Herpetologica

Published by Herpetologists League
Online ISSN: 1938-5099
Print ISSN: 0018-0831
Publications
Time spent pursuing, capturing, and subduing prey, and time spent preparing and swallowing it all affect profitability of a prey item (net energy gain/handling time). In the diet selection model of classical optimal foraging theory, handling time is constant for each prey type, but several factors affect it in some predators. We studied factors that might cause time spent to capture and handle prey by broad-headed skinks (Eumeces laticeps) to vary between and within prey types. Pursuit time did not vary with prey (cricket) size in experimental conditions. In three experiments using crickets of the same size, handling times for the first prey eaten were shorter when more prey were simultaneously present. Reduced handling time likely maximizes number of prey captured before the remaining prey escape. Preparation time (capture to initiation of swallowing) did not vary with prey number, but swallowing time decreased with number of prey present. This result suggests that lizards must prepare crickets thoroughly for digestion by bites puncturing the exoskeleton, which constrains them from decreasing preparation time. However, lizards can reduce handling time by swallowing more quickly, increasing the likelihood of capturing additional prey. Handling times were shortest for hungry skinks and longest just before satiation. Two factors may contribute to the increase in handling time with degree of satiation: (1) Motivation to capture prey declines as a predator becomes satiated, removing the reason for shortening handling times when groups of prey are present; (2) as the stomach and the esophagus are filled, mechanical constraints may slow swallowing. Preparation time, number of bites, swallowing time, and handling time increased with cricket size. Consequently, although it appears that the largest prey were the most profitable for sizes of crickets studied, this may Hot be true for other ranges of prey size. Preparation time was shorter for prey bitten on the head than on the side or back, but prey orientation during swallowing did not affect swallowing time. In summary, (1) when prey are present simultaneously, total energetic profit may be increased by reducing handling time, and (2) handling for specific prey types vary with satiation and handling method.
 
Abstract: I investigated dispersal of adult water frogs between local ponds containing Rana lessonae, R. ridibunda and their hybridogenetic associate R. esculenta. Recent models indicate a strong influence of species specific dispersal on the dynamics of such mixed populations. However, empirical data on dispersal are still rare and populations are often defined through individuals which reproduce at the same site. In my study area near Zurich, Switzerland, 12.2% of the animals changed ponds in 1995 and 1996. Dispersal occurred throughout the whole year and was not restricted to specific periods. The dispersal rate decreased with increasing pond-to-pond distance and degree of isolation. In addition, I found differences in dispersal rate and distance related
 
—Dorsal (A) and lateral (B) views of head and ventral views of hand (C) and foot (E) of male Hypsiboas aguilari (MTD 46303, paratype), ventral view of hand (D) of male H. melanopleura (MTD 45680), and ventral view of hand (F) of female H. aguilari (MTD 46494, paratype). Drawings by E. Lehr.  
-Map illustrating distributions of Hypsiboas aguilari, H. melanopleura, and H. palaestes in Peru. Arrows indicate type localities. 1 5 Huancabamba (Pasco), 2 5 San Alberto (Pasco), 3 5 Llamaquizu (Pasco), 4 5 Maria Teresa (Pasco), 5 5 Pampa Hermosa (Junín), 6 5 San Ramon (Junín), 7 5 south edge of Tutumbaro (Ayacucho). See text for details on distribution of H. aguilari and H. melanopleura.
-Strict consensus of the four equally most parsimonious trees resulting from a phylogenetic analysis of the Hypsiboas pulchellus Group plus several outgroups. Note the position of H. aguilari and H. melanopleura. Numbers above nodes are Bremer supports, numbers below, parsimony jacknife values. The asterisk denotes 100% jacknife support. Numbers next to locality names in parenthesis of H. aguilari and H. melanopleura refer to localities shown in Fig. 3.
We describe a new species of the Hypsiboas pulchellus Group from the eastern Andes of central Peru (Region Pasco). Calls of both H. melanopleura and the new species are described. The new species is more similar to H. melanopleura and H. palaestes but differs in morphological characters and in coloration pattern. The new species and H. melanopleura are included in a molecular phylogenetic analysis of the H. pulchellus Group that shows them to be sister species and forming a second, independent, Andean clade within the group. New collecting sites for H. melanopleura are provided with the first record in the Region of Junin and the distribution of H. melanopleura, H. palaestes, and the new species is illustrated in a map.
 
