Housing and Society

Published by Informa UK (Taylor & Francis)
Print ISSN: 0888-2746
Publications
This paper reports the results of a survey completed by 199 homeowners in the Minneapolis-St. Paul suburbs of Coon Rapids and Woodbury, Minnesota. The purpose of the research was twofold. The first purpose was to find out if moisture problems existed in these newer-built houses and the extent to which homeowners were aware of the problems. The second purpose was to determine if the presence of moisture problems would affect the satisfaction of the homeowners and ultimately lead to dissatisfied homeowners deciding to move to another house. The Morris and Winter Theory of Housing Adjustment was the basis for the study design. Fifty-four percent of the households surveyed reported three or more serious indicators of moisture problems in their houses. Only four households, howevel; reported that they would consider moving to another house because of the problems. While homeowners recognized moisture problems in their houses, the results suggest that there is a need for education of homeowners on how to understand and manage air exchange, heat transfel; and site drainage to alleviate moisture problems.
 
According to the U.S. Census Bureau there were 12.5 million Asian and Pacific Islanders living in the U.S. in March 2002, accounting for 4.4% of the total population. This research examined the housing satisfaction of Asian and Pacific Islander households compared to non-Hispanic White households. Since many Asian and Pacific Islanders in the U.S. are foreign-born, it was expected that their housing perceptions would be influenced by their experience with housing in their home countries. Using Morris and Winter’s housing adjustment theory, the study investigated the effect of several demographic variables, housing deficits, and neighborhood satisfaction on housing satisfaction. The study also considered two variables with cultural relevance (length of residence in the U.S. and extended family living arrangement) to test their effect on housing satisfaction. Data used for the research came from the 2002 American Housing Survey Metropolitan Sample (AHS-MS) collected from a sample of 13 metropolitan areas. Results revealed that, generally, demographic variables were not significant indicators of housing satisfaction. Two housing deficits (renter status and housing inadequacy) and neighborhood satisfaction were important mediating variables between housing satisfaction and household variables. Length of residence in the U.S. and extended family living arrangement were not significant predictors of housing satisfaction for Asian and Pacific Islanders. There was little difference in the explanation of housing satisfaction for Asian and Pacific Islander households compared to non-Hispanic White households.
 
Diagrammatic Representation of the Findings Related to Boundary Management of Participants 
This research examined the patterns of living and work arrangements of home-based workers in neighborhoods of different socio-economic composition in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Forty participants were interviewed from three study areas—an economically depressed area with a predominantly African-American population, a mixed-income neighborhood with an ethnically heterogeneous population, and a middle-income neighborhood with a predominantly White population. The study used a mixed methodological approach where qualitative data were augmented by quantitative data. Structuration Theory, Technologies of Self boundary management concepts, and the model of Activity Systems and Systems of Settings guided data interpretation. Findings revealed that home-based workers, as active agents, interacted with the existing structures of their live-work environments to accommodate work within their residences through boundary management practices that had spatial, temporal, or behavioral manifestations. The presence of clients in the residence, household composition, household members ‘practices, the nature of and motive for home-based work, and spatial affordances of work settings all influenced how and when these boundaries between work and home were placed or removed.
 
An individual’s neighborhood and community affect the quality of life for that person. The purpose of this study was to examine factors associated with neighborhood and community satisfaction of rural families. Data for multiple regression analyses were collected during 1985 through personal interviews with 506 randomly selected rural respondents living in six Midwestem states. Findings indicate that neighborhood satisfaction can be significantly predicted by satisfaction with neighbors, with location of home, and with conditions of nearby housing. Community satisfaction can be significantly predicted by satisfaction with neighbors, with nearness to shopping, with condition of streets, and with nearness to friends and relatives. This information can be used by professionals and decision makers involved in improving the environments within rural communities so that they promote the well-being of individuals and families living there.
 
