HortTechnology

Published by American Society for Horticultural Science
Online ISSN: 1063-0198
Publications
Article
Rockwool is an excellent growing medium for the hydroponic production of tomato; however, the standard size rockwool blocks [4 x 4 x 2.5 inches (10 x 10 x 6.3 cm) or 3 x 3 x 2.5 inches (7.5 x 7.5 x 6.3 cm)] are expensive. The following experiments were conducted with less expensive minirock wool blocks (MRBs), on rayon polyester material (RPM) as a bench top liner, to reduce the production cost of tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) grown in a limited-cluster, ebb and flood hydroponic cultivation system. Fruit yield for single-cluster plants growing in MRBs [2 x 2 x 1.6 inches (5 x 5 x 4 cm) and 1.6 x 1.6 x 1.6 inches (4 x 4 x 4 cm)] was not significantly different from plants grown in larger sized blocks (3 x 3 x 2.5 inches). When the bench top was lined with RPM, roots penetrated the RPM, and an extensive root mat developed between the RPM and the bench top. The fruit yield from plants on RPM was significantly increased compared to plants without RPM due to increases in fruit size and fruit number. RPM also significantly reduced the incidence of blossom-end rot. In a second experiment, single- and double-cluster plants were grown on RPM. Fruit yield for double-cluster plants was 40% greater than for single-cluster plants due to an increase in fruit number, although the fruit were smaller in size. As in the first experiment, fruit yield for all plants grown in MRBs was not significantly different from plants grown in the larger sized blocks. MRBs and a RPM bench liner are an effective combination in the production of limited-cluster hydroponic tomatoes.
 
Schematic diagram showing the basic configuration of the porous tube plant nutrient delivery system. 
Schematic diagram showing the basic configuration of the phenolic foam plant nutrient delivery system. 
Schematic diagram showing the basic configuration of the agar gel plant nutrient delivery system. 
Comparison of morphometric changes associated in dwarf wheat roots grown on the three nutrient delivery systems for 12 d. For conversions, 2.54 cm = 1.0 inch; 25.4 mm = 1.0 inch; 6.45 cm 2 = 1.0 inch 2 . 
Article
A ground-based comparison of plant nutrient delivery systems that have been developed for microgravity application was conducted for dwarf wheat (Triticum aestivum L. 'Yecora Rojo') and rapid-cycling brassica (Brassica rapa L. CrGC#1-33) plants. These experiments offer insight into nutrient and oxygen delivery concerns for greenhouse crop production systems. The experiments were completed over a 12-day period to simulate a typical space shuttle-based spaceflight experiment. The plant materials, grown either using the porous-tube nutrient delivery system, the phenolic foam support system, or a solidified agar nutrient medium, were compared by plant-growth analysis, root zone morphological measurements, elemental composition analysis, and alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme activity assay. The results of these analyses indicate that the porous tube plant nutrient delivery and the phenolic foam systems maintain plant growth at a higher level than the solidified agar gel medium system. Root zone oxygenation problems associated with the agar system were manifested through biochemical and morphological responses. The porous tube nutrient delivery system outperformed the other two systems on the basis of plant growth analysis parameters and physiological indicators of root zone aeration. This information is applicable to the current crop production techniques used in greenhouse-controlled environments.
 
Log-Linear Estimates for Seasonal/ Part Time Wages
Log-Linear Estimates for Full Time Wages
Log-Linear Estimates for Full Time Hours
Article
Nursery, greenhouse, and sod production remains very labor-intensive, and a large portion of the agricultural labor force is made up of migrant workers. As a result of the perishable nature of horticultural goods, a skilled and accessible labor supply is imperative for continued industry growth and stability. Using 2004 survey data, this study uses log-linear regression analysis to examine the effects of migrant labor on wages, hours, and gross sales in Alabama's horticulture industry. A binomial probit model is added to measure producer decisions to hire migrant workers. The presence of migrant workers is found to raise average wages within green industry firms but exhibits no significant effects on hours and sales. The binomial probit model indicates that producer concerns may have some influence on their decision to hire migrant workers. Producers who perceive government regulations as a threat to their industry are less likely to hire migrant workers. This indicates that there may be a greater level of government regulation associated with hiring migrant workers when compared with local workers. Concerns for lack of professionalism appear to raise the demand for migrant rather than local workers.
 
Article
Integrated peat management (IPM) strategies for control of apple scab and codling moth ( Cydia pomonolla ) were compared with a traditional protestant spray program in an Iowa apple orchard over a 3-year period. IPM tactics for scab included a postinfection spray program and an integrated, reduced-spray program based on the use of demethylation inhibitor fungicides. Codling moth spray timing was determined by pheromone-trap captures and degree-day models. The IPM tactics resulted in an average of three fewer fungicide sprays and two fewer insecticide sprays than the protestant program. Neither yield, incidence of fruit scab, nor incidence of codling moth injury on fruit was significantly different among the two IPM treatments and the protestant treatment. A no-fungicide treatment had significantly lower yield and greater scab incidence than the other treatments. A partial budget analysis indicated that the treatment using the postinfection strategy was more costly per acre than the protectant program for orchards <20 acres, about equivalent in cost for 20 acres, but leas costly for 40 acres. A treatment incorporating the integrated, reduced-spray strategy was less costly than either postinfection or protestant strategies at orchard sizes from 5 to 40 acres. Return (total revenue - cost for control of primary scab and codling moth) per acre for the IPM strategies was somewhat lower than for the protestant program.
 
Tree age, grove size and production, and Temik (15% aldicarb by weight) application rates for four grapefruit groves in the Indian River area of southeastern Florida, 2000.
Net returns to land, trees, ownership, and management of white grapefruit grove A (Temik- treated) and B (no Temik) in the Indian River area of southeastern Florida, 2000; Temik = 15% aldicarb by weight.
Article
Temik [R](aldicarb) is a pesticide labeled for use on several citrus crops to control rust mite, whitefly, nematode and brown citrus aphid pests. Analysis of previous research experiments indicates that this pesticide is beneficial to both orange and grapefruit production and that both cost savings and higher yields can be experienced in many types of groves. Actual grove data shows that net returns for mature grapefruit that receive Temik [R] can be $500 per acre greater than net returns for identical acreage that uses other pest control options. Also, based on grove reset data it is shown that with an application of Temik [R] the resulting increased yields for three-year-old trees more than cover the additional cost of applying the Temik [R].
 
Article
The United States environmental horticulture industry, also known as the Green Industry, is comprised of wholesale nursery and sod growers; landscape architects, designers/builders, contractors, and maintenance firms; retail garden centers, home centers, and mass merchandisers with lawn and garden departments; and marketing intermediaries such as brokers and horticultural distribution centers (re-wholesalers). Environmental horticulture is one of the fastest growing segments of the nation's agricultural economy. In spite of the magnitude and recent growth in the Green Industry, there is surprisingly little information regarding its economic impact. Thus, the objective of this study was to estimate the economic impacts of the Green Industry at the national level. Economic impacts for the U.S. Green Industry in 2002 were estimated at $147.8 billion in output, 1,964,339 jobs, $95.1 billion in value added, $64.3 billion in labor income, and $6.9 billion in indirect business taxes, with these values expressed in 2004 dollars. In addition, this study evaluated the value and role of urban forest trees (woody ornamental trees); the total output of tree production and care services was valued at $14.55 billion, which translated into $21.02 billion in total output impacts, 259,224 jobs, and $14.12 billion in value added.
 
Article
Phytophthora ramorum survived in potting media infested with sporangia or chlamydospores, allowing the pathogen to remain undetected while disseminated geographically. Chlamydospores or oospores of P. ramorum, Pythium irregulare, Thielaviopsis basicola, and Cylindrocladium scoparium produced in vermiculite culture were used to infest potting media. Infested media in plastic plug flats were treated with aerated steam mixtures from 45 to 70°C for 30 min. In a second experiment, infested media were fumigated in polyethylene bags with a concentration series of metam sodium ranging from 0.25 to 1.0 mL·L -1. Survival of the pathogens was determined by selective baiting or direct plating the infested media on PARP selective medium. Assays indicated that all pathogens in the infested potting media were killed by aerated steam heat treatments of 50°C or higher. Metam sodium concentrations of 1.0 mL·L-1 of medium or greater also eradicated all pathogens from the potting medium and soil. These results show that aerated steam treatment or fumigation with metam sodium can effectively sanitize soil-less potting media infested with P. ramorum or other soilborne pathogens, as well as P. ramorum-infested soil beneath infected plant containers. In addition, steam treatments to 70°C did not melt plastic plug trays.
 
Nitrogen draw-down index (NDI) z in douglas fir bark resulting from two bark ages and two collection dates.
Article
The objective of this study was to determine if there are growth differences in geranium (Pelargonium xhortorum 'Maverick Red') produced in fresh or aged douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) bark (DFB). A second objective was to document nitrogen (N) immobilization and decomposition rates of fresh and aged DFB to better understand the cause of growth differences. A series of experiments to measure plant response, N draw-down index (NDI), and percentage of cumulative carbon (C) loss were conducted on fresh and aged DFB. Geranium plugs were transplanted to containers filled with fresh or aged DFB. Treatments were arranged in a 2 x 3 factorial with two DFB ages (fresh and aged) and three N fertilizer rates (200, 300, and 400 mg·L-1). Plant growth was affected by DFB age in that geraniums were smaller when grown in fresh DFB. N draw-down analysis demonstrated that a large fraction of N in solution was immobilized in fresh and aged DFB. Carbon loss, measured as a gauge of bark decomposition, was not affected by N rate or bark type. Similarities in C loss between fresh and aged DFB agree with the similar N immobilization potential (NDI) in the two materials.
 
