In recent years problems have emerged around the American system of accrediting colleges and universities - a peculiar system involving voluntary regional associations of colleges and universities, public and private, which appoint committees of academics to make visits to their member institutions and report first on whether they are reasonably decent institutions of higher education, and secondly, on how they might improve themselves. This paper explores these issues comparatively in the American and European contexts.
The massification of higher education in Ukraine is a fact while financing the system is still an issue. External pressures from the Central government and the market require changes in university governance. Europeanization of educational system and adherence to the principles laid down by the Bologna declaration add to already existing challenges faced by universities. This paper states that there is no one right prescription for changing governance in Ukraine’s universities, because they differ in their history, location, culture, organizational structure, student body, faculty, and educational process and content. It proposes different approaches to the different types of the universities, considering universities as collegiums and bureaucracies, and suggests the political system as a viable form of organizational structure for the task of reforming universities.
Globalization trends and innovations in the instructional technologies are widely believed to be creating new markets and forcing a revolution in higher education. Much of the rhetoric of "globalists" has presented a simplistic analysis of a paradigm shift in higher education markets and the way nations and institutions deliver educational services. This essay provides an analytical framework for understanding global influences on national higher education systems. It then identifies and discusses the "countervailing forces" to globalization that help to illuminate the complexities of the effects of globalization (including the General Agreement on Trade and Services) and new instructional technologies on the delivery and market for teaching and learning services. Globalization does offer substantial and potentially sweeping changes to national systems of higher education, but there is no uniform influence on nation-states or institutions. All globalization is in fact subject to local (or national and regional) influences.
Since the introduction of the Overseas Student Program (OSP) in 1985, courses have been marketed, often quite aggressively, by Australian universities. In most cases, overseas students have responded by coming to Australia. The cultural implications of the OSP are evaluated using a hypothetical case—Hong Kong Registered Nurses undertaking a post-graduate Public Health Nursing program in a higher education institution to prepare them for work with Vietnamese people in Hong Kongs refugee camps. The evaluation is based on an application of Dunns jurisprudential metaphor and transactional model of argument to a consideration of the contextual and cultural issues which arise from an examination of the impact of the course. It was concluded that the course would not be appropriate. Moreover, arguments developed from the hypothetical case were found to be generalisable to the export of other professional courses, and the relevance of many offerings were questioned.
Sustainable development has been defined as development which meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It has been the subject of increasing discussion and debate during the last two decades.This article presents a brief survey of the overall problems inhibiting sustainable development, and outlines their impact in both developed and developing areas. The different phasing, magnitude and spectrum of problems to be faced in each area are emphasized.The article then discusses relevant policy and generic planning issues, and the need for policies and decision-making tools which can begin to cope with the uncertainties involved. While a range of approaches is needed to cope with the problems concerned, it is argued that universities in both the developed and developing world have a special role and responsibility in contributing to the challenge of sustainable development.
Policy-making in Canadian post-secondary education is rarely the subject of intensive, systematic study. This paper seeks to identify the distinctive ways in which Canadian post-secondary education policy decisions were constructed and implemented, and to posit an analytical framework for interpreting policy-making process in post-secondary education. Our focus is on post-secondary policy initiatives between 1990 and 2000. During this period, the federal government, under Liberal Prime Minister Jean Chrétien undertook some unprecedented initiatives in the post-secondary education field. The paper discusses aspects of the 1993 election campaign, the Income Contingent Repayment (student assistance) proposal in 1994, the federal deficit cuts of 1995, the return to fiscal surplus in 1997, and the introduction of the following federal plans: the Canada Foundation on Innovation, the Canada Research Chairs Program, and the Millennium Foundation Scholarship Program. The paper concludes with the presentation of a conceptual framework designed to enhance understanding of the public policy-making process in post-secondary education and, potentially, other policy fields.
