Human Cell

Published by Wiley
Online ISSN: 1749-0774
Print ISSN: 0914-7470
Introduction: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the bladder is a rare malignancy that represents <5% of bladder tumors diagnosed in new patients. The majority of the patients SCC presents with a poorly differentiated, muscle-invasive tumor with no previous episode of the urothelial carcinoma. Less than 10% of the patients present with distant metastasis. Even when the absence of distant metastases, the prognosis of patients with SCC of the bladder remains dismal because patients die of localized recurrence. The 5-year survival rate of the patients treated for SCC of the bladder was only 10.6%. Therefore, the establishment of a bladder squamous cell carcinoma cell line is extremely important for SCC of the bladder cancer patients. As far as we are aware, however, no pure human SCC cell line of the bladder has ever been reported. This study describes our successful attempt to establish a cell line derived from inguinal lymph node metastasis from the bladder SCC. Patient history: The patient was a 56-year-old Japanese woman. She underwent total cystectomy for bladder cancer in September 2007. The histopathological diagnosis was bladder squamous cell carcinoma (G2>G3, T3bN0M0). She underwent adjuvant three courses of chemo therapy (M-VAC therapy) after surgery. However, local recurrence and multiple lymph node metastases were detected in January 2008. She underwent second operation as inguinal lymph node dissection. Materials and Methods: Cells were cultured in RPMI medium 1640 supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, 50 U/ml penicillin and 50 μg/ml streptomycin. A portion of the inguinal tumor was studied histopathologically and the remainder was immersed in growth medium. The TMUU-08 cells transplanted into the subcutaneous of the back of five nude mice. Tumor cell suspension were applied on to slides using cytocentrifugation. FISH analysis was performed to detect the X- and Y- choromosome. The concentration of CEA, CA-125, CA-15-3 and SCC antigen in the conditioned medium with TMUU-08 cells were measured using enzyme immunoassay and electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Subcutaneous tumors derived from TMUU-08 were used for immunohistochemical staining. Results: Population doubling time of TMUU-08 was approximately 52 hrs. The subcutaneous tumors were histopathologically diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma. The signals from subcutaneous tumor cells of Y, YY, X and XX were 0%, 0%, 43.8% and 55.6%, respectively. The concentration of SCC antigen in the conditioned medium was higher than the control. Immunohistochemical staining showed that more than 50% were positive against anti SCC antigen both in original tumor and in subcutaneous tumor section. Conclusion: We have established and characterized new human bladder squamous cell carcinoma cell line. To our knowledge, the present study is the first establishment of pure human bladder squamous cell carcinoma cell line. Citation Format: {Authors}. {Abstract title} [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the 101st Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research; 2010 Apr 17-21; Washington, DC. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2010;70(8 Suppl):Abstract nr 3252.
A new murine monoclonal antibody (2C-8) was prepared by immunizing mice ip with CEA producing human pancreatic cancer cell line, AsPC-1.SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis showed that 2C-8 monoclonal antibody recognized CEA and NCA. This anti-CEA monoclonal antibody was conjugated with large multilamellar liposomes incorporated 10B compound (Cs2 10B12H11SH). This immunoliposomes applicated to boron neutron capture therapy. AsPC-1 cells were incubated with the 10B-Lip-MoAb(CEA) for 8 hours. After the irradiation with thermal neutron (1 x 10(11)-1 x 10(13) n/cm2), boronated AsPC-1 cells were showed decreasing uptake of 3H-TdR compared with control group. The numbers of 10B atoms in liposomes bound to an antibody were in proportion to the dose of 10B compounds added and maximum number of 10B atoms was approximatory 1.2 x 10(4)/Ab. These data indicated that the immunoliposomes could deliver highly amount of 10B atoms to the tumor cells and exert cytotoxic effect by thermal neutron. BNCT with immunoliposome may be useful to the non resectable malignant tumors in clinical application.
Poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) digests poly(ADP-ribose), which is synthesized by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) after DNA damage. We mapped the human poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase gene to chromosome 10q11.23-21.1 by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. Since chromosomal rearrangements in thyroid papillary carcinoma and loss of heterozygosity in glioblastoma are frequently observed in this region, genetic alteration of PARG could be implicated in these diseases.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common malignancy and the third leading cause of cancer-related death globally. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) represent a new cohort of gene regulators. Currently, a large number of miRNAs have been reported to be associated with the initiation and maintenance of HCC. Through evaluating the relative concentrations of HCC-associated circulating miRNAs, underexpression of miR-126 has been identified in the blood of HCC patients. However, the exact function of miR-126 on HCC cellular biology progression and relative mechanisms were unclear. In this paper, we explored the function of miR-126 on HCC cells through exogenously transfecting HCC cells with miR-126 mimic. Restored miR-126 expression inhibited cell proliferation, arrest cell cycle progression, and induced cell apoptosis of HepG2 HCC cells. Moreover, to explore the mechanism of miR-126-mediated tumor suppression, we searched the putative targets of miR-126 using prediction program. Surprisingly, we found that sex-determining region Y-box 2 (Sox2) was a putative target gene of miR-126. Further luciferase assays, mRNA and protein assays consistently validated the target role of Sox2. Through restoring the expression of Sox2 in miR-126-transfected HepG2 cells, we found that overexpression of Sox2 could partially abrogate the miR-126-mediated suppression of cell growth. Thus, our data identified miR-126 as a tumor suppressor in HCC through, at least partially by targeting Sox2. This may provide novel diagnostic and therapeutic options for human HCC in future.
Two new B-cell lines, BALM-13 and BALM-14, were established from the bone marrow aspirate of a 13-year-old male patient with acute leukemia. These cell lines are unique in their expression of CD antigens. BALM-13 was characterized as belonging to the Burkitt lymphoma group III cell type (CD10-, CD20+, CD23+, D39+, CD77-), and BALM-14 to the Burkitt lymphoma group I cell type (CD10+, CD20+, CD23-, CD39-, CD77+). The expression of immunoglobulin chains of BALM-13 (lambda delta mu) differed from those of BALM-14 (lambda mu). Furthermore, BALM-13 was positive for Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen but BALM-14 was negative. This is a unique pair of cell lines having intraclonal phenotypic heterogeneity.