Escaping prey decide whether to enter and how long to stay in refuges. According to refuge-use theory, hiding time increases as costs of emerging increase and costs of staying in refugee decrease. We studied effects of air temperature on probability of entering refuges and the effects of thermal cost on hiding time (duration in refuge). Few striped plateau lizards (Sceloporus virgatus) used refuges at intermediate air temperatures, but most readily entered cool refuges at the lowest air temperatures and relatively warm refuges at higher temperatures. Because running speed in lizards decreases its body temperature decreases, S. virgatus that are cool upon morning emergence presumably reduced their probability of being captured by entering refuges. As air and presumably body temperatures increase, refuges are initially cooler (hall outside, contributing to infrequent else. At higher, but not thermally stressful, temperatures, a greater probability of using refuges may reflect lower thermal costs in refuges that have warmed. Hiding time decreased its temperatures became cooler in refuges than outside. Our results confirm previous work on actively foraging lacertid lizards showing that hiding time decreases as thermal costs of refuge use increases, and extend this finding to at very distantly related phrynosomatid species that is an ambush forager. Thus, the thermal cost of refuge use affects hiding time even in lizards that do not require high body temperature for prolonged foraging movements. A growing body of knowledge supports the hypothesis that tradeoffs between costs of emerging and remaining in refuges guide decisions about hiding time.
 
—The distribution of diameters of the first or innermost (open bars) and the second (closed bars) visible lines of arrested growth (LAG) in phalangeal sections of (A) Litoria chloris, (B) L. lesueuri, (C) L. pearsoniana, and (D) Mixophyes fleayi.  
-Study site descriptions for Litoria chloris, L. lesueuri, L. pearsoniana, and Mixophyes fleayi. * indicates sites that were repeatedly surveyed over 3 yr.
Skeletochronology has been widely and successfully used to age temperate amphibians, enabling geographic comparisons of longevity and the age at maturity. To date, however, there have been very few similar studies conducted using skeletochronology in tropical or sub-tropical amphibians. In this study, we examined the applicability of skeletochronology for aging four sub-tropical anuran species (Litoria chloris, L. lesueuri, L. pearsoniana, and Mixophyes fleayi) that occur across a range of altitudes in southeast Queensland, Australia. We then used reliable estimates to examine altitudinal variation in longevity, age at maturity (AM), and potential reproductive lifespan (PRLS) for each species. Skeletochronology was successful in three of the four species. The age of L. lesueuri individuals from low altitude sites could not be reliably estimated due to extended activity seasons. On average, females were older than males in L. chloris, L. pearsoniana, and M. fleayi and were also older when breeding for the first time. There was, however, no significant difference in the PRLS between males and females within any of the three species. There were trends towards greater longevity and older AM in high altitude populations of all three species; however, there was no significant altitudinal variation in PRLS in any of the species. Our results suggest little intraspecific variation in the number of years that individuals of the four species are capable of breeding, regardless of gender, geographic location, longevity, and AM. Yes Yes
 
A new species of arboreal Eleutherodactylus is described and assigned to the Eleutherodactylus unistrigatus Group from the Amazonian lowlands of northern Departamento de Cusco, Peru. The new species was found on vegetation 150–800 cm above ground, has a SVL up to 21.9 mm, and is distinguished from other species of the genus by having a green dorsum with white spots; a pointed, brown snout; and by lacking a tympanic membrane and annulus. Males lack vocal slits and nuptial pads; females are unknown.
 