Total number (cumulative) of fully expanded leaves (A and B ), and fl owers (C and D) of harlequin fl ower in response to inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and soil pasteurization treatments. Error bars are standard error of the least squares means within measurement dates. Arrows (A and B) represent the average number of days until fl ower emergence. Different letters above bars represent treatment means signifi cantly different from each other (P < 0.05, Bonferroni test). C = sterilized AMF inoculum; W = sterilized AMF inoculum and washings from nonsterilized inoculum; M = AMF inoculum. 
Total number (cumulative) of infl orescences (A and B), and fl owers per infl orescence (C and D) of harlequin fl ower in response to inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and soil pasteurization treatments. Error bars are standard error of the least squares means within measurement dates. Different letters above bars represent treatment means signifi cantly different from each other (P < 0.05, Bonferroni test). C = sterilized AMF inoculum; W = sterilized AMF inoculum and washings from nonsterilized inoculum; M = AMF inoculum. 
Article
We assessed whether addition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) inoculum or rhizosphere organisms from AMF inoculum alters aspects of flowering, corm production, or corm quality of harlequin flower (Sparaxis tricolor) for two growth cycles after inoculation. Using pasteurized and nonpasteurized growth medium, plants were inoculated with either inoculum of the AMF, Glomus intraradices, or washings of the inoculum containing rhizobacteria. Shoots of plants inoculated with AMF emerged 2 days earlier than shoots on noninoculated plants or plants inoculated with inoculum washings. Flowers on AMF-inoculated plants opened 7-8 days earlier and plants produced more flowers per plant and per inflorescence than noninoculated plants. AMF-inoculated plants partitioned a higher proportion of biomass to cormel production than to daughter corms and had higher concentration and contents of zinc, sulfur, nitrogen, amino acids, and carbohydrates than corms from noninoculated plants. The rhizosphere organisms associated with the AMF inoculum influenced several measures of plant development, growth, and corm production suggesting that there are organisms associated with our AMF inoculum that have beneficial effects on the growth and productivity of harlequin flower. While inoculation with AMF can promote shoot emergence, leaf production, and flower production of harlequin flower, inoculation also alters aspects of biomass partitioning and corm composition that play an important role in the production of this crop for corms and cormels.
 
Alternative soil treatments, application rates, and years when the soil 
Article
Partial budget analysis was used to evaluate soil treatment alternatives to methyl bromide (MeBr) based on their efficacy and cost-effectiveness in the production of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). The analysis was conducted for the mountain tomato production region based on 6 years of field test data collected in Fletcher, NC. Fumigation alternatives evaluated included 61.1% 1,3-dichloropropene + 34.7% chloropicrin (Telone-C35TM), 60.8% 1,3-dichloropropene + 33.3% chloropicrin (InLine), 99% chloropicrin (Chlor-o-pic), 94% chloropicrin (TriClor EC), 42% metam sodium (4.26 lb/gal a.i., Vapam), and 50% iodomethane + 50% chloropicrin (Midas). The MeBr formulation was 67% methyl bromide and 33% chloropicrin (Terr-O-Gas). Chloropicrin applied at 15 gal/acre provided the greatest returns with an additional return of $907/acre relative to MeBr. Telone-C35 provided an additional return of $848/acre and drip-applied metam sodium provided an additional return of $137/acre. The return associated with broadcast applied metam sodium was about equal to the estimated return a grower would receive when applying MeBr. Fumigating with a combination of chloropicrin and metam sodium; shank-applied chloropicrin at 8 gal/acre; drip-applied chloropicrin, Midas, or InLine; and the nonfumigated soil treatment all resulted in projected losses of $156/acre, $233/acre, $422/acre, $425/acre, $604/acre, and $2133/acre, respectively, relative to MeBr. Although technical issues currently associated with some of the MeBr alternatives may exist, results indicate that there are economically feasible fumigation alternatives to MeBr for production of tomatoes in North Carolina.
 
Article
Methyl bromide has been used extensively in open-field perennial crop nurseries to ensure the production of plants that are free of soilborne pests and pathogens. California regulations require that nursery stock for farm planting be commercially clean with respect to economically important nematodes. Under the terms of the Montreal Protocol, the use of methyl bromide by developed countries was phased out 1 Jan. 2005. Although the perennial nursery industry in the United States largely continues to use methyl bromide under critical use exemptions and quarantine/preshipment criteria allowed under provisions of the Montreal Protocol, nursery growers need viable alternatives to this fumigant. Two fumigation trials in perennial crop field nurseries with sandy loam and clay loam soils, respectively, were conducted to compare the efficacy of fumigants applied through standard shank-injection equipment or as emulsifiable compounds applied through drip irrigation equipment. In the garden rose (Rosa multiflora) nursery trial, nematodes were detected at planting in the untreated control, no-tarpaulin 1,3-dichloropropene + chloropicrin, and chloropicrin alone several months after treatment. Nematodes included root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) and stunt nematode (Tylenchorhynchus semipenetrans). At harvest 2 years later, root-knot nematode was detected in rose roots from untreated plots and plots treated with untarped 1,3-dichloropropene + chloropicrin, metam sodium, and chloropicrin alone. In the nut tree (Prunus spp.) nursery field trial, shank-injected treatments typically provided better nematode control than the same chemicals applied via the drip lines, although weed control and marketable trees were similar among treatments.
 
Article
Recent field observations by growers suggest that increased nitrogen (N) content in nursery trees resulting from foliar sprays with urea in the autumn increases tree susceptibility to infection by Phytophthora syringae. We investigated the effects of soil N availability and spraying pear (Pyrus communis 'OHF 97') trees with combinations of urea, chelated copper ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (CuEDTA), and phosphonate-containing fungicides on stem N concentration and susceptibility to infection by P. syringae. Increasing soil N availability increased susceptibility to P. syringae and increased N and amino acid concentration in stems. Spraying trees with urea in the autumn increased concentrations of N and amino acids in stems and had no significant effect on tree susceptibility when stems were inoculated with P. syringae before or after urea sprays. Spraying trees with CuEDTA decreased stem N concentrations and had no significant influence on tree susceptibility to P. syringae when stems were inoculated before or after CuEDTA sprays. These results suggest the relationship between tree susceptibility to P. syringae and tree N concentration may be specific to the form of N, delivery method, or timing of N applications. Trees had higher N concentrations in stems in November than in October and were more susceptible to P. syringae when inoculated in November, suggesting that environmental factors and increasing tree dormancy may be responsible for changes in susceptibility to the pathogen. Spraying trees with fungicides containing fosetyl-aluminum in October or November decreased tree susceptibility to P. syringae. The effects of fungicides containing fosetyl-aluminum on susceptibility were similar regardless of whether trees were sprayed or not with urea or CuEDTA, suggesting that these fungicides can be used in combination with urea or CuEDTA sprays for reducing disease severity caused by P. syringae without impacting growers' objective of increasing tree N content with urea or enhancing early defoliation with CuEDTA.
 
Article
Field-grown cut and dried flowers could provide a high-value crop selection for New Mexico. We conducted a 1-year field study to evaluate flower yield and quality characteristics of common globe amaranth (Gomphrena globosa), ‘Strawberry Fields’ globe amaranth (Gomphrena haageana), cockscomb celosia (Celosia argentea var. cristata ‘Chief Mix’), and wheat celosia (Celosia spicata ‘Pink Candle’). Within-row spacing of 15 or 20 cm combined with two-row or three-row per bed plantings resulted in field planting densities ranging from 66,670 to 120,010 plants/ha of common globe amaranth and ‘Strawberry Fields’ globe amaranth, and 100,005 to 200,010 plants/ha of cockscomb and wheat celosia. All but cockscomb celosia produced four harvests that began 22 May and ended 18 Oct., depending on species. Both globe amaranth species had a 5- to 6-month harvest season, two to three midseason to late-season peak harvests, and over 1000 harvested stems totaling 1.4 to 1.8 kg dry weight per 1.5-m2 plot across the season. Both celosia species had a 4.5-month harvest season, one early summer peak harvest, and fewer than 300 harvested stems totaling 0.6 to 0.7 kg dry weight per plot for the year. Seasonally progressive increases in flowering stem length of both globe amaranth species and wheat celosia, and in flowering stem diameter of both globe amaranth species and cockscomb celosia, were observed. Flowering head size of both globe amaranth species and of wheat celosia varied little with harvest season, whereas the head diameter of cockscomb celosia increased with the season. Postharvest flower retention after mechanical impact was about 2% higher for common globe amaranth than it was for ‘Strawberry Fields’ globe amaranth, decreased by about 6% from early to later harvests for both celosia species, and was inversely related to the head size of both globe amaranth species and cockscomb celosia. Despite the wide range in planting density, the density effect was largely limited to cockscomb celosia. For that species, three-row planting (high density) increased the total number of spray flower (multiple head) stems, provided longer stems later into the season and wider heads midway into the season, and prolonged the production of spray stems (15-cm spacing only). Results demonstrate that these four species are excellent candidates as new specialty crops in semiarid conditions.
 