Human lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer motility worldwide, with nearly 1.4 million deaths each year, among which non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for almost 85 % of this disease. The discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs) provides a new avenue for NSCLC diagnostic and treatment regiments. Currently, a large number of miRNAs have been reported to be associated with the progression of NSCLC, among which serum miR-137 has been examined to be down-regulated in NSCLC patients. However, the function of miR-137 on NSCLC cells migration and invasion and the relative mechanisms were less known. Here, we found that ectopic expression of miR-137 could inhibit cell proliferation, induce cell apoptosis, and suppress cell migration and invasion in NSCLC cell line A549. Moreover, we found that paxillin (PXN) was a target gene of miR-137 in NSCLC cells and restored expression of PXN abolished the miR-137-mediated suppression of cell migration and invasion. Taken together, our results showed that miR-137 acted as a tumor suppressor in NSCLC by targeting PXN, and it may provide novel diagnostic and therapeutic options for human NSCLC clinical operation in future.
Gene expression profiles were analyzed by using cDNA microarray for a cisplatin-sensitive cell line (KF), and three- and thirty-fold cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cell lines (KFr and KFrP200) both showing no p53 mutation within exon 5, 6, 7, 8 and no pglycoprotein overexpression. Expression of GST-pi mRNA increased as the level of resistance to cisplatin became high. Microarray analysis revealed that DNA repair associated genes, i.e., XRCC5, XRCC6, ERCC5, hMLH1 were over-expressed in three-fold cisplatin-resistant cell line, KFr as compared to cisplatin-sensitive parental cell line, KF. Apoptosis inhibitors, i.e., IGFR type I and II were over-expressed, and apoptosis inducer, i.e., caspase 3 and BAK were underexpressed in highly cisplatin-resistant cell line, KFrP200 as compared to KFr. As for clinical cases, cDNA microarray was used to compare gene expression profiles directly between two groups, i.e., the chemotherapy (CAP) sensitive group (n = 2) and the resistant group (n = 2). Six genes such as beta tubulin, high-mobility group (nonhistone chromosomal) protein 1, connective tissue growth factor, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2, alpha tubulin, and RAS-related gene were overexpressed in CAP therapy resistance group, whereas seven genes such as CD9 antigen, alpha-2-macroglobulin, caveolin 2, interleukin 1 receptor antagonist, Rho GTPase activating protein 1, reticulon 3, cyclin-dependent kinase 10, keratin 7 were underexpressed in CAP therapy resistance group. By increasing clinical case number and gene number of microarray to be used in the analysis of expression profile of gene cluster affecting anticancer drug resistance and sensitivity of the ovarian cancer, it would be possible to apply microarray analysis to personalization of chemotherapy such as selection of effective chemotherapy protocol and prediction of therapeutic effect in the near future.
We developed a rapid screening test for anticancer drugs by using 14C-thymidine (14C-TdR), a microculture filtration plate and a radiochromatoscanner. Mitomycin C (MMC), tamoxifen and 5-fluorouracil (5FU) were used as the anticancer drugs against four human gastric cancer cell lines. The rates of cell inactivation (14C-TdR uptake) determined with the radiochromatoscanner were almost the same as those determined with the liquid scintillation counter. Comparing the rate of cell inactivation obtained by our method with that obtained by proliferative activity of cells derived from the cell count, both assays showed the approximately same results by tamoxifen and MMC but the rates of cell inactivation by 5FU in two cell lines obtained by the 14C-TdR uptake assay was considerably lower than those obtained by the cell count. These results show that the radio-labeled DNA precursor uptake assay is not suitable for metabolic inhibitors of DNA synthesis. Ninety six samples on a plate, however, were assayed semiautomatically and rapidly just as well as in the tetrazolium-based calorimetric (MTT) assay. Therefore, our 14C-TdR uptake assay system is useful for the cancer chemotherapeutic agents except the metabolic inhibitors of DNA precursors.
A proposed model of CARMIL/LRRC16A-mediated urate transportsome regulation. In the urate transportsome of renal proximal tubular cells, urate transporters are scaffolded by PDZK1 and NHERF1, which interacted with the actin cytoskeleton through ezrin [ref. 25, 26]. In this study, we propose a new model of urate transportsome regulation by CARMIL. In this model, CARMIL dysfunction, which causes uncontrolled elongation of actin filament, could relate to the pathophysiology of gout
Distributions of genotypes of rs742132 in LRRC16A gene
Gout is a common disease resulting from hyperuricemia which causes acute arthritis. Recently, genome-wide association studies revealed an association between serum uric acid levels and a common variant of leucine-rich repeat-containing 16A (LRRC16A) gene. However, it remains to be clarified whether LRRC16A contributes to the susceptibility to gout. In this study, we investigated the relationship between rs742132 in LRRC16A and gout. A total of 545 Japanese male gout cases and 1,115 male individuals as a control group were genotyped. rs742132 A/A genotype significantly increased the risk of gout, conferring an odds ratio of 1.30 (95 % CI 1.05–1.60; p = 0.015). LRRC16A encodes a protein called capping protein ARP2/3 and myosin-I linker (CARMIL), which serves as an inhibitor of the actin capping protein (CP). CP is an essential element of the actin cytoskeleton, which binds to the barbed end of the actin filament and regulates its polymerization. In the apical membrane of proximal tubular cells in the human kidney, the urate-transporting multimolecular complex (urate transportsome) is proposed to consist of several urate transporters and scaffolding proteins, which interact with the actin cytoskeleton. Thus, if there is a CARMIL dysfunction and regulatory disability in actin polymerization, urate transportsome may be unable to operate appropriately. We have shown for the first time that CARMIL/LRRC16A was associated with gout, which could be due to urate transportsome failure. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s13577-013-0081-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
A squamous cell carcinoma cell line LK-17 was established from original surgical specimen of the lung. Doubling time of LK-17 in vitro is 43.2 hours, and chromosome analysis shows various abnormality and main modeat 62. LK-17 shows stable metastatic potential to the lung of nude mouse when injected i.v. LK-17 cells show platelet aggregating activity with number population dependent manner. LK-17 secretes direct factor X activating procoagulant which differs from those of tissue factor, cystein protease A and coagulant cancer antigen 1. These platelet aggregation potential and procoagulant activity may play a important roll in metastatic process.