Complete characterization of lizard foraging behaviors may require information about aspects rarely measured. Most studies record only number of movements per minute (MPM) and/or percent of time moving (PTM), but lizards differ markedly in average speed (AS) and speed while moving (MS) during foraging and in proportion of attacks initiated after detecting prey while the lizard is moving (PAM). We present data on these variables for nine lizard species and on foraging speed for several others, permitting first assessments of relationships between speed, PAM, and both phylogeny and foraging mode; examination of the effect of body length on foraging speed; and correlative analyses of relationships between foraging variables. Although sprint speed may increase with body size, foraging speed did not, presumably for two reasons. Because search speed is much lower than sprint speed, as is speed of movement between ambush sites, searching efficiency and stamina may be more important determinants of foraging speed than is sprint speed. Second, the body size range was small, allowing the possibility that foraging speed may vary with body length over the much larger size range between the smallest and largest species worldwide. Nevertheless, a large majority of lizard species are in the size range tested, suggesting that body length may not strongly affect foraging speed except when extremely short or long species are included in comparative analyses. High PAM, high AS, and low MS were characteristic of autarchoglossans and active foragers, whereas low PAM, low AS and high MS were exhibited by iguanians and ambush foragers. In independent species analyses, significant correlations were observed between several pairs of foraging variables. In analyses using phylogenetically independent contrasts, the only significant finding was a strong positive correlation between PAM and PTM. Although these findings suggest that foraging speed, MPM, and either PTM or PAM may provide independent measures of foraging activity needed to adequately describe interspecific variation, this conclusion is tentative due to the small sample size of limited taxonomic breadth.
 
—Pristimantis andinognomus (QCAZ 16695, male holotype, SVL 12.1 mm) in dorsal (A) and ventral (B) views, and Pristimantis caeruleonotus (MHNSM 24486, female holotype, SVL 21.6 mm) in dorsal (C) and ventral (D) views. Photos by E. Lehr.  
—Selected diagnostic characters and elevational range for small species of Pristimantis. Data were taken from references and specimens examined. 
—Pristimantis andinognomus (holotype) in life. Photo by L. A. Coloma.  
—Dorsal (A) and ventral (B) views of head, and ventral views of hand (C) and foot (D) of Pristimantis andinognomus. A, B: QCAZ 16691, male SVL 13.1 mm; C, D: QCAZ 16686, male SVL 13.1 mm. Photos by E. Lehr.  
—Map of southern Ecuador showing localities of Pristimantis andinognomus. 1 5 Abra de Zamora, Provincias Loja and Zamora Chinchipe; 2 5 Yangana-Valladolid, Provincia Zamora Chinchipe.  
We describe a new species of Pristimantis from a cloud forest at 2450–2800 m in the Cordillera Oriental in southern Ecuador (Zamora Chinchipe). The new species has a maximum snout–vent length of 17.9 mm (average SVL of 21 males 5 12.3 mm 6 1.2, and of 19 females 5 15.9 mm 6 1.3). This new species is the second smallest frog from Ecuador and smallest Pristimantis. Morphologically and phylogenetically, the new species is similar to P. caeruleonotus and P. colodactylus. It is distinguished from them and its congeners by its size, tuberculation, a distinct color pattern consisting of tan blotches on dorsum, spots on a brown venter, minute brown spots on anterior and posterior surfaces of the thighs, and other morphological features. Determination of small body size in frogs is discussed and meristic data of 40 minute frogs are compiled.
 
A new species of Bufo tentatively assigned to the Bulo veraguensis group is described from forests near Paucartambo de Pasco, Peru, at elevations of 2600-3000 m in the Cordillera Oriental of central Peru. The new species differs from all known bufonids by having numerous large glands with many keratinous tips on the dorsum, large glands on the tibia and forearm, and two large dorsal glands lying between the parotoids. The new species is most similar to Bufa chavin. Both species are compared to each other and B. veraguensis with respect to external characters and skull osteology. The tadpole and call of the new species remain unknown.
 
A new species of the Eleutherodactylus unistrigatus group is described from forests near Oxapampa, Peru, at elevations of 2050-2200 m in the Cordillera Oriental in central Peru. The new species differs from all described species by having an extremely long, acuminate snout and a red (white in preservative) longitudinal stripe on the posterior surface of each thigh.
 
A new species of the Eleutherodactylus nigrovittatus Group is described from five localities, at elevations of 1800–2760 m in cloud forests in the Cordillera Oriental in central Peru (Distrito de Paucartambo, Departamento de Pasco). The new species is assigned to the Eleutherodactylus nigrovittatus Group, and differs from all described species therein by having a combination of smooth skin on the venter, undilated discs on the digits, Finger I and Finger II of variable length (slightly shorter, slightly longer or of equal length), Toe III and Toe V of variable length (slightly shorter, slightly longer or of equal length), and a snout–vent length up to 48.8 mm in females. In life, dorsum is tan with dark brown blotches, venter flesh to pale gray with small gray blotches, and posterior surfaces of thighs tan. The new species occurs sympatrically with E. lacrimosus, E. peruvianus, E. platydactylus, and Eleutheodactylus cf. rhabdolaemus. Phrynopus lucida and P. nebulanastes are changed to Eleutherodactylus based on morphological and osteological characters and are assigned to the Eleutherodactylus nigrovittatus Group.
 