Effects of Streptomyces (S 99-60) culture fi ltrates on total numbers of hatched root-knot nematode (RKN) second-stage juveniles (J2), and on activity of the hatched J2 in microwell assays. YME = yeast-malt extract broth; NB = nutrient broth. Numbers of hatched J2, and of active vs. inactive J2, were counted 7 d after placement of eggs into water, broth controls, or culture fi ltrates from S 99-60 grown for either 3 or 9 d in YME or NB. Each well received about 470 eggs; values shown are from two trials, each with fi ve replicate wells per treatment (n = 10 per treatment). " Total " J2 means with different letters were signifi cantly different (P ≤ 0.05). Standard deviation bars represent one standard deviation from the mean and indicate differences between active and inactive J2 within a treatment.  
Effects of treatment with N- Viro Soil (NVS), calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH) 2 ], Streptomyces (S 99-60), or combinations of either NVS or Ca(OH) 2 + S 99-60 on root-knot nematode (RKN) egg populations from greenhouse-grown cantaloupe roots. Internal = number of eggs inside roots; external = number of eggs in the rhizosphere; total = external + internal eggs. Numbers are eggs/g root (1 g = 0.0353 oz). Within each egg category (internal, external, and total eggs per gram of root), values with the same letter were not signifi cantly different (P ≤ 0.01). Error bars represent SE.  
Article
The biosolid soil amendment N-Viro Soil (NVS) and a Streptomyces isolate (S 99-60) were tested for effects on root-knot nematode [RKN (Meloidogyne incognita)] egg populations on cantaloupe (Cucumis melo). Application of 3% NVS (dry weight amendment/dry weight soil) in the soil mixture resulted in significant (P less than or equal to 0.01) suppression of RKN egg numbers on cantaloupe roots compared to all other treatments, including 1% NVS and untreated controls. Ammonia accumulation was higher with the 3% NVS amendment than with any other treatment. Adjustment of soil pH with calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] to the same levels that resulted from NVS amendment did not suppress nematode populations. When cultured in yeast-malt extract broth and particularly in nutrient broth, S 99-60 was capable of producing a compound(s) that reduced RKN egg hatch and activity of second-stage juveniles. However, when this isolate was applied to soil and to seedling roots, no suppression of RKN egg populations was observed on cantaloupe roots. Combining S 99-60 with NVS or Ca(OH)2 did not result in enhanced nematode suppression compared to treatments applied individually. The results indicated that NVS application was effective at suppressing RKN populations through the accumulation of ammonia to levels lethal to the nematode in soil.
 
Effect of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and ethoxyquin treatments on superficial scald of 'Anjou'pears in the 2003 (A) and 2004 (B) harvest seasons. Fruit were untreated (solid) or treated (open) with 25 nL?L 21 (ppb) 1-MCP for 24 h immediately after harvest and then stored at ?1 ?C (30.2 ?F) for up to 5 months. Ethoxyquin drench [1000 mL?L 21 (ppm)] was applied after 1, 7, 30, or 60 d of cold storage or was not applied (nonethoxyquin). Superficial scald was evaluated after 3, 4, or 5 months of storage in air at 21 ?C followed by 7 d of shelf life at 20 ?C (68.0 ?F). Vertical lines represent standard deviation (three replicates). Within the same storage time (sampling day), vertical bars labeled with the same letter are not significantly different at P = 0.05 using Duncan's multiple range test.  
Article
Superficial scald of 'Anjou' pears (Pyrus communis) usually develops after cold storage of 3 months. Ethoxyquin has been used to control scald commercially. However, only a small amount of fruit can be treated within 7 days after harvest as recommended, and sometimes ethoxyquin causes phytotoxicity. Application of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) showed excellent scald control potential, with rapid and mass treatment feasible. However, fruit may lose normal ripening ability at a dosage of 1-MCP as low as 30 nL·L-1, whereas a dosage of <or= 20 nL·L-1 is not enough to control scald. In this investigation, 'Anjou' pears treated with 25 nL·L-1 1-MCP immediately after harvest were stored at -1 °C for up to 5 months. After 1, 7, 30, or 60 days of cold storage, part of the fruit were treated with 1000 μL·L-1 ethoxyquin and the remainder was left untreated as nonethoxyquin controls. The incidence of superficial scald, the concentrations of α-farnesene and its conjugated triene (CT) oxidation products, and the ripening ability of fruit were measured after 3-, 4-, and 5-month storages. All fruit ripened properly within 7 days of shelf life at 20 °C regardless of treatment. 1-MCP treatment at harvest or ethoxyquin alone applied within 7 days adequately controlled scald for only 3 months. By contrast, 1-MCP + ethoxyquin controlled scald for 5 months, regardless of when ethoxyquin was applied from 1 to 60 days after the start of cold storage. Thus, a combination of 25 nL·L-1 1-MCP, which is easily applied and does not influence ripening ability, and a delayed application (up to 60 days) of 1000 μL·L-1 ethoxyquin, which is a low dosage that does not cause phytotoxicity on fruit, controlled scald sufficiently. Scald is linked with accumulation of CT oxidation products of -farnesene. 1-MCP and ethoxyquin inhibited accumulation of CT in fruit peel by different mechanisms. 1-MCP inhibited the production by reducing α-farnesene synthesis and the oxidation to CT, whereas ethoxyquin worked by inhibiting the latter.
 
Article
The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential for use of container substrates composed of processed whole pine trees (WholeTree). Three species [loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), slash pine (Pinus elliottii), and longleaf pine (Pinus palustris)] of 8- to 10-year-old pine trees were harvested at ground level and the entire tree was chipped with a tree chipper. Chips from each tree species were processed with a hammer mill to pass through a 0.374-inch screen. On 29 June 2005 1-gal containers were filled with substrates, placed into full sun under overhead irrigation, and planted with a single liner (63.4 cm3) of 'Little Blanche' annual vinca (Catharanthus roseus). The test was repeated on 27 Aug. 2005 with 'Raspberry Red Cooler' annual vinca. Pine bark substrate had about 50% less air space and 32% greater water holding capacity than the other substrates. At 54 days after potting (DAP), shoot dry weights were 15% greater for plants grown in 100% pine bark substrate compared with plants grown in the three WholeTree substrates. However, there were no differences in plant growth indices for any substrate at 54 DAP. Plant tissue macronutrient content was similar among all substrates. Tissue micronutrient content was similar and within sufficiency ranges with the exception of manganese. Manganese was highest for substrates made from slash pine and loblolly pine. Root growth was similar among all treatments. Results from the second study were similar. Based on these results, WholeTree substrates derived from loblolly pine, slash pine, or longleaf pine have potential as an alternative, sustainable source for producing short-term horticultural crops.
 
Effects of pine bark-based and clean chip residual-based substrates on growth of 'Vista Purple' salvia at two locations.
Effects of pine bark-based and clean chip residual-based substrates on growth of 'Blue Hawaii' ageratum at two locations.
Tissue nutrient content of 'Blue Hawaii' ageratum grown in pine bark-based and clean chip residual-based substrates at two locations.
Article
A study was conducted at Auburn University in Auburn, AL, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, Southern Horticultural Laboratory in Poplarville, MS, to evaluate clean chip residual (CCR) as an alternative substrate component for annual bedding plant production. Clean chip residual used in this study was processed through a horizontal grinder with 4-inch screens at the site and was then processed again through a swinging hammer mill to pass a 3/4- or 1/2-inch screen. Two CCR particle sizes were used alone or blended with 10% (9:1) or 20% (4:1) peatmoss (PM) (by volume) and were compared with control treatments, pine bark (PB), and PB blends (10% and 20% PM). Three annual species, 'Blue Hawaii' ageratum (Ageratum houstonianum), 'Vista Purple' salvia (Salvia xsuperba), and 'Coral' or 'White' impatiens (Impatiens walleriana), were transplanted from 36-cell (12.0-inch3) flats into 1-gal containers, placed on elevated benches in a greenhouse, and hand watered as needed. Ageratum plants grown at Auburn had leaf chlorophyll content similar or greater than that of plants grown in PB. There were no differences in salvia; however, impatiens plants grown in PB substrates at Auburn had less leaf chlorophyll content than those grown in CCR. There were no differences in ageratum, salvia, or impatiens leaf chlorophyll content at Poplarville. There were no differences in growth indices (GI) or shoot dry weight (SDW) of ageratum, while the largest salvia was in PB:PM and the largest impatiens were in PB-based substrates at Auburn. The GI of ageratum at Poplarville was similar among treatments, but plants grown in 4:1 1/2-inch CCR:PM were the largest. Salvia was largest in 4:1 CCR:PM and PB:PM, and although there were no differences in GI for impatiens at Poplarville, the greatest SDW occurred with PB:PM. Foliar nutrient content analysis indicated elevated levels of manganese and zinc in treatments containing CCR at Auburn and PB at Poplarville. At the study termination, two of three annual species tested at both locations had very similar growth when compared with standard PB substrates. This study demonstrates that CCR is a viable alternative substrate in greenhouse production of ageratum, salvia, and impatiens in large containers.
 
Article
Hand thinning is a necessary but costly management practice in peach (Prunus persica) production. Organic apple (Malus xdomestica) production also may require hand thinning to adjust crop load. Mechanical devices to aid in thinning have been developed, but none has proven highly efficient and capable of completely replacing hand thinning. Narrow canopy training systems and novel peach tree growth habits offer new opportunities to examine mechanical methods for thinning peach and apple trees. Our studies evaluated mechanical thinning devices on peach and organically grown apple trees. In 2005 and 2006, a U.S Department of Agriculture-designed spiked-drum shaker was used to thin pillar (columnar) peach trees at 52 to 55 days after full bloom. The drum shaker, driven at two different speeds in the orchard, reduced crop load an average of 58% and follow-up hand thinning time by 50%, and increased fruit size by 9% at harvest compared with conventional hand-thinned or nonthinned control trees in 2005. In 2006, the shaker was driven at one speed but operated at two different frequencies. At 260 cycles/minute, the drum shaker removed more fruit and reduced crop load to a greater extent than when operated at 180 cycles/minute, however, fruit size at harvest did not differ between the two operating frequencies. The drum shaker reduced follow-up hand thinning time between 54% and 81%. Horticultural and economic evaluations of the drum shaker and/or a German-designed blossom string thinner were conducted in 2007 in four commercial peach orchards trained to a perpendicular V or quad V system and an organic apple block trained to a narrow vertical axis system. Mechanical thinners reduced peach crop load by an average of 36%, decreased follow-up hand thinning time by 20% to 42%, and increased fruit in higher market value size categories by 35%. The net economic impact of mechanical thinning versus hand thinning alone ranged from $175/ha to $1966/ha. Mechanical thinning at 20% full bloom resulted in more fruit in the large size categories (2.75 inches in diameter and larger) than thinning at 80% full bloom. Detailed counts of flowers on branches with different orientations indicated that pruning may be adjusted to improve thinner performance. The string thinner effectively thinned dwarf apple trees trained to a vertical axis system in a certified organic orchard, resulting in a reduction in hand thinning time and an increase in fruit size. Based on our tests, mechanical thinning appears to be a promising technique for supplementing hand thinning in apple and peach trees.
 