The expression of apoptosis genes in a commercial pre-designed low-density array from Applied Biosystems was evaluated in two human brain cancer cell models, LN-18 and Daoy (HTB-186™) in comparison to the reference human primary endothelial cells under basic conditions. Analysis of the gene expression in the cancer cell lines compared to the normal control revealed features reflecting anti-apoptotic and inflammatory characteristics of the former. There was an overall downregulation of apoptosis-stimulating genes in both cancer cell lines, along with an upregulation of certain apoptosis inhibitors. A number of genes demonstrated statistically significant changes in their expressions, including BAX (BCL2-associated X protein); the CARD4/NLR family, CARD domain containing 4; CASP10 (caspase 10, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase); DAP1 (death-associated protein kinase 1), and BIRC5 (baculoviral IAP repeat-containing 5). Anti-apoptotic potential in both cell lines was demonstrated by changes in the Bax:Bcl-2 ratio and downregulation of the APAF1 gene in LN18 cells. There was also significant downregulation of extrinsic signals and the TNF/FADD/inflammatory cascade, and upregulation of caspase inhibitors (IAPs). These results provided a novel molecular characterization of important human cancer cell lines, which might provide a useful research tool for investigating the experimental model of the CNS cell.
Based on the immunophenotypic and genotypic findings, this acute leukemia cell line, designated NALM-19, is unique in that a partial expression of both B-cell and myeloid cell features are present in this single clonal leukemic cell population. It is noteworthy that two "normal" EB virus-transformed B cell lines, B239 and B240, (paired with NALM-19) were established from the same leukemic blood.
A new tumor cell line derived from a human pancreatic exocrine adenocarcinoma was established in tissue culture and was transplantable in a nude mouse. In tissue culture, the neoplastic cells grew as epithelial-like, mucin-producing cells with a population doubling time of 50-70 hrs. Chromosomes ranged from 63 to 186 with a modal number of 77. Subcutaneous injection of 1 x 10(6) cultured neoplastic cells into nude mice resulted in tumor formation histologically closely resembling the original neoplasm. Ultrastructurally, the cell line showed characteristic ductal epithelium. Immunohistochemically, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) and DU-PAN-2 antigen were demonstrated in the original tumor, the culture cells and the transplanted tumor. The cells secreted CEA (48.7 ng/1 x 10(5) cells/24 hrs) and CA19-9 (325 U/1 x 10(5) cells/24 hrs) in spent medium as well as sera of the nude mouse. This cell line has been passaged 30 times in vitro and maintained for more than one year. These characteristics will make the cell line SOJ a valuable tool in studying various aspects of biology of human pancreatic cancer.
A new tumor cell line derived from the ascites of a patient with adenocarcinoma of the head of pancreas was established in culture and the nude mouse. The cell line was characterized by the growth with a population doubling time of 22 hr., a high plating efficiency on the plastic surface and a modal chromosome number of 66. The tumorigenicity was proved by the growth in nude mouse and in soft agar. Morphologically the cell line grew as a confluent monolayer with tight adhesion to the plastic surface. Histologically the cell line was epithelial-like in culture and poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma in nude mouse. Ultrastructurally the cell line showed a characteristic pancreatic epithelium. Furthermore, the cell line expressed carbohydrate antigen 19-9 and carcinoembryonic antigen. This cell line, designated JHP-1, has been cultured for at least 100 passages in vitro and maintained for more than 2 years. This cell line would be used as a new model for human pancreatic carcinoma.
A new tumor cell line MEC was established from pleural effusion of a patient of cholaginocarcinoma. In tissue culture, the cell line grew in the sheet of variant cells and showed the epithelial-like pattern. Histologically, the cell line almost showed the same pattern as those in bile and preural effusion from the patient. Electron microscopic observation of this cell line showed the irregular microvilli on the surface of the cell and the desmosome between cells. The doubling time of the cell line was 40.8 hours. Chromosome counts ranged from 61 to 86. The cell line had 9 marker chromosomes and some variant chromosomes. The cell line was transplanted into the subcutaneous of nude mice and formed the tumor. It showed the moderately differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma the same pattern as the primary tumor. We have recognized the producing and releasing of CA19-9 in the serum from the tumor bearing nude mouse and supernate of the medium as the serum from the patient. The presentation of CA19-9 in the cytosol of the cell line and the tumor cells of nude mouse was recognized in Avidin-Biotin-Peroxidase Complex in immunoloperoxidase techniques. The cell line can grow in serum-free medium. On September, 1990, the cell line has been maintained from 70 passages during about 800 days.
A series of human acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cell lines, BALM-19, -20, -21, -22, -23 (BALM 19-23) and BALM-26 were established from a patient with B-cell characteristics of ALL L2 type. All cell lines were derived from bone marrow specimens, BALM 19-23 from a sample taken at diagnosisand BALM-26 from one at relapse. Like the original leukemia cells, the established lines present various B-cell characteristics, being positive for cell surface immunoglobulin (Ig) chains but also for nuclear terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase; hence the cell lines should be assigned to B-cell category B-IV. As a unique feature, the cell lines expressed the CD33 myeloid antigen in addition to the common B-cell markers. Heterogeneous antigen expression among the different cell lines was found regarding CD35, CD39, CD45RA, CD78 and CD95. The malignant nature of the cell lines was documented by negativity for the Epstein-Barr virus and by the occurrence of clonal non-random structural chromosome abnormalities. The patient's serum showed hypercalcemia, prompting further investigation of the established cell lines which expressed parathyroid hormone related peptide (PTHrP) mRNA as examined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The established B-cell ALL sister cell lines, BALM 19-23 and BALM-26, could provide useful material for clarifying the pathogenesis of this type of B-cell malignancy. The scientific significance of this panel of cell lines lies in the availability of a series of clonally derived but phenotypically different sister cell lines established at different phases of the disease.