Based on external morphological and osteological characters, Phrynopus fallaciosus and Phrynopus flavomaculatus are placed in the Eleutherodactylus nigrovittatus Group, and the latter is reported for the first time in Peru (Departmento de Piura). Based on external morphological characters, Phrynopus laplacai is considered to be a junior synonym of P. wettsteini. The type locality of P. wettsteini in Peru is considered as doubtful, and the distribution of the species seems to be restricted to Bolivia. Based on external and internal morphological characters, including comparatively large testes, Phrynopus spectabilis is placed in the synonymy of Pleurodema marmorata. Males of several species of Phrynopus have Finger I (and Finger II in P. cophites) with a nuptial pad, a character that was thought to be restricted to Eleutherodactylus within eleutherodactyline frogs. A new, small species of Phrynopus is described from the Andes in southern Peru.
 
-Map illustrating the type localities of Atelopus known from central Peru: A. peruensis (1), A. dimorphus (2), A. reticulatus (3), A. siranus (4), and A. oxapampae (5). Distribution (not shown here) of A. peruensis reaches from the type locality northwards to the Department of Piura and southwards to the Department of northern Ancash.
-Lateral (A), dorsal (B) and ventral (C) views of preserved male holotype of Atelopus oxapampae (MUSM 19875, SVL 19.1 mm). Photos by E. Lehr.
-Type locality of Atelopus oxapampae. See text for description. Photo taken by M. Lundberg on 1 June 2003.
A new species of Atelopus is described from three localities near Oxapampa between 1700 and 2200 m elevation in central Peru, representing the first record for the genus in the Department of Pasco. The new species is readily distinguished from all congeners by its small size (maximum SVL 22.1 mm in males), numerous gray coni on dorsal and lateral body surfaces, and a coloration pattern consisting of a cream dorsolateral stripe, narrow dark brown middorsal stripe, arms and legs dorsally dark brown with grayish brown reticulation, and ventral surfaces of hands and feet reddish orange. Females are unknown.
 
—Dorsal (A) and lateral (B) views of head and ventral views of hand (C) and foot (D) of Pristimantis aquilonaris (MHNSM 19942).  
-Lateral (A) view of life Pristimantis bellator (MHNSM 24494, holotype, SVL 21.2 mm), and dorsal (B) and ventral (C) views of the preserved specimen.
—Dorsal (A) and lateral (B) views of head and ventral views of hand (C) and foot (D) of Pristimantis bellator (MHNSM 24494).  
—Dorsal (A) and lateral (B) views of head and ventral views of hand (C) and foot (D) of Pristimantis caeruleonotus (MHNSM 24486).  
Three new species of Pristimantis are described from montane forests and pa´ramos at elevations of 1900–3200 m in the Cordillera de Huancabamba in the northern Peruvian departamentos de Cajamarca and Piura. The new species are assigned to the Pristimantis unistrigatus Group and are compared with species from southern Ecuador and northern Peru. One of the new species has a black W-shaped occipital fold, and the groin, anterior and posterior surfaces of the thigh, the concealed surface of tarsus, and axilla are blackish brown with yellowish-orange or reddish-orange flecks. The second species has an olive green dorsum with black and brown flecks, and a yellow groin and the anterior and posterior surfaces of thighs are yellow. Another species is unique in having blue flecks in the groin and on the anterior and posterior surfaces of the thigh and ventral surfaces of the shank.
 
We describe two new species of Bryophryne from the Region of Cusco, Provincia de La Convencio´n in southern Peru, increasing the number of currently known Bryophryne to eight. One of the new species is the second known species of Bryophryne that has a tympanic annulus and tympanic membrane. Males of this species have vocal slits, a vocal sac, and call from inside moss. It is readily distinguished from all its congeners by having a blackish-brown venter with yellow, orange, or pale pink blotches. This species is found at elevations of 3800–3850 m in the puna along the road from Vilcabamba to Pampascona. The second new species has the venter orange and pale gray mottled in males, whereas the venter is black and pale gray mottled in the single female. It was found inside bunches of the Peruvian feather grass (Stipa ichu) in the puna of Abra Ma´laga next to the road at an elevation of 4000 m. A map showing the type localities of all currently known species of Bryophryne is presented.
 