This paper examines preferences of Utah residents for energy conservation strategies for space heating. The results are based on data collected in 1981 and 1983 by a mail survey of Utah residents. In both surveys, energy conservation features were found to be Important considerations in choosing a dwelling. In particular, more than 70 percent of the respondents reported they would be more likely or much more likely to buy a house that has solar heating. The acceptance of solar heating is broad-based, with no significant differences with respect to location, age, sex, income or education of respondent. Nearly two-thirds of the respondents indicate that the presence of a wood-burning stove would favorably affect their housing choice. Younger respondents and those located in rural areas were the most likely to prefer a wood-burning stove. The impact of conservation features on house selection preferences diminished from 1981 to 1983, but, with the exception of solar heating, the changes are not statistically significant.
 
Securing stable housing to prevent the spread of infection during the COVID-19 pandemic remains a concern among policymakers in the US. In this article, we provide a descriptive analysis of the association between COVID-19-related eviction moratoriums and eviction filings in New Orleans, Louisiana. Beginning in March 2020, four separate moratoriums were implemented at the local, state, and federal levels that sought to restrict eviction filings in New Orleans. We collected data on evictions filed from January 2017 through November 2020 in the First City Court of Orleans Parish, the entity responsible for adjudicating the majority of eviction filings in New Orleans. We then examined the association between the various eviction moratoriums, the number of evictions filed, the estimated number of evictions temporarily averted, and the average suit dollar amount for filed evictions. Our results indicate that local and state moratoriums were effective at temporarily halting eviction filings. Federal moratoriums offering fewer protections reduced eviction filings by approximately 50%. We estimate that COVID-19-related eviction moratoriums temporarily averted 2,492 eviction filings in New Orleans between March and November 2020. The average suit amount for eviction filings that resumed following the expiration of local and state moratoriums doubled from pre-COVID-19 filing amounts.
 
Using the New York Tenement House Commission of 1900 and its proposed code of 1901 as a case study, this article describes how building standards are a source of “hidden social agendas.” Through research on the “social context” of the Commission and examination of its proposed code, it is shown how the Commission’s concern for social order and family preservation manifested itself in regulations for tenement hallways, water closets, airs hafts, and bathrooms. This concern led to standards which resulted in privitization of the dwelling unit.
 
This paper is an historical perspective of urban housing policies in China from 1949 to the present. Data are obtained primarily from articles in a newspaper, The China Daily. Changes in policies reflect a variety of factors including changes in government, in national goals, in priorities and resources, and in reactions to deplorable housing conditions. Currently China is moving from almost total government ownership of housing to an encouragement of more private ownership and responsibility. It is concluded that nations will continue to experiment with different models of public sector and private sector contribution and responsibility for housing as they attempt to provide adequate housing for their populations.
 
This study determines if a consensus is developing concerning the content of housing education at the college level and identifies changes in this content. Ten college-level housing texts published over a period of four decades are examined and their contents classified into six categories and 38 subtopics. The researchers found that there is variation among the texts in the topics included and in the length of coverage given. While the topics are covered in all the books, only limited evidence is found for developing a consensus about subtopics. Furthermore, it appears that the content of housing textbooks is somewhat responsive to economic and social changes during this period.
 
The purposes of this study were to determine the housing aspirations and expectations of current senior college students and to examine those housing aspirations and expectations in relation to those of women-college students in the 1960s (as reported by Montgomery, 1963). The questionnaire to measure housing aspirations and expectations was designed using the one developed by Montgomery as a model. Data for the study were collected from college seniors at two universities in the spring term of 1988. Seventy-five percent of the 1000 questionnaires mailed were returned. Differences between males and females were examined using the T-test, and comparisons of the percentage of students selecting each response were made for items utilized in both this study and the one reported by Montgomery using 1960 data. Data collected from the 1988 respondents revealed that 98 percent planned to purchase a single family dwelling sometime in their lifetime. These college seniors desired many “upscale” housing features, but were usually realistic in their expectations as to features that would be present in their first purchased house. Results of the T-test analysis indicated a greater number of differences between males and females with regard to features desired as compared with features expected. Of the data collected that were comparable to the 1960 study, students in 1988 were found to have many different expectations and desires. College seniors in 1988 were more likely to want a contemporary home with fewer bedrooms than those in 1960. Features such as dishwashers and food waste disposers were expected by the 1988 sample at least as often as they were desired by students in the 1960s.
 