This paper examines some aspects of current debates about what constitutes the global university in the 21st century, focusing particularly on concepts and perspectives about how the idea of a university is being produced and reproduced. As well as exploring the theoretical and empirical content of eight different analyses ranging from the relationship between the university and the welfare state to the effects of the financialization of academic publishing, this paper considers the relevance of the arguments presented to universities themselves and the extent to which the contributions analyzed might also appeal to policy makers and university leaders. The eight analyses selected are among those presented at two recent international seminar series on universities, ideas, and globalization processes for which the author was a co-organizer.Higher Education Policy (2008) 21, 439-456. doi:10.1057/hep.2008.18
This article presents a brief historical overview on the origin and development of institutional autonomy and academic freedom in the United States of America and in Latin America. Such overview allows the reader to contrast two different geographical contexts, as well as different and even opposing opinions concerning the meaning of the concepts involved. The author illustrates how ideology, along with political conditions, explains the variety and heterogeneity of the universities and institutions of higher education. Other issues discussed include accountability and autonomy; the rapid growth of private academic institutions exemplifying the enormous demand for higher education services and how this is linked to the concept of autonomy; the public vs private controversy; the role of the State and the matters of pertinence and quality. Finally, the article discusses and illustrates some of the current debates that have to do with the exercise of institutional and individual autonomy.Higher Education Policy (2007) 20, 275-288. doi:10.1057/palgrave.hep.8300160
We test the hypothesis that academic entrepreneurship, resisted in the past by some as being in conflict with the long-standing Mertonian norms of open science and free enquiry, has now become widely accepted within the academy, or `taken for granted', as an institutional shift. Using responses to a series of attitudinal questions about academic entrepreneurship and commercialization of the university from a National Survey of Technology Transfer Office directors and faculty in the United States, we explain the variation in attitudes among faculty by academic discipline, by type of university and by previous experience as an entrepreneur. We compare the attitudes of faculty to the attitudes of technology transfer office directors to gauge the width of the gap between these two groups of stakeholders. The empirical results provide strong evidence that the commercialization of the university is by no means yet `taken for granted'.
One of the major characteristics of globalization is the large influx of immigrant groups moving largely from underdeveloped regions to developed economies. California offers one of the most robust examples of a large-scale, postmodern demographic transition that includes a great racial, ethnic, and cultural diversity of immigrant groups, many of which place a high value on education. As a window into a larger global phenomenon, this study looks at immigrant student participation in the University of California (UC) — one of the largest research universities systems in the world, chartered and subsidized by a state with the largest immigrant population in the US. We provide an initial exploration of the dynamics of race and ethnicity, major, and the differing socioeconomic backgrounds of immigrant students, and in comparison to `native' students. Utilizing data from the Student Experience in the Research University Survey of the UC's students, we show that more than half the undergraduate students in the UC system have at least one parent that is an immigrant. The ratio is even higher at UC Berkeley. Among the major conclusions offered in this study: there are a complex set of differences between various `generations' of immigrant students that fit earlier historical waves of immigrant groups to the United States; the startling number and range of students from different ethnic, racial, cultural, and economic backgrounds points to the need for an expanded notion of diversity beyond older racial and ethnic paradigms; and while there are growing numbers of immigrant students at Berkeley from different parts of the world, and often from lower-income families, there is a high correlation with their socioeconomic capital, described as a variety of factors, but most prominently the education level of their parents and family.