A human colon cancer-derived cell line, KC-1, was established from the surgical specimen of mucinous adenocarcinoma of the colon. The cells grew as monolayers, showing formation of irregular aggregation of cells and pleomorphic nuclei. The doubling time in vitro was 56.6 hours. The cells produced CEA, CA19-9 and sialyl SSEA-1(SLX). Chromosome numbers were distributed between 79 and 83 with many structural abnormalities. A point mutation of the Ki-ras gene in codon 61 (CAA-->CAT) was found. The cells have been subcultured 13 times during these three years. This cell line can be useful for investigations of colon cancer.
We established a new cell line (FU-UrC-1) derived from a human primary ureteral carcinoma xenografted in a nude mouse. This cell line exhibited epithelial characteristics and formed clusters in monolayer cultures. The cells were subcultured in vitro for more than 20 passages and had a doubling time of 53 hours. The modal number of chromosomes was 66. The cell line, which was xenografted again to nude mice, produced tumors essentially identical to the original tumor. Furthermore, the cultured cells expressed carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) that were secreted in the culture media. This cell line appears to provide a useful system for studying ureteral carcinoma in vivo and in vitro.
Colonic cancer cell strain KE43 was established from a human colonic cancer diagnosed histologically as a predominantly well differentiated adenocarcinoma with minute foci of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. The well differentiated adenocarcinoma cell line was identified as the major morphological picture in xenografts of KE43 and 58 in nude mice, but this changed to poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma in passage 105. Doubling time of this cancer cell line was 22.5 hours in passage 105. The modal numbers of chromosomes were 41 and 76. Cancer cells could be heterotransplanted in 100% of the nude mice. The tumor cells produced and secreted CA19-9, CEA and Laminin into the spent medium. This cell line appears to provide a useful system for studying colonic cancer in vivo and in vitro.
This study investigated the effects of the compound oleanolic acid (OA) in inducing mouse embryonic stem cells (MESC) to differentiate towards germ cells (GC). MESC 1B10 was used as the model cell. 1B10 was cultured, and embryoid bodies (EBs) were produced from 1B10. The EBs were allowed to attach to the bottoms of culturing disks and grow. OA was added into the medium to induce the EBs to differentiate. Retinoic acid (RA) was used as the positive drug. After 72 h, total RNA was extracted, cDNA was synthesized, and real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR was performed to measure the transcriptional expression profiles of 11 reproduction-related genes affected by OA and RA, respectively. When the data were compared, it was found that OA up-regulated the transcriptional levels of Oct-4, GDF-9, Stra8, Mvh, ZP2, ZP3, Itga6, and TP2, and down-regulated transcriptional levels of SCP3, ZP1, and Itgb1; RA up-regulated the transcriptional levels of GDF-9, Stra8, Mvh, ZP2, ZP3, Itga6, Itgb1, and TP2, and down-regulated the transcriptional levels of Oct-4, SCP3, and ZP1. The data showed that OA and RA had similar effects in inducing differentiation of MESC towards GC.
A new murine monoclonal antibody (1H1) was prepared by immunizing mice i.p. with human pancreatic cancer cell line (BxPC-3). The antibody reacted with 8 of 48 cultured cell lines that were all adenocarcinoma. Thin sections of normal and cancerous tissues were examined by immunoperoxidase staining. Thirty-nine of 48 (81%) pancreatic cancers, 11 of 23 (48%) gastric cancers, 12 of 18 (67%) colorectal cancers, 9 of 19 (48%) breast cancers, 2 of 5 (40%) lung cancers and 2 of 2 (100%) duodenal cancers were stained positively, but 5 islet cell tumors, 3 esophageal cancers and 2 hepatomas were not stained positively. Normal gastro-intestinal tract of adult or fetus was stained weakly or hardly stained. SDS-PAGE showed that 1H1 antigen recognized by 1H1 Mab had a relative molecular weight of over 400 K. Da. Immunoelectron microscopical study has shown that the antigen recognized by 1H1 antibody was localized in the cell membranes of the BxPC-3 cells. 1H1 antigen was found to be present in culture-spent medium of BxPC-3 cells by ELISA. Thus, 1H1 antibody may be useful for early detection of pancreatic cancers.
Cytogenetic analysis of germ-line cells prior to intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment is thought to be necessary for infertile males with an identified chromosomal abnormality. We analyzed the chromosomal karyotype of human spermatozoa from an oligoasthenozoospermic carrier of a reciprocal translocation t(10; 21). Cytogenetic analysis of 39 spermatozoa was performed by spectral karyotyping (SKY) and by ICSI into mouse oocytes. The motile morphologically normal spermatozoa were injected into mouse oocytes. Of these spermatozoa, 38 (97.4%) were activated. Twenty-one (53.8%) of the activated oocytes formed two pronuclei. Metaphase chromosome spreads from 13 spermatozoa were analyzed. Only one spermatozoon was normal and 2 spermatozoa exhibited balanced translocation. Nine and one spermatozoa showed abnormalities related and unrelated to the translocation, respectively. The numbers of normal/balanced spermatozoa were lower than those in previous reports analyzing reciprocal translocations using a previously described technique involving penetrated golden hamster oocytes. After genetic counseling with the carrier and his partner, ICSI treatment was performed. Healthy female and male infants were delivered at 37 weeks gestation via a Caesarean section. The female infant was a carrier of the reciprocal translocation and the male infant was confirmed normal on prenatal diagnosis at 16 weeks gestation. For genetic counseling prior to ICSI treatment, the incidence of unbalanced type spermatozoa after swim-up or Percoll gradient treatment should be investigated and discussed with couples having fertility problems related to oligozoospermia autosomal structural abnormalities.