Lizards hatch at 33mm SVL and reach sexual maturity at 52mm (female) and 43mm (male). Females are oviparous laying 1-7 eggs in a single clutch each summer. Spermatogenesis, ovulation and mating all occur in spring. Clutch sizes are related to body size.-from Author
 
The bog turtle Glyptemys (= Clemmys) muhlenbergii is an inhabitant of ground-water-fed sedge meadows in the northeastern and southeastern United States. Observations of bog turtle habitats throughout the species' range demonstrate that livestock grazing has been an important factor in staving off successional processes and abating large-scale invasions by tall-growing, competitively dominant plants - many of which are exotic in origin. The demise of small-scale dairy farming over the past three decades has led to the pastoral abandonment of the majority of bog turtle habitats in the Northeast. As a consequence, habitats are being degraded by the growth of invasive flora, changes in hydrology, and loss of turtle microhabitats created by livestock. In this study we compared the number of bog turtle captures, bog turtle demographic parameters, bog turtle densities, and vegetation at sites that are currently grazed (n = 12) and at sites in which grazing had recently ceased (n = 12). This analysis demonstrated that grazed sites contained greater numbers of turtles, greater turtle density, and greater frequency of occurrence for juvenile turtles. Grazed sites also contained greater cover of low-growing herbaceous vegetation and lower heights of tall-growing exotic and/or invasive vegetation than the formerly grazed sites. We hypothesize that nutrient enrichment from manure and agricultural run-off has promoted the establishment and growth of invasive plant species at many of the sites, but livestock grazing has kept these plants in check. When livestock are removed, invasive species proliferate, and the hummocky microtopography maintained by the livestock traffic is often reduced to a mat of vegetation. This investigation showed that efforts to preserve viable populations of bog turtles may depend on the preservation of low-intensity, pasture-based dairy and beef farming.
 
—Stenocercus torquatus, holotype, BM 61.5.22.4, male, 80 mm SVL.  
—Dorsal (top), lateral (middle), and ventral (bottom) views of the head of Stenocercus torquatus. Holotype, BM 61.5.22.4, male. Scale bar 5 5 mm.  
—S. torquatus, MTD 45921, male, 74 mm SVL; ac 5 antehumeral collar; nb 5 nuchal transverse bands.  
We resurrect and redescribe Stenocercus torquatus from the Andes of central Peru in departamentos JUnln and Pasco at elevations between 800 and 1800 m. This species was erroneously synonymized with Stenocercus crassicaudatus, which occurs allopatrically in the Andes of southeastern Peru, departamento Cusco. In addition to several scale counts, Stenocercus torquatus differs from S. crassicaudatus in having a black antehumeral collar, two black transverse bands anterior to the antehumeral collar, a shorter tail, the ability to change color, and an arboreal life-style.
 
Rattlesnakes were active between late March and early October. Heaviest feeding (17% of snakes with food or fecal material) occurred during June-August. Prey consisted of rodents (91% by occurrence, 9 species), shrews (5%, 1 species), and birds (4%, 4 species). Neonates and small juveniles preyed on the smallest mammals; adults fed on larger prey and a greater diversity of species. Gravid females greatly restricted their summer movements and usually did not feed during gestation or after parturition. Body weight stability and higher survival of gravid females suggest that their sedentary lifestyle minimizes weight loss during gestation and lessens risks to predation. -from Author
 