Of all the rooms in the home, the kitchen has received the most attention in terms of design efficiency. Widely accepted standards for kitchen design have existed since the early 1960s; however, it has not been clear how carefully designers have adhered to them. This study examined kitchens presented as models in 1968 and 1988 consumer magazines. Content analysis was conducted to determine the kitchens’ conformity to fundamental kitchen design guidelines. The majority of kitchens were found to have one or more major flaws. The most common problem was cross traffic interruption of the work triangle. Other frequent problems included a lack of counter space next to the open side of the refrigerator and a lack of counter space next to the oven. Mean efficiency scores on a five-point scale were 3.79 in 1968 and declined to 3.50 in 1988.
 
Long term trends measured over 15 to 20 years reveal cyclical phases of economic growth and stagnation which are often tied to major demographic trends. These long waves of growth and decline are also apparent in housing. The post-war period of expansion and improvement in housing consumption-stimulated by consistent, long-term growth in incomes-lasted until approximately 1975. This cycle of growth generated major improvements in homeownership and housing affordability. During the next two decades, economic growth stalled, homeownership declined, and housing affordability emerged as a major problem. At the same time, housing markets absorbed an unprecedented expansion in demand as the baby-boom matured. There were also major shifts in housing demand related to changes in life-styles reflected in proportionately fewer married-couple families, more female-headed families, and more single-person households. Although it is premature to suggest that another long-term housing cycle is beginning, the recent shift in public attention to the domestic agenda suggests growing pressure for a change in direction. This paper assesses the long-term trends in the nation’s housing established over the past 15 to 20 years. Using data from the Current Population Survey and the American Housing Survey, as well as other sources, major trends are identified and analyzed for homeownership and affordability.
 
Using Annual Housing survey data, the choice of housing location and mode of transportation to work are compared for the years 1974 and 1977. Chi-square analysis indicates that households are choosing to minimize their transportation costs to work by locating their housing closer to the workplace and using less-expensive modes of transportation than in the past.
 
This study used U.S. Census data to perform a comparative assessment of socio-demographic profiles between residents of mobile or manufactured homes and site-built construction. It also provides a comparison between the two types of residents for the time period 1980 to 2000 in the state of Georgia. Particularly, mobile and manufactured home residents are compared to those in single- and multifamily site-built homes. Results suggest that, increasingly, lower-income households, including Hispanic households, are living in mobile and manufactured homes as opposed to comparable single-family site-built homes. In addition, an increasing number of larger households, households headed by African Americans, and households headed by older individuals are living in mobile and manufactured homes relative to multifamily site-built homes.
 
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of outside temperatures on gas and electricity usage and expenditures for 1981 and 1982 for a sample of households in centra! Iowa. A sample of 93 households, who lived continuously in the same dwelling and had given full information on utilities for the entire two years, is used in the analysis. The unit of analysis is a monthly segment, which this study uses in a form of time-series analysis. Plot procedures are used to examine the general trends of utility usage and expenditures. Linear regression analyses are used to estimate the effects of monthly average temperature or monthly average heating and cooling degree days on utility usage and expenditures. Monthly average temperature and/or cooling degree days explain most of the variances in monthly average gas and electricity usage and expenditures. Attitude toward the energy problem has no significant effect on gas usage or electricity usage.
 