Four leukemia cell lines; NALM-20, established at the onset of leukemia and NALM-21, -22 and -23 established at the relapse of the disease were found to be t(9;22)-positive leukemia lines having the biphenotypic feature of B cell and myeloid cell characteristics. In addition, a polyclonal Epstein-Barr virus-transformed normal B cell line, B250, was established from the peripheral blood at the onset of the disease.
The envelope that defines the limits within which flow cytometry was developed is being rapidly expanded. For example: detection sensitivity has been extended to single molecules, the size range of "particle" analysis now extends from DNA fragments to plankton (1,000.+ microns), cell and chromosome sorting rates are being increased dramatically by using inactivation procedures (50,000 per second versus 2,000 per second), rapid kinetic flow cytometry enables real-time analysis of molecular assembly and cell function in the sub-second time domain, the lifetime of a fluorochrome bound to a single cell can be measured with nsec precision, and classical karyotype information (cell to cell heterogeneity) can be determined in a flow based system. These frontiers have greatly expanded the range of new and exciting flow cytometric based biomedical applications. New enabling technologies have provided the means to measure DNA cleavage by the structure-specific nuclease, human Flap Endonuclease (FEN-1), in the 300 msec time frame. Phase sensitive measurements and fluorescence lifetime are proving to be major advances for understanding molecular environments that change with, for example, the process of apoptosis. The ability to detect single fluorescent molecules has been applied to the analysis of DNA fragments obtained from enzymatic digestion of lambda DNA. This technology is being used to rapidly and very accurately size DNA fragments for the human genome project. Optical chromosome selection is a faster, better, less complex approach to chromosome sorting. This method is based on the induction of specific damage to the DNA of selected chromosomes. Lastly, the miniaturization of a single cell fractionator has made it possible to perform single cell flow cytogenetics.
There is growing evidence that the human amnion contains various types of stem cells. As amniotic tissue is readily available, it has the potential to be an important source of material for regenerative medicine. In the present study, we evaluated the potential of human amnion-derived fibroblast-like (HADFIL) cells to differentiate into pancreatic islet cells. Two HADFIL cell populations, derived from two different neonates, were analyzed. The expression of pancreatic cell-specific genes was examined before and after in vitro induction of cellular differentiation. We found that Pdx-1, Isl-1, Pax-4, and Pax-6 showed significantly increased expression following the induction of differentiation. In addition, immunostaining demonstrated that insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin were present in HADFIL cells following the induction of differentiation. These results indicate that HADFIL cell populations have the potential to differentiate into pancreatic islet cells. Although further studies are necessary to determine whether such in vitro-differentiated cells can function in vivo as pancreatic islet cells, these amniotic cell populations might be of value in therapeutic applications that require human pancreatic islet cells.
Based on the immunophenotypic, cytogenetic and genotypic findings, two unique leukemia cell lines, NALM-24 and NALM-25, and an EBV-transformed "normal" B-lymphoblastoid cell line (B262) from a patient with ALL were established and characterized. NALM-24 and NALM-25 are unique in that expression of both show B cell and myeloid cell features with the t(9;22) chromosome in single clonal leukemic cell populations.
Breast cancer is a widespread disease in Japan and across the world. Breast cancer cells, as well as most other types of cancer cells, have diverse chromosomal aberrations. Clarifying the character of these chromosomal aberrations should contribute to the development of more suitable therapies, along with the predictions of metastasis and prognosis. Twenty-four breast cancer cell lines were analyzed by bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). The array slide contained duplicate spots of 4030 BAC clone DNAs covering the entire human genome with 1 Mbp resolution. In all 24 breast cancer cell lines, frequent and significant amplifications as well as deletions were detected by BAC array CGH. Common DNA copy number gains, detected in 60% (above 15 cell lines) of the 24 breast cancer cell lines were found in 76 BAC clones, located at 1q, 5p, 8q, 9p, 16p, 17q, and 20q. Moreover, common DNA copy number loss was detected in 136 BAC clones, located at 1q, 2q, 3p, 4p, 6q, 8p, 9p, 11p, 13q, 17p, 18q, 19p, Xp, and Xq. The DNA copy number abnormalities found included abnormality of the well-known oncogene cMYC (8q24.21); however, most of them were not reported to relate to breast cancer. BAC array CGH has great potential to detect DNA copy number abnormalities, and has revealed that breast cancer cell lines have substantial heterogeneity.
Strain KE-24 of colonic cancer cells was established from human colonic cancer diagnosed histopathologically as poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Doubling time of the cancer cell line was 32.4 hrs, and the karyotype was 46, xy, t (1q:?), 6p-, 14q+. The cancer cells could be heterotransplanted in 66% of nude mice. The plating efficiency was 17% in a soft agar plate with an inoculum size of 1 x 10(3) cells/dish. The tumor cells produced and released CEA and CA19-9 in the spent medium and these cancer cells were stained with both anti-CEA and anti-CA19-9 antibodies by the immunohistological staining method. Strain KE-24 of the cancer cells could be cultured in the serum-free medium (Media-I) for more than 100 passages.
Mouse 2nH1 (ES) cells were examined for polyploidization using K-252a and staurosporine. Though 2nH1 cells were polyploidized by both K-252a and staurosporine, tetraploid cells, 4nH1K cells, were obtained only from cell populations exposed to K-252a. The probability of successful establishment of tetraploid cells was 2/9, suggesting that the highly polyploidized-tetraploid transition might occur infrequently. Cell cycle parameters of 4nH1K cells were almost the same as those of 2nH1 cells, suggesting that the rate of DNA synthesis was about twice that of the diploid cells. The cell volume of 4nH1K cells was about twice of that of diploid cells, indicating that 4nH1K cells contained about twice as much total intracellular material as 2nH1 cells. The morphology of the 4nH1K cells was flagstone-like, thus differing from that of the spindle-shaped 2nH1 cells, suggesting that morphological transformation occurred during the diploid-tetraploid transition. 4nH1K cells exhibited alkaline phosphatase activity and formed teratocarcinomas, implying that they were pluripotent. These characteristics of 4nH1K cells were similar to those of tetraploid 4nH1 cells that have been established through polyploidization by demecolcine, suggesting that 4nH1K and 4nH1 cells are similar irrespective of the different mechanisms of polyploidization.