Article
Codling moth Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), found in exported apples (Malus sylvestris), can disrupt international markets. Cold storage at 1.1 degrees C was examined for possible control of three physiological larval states in 'Fuji' apples: diapausing (overwintering), diapause-destined, and nondiapausing. All nondiapausing larvae were dead within 12 weeks, diapaused-destined larvae were controlled by the seventh week, yet more than half of the original populations of diapausing larvae were still alive after 11 weeks. Because the diapaused-destined larvae were younger than the nondiapausing larvae, they may have been more susceptible to cold. Because larvae normally diapause outside the fruit, cold storage would not be applicable for controlling larvae in this state.
 
Article
Experiments were conducted over several years to distinguish symptoms of sodium hypochlorite- or calcium hypochlorite-induced peel injury from other superficial maladies on 'Gala' and 'Golden Delicious' apples (Malus domestica), and to evaluate factors implicated in injury incidence and severity. 'Royal Gala' apples treated by dipping in freshly prepared aqueous sodium hypochlorite for 10 min showed moderate peel injury at the lowest treatment concentration of 150 mg·L-1 when treated immediately after harvest, whereas no injury was observed on fruit treated at even the highest concentration of 2400 mg·L-1 when fruit were kept at -1 °C for 3 months before treatment. At lower rates, rinsing fruit after treatment reduced injury on fruit dipped for 2 min, whereas after a 10-minute treatment, rinsing had no effect. Warm fruit (field heat) generally had a higher incidence of peel injury compared with fruit placed at -1 °C for 24 h before treatment. When 'Golden Delicious' apples were treated by dipping for 2 min in freshly prepared aqueous solutions of sodium hypochlorite or calcium hypochlorite at an equimolar hypochlorite ion concentration of 0.008 M (600 mg·L-1 sodium hypochlorite), treatment temperature had a greater influence on incidence of peel injury with sodium hypochlorite than with calcium hypochlorite. Analysis of nonpolar solvent-extractable epicuticular waxes indicated differences due to treatment among several extracted compounds. Microscopic examination of injured peel tissue indicated altered appearance of wax platelets.
 
Article
Lenticel breakdown disorder (LB), most prevalent on 'Gala' (Malus x domestica) apples, especially in arid regions, has also been observed on other common cultivars. Depending on the preharvest environment, fruit maturity, and length of storage, LB usually appears as one or more round, darkened pits, centered on a lenticel, ranging in diameter from 1 to 8 mm. Symptoms are not visible at harvest nor are they usually apparent on unprocessed fruit after storage. However, following typical fruit processing and packing, symptoms are fully expressed after 12 to 48 h. Because the 3 to 4 weeks preceding 'Gala' harvest are usually the hottest and least humid, we theorized that desiccation stress was a main causative factor. Thus, several unique lipophilic formulations were developed that might reduce desiccation potential during this period of hot arid weather and rapid fruit enlargement. Emulsions of lipophilic formulations were applied to whole trees at various dosages and timings. In 2005, using a single handgun application 1 day before harvest, the best treatment reduced LB by about 20% in fruit stored 90 days at -1 °C. The following season, the best treatment from a single handgun application 7 days before harvest reduced LB by 35% after 90 days at -1 °C, whereas 3 weekly applications beginning 3 weeks before harvest reduced LB in similarly stored fruit by as much as 70%. In 2007, the best single treatment applied 1 week before harvest using a commercial airblast sprayer reduced LB by almost 50% after 90 days at -1 °C.
 
Article
A study was conducted to determine whether nitrogen (N) application rate and fertilizer form are related to cold tolerance of buds and stems using container-grown ‘Summit’ green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) trees. Trees were grown with different rates of N from either urea formaldehyde (UF) or a controlled-release fertilizer (CRF) containing ammonium nitrate during the 2006 growing season; and growth, N and carbon (C) composition, and cold tolerance were evaluated in Oct. 2006, Dec. 2006, and Feb. 2007 by assessing the lowest survival temperature (LST) of stem and bud tissues on current season (2006) stems. Both fertilizer type and rate influenced the bud and stem LSTs. The influence of fertilizer rate was most evident on midwinter (December) stem LSTs and the influence of fertilizer type was observed in bud and stem LSTs during the deacclimation period in February. Higher LSTs were associated with higher N concentrations and lower C/N ratios; however, stems and buds of trees fertilized with UF were more cold-tolerant (had lower LSTs) than stems and buds on trees fertilized with CRF. Fertilizer type resulted in several differences in N and C translocation and metabolism during the fall and winter. Our results indicate trees with a similar N status are able to withstand different levels of cold depending on the rate of N and the type or form of fertilizer used during production. This may have to do with differences in how trees metabolize the different fertilizer forms, where and when the N is stored, and how it is remobilized in the spring, especially in relation to C metabolism.
 
Article
A study was conducted to determine whether the nitrogen (N) status of nursery-grown green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica 'Summit') trees in the autumn is related to bud necrosis during the following spring. In 2005, different rates of N from urea formaldehyde (UF) or a controlled-release fertilizer (CRF) containing ammonium nitrate were applied during the growing season to green ash trees and leaves were sprayed or not with urea in the autumn. Biomass and N content was determined in Autumn 2005 and Spring 2006, and stem biomass and bud necrosis were evaluated for necrosis in Spring 2006. Trees with low N content in Autumn 2005 grew less in Spring 2006 but bud necrosis was more prevalent on trees grown at the highest N rate. Compared with trees grown with a similar amount of N from UF, growing trees with CRF altered N allocation in 2005 and the relationship between carbon (C) and N dynamics (import, export, and metabolism) in stems in 2006. Additionally, trees grown with CRF had less total shoot biomass in Spring 2006 and more bud failure than trees grown with a similar N rate from UF. Significant relationships between bud failure and N status and C/N ratios in different tissues suggest that a combination of tree N status and the balance between N and C in certain tissues plays a role in the occurrence of bud failure of green ash trees in the spring.
 
Article
The asian citrus psyllid [Diaphorina citri (Sternorrhyncha: Psyllidae)] is a detrimental pest to citrus (Citrus spp.) crops when it serves as a vector of the pathogen that causes greening (huanglongbing). Transmission of this disease causes mottling, chlorosis, dieback, and reductions in fruit size and quality. Citrus producers have found that many pesticides, when applied properly, are very effective at suppressing or eliminating asian citrus psyllids in groves. Due to the threat of greening, several pesticides have been granted Special Local Needs registration for use in the state of Florida if the product is sprayed with a volume median diameter of 90 µm or greater. A number of studies involving numerous citrus sprayers and a.i. were conducted to determine the droplet sizes generated by different sprayers operating under user-established settings and the adjustments required to those settings for the sprayers to meet the 90-µm requirement. In the sprayer tests, it was found that reductions in engine speed or increases in flow rate were required to increase droplet sizes to meet the product label-required droplet size. As the equipment tested here represent the most typical application equipment used in Florida for asian citrus psyllid control, these results will provide applicators, growers, and extension agents with general guidelines to ensure that spray systems are operated in a manner that complies with label restrictions.
 
Article
Mechanical harvesting systems for processed blueberries (Vaccinium spp.) are available. However, low harvest efficiency and high fruit damage have limited the use of mechanical harvesters for picking blueberries for fresh market to specific cultivars under good weather conditions. New harvesting technology for fresh-market blueberries is needed. The V45 harvester was developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture in 1994 to harvest fresh-market-quality northern highbush (V. corymbosum) blueberries in Michigan. The current study was performed in Georgia to evaluate the V45 harvester on specially pruned rabbiteye blueberry [V. virgatum (syn. V. ashei)] and southern highbush blueberry (V. darrowi x V. corymbosum) and included analysis of harvest efficiency and fruit quality (percent blue fruit, percent bloom, percent split skin, and internal bruise damage). Six-year-old, 6- to 8-ft-tall 'Brightwell' and 'Powderblue' rabbiteye blueberry plants were winter pruned to remove vertically growing and overarching canes in the center of the bush in Jan. 2004 and Feb. 2005 respectively. Three-year-old, 3- to 5-ft-tall 'FL 86-19' and 'Star' southern highbush blueberry plants were similarly pruned in summer (June 2004) or in winter (Feb. 2005). Pruning removed an estimated 30% to 50% of the canopy and opened the middle, resulting in V-shaped plants in both rabbiteye and southern highbush blueberries. Yield of winter-pruned 'Brightwell' rabbiteye blueberry was lower compared with unpruned plants during both years, but winter-pruned 'Powderblue' rabbiteye blueberry plants produced as much as unpruned plants in 2005. In 'FL 86-19' southern highbush blueberry, plants that were summer pruned in June 2004 produced as much as unpruned plants in 2005, but plants that were winter pruned in Feb. 2005 had lower yields than unpruned plants in 2005. The V45 harvester caused little cane damage on pruned blueberry plants. In rabbiteye blueberries, internal fruit damage and skin splitting was less in V45-harvested fruit than in fruit harvested by a sway harvester and nearly that of hand-harvested fruit. However, in 'FL 86-19' southern highbush blueberry, the V45 harvester detached a lower percentage of blue fruit and excessive amounts of immature and stemmed fruit. These findings suggest that the V45 harvester has the potential to harvest some rabbiteye blueberry cultivars mechanically with fruit quality approaching that of hand-harvested fruit.
 