Childhood lead poisoning remains a serious public health concern in the United States today. had-based paint in pre-1978 housing stock is the major source of exposure. Although theprimary objective of lead regulation is to reduce the incidence of childhood lead poisoning, i7ller (1994) suggested that lead legislation has not signzjicantly met that objective, primarily due to poor procedures for implementation. In addition, federal, state, and local regulations that are intended to achieve these goals may turn out to have negative consequences for affordable housing because the impact on housing costs may not have been considered when the regulations were first promulgated (ACRBAH, 1991). The purpose of this study was to analyze the implementation of the Minnesota lead statute by the cities of Minneapolis and St. Paulfrorn 1991-1995, which represented the time from when the statute went into effect (1991) to when major revisions were made (1995). The case study approach provided qualitative answers to the questions: “How did the 1991 Minnesota lead statute structure implementation?”; “What components of implementation were lefr up to local discretion?”; and “What impact did implementation have on affordable rental housing?” Sabatier and Mavnanian’s (1980) conceptual framework of the policy implementation process was used to develop an interview guideline, and as the survey instrument for in-person interviews with current and past lead oficials. The findings showed that the Minnesota lead statute was loosely structured, allowing enough discretion by local administering agencies for differential implementation of the policy by the mo cities, particularly in the writing of lead orders. The lead oficials reported that the impact of the implementation of the statute on affordable housing was real, unintended, and largely negative. Aflordable housing units were removedfrom the current housing stock through increased vacancy periods, abandonment by the property owner, and condemnation by the city. In addition, both homelessness and discrimination against families with children were reportedly increased
 
Researchers have extensively studied disaster sheltering and housing; however, little research has empirically examined longitudinal patterns of how shelter and housing needs change during and after disasters. This study investigated types and timing of unmet shelter and housing needs during sequential hurricane disasters in Texas using Texas 2-1-1 Network’s real-time data of callers’ unmet needs throughout Texas’ 254 counties, including disaster areas as well as evacuation routes and destinations. Texas 2-1-1 has been used by disaster managers and communities state-wide for information and referral for non-emergency needs. The 5-month study period includes a baseline before Hurricane Katrina, evacuation and impact during each disaster, and short-term recovery afterward. Before and following these hurricanes, the most common types of unmet housing needs stemmed from financial issues related to rental housing. During disaster emergency phases, shelter-related needs were most common. Unmet needs related to homeowners were least frequent throughout the disaster phases. Unmet shelter needs had patterns differing by disaster phase compared to more subtle differences over time in renter and homeowner needs. This unique study provides practical information about vulnerable populations’ access barriers relating to housing needs and supports the theoretical model of disaster-related sheltering and housing using real-time data.
 
During the somewhat recent Great Recession, there was a popular notion that housing affordability for all renters had deteriorated. In this study, we investigate this notion by utilizing two national merged American Housing Survey (AHS) data sets from 2007 to 2009. We analyze housing affordability for renters, comparing and contrasting four subgroups in terms of their monthly average household incomes and housing costs, among other variables. We conduct descriptive statistics and multinomial logit analyses in order to predict the probability of a renter being in a given subgroup. We find that 62.90% of renters had increased household incomes but decreased housing cost burdens or decreased household incomes and decreased housing cost burdens, dispelling the notion that housing affordability has deteriorated. We also find that changes in average household income and staying or becoming employed or married translates into high odds of being in subgroups with increased household incomes.
 
A decrease in housing values and retirement funds due to the recent 2009 U.S. recession has baby boomer-led households to experience an increased housing cost burden. By employing the 2009 American Housing Survey, the authors examined U.S. baby boomer householders’ housing and demographic profiles in the distressed economy, and revealed the relationships between the profiles and housing affordability levels (N = 16,092). A research model was developed to test hypothesized relationships between housing affordability levels (the dependent variable) and demographic and housing characteristics of the U.S. baby boomer householders. The model was supported by the rejection of the null hypothesis. Significant variables influencing housing affordability levels of U.S. baby boomer householders included education, geographical locations (region and central urbanicity), government income assistance, marital status, race/ ethnicity, sex, amenities, age of house (year built), neighborhood rating, structure size, structure type, and tenure. This study highlights present and future housing and financial challenges of U.S. baby boomers.
 