We used data from 10 years of continuous, concurrent monitoring of oak toads at eight isolated, ephemeral ponds in Florida longleaf pine-wiregrass uplands to address: (1) did weather variables affect movement patterns of oak toads?; (2) did pond hydrology and the condition of surrounding uplands affect pond selection by adults or juvenile recruitment?; (3) were population trends evident?; and (4) did a classical metapopulation model best represent their population ecology? Of 4076 oak toads captured, 92.2% were adults. Substantial (n > or = 30 exiting juveniles) recruitment occurred only three times (once each at three ponds during two years). Males outnumbered females (average for all years 2.3:1). Most captures occurred during May-September. Adult captures during June-August increased with heavier rainfall but were not influenced by the durations of preceding dry periods. Movement patterns of metamorphs suggested that oak toads emigrated when moisture conditions become favorable. Pond use by adults was correlated with maximum change in pond depth (May-September). Juvenile recruitment was negatively correlated with minimum pond depth and the number of weeks since a pond was last dry, and positively correlated with the maximum number of weeks a pond held water continuously. The number of breeding adults and juvenile recruitment were highest at ponds within the hardwood-invaded upland matrix. The direction of most immigrations and emigrations was nonrandom, but movement occurred from all directions, and the mean direction of pond entry and exit did not always correspond. A total of 21.1% of individuals was recaptured; 13.3% of first captures were recaptured during the same year, and 7.7% during a subsequent year. Only 1.9% of captured oak toads moved among ponds, mostly within a distance of 132 m. We did not detect adult population trends over the 10-yr studied. Presence or absence at ponds in any given year was a poor indicator of overall use. We saw little evidence of local extinction or "rescue," but were unable to determine whether juveniles returned to natal ponds or colonized new ponds for breeding as adults. Oak toad conservation can best be ensured by maintaining multiple ponds within a landscape to increase the probability of recruitment within the landscape neighborhood during at least some years and at some ponds, and to increase the likelihood of inter-pond movement.
 
Several aspects of escape behavior are predictable by escape theory based on expected costs due to predation risk and escaping. Although the function of pursuit-deterrent signaling is to dissuade predators from attack, relatively little is known about relationships between specific components of escape and the signaling behavior. I studied effects of the risk factor distance from refuge on flight initiation distance, distance fled, probability of entering refuge, and the distance between predator (an approaching human) and prey when pursuit-deterrent display begins (display distance) in the Cuban curly-tailed lizard (Leiocephalus carinatus). I also investigated whether starting distance (distance between predator and prey when approach begins) affects escape behaviors. As predicted by escape theory, flight initiation distance and distance fled were greater and refuge entry was less probable at greater distance from refuge, indicating that qualitative predictions of escape theory apply to pursuit deterrent signalers. Starting distance did not affect escape behaviors, presumably because it did not affect perceived risk, but might do so at a faster approach speed. Display distance and flight initiation distance were identical in the data set analyzed, but individuals sometimes perform tail displays prior to fleeing. Interspecific variation in the timing of pursuit-deterrent displays is discussed, as are possible reasons for observed differences in the effect of starting distance.
 
We describe a new species of Cochranella from the Cordillera de Carpish, Departmento Huánuco, Peru. The new species is placed in the Cochranella ocellata group and can be distinguished from all other species of Cochranella by having: (1) small white and dark purple spots on the dorsum; (2) a snout slightly protruding to truncate in lateral aspect; (3) and basal webbing between Fingers III and IV.
 
—Linkage disequilibrium tests between pairs of loci across all populations sampled. 
We used in microsatellite loci to examine rangewide population structure and interpopulation gene flow in the federally threatened Coachella Valley fringe-toed lizard ( Uma inornata ). Our results indicate low population differentiation consistent with high gene flow, recent colonization and range expansion, and/ or frequent local extirpation/recolonization events. Given high historical gene flow among populations and current isolation of remaining populations, conservation planning for this species should include monitoring of potential deleterious effects that may result from reduction in gene flow, such as inbreeding and loss of genetic variation, to ensure maintenance of ecological and evolutionary population processes adequate for long-term survival of the species. Organismic and Evolutionary Biology
 
We describe two new species of Proctoporus and a new species of Euspondylus (all from central Peru, Departamento de Huanuco, 2545 to 3010 m elevation). The new species are distinguished from all species presently assigned to Proctoporus and Euspondylus by unique characteristics of pholidosis, morphometrics, and color pattern. A key to the Peruvian species of Proctoporus and Euspondylus is provided. The current allocation of species to Proctoporus and Euspondylus may not reflect the phylogenetic relationships of the species under consideration. Based on the available data there appears to be no evidence to justify the separation of these genera. However, because of nomenclatural problems that would arise from synonymizing the two genera (e.g., producing a secondary homonymy in the case of Proctoporus guentheri Boettger and Ecpleopus guentheri O'Shaughnessy), we chose to retain the two genera until phylogenetic information is available.
 