Article
Orange-fleshed honey dew (Cucumis melo L., Inodorus group) fruit are known for having superior food-safety, food-quality, and fruit-marketability attributes compared with orange-fleshed netted muskmelon (C. melo, Reticulatus group) and to green-fleshed honey dew (C. melo, Inodorus group) fruit. However, little is known about the production market attributes and postharvest quality comparisons of the leading orange-fleshed honey dew cultivars. Five orange-fleshed honey dew genotypes ('Honey Gold', 'Orange Delight', 'Orange Dew', 'Temptation', and a breeding line) were glasshouse-grown in both fall and spring, harvested at abscission (full-slip), and compared after storage for 3-24 days in air at 5 or 10°C. Fruit maturity (full-slip) was between 31 and 38 days after anthesis, with maturation dependent on genotype. Days to maturity were slightly longer in the fall than in the spring. Fruit size (number of fruit per standard commercial shipping box) was between four and six fruit per box. 'Orange Dew' consistently had the smallest fruit (six per box), and the breeding line had the largest (four per box). 'Orange Delight' and 'Orange Dew' had the fewest whole-fruit disorders and the highest percentage of marketable fruit at harvest and following 24 days of storage at 5 or 10°C. 'Orange Delight', 'Orange Dew', and the breeding line consistently had a more yellow peel, whereas 'Honey Gold' and 'Temptation' fruit peels had a more greenish hue. Whole-fruit firmness was 10-25 N among the cultivars and 24-35 N for the breeding line. Internal-fruit disorders, percentage marketability, and mesocarp (pulp) firmness reflected each genotype's whole-fruit attributes. 'Orange Delight' and 'Orange Dew' fruit consistently had among the highest soluble solids concentration and relative sweetness ratings, and their pulp had a more intense orange hue and lower lightness than those of the other genotypes. After 24 days of storage, 'Orange Delight' and 'Orange Dew' maintained their higher sweetness and more orange hue in both spring and fall harvests; however, depending on harvest, they were not always significantly sweeter or more orange-hued than some of the other genotypes. Our results indicate that orange-fleshed honey dew fruit are a promising new melon type suitable as a substitute for orange-fleshed netted muskmelon fruit not only for food-safety issues but also for overall marketable quality.
 
Article
Single broadcast application of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) on the soil surface results in low use efficiency of applied N and P in pear (Pyrus communis) production systems in Oregon and the Pacific northwestern United States. A field experiment was conducted from 2005 through 2006 to evaluate the effects of split fertigation and band placement as alternate N and P management practices in 'Anjou' pears growing on a Parkdale loam soil near Parkdale, OR. Measurement and analysis of tree nutrition, fruit yield, quality, and storability, as well as indigenous soil nutrient supply was the scope of the experiment. To evaluate fertilizer management practices on pear growth and productivity, the following four treatments were tested with a randomized complete block design replicated four times: 1) broadcast application of N and P on the soil surface in a 10-ft-wide, weed-free strip centered on the tree row, 2) band placement of N and P on both sides of tree rows in 1 x 1-ft ditches (width x depth), 3) 1 x 1-ft ditches were dug using the band placement equipment, the dug soil was completed returned to the ditch without any fertilizer, and the broadcast application of N and P on the soil surface was applied on a 10-ft-wide, weed-free strip centered on the tree row, and 4) fertigation of N and P split into five equal applications throughout the growing season. Nitrogen and P fertilizers were applied to treatments 1, 2, and 3 at 100 lb/acre N and 55 lb/acre P, while treatment 4 received only 80 lb/acre N and 44 lb/acre P. The 2-year average results show leaf N and P concentrations in the fall were increased by 10.0% and 10.6%, respectively, with split fertigation compared with broadcast application on the soil surface. Band placement increased leaf N by 7.1% relative to broadcast application on the soil surface with soil disturbance caused by band placement. Split fertigation and band placement slightly increased fruit yield, but increased marketable fruit (the total of excellent and very slightly scalded fruit) by 20.9% and 11.1% (absolute value) when compared with broadcast application of N and P and broadcast application of N and P with soil disturbance caused by band placement, respectively, and after 3 months of cold storage. No detrimental effects on fruit weight or reduction in soil amino sugar N were observed from lowering the N and P application rates by 20% with split fertigation. Overall, split fertigation and band placement of N and P can be used to replace single broadcast application on the soil surface on pear orchards to reduce fruit superficial scald during cold storage and improve the use efficiency of applied N and P in the mid-Columbia region of Oregon.
 
Worldwide cultivated blackberry area in 1995, 2005, and 2015 (projected); 1 ha = 2.4711 acres.
Worldwide area and production of blackberries, 2005.
Worldwide cultivated blackberry production in 2005; 1 Mg = 1.1023 ton.
Production of blackberries, in the United States in 2005, by state.
Article
A survey of worldwide blackberry (Rubus spp.) production was conducted in 2005. Results indicated there were an estimated 20,035 ha of blackberries planted and commercially cultivated worldwide, a 45% increase from 1995. Wild blackberries still make a significant contribution to worldwide production, with 8000 ha and 13,460 Mg harvested in 2004. There were 7692 ha of commercially cultivated blackberries in Europe, 7159 ha in North America, 1640 ha in Central America, 1597 ha in South America, 297 ha in Oceania, and 100 ha in Africa. Worldwide production of cultivated blackberries was 140,292 Mg in 2005. Of the blackberry area worldwide, 50% was planted to semierect cultivars, 25% to erect, and 25% to trailing types. 'Thornfree', 'Loch Ness', and 'Chester Thornless' were the most important semierect types, and 'Brazos' and 'Marion' the most common erect and trailing types, respectively. In general, erect and semierect cultivars are grown for fresh market and trailing cultivars for processing. Fresh fruit are usually picked into the final container in the field, whereas 75% of trailing blackberries for processing are picked by machine. Common production problems are reported. Production systems for field-grown blackberry differ with type grown and region. For example, in Mexico, production systems are modified to extend the production season for 'Tupy' and other erect-type cultivars from mid-October to June. Organic blackberry production is expected to increase from the 2528 ha planted in 2005. An estimated 315 ha of blackberries were grown under tunnels, mainly to protect against adverse weather and target high-priced markets. Based on this survey, there may be 27,032 ha of commercial blackberries planted worldwide in 2015, not including production from harvested wild plants.
 
Article
Winter injury has limited the expansion of commercial blackberry (Genus Rubus, subgenus Rubus) production into more northern latitudes in central and eastern United States. Rowcover (RC) was applied over trailing 'Boysenberry' and 'Siskiyou' and erect, thornless 'Triple Crown' and 'Apache' blackberries at Kearneysville, WV (lat. 39.5°N, USDA Plant Hardiness Zone 6b) from 2004 to 2007. The daily minimum temperatures under RC were as much as 5 °F to 10 °F higher at nights after sunny days, but were similar during nights after overcast days. On sunny days, daily maximum temperatures under RC were as much as 28 °F higher than in the open. Under RC, humidity rose more quickly and remained higher during the day than in the open, but was slightly lower at night. Mean vapor pressure deficit in late December, January, February, and early March was 100 to 250 kPa higher under RC than in the open. RC treatment significantly reduced winter injury and increased yield in 'Siskiyou' blackberry plants. The winter protection techniques described here would provide substantial benefits for growing blackberries in more northern areas where winter injury frequently causes crop failure.
 
Nontimber forest product plantings [40 acres (16.2 ha)] at the University of Nebraska Agricultural Research and Development Center Agroforestry facility in southeastern Nebraska, Mar. 2001.  
Morphological features and incidence of deer damage on tree and shrub species planted in a 40-acre (16.2 ha) alley cropping system in southeastern Nebraska in Mar. 2001.
Article
Nontimber forest products (food, herbal medicinals, and woody floral and handicraft products) produced in forest, agroforestry, and horticultural systems can be important sources of income to landowners. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) can reduce the quality, quantity, and profitability of forest products by browsing twigs and rubbing stems, resulting in direct and indirect losses to production enterprises. We evaluated deer damage (frequency and intensity of browsing and rubbing) sustained by 26 species of trees and shrubs, the relationships among morphological features of trees and shrubs to damage levels, and the economic impacts of deer damage on the production of nontimber forest products. Levels of browsing were high (frequency >93% and intensity >50%) in most species of trees and shrubs, with the highest intensity (>60%) occurring in chinese chestnut (Castanea mollisima) and dogwood (Cornus spp.), and the lowest (<20%) in ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), curly willow (Salix matsudana), 'Scarlet Curls' curly willow, smooth sumac (Rhus glabra), and pussy willow (Salix caprea). Species of trees or shrubs with one or a few stout stems unprotected by dense branching [e.g., american elderberry (Sambucus canadensis), smooth sumac, and curly willow] sustained the most damage by rubbing. Trees and shrubs with many small diameter stems or with dense tangled branching [e.g. redozier dogwood (Cornus sericea), forsythia (Forsythia suspensa), 'Flame' willow (Salix alba), and 'Streamco' basket willow (Salix purpurea)] were damaged the least by rubbing. Annual economic costs of deer damage to producers of nontimber forest products can range from $26/acre for pussy willow to $1595/acre for curly willow.
 
Article
The marketing of onions (Allium cepa L.) based on bulb pungency as a measure of overall flavor intensity is being considered by the onion industry. Pungency is highly variable within and among fields due to genetic and environmental factors. Therefore, a study was undertaken to develop a sampling procedure to estimate onion pungency means and variances from field-grown onions with predetermined degrees of accuracy and confidence. Two shortday onion cultivars, commonly grown in the Vidalia, Ga., area, were each randomly sampled from four different fields. The sampled bulbs were analyzed for enzymatically formed pyruvic acid (EPY) and soluble solids content (SSC) to assess pungency and sugars, respectively. EPY concentration and SSC varied between the two cultivars, among the four fields within cultivars, and among the fifty samples within each field. In a combined analysis of all eight fields, at least 1.3 ten-bulb samples would be needed per acre to come within ±0.5 µmol EPY of a field's true EPY mean with 95% confidence. If the accuracy of the estimation was lowered to ±1.0 µmol EPY of a field's true mean, then at least 0.4 ten-bulb samples would be needed per acre. Because SSC was less variable than EPY, the number of ten-bulb samples needed per acre to estimate a field's true mean was lower than the number required to estimate EPY. Establishing a sampling method to estimate an onion field's EPY and SSC will provide the mechanism to standardize onion flavor in the market place and instill greater consumer confidence in purchasing onions.
 