In an attempt to raise China's international competitiveness, the government instituted a series of sweeping reforms to expand rapidly the number of higher education places. Rapid growth, however, gave rise to a new set of problems, namely, a scarcity of resources, poor educational quality and underemployment of Chinese university graduates. In order to tackle the problems caused by rapid expansion in higher education, a number of measures were introduced, all influencing the work of academics. Based on the observations of our study, we can see a clear trend of deprofessionalization due to increasing state supervision. Because of the widespread scarcity of resources, academics found themselves taking on the additional role of academic capitalist, in order to increase their incomes and accumulate academic capital. However, in the specific context of China, guanxi still served as a significant factor for academics in retaining their academic status. New measures should be introduced in order to alleviate the great impact of guanxi.Higher Education Policy (2007) 20, 145-167. doi:10.1057/palgrave.hep.8300148
I explore the question of men's participation in higher education (HE) in relation to shifting, discursive and intersecting masculine subjectivities by drawing on qualitative interviews with men participating in HE. The paper contributes to a sociological understanding of the impact of masculine subjectivities on higher educational participation and aspiration. The in-depth interviews focused on the men's memories, aspirations and experiences, taking a life history approach to mapping continuity and change in relation to educational participation. The context for the research is the wider UK policy of widening educational participation and notions of a `crisis of masculinity', which I critique drawing on feminist perspectives. In deconstructing the discursive production of the ideal student-subject produced through widening participation (WP) policy, I argue that an analysis of men's participation in HE must take into account the differences between boys and men in terms of complex power relations, inequalities and misrecognitions. The paper explores the theme of continuity and change in terms of the men's subjectivities, their memories of education and their shifting aspirations. More specifically, it examines the men's accounts in relation to the themes of respectability, bullying and laziness, which emerged from the data. I argue that the men take up the neoliberal discourses that underpin WP policy, placing emphasis on individual attitudes and deficit, and demanding forms of self-regulation. The men's accounts illuminate the fragility of their projects to be recognized as worthy of HE participation both through and against self-regulating practices and through the distancing of `Other' (contaminating) identities.Higher Education Policy (2009) 22, 81-100. doi:10.1057/hep.2008.24
Evaluation and accountability are two of the most popular catchwords employed by higher education reformers in the Western world over the last 25 years. For 25 years governments throughout Western countries have been using evaluation and institutional accountability as policy tools to steer their university systems at a distance. From a comparative perspective, this has not been a homogeneous process; nor has it displayed any clearly `convergent' trend when observed from the substantial, rather than from just the formal, point of view. In this general context the Italian case is presented here through a detailed analysis by which it is shown how evaluation has been implemented in the Italian university system and how the institutional accountability conceded to the universities has been managed and to what effects. The results are frustrating: each university activity is evaluated but without any effects regarding their performance; institutional accountability has proved to be very weak, whereas universities have continued to behave in an irresponsible way from the financial and managerial point of view. What emerges seems to be an enormous collective effort not able to concretely pursue significant results without a radical change in the governance arrangements both at the institutional and the systemic levels. The causes of this waste of collective sources depend both on the low degree of legitimization of the evaluation process, and on the malfunctioning of the mechanisms of institutional and systemic governance.
In recent years, Swedish higher education institutions have experienced reduced regulation while at the same time more authority has been given to the boards of the institutions. Paradoxically, this situation has neither been experienced as an increase in autonomy nor as increased — or maintained — academic freedom.
On the contrary, dependency on new external factors, such as increased external economic support, has reduced independence both at the institutional and the individual level. In order to counterbalance these external forces clear and distinct academic leadership is required, along with increased goal orientation in the internal decision-making of higher education institutions.
This article reports on field research conducted in 19992000 in three of the larger cities in China (Wuhan, Xiamen and Shantou). It explores the workings of the educational service of the self-taught higher education examination (STE) that emerged in China in the early 1980s. Findings from questionnaires, in-depth interviews, observations and analysis of documents led to the conclusion that the educational goal of the STE, although implicit, is frustrated and diluted because of the following reasons: (i) inefficiency due to an absence of controls through regulations and legislation specifically applicable to state, province and county levels of administration. (ii) Inadequate and inconsistent communication between high-level administration and the local operation of educational services. Lack of communication results in the STE as a system declining in national examinations. It emphasizes note memorization rather than creative thinking implicit in the purpose of educational service institutions.Higher Education Policy (2003) 16, 463477. doi:10.1057/palgrave.hep.8300034
The paper has a twofold structure and focus. The first part is an examination of the funding challenges facing African universities resulting mainly from public finance difficulties, and the second part is a case study of how some Kenyan and South African public universities have attempted to mitigate resource dependence difficulties through multiple exchange relationships. The study identifies economic and policy contexts, and institutional capacity, both scientific and management capacity, as key determinants of the success of public universities' attempts at economic self-determination. The study concludes that although revenue diversification presents an opportunity for universities to mitigate resource dependence difficulties, a combination of factors, especially small domestic markets and capacity related challenges, constrain possibilities for meaningful revenue diversification for many African universities.