A new pre-B cell leukemia cell line, NALM-26, was established from the peripheral blood of a 24-year-old male patient with acute pre-B cell leukemia. NALM-26 is unique in its expression of T cell-associated CD5 and myeloid cell-associated CD13 antigens. Interleukin-7 (IL-7) receptor (CDw127) was detected by flow cytometric analysis. After PMA treatment, NALM-26 was induced to express CD20, CD25 and CD28, and to increase its expression of both CD5 and CD13. The expression of CDw127 was down-modulated.
Heat shock protein 27 (hsp27) is expressed by squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Results from an earlier study by our group indicted that hsp27 may be a diagnostic marker for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and carcinoma. p16 expression is known to be elevated in intraepithelial uterine cervical cancer and grades 2 and 3 lesions (CIN2, CIN3), but has also been reported to be negative in 5-20% of cervical cancer and CIN lesions. The aim of our study was to confirm immunohistochemically the expression of hsp27 and p16 in cervical lesions. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cervical tissue specimens obtained between 2002 and 2010 were investigated for hsp27 and p16 expression. Positive staining was detected for hsp27 in 63% of normal cervical tissues, 47% of CIN1 lesions, 75% of CIN2 lesions, 92% of CIN3 lesions, and 100% of squamous cell carcinomas (SCC); the corresponding rates for p16 positivity were 29, 47, 67, 92, and 75%, respectively. Positive staining for both hsp27 and p16 was observed in 6% of normal cervical tissues and in 19% of CIN1, 18% of CIN2, 85% of CIN3, and 75% of SCC specimens. Hsp27 or p16 positivity had a sensitivity of 95.6 or 84.7% and a specificity of 37.2 or 70.5%, respectively, for the identification of CIN3 or SCC lesions; when both hsp27 and p16 were assessed, both the sensitivity and specificity were improved. In conclusion, both hsp27 and p16 immunohistochemistry is a useful tool for the diagnosis of CIN3 lesions or cervical SCC.
RNA editing is a mechanism for generating molecular diversity by altering the genetic code at the level of RNA. The 5-HT(2C) receptor is the only G protein-coupled receptor known to be edited. It has been reported that the non-edited 5-HT(2C) receptor stimulates secretion of the APP metabolite APP ectodomain (APPs). However, it remains unknown whether RNA-edited 5-HT(2C) receptors can also affect APPs secretion. In this study, cDNAs of five non-edited or partially/fully edited 5-HT(2C) receptor isoforms (INI, VNI, VNV, VSV and VGV) were stably transfected into HEK293APPSwe cells to detect the cell proliferation and APPs secretion. The results demonstrated that the overexpression of INI and VNI caused increased proliferation of host cells while VNV, VSV and VGV caused inverse effects (P < 0.01). Compared with both control and non-edited isoform INI, APPs levels were significantly increased in the four edited 5-HT(2C) receptor isoforms, VNI (P < 0.05), VNV (P < 0.05), VSV (P < 0.05) and VGV (P < 0.01). These results suggest that the RNA editing of the 5-HT(2C) receptor may affect APPs secretion through different signaling pathways related to cell growth and protein processing, and that these cell models will provide appropriate useful information to study the association between the RNA editing of the serotonin 5-HT(2C) receptor and APP metabolism.
Genetic polymorphisms of p53 and its negative regulator murine double minute 2 homolog (MDM2) have been shown to be closely associated with tumorigenesis in a variety of human cancers. In the present study, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at p53 codon 72 and MDM2 promoter 309 was examined for germline DNA samples from 102 endometrial cancer cases and 95 controls using polymerase chain reaction-based fragment analysis. There were no significant differences in the genotype and allele prevalence between control subjects and endometrial cancer patients for p53 codon 72. The GG genotype frequency of MDM2-SNP309 was statistically higher in endometrial cancer patients than that in normal healthy women when compared with the TG genotype (P= 0.0088). However, no statistically significant differences were found between the TT and TG or GG genotype frequencies and allele prevalence. Interestingly, the combination of the homozygous Arg/Arg genotype of p53 codon 72 and homozygous GG genotype of MDM2 SNP309 polymorphisms was significantly associated with the risk of endometrial cancer (odds ratio = 3.28, 95% confidence interval = 1.13 to 9.53, P= 0.0212). The homozygous variants of wild p53 codon 72 and mutant MDM2 promoter 309 may cooperatively increase the risk of endometrial cancer in a Japanese population.
A functional T to G germline polymorphism in the promoter region of murine double-minute 2 homolog single nucleotide polymorphism 309 (MDM2-SNP309) has been reported to profoundly accelerate tumor formation, suggesting that it may also represent a powerful cancer predisposing allele. In this study, MDM2-SNP309 was examined in a total of 400 blood samples from 108 normal, 88 cervical, 119 endometrial and 85 ovarian cancer cases using two independent polymerase chain reaction assays for each allele. When the MDM2-SNP309 genotype was classified into two subgroups of TT+TG and GG, the GG genotype was associated with an increased risk for the development of endometrial cancer (odds ratio [OR]= 1.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05 to 3.47) compared with the TT+TG genotype (P = 0.0353). The G allele also increased the risk of endometrial cancer (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 0.83 to 1.74) compared with the T allele, but no statistical difference was found (P = 0.3333). The homozygous GG genotype was also associated with postmenopausal status and type I endometrial cancer (P = 0.0306 and 0.0326, respectively). There was no significant difference in the genotype or allele prevalence between control subjects and cervical or ovarian cancer patients. These results suggest that homozygous GG genotype of MDM2-SNP309 may be a risk factor for postmenopausal and type I endometrial cancer in a Japanese population.