Article
Greenhouses are used in many climates for season extension or year-round production and can be expensive to heat. Greenhouse users and growers are often faced with management decisions that rely on an understanding of how temperature settings, heating systems, fuel types, and construction decisions influence overall heating costs. There are no easy-to-use programs to calculate heating costs associated with these factors over full cropping seasons. A computer program called Virtual Grower was created that helps calculate heating costs at many U.S. sites. The program uses a weather database of typical hourly temperature, light, and wind information of 230 sites from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in the calculations. A user can define unique design characteristics such as building material and construction style. The user also defines the type of heating system and heating schedule, and then the program will predict heating costs based on typical weather at the selected location. Shorter-term predictions with weather forecasts of 2 days or less can be made with the software if there is an internet connection through integration with local weather forecasts. Virtual Grower can serve as a platform from which many other features can be added, such as plant growth and scheduling. Continued development will improve the software and allow users to perform baseline analysis of their heating costs, identify areas in their production to improve efficiency, and take some of the guesswork out of energy analysis in unique greenhouses.
 
(A-D) Normal, well-proportioned bacopa (Sutera cordata) in a hanging pouch (A); bottom-heavy impatiens (Impatiens wallerana) grown with stunted top plants (B); fuschia (Fuschia ·hybrida) with lower plants stunted, likely from water stress (C); and begonia (Begonia ·semperflorens) plants showing similar stunting in the lower plants (D).
(A-F) Average dry weight (A-C) and flower number (D-F) of calibrachoa for each plant row in the hanging pouch, grouped in single-mix (A and D), polymeramended (B and E), and layered treatments (C and F). Control mix is a 70% peatto-30% perlite mixture, whereas porous and compost mixes are commercial blends of peat and perlite with or without vermiculite and compost. For the polymeramended treatments, the labels 16.6% and 28.8% indicate a mixture of 58.4% peat, 25% perlite, and 16.6% hydrophilic polymer or 49.8% peat, 21.4% perlite, and 28.8% hydrophilic polymer (by volume). The layered treatment values indicate the amount of peat in each layer with the remainder made of perlite or a layering of the two commercial mixes. Error bars are ±1 SE. 1 g = 0.0353 oz.
(A–I) Volumetric moisture content (measured as a percentage) during one wet-to-dry cycle, measured at three locations along the length of the pouch (top, middle, and bottom) in the single-mix (A–C), polymer-amended (D–F), and layered treatments (G–I) during calibrachoa growth. Control mix is a 70% peat-to-30% perlite mixture, whereas porous and compost mixes are commercial blends of peat and perlite with or without vermiculite and compost. For the polymer-amended treatments, the labels 16.6% and 28.8% indicate a mixture of 58.4% peat, 25% perlite, and 16.6% hydrophilic polymer or 49.8% peat, 21.4% perlite, and 28.8% hydrophilic polymer (by volume). The layered treatment values indicate the amount of peat in each layer with the remainder made of perlite or a layering of the two commercial mixes. Error bars are ±1 SE.  
(A-C) Substrate shrinkage or settling from the top of the pouch opening of hanging pouches after 4 weeks of calibrachoa growth of singlemix (A), polymer-amended (B), and layered treatments (C). Control mix is a 70% peat-to-30% perlite mixture, whereas porous and compost mixes are commercial blends of peat and perlite with or without vermiculite and compost. For the polymer-amended treatments, the labels 16.6% and 28.8% indicate a mixture of 58.4% peat, 25% perlite, and 16.6% hydrophilic polymer or 49.8% peat, 21.4% perlite, and 28.8% hydrophilic polymer (by volume). The layered treatment values indicate the amount of peat in each layer with the remainder made of perlite or a layering of the two commercial mixes. In the layered treatments, a slash (/) indicates a layer separation. Error bars are ± 1 SE. 1 cm = 0.3937 inch.
Article
ADDITIONAL INDEX WORDS.floriculture, container geometry, substrate, potting mix, SPAD, chlorophyll content, hydrogel, water distribution, chlorosis, Calibrachoa ·hybrida SUMMARY. Unique growing containers and nontraditional types of plant presentation may lead to new production problems for growers. This study was conducted to evaluate the growth of a popular container plant, calibrachoa (Calibrachoa ·hybrida), produced in hanging flower pouches using different growing substrate compositions, polymer amendments, and the layering of sub- strate types of differing moisture holding capacity with the goal of achieving more uniform plant growth and improved after-sale maintenance. Plastic cylindrical hanging pouches were filled with one of nine hydrated substrate types or combinations. Rooted cuttings of 'Colorburst Violet' calibrachoa were planted as indicator plants to identify treatment effects because of their susceptibility to iron deficiency-induced chlorosis of new leaves. Daily measurements of substrate moisture were taken to determine the need for irrigation. Chlorophyll content was estimated nondestructively with a hand-held chlorophyll meter to determine the impact of moisture content. Light, porous substrates resulted in the most uniformly green plants and high numbers offlowers from top to bottom. A layered pouch with heavy, compost-amended substrate above a light, porous layer also produced high-quality, uniform plants. This enabled water to be distributed more uniformly throughout the container volume. This study provides fundamental information on how container geometry and soil moisture retention can influence water management decisions by the grower.
 
Article
Two strains of the fungus Verticillium lecanii (A. Zimmermann) Viegas were studied as potential biocontrol agents for root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood) on cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L.). For the study, pots were filled with soil that had been inoculated with M. incognita (inoculum was applied at two levels: 1000 and 5000 eggs/pot). Each fungus strain was applied individually by pouring an aqueous suspension (made from a wettable granule formulation) into the inoculated soil. Controls received water only. One cantaloupe seedling was then transplanted into each pot. Plants were grown for 55 days in the greenhouse, and then harvested and assessed for root and shoot growth and for nematode egg production. In pots inoculated with 1000 eggs/plant, neither fungus strain affected nematode egg numbers. At the 5000 eggs/plant inoculum level, both strains of the fungus suppressed egg numbers (counts were 28% and 31% less than water controls). Neither strain of V. lecanii affected the number of eggs embedded in root galls; the fungus suppressed nematode population numbers overall solely by affecting the number of eggs located outside of root tissues. Both fungus strains were also autoclaved and then applied to soil, to test for effects of nonviable fungus. In pots inoculated with 5000 eggs, application of one autoclaved strain resulted in a 35% suppression in egg numbers after 55 days, suggesting that the fungus produced a heat-stable substance deleterious to the nematode.
 
Article
A continuous CO2 flow system was used to study the growth of carrot (Daucus carota L.), citrus (Citrus macrophylla L.), kale (Brassica oleracea L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), radish (Raphanus sativus L.), and tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum L.) cultures in vitro under photoautotrophic, photomixotrophic, and heterotrophic conditions. Lettuce plantlets were grown on Murashige and Skoog medium with 0%, 0.3%, 1%, and 3% sucrose within flow chambers containing 350, 750, 1500, 3000, 10,000, 50,000, and 50,000 pμL · L-1 CO2. Increasing the levels of CO2, especially at the ultra-high levels (i.e.≤3,000 μL · L-1 CO2), increased fresh weight, shoot length, leaf number, leaf length, leaf width, root number, and root length for plantlets grown regardless of sucrose levels tested compared to plantlets grown at normal atmospheric CO2 levels, i.e., 350 μL · L-1. For example, fresh weights of lettuce plantlets grown on medium containing 0% or 3% sucrose increased 11- and 15-fold, respectively, when supplemented with 30,000 μL · L-1 CO2 compared to growth of lettuce plantlets grown on the same media without CO2 enrichment. Similar fold increases in growth responses were obtained with carrot, citrus, kale, radish, and tomato plantlets grown in atmospheres enriched with high CO2 levels, elevated from 3000 to 30,000 μL · L-1. Optimum CO2 concentration varied among species, suggesting a species-related response. Varying the rate of CO2 application between 250, 500, 1500, or 2000 mL · min-1 did not effect the rate of growth of lettuce plantlets. The passive diffusion continuous flow-through system presented in this paper is inexpensive, easily constructed, and allows for testing ultra-high CO2 levels on plant culture growth in vitro.
 
Article
Enrichment of surface water with nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) is a significant problem throughout the world. In support of developing a method for removing NO3-N from water using denitrification, this project characterized runoff events at two nurseries in southern Florida to provide information needed for designing capacity. Specifically, estimates of runoff rates and volumes, NO3-N concentrations and loadings were profiled during intensively sampled fertigation events at a foliage plant nursery and a bedding plant nursery. Discharge volumes and rates varied with event, ranging from 2,487 to 20,935 L and 59.2 to 126 L·min–1, respectively, per event. NO3-N concentrations ranged from 0.7 to 386.4 mg·L–1, and event loadings ranged from 51 to 3024 g, indicating that significant losses may be realized. This project provided valuable hydraulic and chemical loading information needed for the development and design of bioremediation tools for the horticultural industry.
 
Article
Flower induction of longan (Dimocarpus longan) with potassium chlorate has improved the availability of longan fruit, but potassium chlorate is potentially explosive and often difficult to purchase, transport, and store. Previous reports suggested that hypochlorite enhances natural longan flower induction. This study is the first to demonstrate that chlorite- and hypochlorite- (bleach) induced off-season longan flowering is similar to chlorate-treated trees. Hypochlorite induction of flowering with bleach was likely the result of chlorate in the bleach solution. Chlorate was present in the leachate from potted longan trees treated with bleach and was detected in bleach before soil application. The quantity of chlorate found in bleach induced flowering to the same or greater extent as equivalent quantities of potassium chlorate, suggesting chlorate is an a.i. responsible for longan flowering.
 