Looking towards the 21st century, predictions regarding the future have taken place in various fields. We are at a point where we must confront future residential environments by examining how predictions regarding these environments differ among countries with different cultures and lifestyles. In this study, architecture and housing-related professionals from Korea, Japan, Singapore, the United States, and the United Kingdom were surveyed about the extent of change in future residences regarding: housing forms, arrangement and structure of rooms, building shapes, the exterior space of residential complexes, and the natural environment surrounding residential complexes. The survey was conducted in 1996 and asked about the next 20 years: 2001, 2006, and 2016. Second, a One-Way Analysis of Variance was used to determine whether there was a difference between countries in terms of predictions about future residential environments. The differences were analyzed through a Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. Also, the demands of future residential environments were investigated according to country using 14 variables. In this research, the following predictions were made regarding residential environments. Individual houses will be the main form of housing and the extent of change in housing will increase with the passage of time. Also, room arrangement and structure will become more open, and building shapes will become diversified. In terms of affinity to nature, the environment surrounding the housing complex will be a combination of artificial and natural elements.
 
This report presents the current approach to dealing with defects in homes financed by the Farmers Home Administration, and, to help ascertain the extent of defects in FmHA homes, presents research which compares the quality of FmHA Section 502 - financed units in Maryland to other new, three bedroom, single family homes in eight southern states. Of the total sample, 140 were FmHA Section 502 financed units in Maryland, 89 houses were financed by the 502 program in states other than Maryland, and 131 were houses financed by other means in states other than Maryland. Analysis of the data indicated that Sec. 502 housing in Maryland had a significantly higher incidence ofl) cracks in the walls or ceilings, 2) decay of door and window frames, 3) decay of porch and outside steps, and 4) uneven floors. Policy changes to remedy the problem are suggested.
 
The government has invested substantial time and money in encouraging homeownership, and, over the last 30 years, in directly encouraging homeownership among lower-income households. Despite these efforts, the impact and satisfaction of the U. S. Department of Agriculture Section 502 Mutual Self Help Housing Loan Program (MSHP) borrowers remains largely unstudied. This study contributes to the existing literature by directly assessing the satisfaction of MSHP participants in Utah. This is qualitative research interested in capturing in-depth information about the challenges, benefits, and shortcomings of the program; skills learned by the participants in the process of building their home; and recommendations to improve the program. Five main themes emerged from the data: 1) participants were given access to homes that were previously unaffordable, 2) the program increased human capital, 3) the program increased social capital, 4) the program had some weaknesses, and 5) participants believed the process was difficult, but altogether worth it.
 
Three hypotheses relating to housing expenditures are developed and tested with analysis of a pilot study, a local survey, and national household data. The results reveal distributions of housing expenditures and percentage of income spent for housing that suggest relationships or new “rules” for this era. Research in these distributions of expenditures is needed for measuring consumer If amity economic well-being, for providing information for decisions about resource allocations, and for developing consumption theories. Directions for future research are suggested.
 
Existing research explains housing abandonment In the broad context of urban decline or the narrow micro-economics of housing sub-markets. In both cases, abandonment is assumed to be a singular process across a city. In this paper, the neighborhood context of abandonment is examined with the view that abandonment varies with a neighborhood’s historical ecology. Data from the Philadelphia License and Inspection records, the U. S. Census Bureau, Pennsylvania Industrial Directories, and from financial institutions provide evidence linking abandonment to job access, racial transition, mortgage investment and population decline in neighborhoods having different historical and contemporary ecological positions in the city.
 
Top-cited authors
Julia Beamish
  • Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Margaret J. Weber
  • Pepperdine University
Eunsil Lee
  • Michigan State University
Andrew T. Carswell
  • University of Georgia
Joann M. Emmel
  • Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University