We established three sister cell lines, NALM-30, NALM-31 and NALM-32, with biphenotypic features carrying myeloperoxidase mRNA and protein with complex Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome, t(9;22;10)(q34;q11;q22), from a patient with Ph-positive acute leukemia in relapse. Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen was negative. The morphological appearance of the cell lines is that of immature lymphoid cells. Expression of myeloid- and lymphoid-associated surface membrane antigens on these cells was detected allowing for the classification of "biphenotypic" leukemia. Immunophenotypically, the established cell lines reported here fulfill the European Group for the Immunological Characterization of Leukemias (EGIL) criteria for B-lineage derivation, however, surface and cytoplasmic immunoglobulin chains were negative. Whereas TGF-beta R (CD105), MCSFR (CD115), SCFR (CD117), IL-4R/IL-13R (CD124) and IL-6R (CD126) were not expressed, the cell lines were mostly positive for IFN-gamma R (CD119), IL-7R (CD127) and FLT-3R (CD135). The NALM-30, NALM-31 and NALM-32 cell lines together with their serial sister cell lines NALM-27 and NALM-28 which were established from the same patient at diagnosis provide unprecedented opportunities for studying a multitude of biological aspects related to normal and neoplastic immature B-lymphocytes.
A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library referred to as Yamato-2 (JY2), was constructed from a Japanese individual and contained 330,000 clones. Library construction was based on 2 concepts: Japanese pedigree and non-immortalization. Genomic DNA was extracted from white blood cells from umbilical cord blood of a Japanese male individual. Four traits of the sample, (1) amelogenin DNA, (2) short tandem repeat (STR), (3) mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and (4) HLA-allele typing, were investigated to verify attribution of the donor. One of the samples with quite good Japanese characteristics was named JY2 and used as a resource for construction of a BAC library. Amelogenin DNA indicated male. STR indicated Mongoloid. MtDNA suggested haplogroup B, which is different from any other diploid whose sequence has been reported. The HLA gene was classified into east-Asian specific haplotype. These results revealed that JY2 was obtained from a Japanese male. We sequenced both ends of 185,012 BAC clones. By using the BLAST search, BAC end sequences (BESs) were mapped on the human reference sequence provided by NCBI. Inserts of individual BAC clones were mapped with both ends properly placed. As a result, 103,647 BAC clones were successfully mapped. The average insert size of BAC calculated from the mapping information was 130 kb. Coverage and redundancy of the reference sequence by successfully mapped BAC clones were 96.4% and 3.9-fold, respectively. This library will be especially suitable as a Japanese standard genome resource. The availability of an accurate library is indispensable for diagnostics or drug-design based on genome information, and JY2 will provide an accurate sequence of the Japanese genome as an important addition to the human genome.
A novel B-cell precursor (BCP) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cell line, NALM-35, was established from the peripheral blood of a 40-year-old woman at diagnosis of ALL. Imunophenotyping showed BCP type III characteristics including expression of TdT, CD10, CD19, CD22, CD79a and HLA class II. T-cell and myeloid-associated antigens tested were negative except CD5 and CD28. The surrogate light chains CD179a and CD179b were positive. NALM-35 cells have the morphological appearance of lymphoblasts. Cytogenetic analysis of NALM-35 revealed an abnormal karyotype with 46, XX, add(9)(p11). Southern blot analysis of the immunoglobulin genes status of NALM-35 at 10 months after establishment showed germ line configuration of the kappa and lambda light chain genes, and rearrangement of the mu heavy chain gene. DNA fingerprinting, chromosomal analysis and immunophenotyping proved that NALM-35 was clonally derived from the primary leukemia cells. The established cell line may provide a useful model system and unprecedented opportunities for analyzing the multitude of biological aspects of normal and neoplastic B-lymphocytes and their precursors.
We succeeded in establishing a human gastric carcinoma cell line (KE-39) from oncocytes obtained from the primary focus of a 77-year-old male stomach cancer patient. From a histopathological point of view the gastric carcinoma was a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma exhibiting a funicular from and a structure with a solid vesicular focus. The oncocytes adhered to glass and proliferated in cell clusters, with a doubling time of about 38.4 hours. Upon transplantation of the cancer cells into nude mice, no visible tumors were found, but from a histological point of view poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma similar to the primary focus was found in all cases. With immunological staining they were found to be positive for anti-CEA antibody and anti-CA19-9 antibody, but negative for anti-ICAM-1 antibody. KE-39 is a cell line which was established from the primary focus, and it was reported in the belief that it is a useful cell line, upon the investigation of its cancer metastasis mechanism and cytological characteristics.
A novel immature human T-ALL cell line, UHKT-42, was established from a 12 year old male patient with acute undifferentiated leukemia. The cell line expressed surface CD7, CD5 and cytoplasmic CD3 antigens. All other T-lymphocytic antigens were undetectable on the surface or in the cytoplasm of cultured cells. Expression of the T-cell receptor (TCR) beta, TCR delta, CD3 delta and CD3 epsilon genes was detected by Northern blotting in total cellular RNA extracts, however, the expression of TCR alpha and TCR gamma was undetectable. After stimulation by TPA for 3 days, only the appearance of CD25 (Tac antigen) was detected by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. Secretion of interleukin-2 (IL-2) into the culture media was also detected after stimulation by PHA or TPA, but not in unstimulated cells. These results suggest that UHKT-42 cells are early precursors of T cells, with TCR beta/delta expression.
A new human small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) cell line, designated MT-428, was derived from a patient who showed neurological paraneoplastic syndrome (combined with subacute cerebellar degeneration and peripheral sensory neuropathy) and was established in tissue culture. This cell line exhibited small cell (variant type) morphology as observed by phase contrast and electron microscopy. The MT-428 cells had a doubling time of 72 hours. Chromosomal analysis showed complicated rearrangements at short and long chromosomes with a modal number of 68. Several tumor markers, NSE, TPA and CPK-BB, were detected in culture medium. This cell line had a cloning efficiency of 1.3% in 0.8% methylcellulose. Finally, it should be noticed that autoantibody against MT-428 cell was demonstrated in serum of the patient. We concluded that the MT-428 cell line may provide a suitable model for studies of neurological paraneoplastic syndrome.