Effects of various clove oil concentrations and soil application times (D = number of days that clove oil was applied before transplant) on (A) cucumber and (B) muskmelon shoot heights (1 cm = 0.3937 inch) and fresh weights (1 g = 0.0353 oz). Seedlings at the one-leaf stage were transplanted into soil that had been drenched with clove oil or a water control at transplant (0 d), or treated 2, 5, or 7 d before transplant. Seedlings were harvested after 8 d. Values for shoot height or fresh weight followed by the same letter are not significantly different at a = 0.05. 
Effects of various clove oil concentrations and soil application times (D = number of days that clove oil was applied before transplant) on (A) pepper and (B) tomato shoot heights (1 cm = 0.3937 inch) and fresh weights (1 g = 0.0353 oz). Seedlings at the one-leaf stage were transplanted into soil that had been drenched with clove oil or a water control at transplant (0 d), or treated 2, 5, or 7 d before transplant. Seedlings were harvested after 8 d. Values for shoot height or fresh weight followed by the same letter are not significantly different at a = 0.05. 
Article
Clove oil derived from the clove plant [Syzygium aromaticum (=Eugenia caryophyllata)] is active against various soil-borne plant pathogens and therefore has potential for use as a bio-based pesticide. A clove oil formulation previously found to be toxic to the southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in laboratory assays was investigated in greenhouse studies for nematode suppression and phytotoxicity on vegetable crops. Phytotoxicity studies were conducted with 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.3% clove oil applied to soil 0, 2, 5, and 7 days before transplant of cucumber (Cucumis sativus), muskmelon (Cucumis melo), pepper (Capsicum annuum), and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) seedlings. Tomato seedlings were the most sensitive to clove oil. The 0.2% and 0.3% clove oil concentrations applied as drenches at transplant (0 day) were the most phytotoxic to seedlings of all the tested vegetable species, with only 0% to 50% seedling survival. Most of the clove oil concentrations applied as drenches at transplant decreased shoot heights and fresh shoot weights of all seedlings. Some applications of clove oil at 0.2% and 0.3%, applied 2, 5, or 7 days before transplant also significantly reduced shoot growth, especially of pepper and tomato. Greenhouse experiments evaluating suppression of nematode populations on cucumber were conducted with 0.10%, 0.15%, and 0.20% clove oil applied 7 days before transplant. Overall, plants inoculated with nematodes tended to have smaller shoots and heavier roots than plants without nematodes. Effects of clove oil treatments on nematode population densities were inconsistent between the two trials. In Trial 1, 0.10% and 0.15% clove oil decreased population densities compared with the carrier control. In Trial 2, nematode population densities were lowest in the water and carrier control treatments. The results indicate that, with the tested clove oil formulation and application times, southern root-knot nematode populations would not be consistently reduced with clove oil concentrations that were not phytotoxic to one or more of the tested vegetable crops.
 
Worldwide distribution of codling moth (CM) hosts (dark gray and wavy shading) and verified reports (dark gray) of CM distribution. The countries highlighted in wavy shading are those reporting the presence of CM hosts but no verified reports of the pest. The report of CM in Peru (light gray) is the only unrefuted report of CM in the world at that latitude (after Shel'deshova, 1967).
Article
Phytosanitary restrictions are increasingly a factor in the ability of U.S. tree fruit exporters to gain and maintain access to worldwide markets. Under international trade rules, these restrictions must be based on specific guidelines, including an assessment of whether the proposed quarantine pest is likely to establish and spread under the climatic conditions of the importing country. Given the interest in and growth of temperate fruit production in the tropics, countries in the region (such as Taiwan, Columbia, Indonesia, and Thailand) have begun to impose a range of quarantine restrictions aimed at preventing the introduction of temperate zone pests. Apples (Malus xdomestica) are regulated in certain tropical/subtropical countries, such as Taiwan, for the presence of codling moth (CM; Cydia pomonella) in spite of reports in the literature that the distribution of CM is theoretically limited by daylength and chilling requirements to temperate regions. This work provides background as to why CM has been identified as a potential pest of quarantine concern in some low latitude countries; describes an approach used to validate worldwide CM distribution reports, providing additional information to allow for the revision of CM distribution maps; and demonstrates how accurate information regarding pest species distribution reports can aid in establishing an argument of ecological nonadaptability in the pest risk analysis process. Currently, a report of CM in Peru remains the only account of this pest's presence in low latitude countries that could not be refuted by the approach described here.
 
Article
Ninety-three species, cultivars, and hybrid selections of rockrose (Cistus spp., Halimium spp., and xHalimiocistus spp.) were evaluated for growth, flowering, and cold hardiness in a landscape trial in Aurora, OR, from 2004 to 2009. Plants were irrigated to aid establishment when planted in summer 2004, but thereafter were not watered, fertilized, or pruned throughout the trial. Cold damage was recorded following freezing events in Feb. 2006 and Dec. 2008 in which low temperatures were 20 and 17 °F, respectively. Those plants that consistently suffered the most cold damage were Halimium atriplicifolium, Cistus creticus ssp. creticus ‘Tania Compton’, Cistus xpauranthus, and Cistus albidus forma albus. Other plants showed cold damage related to poor vigor. The length of the flowering period and foliage quality varied widely among plants in the evaluation. The plants with the longest flowering period were Halimium xpauanum, Cistus inflatus, Cistus xpulverulentus ‘Sunset’, and xHalimiocistus ‘Ingwersenii’, all of which flowered for more than 55 days. Plant form and foliage quality declined drastically for some plants during the evaluation. Those that retained the best foliage quality included Cistus xobtusifolius, Cistus xlaxus, Cistus salviifolius ‘Gold Star’, Cistus ‘Gordon Cooper’, Halimium lasianthum ‘Sandling’, Halimium ‘Susan’, and xHalimiocistus sahucii. Based on ratings of foliage and bloom time, as well as hardiness, several Cistus are recommended as drought-tolerant groundcovers, including Cistus xgardianus and C. xobtusifolius. Cistus xlaxus, C. inflatus, Cistus ‘Gordon Cooper’, Cistus ‘Ruby Cluster’, and Cistus ‘Snow Fire’ are suggested as tall groundcovers or landscape specimens. Several Halimium are recommended for landscape use, including H. lasianthum ‘Sandling’, Halimium ‘Susan’, H. xpauanum, and xHalimiocistus ‘Ingwersenii’.
 
Temperature reading for 30 May through 15 June 2003, the time period when row covers were present, for okra grown under black plastic mulch with and without row covers and bare soil. (A) Air temperature recorded 5 inches (12.7 cm) above each plot. (B) Soil temperature recorded 4 inches (10.2 cm) below soil surface in each plot; (1.8 · ° C) + 32 = ° F. 
Temperature reading for 20 May through 7 June 2004, the time period when row covers were present, for okra grown under black plastic mulch with and without row cover and bare soil. (A) Air temperature recorded 5 inches (12.7 cm) above each plot. (B) Soil temperature recorded 4 inches (10.2 cm) below the soil surface in each plot; (1.8 · ° C) + 32 = ° F. 
Effect of row cover and plastic mulch color on early and total okra yield for marketable, cull, and the combined total of marketable plus cull fruit in 2003 at Shorter, AL.
Effect of row cover and plastic mulch color on early and total okra yield for marketable, cull, and the combined total of marketable plus cull fruit in 2004 at Shorter, AL.
Pearson correlation coefficient for air and soil temperatures versus okra yield components analyzed across mulch, row cover, and year combinations for experiments conducted at Shorter, AL.
Article
Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus ‘Clemson Spineless’) was grown on an Orangeburg sandy loam soil in Shorter, AL. Okra was direct-seeded in single rows. Treatments consisted of five mulch colors: black, white, red, silver, and blue installed either with or without spun-bonded row cover. Soil temperatures were 4 to 7 °C lower than air temperatures in all treatments. The use of darker (black, blue, red) -colored plastic mulches increased early and total yield of okra compared with bare soil with and without row cover. Increased soil and air temperatures did not always correlate to an increase in yield. It can be concluded that the use of dark plastic mulch is advantageous to growers of okra in climates that do not have cool springs, but the added use of row covers to plastic mulch has no effect on growth and yield. The profit of marketable okra produced using a row cover was $1.37 versus $1.35 per pound without a cover in 2003 and $1.28 versus $1.29 per pound in 2004. Blue plastic mulch is approximately or equal to $0.08 per foot more expensive than black plastic. Our data do not show an economic advantage for blue over black mulch for okra, but the positive effect cited by other authors may be more pronounced with leafy vegetables.
 
Effect of vegetation-free area (VFA) width on 'Autumnglo' peach fruit size distribution and yield from 1999 to 2005. 
Herbicide materials and amounts applied to 'Autumnglo' peach from 1997 to 2005. Trees were planted in 1997. 
Article
Excessive vegetative growth in peach (Prunus persica) causes canopy shading that reduces fruit bud initiation in the canopy interior and increases pruning costs and time. Sod competition can reduce pruning but may also reduce yield. The objective of the present study was to measure the effects of increased sod competition [2- vs. 8-ft-wide vegetation-free areas (VFA)] on yield and quality of irrigated peach. Total pruning weight was reduced by sod competition in the first 4 of 7 cropping years. Subsequent years indicated no effect on vegetative growth due to sod competition. Annual increase in trunk cross-sectional area was reduced by sod competition in the first year of cropping and unaffected in subsequent years. Canopy development was reduced by sod competition in the first 2 years of cropping, which increased photosynthetically active radiation transmission through the canopy and increased fruit red color in the first year. The width of the VFA did not alter the relationship between total fruit number and total yield in any year; however, the total number of fruit per tree was reduced in all years and total yield was reduced in 6 of 7 years. Results suggest that dormant season pruning was removing a higher percentage of the crop bearing wood from the 2-ft VFA compared with the 8-ft VFA treatment, resulting in reduced yield per unit of dormant pruning. This indicates that pruning practices must be modified to leave more bearing wood in mature trees to maintain yield potential when sod competition is used to control vegetative growth.
 