This article focuses on the redefinition of South Africa's Colleges for Advanced Technical Education into research organizations in higher learning. It reports results of the first phase of a project into the impact of national policies intended to cultivate the culture of the much-needed applied research in higher education and to fill a gap left by universities. National policies were analysed and representatives from national policy-making bodies interviewed. Inconsistencies between the different policy documents, practical problems emerging at the implementation stage and views of the Technikon umbrella organization, on the progress so far made are discussed.Higher Education Policy (2003) 16, 283299. doi:10.1057/palgrave.hep.8300022
From the first time that humans drew together in learned groups of scholars and disciples, questions have been raised about the purpose, sustainability and values of such gatherings. The development of information technologies together with mass participation in Higher Education has sharpened disputes between innovation and tradition like never before. Each party produces its own measures of dogma, which often trail institutional anxiety in their wake. The University is in a quandary. Whether the University as a manifestation of scholarly inquiry and scientific research is gaining from this dialectical tension is by no means clear, and its future is infused with volatility. Transformation of the University into an innovative entrepreneurial institution is proceeding, almost alchemically it seems. The primary question now is not whether this should occur but what checks and balances are necessary at a policy level to make it successful. How far down the corporate policy track must the University go?Higher Education Policy (2006) 19, 135-151. doi:10.1057/palgrave.hep.8300116
This article explores the question of why liberal arts and sciences education has been (re-)emerging in Europe over roughly the last two decades. A period, which is also characterized by the Bologna Process, that is the introduction of distinct undergraduate — graduate degree cycles, and the explicit framing of higher education policies within the concept of the knowledge economy (the Lisbon Strategy). It will do so by taking a historical and comparative approach, looking at the histories of liberal arts and sciences education as they evolved in Europe and the USA. The article aims to analyse why liberal arts and science education seems to be a relevant response to the needs for higher education reform in Europe. In particular to the need to differentiate the massified European systems, in terms of broader and more flexible approaches to bachelor education in order to overcome the disadvantages of too early and over-specialization, by re-establishing the balance between breadth and depth of the curriculum, and in terms of redefining elite education in overly egalitarian systems. The focus on Europe will highlight developments in the Netherlands, where the progress of liberal arts and sciences education is particularly substantial and where the model has already obtained a special status within the higher education system. This will be further illustrated using Amsterdam University College as an institutional case study on the new European version of the liberal arts model, with an emphasis on its meaning in the globalized higher education context of the 21st century.
This article focuses on methods of funding allocation and quality assurance as prominent levers of change in higher education reform today. It is their interplay which forms the main components of coordination frameworks. The arguments for more market or new forms of state intervention can only be understood in the context of such a framework. Developments in the higher education system of the Czech Republic, which has seen interesting changes within the last 15 years from an extreme institutional autonomy to a more balanced relationship between state and universities, will be drawn upon to illustrate these arguments.Higher Education Policy (2005) 18, 3150. doi:10.1057/palgrave.hep.8300071
We explore the significance of the `affective turn' in respect to higher education policy in the UK. This turn centres on creating new subjects of attention for the `employable' student and the `non-traditional' student, the latter defined as students from backgrounds with no earlier history of higher education (working class or black students for example). The `affective turn' has been associated with intellectual debates creating a form of knowledge claiming that there has been a permeation of the social and the psychic in contemporary social relations. This new intellectual move focusing on desire/affects and emotion can be seen as relevant for thinking about policy sociology and we argue for the potential of using a psycho-social methodology to tease out how the affective of policy, and its translation into the academy, works. This stance provides an alternative reading of contemporary social orders, from the one adopted in an influential anti-emotion, anti-psychoanalysis discourse (see Furedi, 2003; Ecclestone and Hayes, 2008). On the contrary, we wish to describe and document affects as one of the most important of the `disqualified discourses' (Morley and David, 2007) of policy sociology so as to rejuvenate the academy's role in working towards rather than against social justice.Higher Education Policy (2009) 22, 101-118. doi:10.1057/hep.2008.34