmore) in his lab that brought increased exposure to Wolfgang’s research among audiences in recreational fisheries and leisure studies. Human dimensions have long struggled to be relevant to managers who have traditionally looked to biological sciences to guide their decision-making. Wolfgang’s tradeoff approach, however, was well suited to integration with traditional fish population models, thereby explicitly and mechanistically accounting for human behavior in integrated management decision-making models in fisheries and wildlife management. Such developments have brought renewed and ongoing interest in human dimensions research among fisheries biologists. For example, with Drs. John Post and Murdoch McAllister and a large team of collaborators, partners, and graduate students, Wolfgang recently received a Collaborative Research and Development Grant from the prestigious National Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada to study recreational fishing within Canada. This current research seeks to assess the predictive validity of stated-preference tradeoff models by comparing model predictions to observed changes in angler behavior using a manipulative fish stocking experiment on some British Columbia, Canada lakes. Ultimately, the goal is to integrate angler behavior and ecological models to predict how management actions influence a variety of recreational fisheries management objectives—a theme that directly followed from the Adaptfish grant. He is known to many readers of Human Dimensions of Wildlife for his publications and as editor of a special issue on International perspective of human–wildlife conflicts (2008, Issue 1). Almost 100 peer-reviewed publications in a wide range of journals, several of which are still to come, are an impressive testament of his work and passion for applied social science research.Wolfgang was the chair of the successful 12th International Symposium of Society and Resource Management that was held in Vancouver, Canada in 2006, and was an advisor for many conferences in Europe. With Dr. Ulrike Pröbstl-Haider, he established and became editor-in-chief of a complementary journal, the Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism. It is our hope that this journal will continue as a lasting legacy of Wolfgang’s pioneering work in choice-based outdoor recreation studies. Wolfgang was an enthusiastic mentor to his students and devoted considerable time to them, wherever he currently was on his many international projects. His dedication paid dividends both to them and to the field of natural resource management as his students have successfully established careers in academia and also in government and nongovernmental organizations across North America and Europe. To commemorate Wolfgang’s dedication to his students and his lasting contributions to the field of natural resource management, his children, Jamila and Emanuel, and his colleagues at REM have established the Wolfgang Haider Fellowship Trust to provide scholarship support to graduate students in the School of Resource and Environmental Management at Simon Fraser University. It is our hope that this fund will ensure that Wolfgang’s legacy of innovation and interdisciplinary collaboration will be carried forward by future generations of REM students for years to come. Information on donating to the trust can be found on the department website (http://www.rem.sfu.ca/).
 
Over the last 10 years, we have made significant strides in understanding the technical aspects of human–wildlife conflict mitigation, but the human dimensions aspect still lags far behind. In Kenya, this skewed understanding has resulted in the application of technical solutions to human problems. The reason for this is the tendency of conservationists to take an “ecological” approach to addressing challenges facing African communities living with wildlife. The sociocultural and economic values around livestock do not feature in the thinking of those addressing livestock depredation, yet we now know that the technical and ecological aspects alone are not sufficient. A coherent, indigenous research agenda in the Kenya Wildlife Service will go a long way toward addressing this lacuna. Practitioners should dedicate the next decade to understanding that Africa’s people are not just part of the landscape but are also custodians of wildlife.
 
Top-cited authors
Jerry J. Vaske
  • Colorado State University
Francine M. Madden
  • Human-Wildlife Conflict Collaboration (HWCC)
Adrian Treves
  • University of Wisconsin–Madison
Robert B Wallace
  • Wildlife Conservation Society
Lisa Naughton-Treves
  • University of Wisconsin–Madison