Growth of vegetable seedlings in various types of culture systems. Three seeds were cultured pqer container for each vegetable type. Data were averaged for 10 replications/ treatment. Experiments were repeated three times and single representation is presented. Mean separation by Student-Newman-Keuls multiple range test (P < 0.1). Columns with the same letter on top were not significantly different.
Article
The influence of the culture chamber size and medium volume on the growth rates of shoot tips of peas, lettuce, kidney beans, and spearmint were determined after 8 weeks of incubation. Cultures were grown in a variety of culture chambers including culture tubes, baby food jars, Magenta GA-7 containers, 1-pint Mason jars, 1-quart Mason jars used with and without an automated plant culture system (APCS), 0.5-gal Mason jars with and without an APCS, Bio-safe chambers with an APCS, and polycarbonate culture chambers with an APCS having culture chamber volumes of 55, 143, 365, 462, 925, 1850, 6000, and 16,400 ml, respectively. Plans are presented for the construction of various culture chambers used in an APCS. The APCS consisted of a peristaltic pump, media reservoir containing 1 liter of liquid nutrient medium, and a culture chamber. Cultures grown with an APCS consistently produced higher fresh weights than cultures using any of the agar culture systems tested. Growth rates varied considerably depending on the plant species and culture system tested. Peas, lettuce, and spearmint exhibited flowering only when grown in the APCS. A cost comparison using the APCS versus various conventional tissue culture systems is presented.
 
Article
Corn gluten meal (CGM) is a non-selective preemergence or preplant-incorporated herbicide that inhibits root development, decreases shoot length, and reduces plant survival. The development of a mechanized application system for the banded placement of CGM between crop rows (seed row not treated) has increased its potential use in organic vegetable production, especially in direct-seeded vegetables. The objective of this research was to determine the impact of CGM applications (formulations, rates, incorporation, and banded applications) on direct-seeded squash (Cucurbita pepo) plant survival and yields. Neither CGM formulation (powdered or granulated) nor incorporation method (incorporated or non-incorporated) resulted in significant differences in plant survival or squash yields. When averaged across all other factors (formulations, incorporation method, and banding), CGM rates of 250 to 750 g·m–2 reduced squash survival from 70% to 44%, and squash yields from 6402 to 4472 kg·ha-1. However, the banded application (CGM placed between rows) resulted in significantly greater crop safety (75% survival) and yield (6402 kg·ha-1) than the broadcast (non-banded) applications (35% survival and 4119 kg·ha-1 yield). It was demonstrated that banded applications of CGM can be useful in direct-seeded squash production and other organic direct-seeded vegetables.
 
Article
With the continuing 20% growth rate in the organic industry, organic vegetable crop production has increased to 98,525 acres in the United States. The requirement for certified organic vegetable producers to implement a soil-building plan has led to the development of soil fertility systems based on combinations of organic fertilizers and cover crops. To determine optimal soil fertility combinations, conventional and organic bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) production was evaluated from 2001 to 2003 in Iowa, comparing combinations of two synthetic fertilizers and three compost-based organic fertilizers, and a cover crop treatment of hairy vetch (Vicia villosa) and rye (Secale cereale) in a strip-tilled or fully incorporated cover crop system. Organic pepper growth and yields equaled or surpassed conventional production when nitrogen (N) was provided at 56 or 112 kg·ha-1 from compost-based organic fertilizer. Soil analysis revealed higher N in plots where cover crops were tilled compared with strip-tilled plots, leading to recommendations for sidedressing N in strip-tilled organic pepper production. Increased incidence of disease was also detected in strip-tilled plots. Postharvest weight loss after 6 weeks in storage was similar in organic and conventional peppers. The addition of calcium and sulfur products in conventional or organic fertilizer regimes did not increase pepper production or postharvest storage potential. Despite application challenges, cover crops will remain as critical components of the organic farm plan for their soil-building benefits, but supplementation with approved N sources may be required for optimal pepper production. Organic growers should conduct their own tests of organic-compliant soil amendments to determine cost effectiveness and value for their site before large-scale application.
 
Article
Uniformity of sand deposition on cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) farms was examined to evaluate the potential use of two sanding methods to suppress swamp dodder (Cuscuta gronovii) seedling emergence by seed burial. During a 2-year study, 24 farms were evaluated with sand applied by either water barge or directly on ice. To measure the depth of sand deposited on the surface, soil cores were taken every 5 m in a grid pattern on a randomly selected portion of a commercial Massachusetts cranberry farm. Both application methods delivered nonuniform depositions of sand with the majority of the samples measuring less than the target depth. Surface diagrams depicting sand depths indicated no particular patterns of error or deposition that could be advantageously adjusted by the grower at the time of application. Mean actual: target depth ratios were 63% and 66% for barge and ice sanding, respectively (100% indicating actual equaled target). In the best scenario (two farms), 47% of the sanded area received less than the target amount; 11 farms had at least 90% of actual sand depths below the target depth. For farmers targeting 25-mm sand depths (depth expected to suppress dodder germination), the mean actual: target depth ratio was 58%, indicating half of the actual sand depths measured less than 15 nun. Compaction of the sand layer due to the elapsed time period (6 weeks or more) between sand application and measurement may have contributed to the large number of samples that were lower than the target depth. Even so, the irregularity of deposition patterns and the large proportion of sand depths that were less than 25 mm indicated adequate suppression of dodder seedling emergence would be unlikely with either sanding method.
 
Article
'Diamond Muscat', 'DOVine', 'Fiesta', and 'Selma Pete' grapevines (Vitis vinifera) were evaluated to determine their suitability for making dry-on-vine (DOV) raisins on an open-gable trellis. The experiment was a split-plot, with training system, head, bilateral, or quadrilateral cordons as the main plot, and grapevine cultivar (Diamond Muscat, DOVine, Fiesta, or Selma Pete) as the subplot. Yield components, fruit composition, and raisin yield and quality were evaluated annually. Vine training style did not affect fruit composition, or raisin yield or quality, but vines trained to quadrilateral cordons produced more clusters on renewal shoots than head-trained vines. 'DOVine', 'Fiesta', and 'Selma Pete' produced about 4.75 tons/acre of raisins, 10% more than 'Diamond Muscat'. 'Diamond Muscat' vines produced the most clusters on renewal shoots, an undesirable trait, and the most clusters per vine. 'Fiesta' matured later than the other cultivars, therefore it had the lowest soluble solids, the poorest raisin grades, and the highest field moisture at harvest. 'Selma Pete' grapes matured as early, or earlier, than the grapes of other cultivars, they had among the highest soluble solids and raisin grades, and the raisins generally dried well. Thus, 'Selma Pete' grapevines had the best overall performance of the cultivars tested.
 
Four-year average values for harvest fruit maturity [ratio of soluble solids concentration (SSC) to titratable acidity (TA)] and yield to pruning weight ratio of red and white cultivars evaluated at Parma, ID. Optimum values for vine balance and fruit maturity are depicted as lines on each axis. Cultivar acronyms are listed in Table 1.  
Article
A collection of 23 red and six white wine grape (Vitis vinifera) cultivars were evaluated for viticultural performance in Parma, ID. Vine yield, fruit composition, and vegetative growth were measured over four growing seasons, and data were used to compare relative cultivar performance based on yield to pruning ratio and fruit maturity. Relative differences among cultivars in budbreak day of year 96 (6 Apr.) to 122 (2 May) and days from budbreak to harvest (143 to 179 days) varied from year to year. The earliest and latest maturing cultivars in 3 of 4 years were 'Blauer Portugieser' (143 days), 'Nebbiolo' (177 days), 'Barbera' (179 days), 'Orange Muscat' (144 days), 'Flora' (149 days), 'Muscat of Alexandria' (166 days), and 'Viognier' (168 days). Cultivars differed in yield (2.4 to 7.0 tons/acre), vegetative vigor (4.6 to 20.4 yield/pruning weight), and harvest soluble solids concentration (21.1 to 26.5), but differences in harvest pH (3.0 to 4.1) and titratable acidity (2.48 to 13.03 g.L(-1)) varied from year to year. Average heat unit accumulation (1646) was 160 units higher than the 78-year site average. Few (less than 150) units accumulated in April and October, most units accumulated in July, and diurnal difference in air temperature was approximately equal to 15 degrees C. Performance results from this study can assist cultivar site selection by comparing climate data for an intended site with that of Parma. For example, the low acidity and earliness of 'Blauer Portugieser' suggests it is best suited to a site with less heat unit accumulation than Parma, and the high acidity and late maturity of 'Barbera', 'Nebbiolo', and 'Carignan' suggest these cultivars are best suited to a site with more heat unit accumulation than Parma. The inconsistent relationship between onset of budbreak and earliness observed in this study suggests opportunity to match short-season cultivars late to break bud such as Flora to short-season growing sites prone to late-season frost.
 
Article
A study was conducted at the Mississippi State University Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station (MAFES) McNeil Unit in southern Mississippi to identify promising muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia) germplasm for use as parents in the breeding and genetics research program and to develop information on performance for use by growers in the region for cultivar selection decisions. The vineyard was first established in 1992 and was expanded in 1994. Cultivars were evaluated in 2001, 2002, and 2006 for their performance and were found to differ in vigor, resistance to diseases, yield, and fruit quality. Cultivars suitable for winemaking that performed well included Carlos, Doreen, Magnolia, Noble, Regale, Sterling, and Welder. Cultivars intended for the fresh market that produced high yields and high-quality fruit included Alachua, Black Beauty, Darlene, Fry, Ison, Janebell, Nesbit, Polyanna, Sweet Jenny, Summit, and Tara. 'Dixie', a multipurpose cultivar, 'Eudora', a newly released fresh-market cultivar, and 'Southern Home', a multipurpose cultivar with enhanced ornamental value, also performed well at this location.
 
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