Metastases from breast or gastrointestinal cancers have been treated loco-regionally with immunotherapy using OK-432 and cultured autologous lymphocytes since 1983. Response rate for patients with liver, lung, or pleural metastases from breast cancer was 57%, 53%, 90%, respectively, and for those with liver metastases from gastric or colo-rectal cancer was 31% or 29%. Survival of the patients with liver, pleural metastases from breast cancer, or with peritoneal seeding from gastric cancer was prolonged when compared with historical controls. Immunotherapy was one of significant prognostic factor to prolong the survival in patients with pleural effusion from breast cancer, with Stage IV breast cancer, or with peritoneal seeding from gastric cancer. Moreover, concomitant regression of non-treated metastatic sites after the response of treated disease was often observed especially in breast cancer patients with both liver and bone metastases or with Stage IV disease. Thus, loco-regional immunotherapy can show a systemic beneficial effect.
We describe a successful pregnancy outcome in a patient with non-mosaic Turner syndrome (45, X) via in vitro fertilization. The patient achieved a second pregnancy at 35 years of age. The her blood lymphocyte karyotype was examined by G-band and FISH. Furthermore, cumulus cells and her elbow skin cells were evaluated via FISH. Non-mosaic Turner syndrome was determined by G-banding [100 % (50/50) 45, X]. Lymphocytes were shown as 478/500 (95.6 %) cells of X sex chromosome signal, 15/500 (3.0 %) cells of XXX signal, and 7/500 (1.4 %) cells of XX signal. The cumulus cells were mosaic: 152/260 (58.5 %) were X; 84/260 (32.3 %) were XXX, 20/260 (7.7 %) were XX, and 4/260 (1.5 %) were XY. Moreover, skin cells included a mosaic karyotype [47, XXX(29)/46, XX(1)]. We conclude that the collection of a large number of blood lymphocytes can reveal different mosaic patterns (X, XX and XXX) by FISH in spite of non-mosaic Turner syndrome.
We report a successful second delivery of a healthy infant fathered using refrozen thawed testicular sperm from an infertile male chimera. We also examined sex chromosome distribution of the seminiferous tubule. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) was performed using the remaining refrozen testicular sperm, which had been stored during the first treatment. Biopsied testicular cells were examined by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and the peripheral lymphocyte karyotype was tested using a G-band. Following ICSI, a second pregnancy was established, and a healthy girl was successfully delivered at 40 gestational weeks without complications. Although the husband's lymphocyte chromosomal analysis revealed a 46, XX [28]/46, XY [2] karyotype, the seminiferous tubule cells on histological examination by FISH were chimeric sex chromosome type XX [18]/XY [82]. In conclusion, this is a very rare case report of a successful subsequent delivery of a healthy infant (46, XX) from an infertile true hermaphrodite (46, XX/46, XY) using refrozen thawed testicular sperm. The seminiferous tubule cells' karyotype ratio differed from that of the lymphocytes.
Uterus origin squamous cell carcinoma cell line LK-52 was established from surgical specimen of lung metastatic nodule. LK-52 produce poorly differentiated squamous carcinoma in nude mouse, and doubling time in vitro was 38 hours. Chromosome analysis show various abnormality and main mode number was 67 and 68. LK-52 shed active procoagulant substance into culture medium. The culture medium of LK-52 shortening recalcification time of normal human plasma and factor VII or factor IX deficient plasma but not factor X deficient plasma. Procoagulant activity of LK-52 product may induced with direct activation of coagulant factor X. Procoagulant activity which produced by cancer cell may play a important roll in the unbalanced haemostasis of cancer patient.
The cell line designated HHUS was established from human uterine cervical keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma. The HHUS cell line was subcultivated more than 70 times within 3 years. The cultured cells, polygonal or spindle, with neoplastic and pleomorphic features, appeared epithelial in shape, with a pavement-like arrangement and grew in multi-layers without contact inhibition. The chromosome number was varied from 40 to 88, and the modal number was stable in diploid range. The cultured cells produced keratinizing squamous cell carcinomas by heterotransplantation into the subcutis of nude mice. The HHUS cells were characterized as producing large amounts of SCC, in vitro and possessing HPV-59 DNA genomes.
Human fibroblasts (KMST-6/RAS) transformed with 60Co gamma-rays and the Ha-ras oncogene formed tumors in nude mice. These mice showed splenomegaly and an increase in granulocytes in the peripheral blood. There was a direct correlation between tumor size and spleen size. Histologically, prominent proliferation of granulocytes was observed in the enlarged spleen. These findings indicated that KMST-6/RAS cells might have been producing granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in the nude mice. In fact, in vitro studies demonstrated that the cells produced G-CSF in the culture medium and that production of G-CSF was greater during the logarithmic growth than during the stationary phase. Nearly equal amounts of G-CSF were produced by cells grown in serum-free or 10% serum-supplemented medium. Neither expression of the ras oncogene nor the tumorigenicity of cells correlated with the production of G-CSF. G-CSF production in KMST-6/RAS cells was significantly stimulated by butyrate, but not by dexamethasone or 5-azacytidine.
The profile of Ki-67 nuclear antigen content according to the change in the cell-cycle of WiDr cells affected by 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) was studied by flow cytometry. The cases who received 10 micrograms/ml for 1 hr and showed reproliferation in the growth curve presented significant accumulation at G2M phases. However, significant increase of Ki-67 antigen content was not observed in G2M phases. Meanwhile, the cases who continuously received 10 micrograms/ml for 72 hr and showed the suppression of cellular proliferation without reproliferation presented gradual accumulation into S phase and Ki-67 antigen content was found to be significantly increased. This increase occurred in G1 phase, and the cells with Ki-67 antigen content of the largest increase in G1 phase shifted to S phase. It indicates a possibility that Ki-67 nuclear antigen content is destined to be controlled specifically in G1 phase of the cell-cycle. 5-FU seems to damage this regulation system and, as a result, increase Ki-67 nuclear antigen.
Top-cited authors
Shivaji Kashte
  • D. Y. Patil Education Society, Kolhapur
Arvind Gulbake
  • National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research Guwahati
Hiroshi Ishikawa
  • Fujita Health University
Vikash Chandra
  • University of Helsinki
Satish Patki
  • patki hospital and research foundation