Studies of lizard foraging modes and their correlates have led to major advances hi our understanding of the evolution of lizard taxonomic, morphological, physiological, ecological and behavioral diversity,. Although two basic foraging modes, ambush and active foraging, have been recognized, variability in foraging movements among species has led to controversies about their existence and the complexity Mid continuity of foraging behaviors. The variables central to the controversies are number of movements per minute and percent time moving. A third variable, the average duration per bout Of movement, has been neglected. For 80 species I show that average duration, like the other variables, is continuous, unimodal, and lognormally distributed. Average duration is highly correlated with percent time moving, but only weakly with number of movements per minute. In discriminant function analysis and cluster analyses, average duration performed slightly worse at separating species by mode than percent time moving as a single variable and in combination with movements per minute. Because it is so highly correlated with percent time moving, average duration cannot be used as a third axis of a multivariable foraging space, but a variable indicating the variability, of movement duration might provide new insights. Species for which modes were misclassified had percent time moving close to 10%. Average duration data support earlier reports that some gekkonids have unusually long-lasting movements for ambush foragers, yet remain immobile for long intervals between movements.
 
—Macrohabitat composition of Cline Fen. Black triangles represent all snake locations across all four years of the study. A single triangle may represent more than one location if an individual did not move between successive sightings. 381 total triangles; 2.6% agriculture, 6.6% old field, 7.3% Eupatorium/Solidago, 15.5% sedge tussocks, 16.5% shoreline, 21.8% shrub/scrub, 29.7% cattails. See text for more complete description of habitat.  
The eastern massasauga, Sistrurus c. catenatus, is a small rattlesnake threatened with extirpation throughout its range. Massasaugas occur in a variety of habitats and adequate knowledge of their natural history at local scales is essential for effective management. We used radiotelemetry to document patterns of movement and macrohabitat selection of massasaugas in a fen environment, an important, but understudied, habitat. Based on both 100% minimum convex polygons and 95% kernel density, seasonal home ranges of males were larger than those of nongravid females which, in turn, were larger than those of gravid females. Activity center estimations followed the same trend as the seasonal range estimations. Similarly, activity centers (50% kernel density) of males were larger than those of nongravid females which were larger than those of gravid females. Nongravid females and gravid females differed in their mean frequency of daily movement, distance moved per day and total distance moved in a season. Males also differed from gravid females in these three regards, but only differed from nongravid females in distance moved per day. Compositional analysis of both 100% MCPs and 95% kernel densities indicated a preference for emergent wetland vegetation by all individuals; however, wooded areas and meadows were used to a lesser extent.
 
Many techniques commonly used by herpetologists for monitoring amphibian populations and communities yield censuses of the total adult population size (N). However, for many studies, e.g., of reproductive output, development of populations and potential for evolutionary changes, the effective population size (Ne) must be known. While modern molecular techniques make it possible to measure Ne, they are expensive, work-intensive and may not be possible or necessary for many questions on amphibian reproduction. For females of two species of water frog (Rana lessonae and R. esculenta), we investigate the effectiveness of several techniques to determine the presence or absence of eggs. The direct methods are (1)dissection of dead frogs and (2) a small skin incision into the abdominal side of live females. The indirect methods, all applied to live frogs, include (3) visual inspection of body shape, (4) tactile inspection of the epidermis, (5) transillumination with a strong cold light source, (6) ultrasound, (7) electromagnetic measurement of total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC), (8) calculation of body condition index and (9) analysis of blood plasma testosterone titers. Only two indirect methods were somewhat successful at predicting whether females were gravid. Testosterone titers (9) yielded the best results (ca.80–90% effective). Body condition (8) was also significantly related to egg presence or absence, but predicted gravidity only weakly. We suggest that a combination of skin incision and hormone analysis provides a fairly good estimate of gravidity. When complemented by mark-recapture techniques and performed on the same individuals at different times of the season, this combination yields estimates not only of the reproductive output of the study population but also of the relative contribution of different females.
 
—Localities for Typhlops lumbricalis species group in the Bahamas and Cuba: solid circles, Typhlops lumbricalis; solid squares, Typhlops oxyrhinus; open squares, Typhlops cf. silus; semisolid squares, T. oxyrhinus and Typhlops cf. silus; solid triangle, Typhlops pachyrhinus. (A) Bahamas islands and Cuban archipelago; (B) eastern provinces from Cuba.  
—Dorsal and lateral views of the head scutellation (bar 5 2 mm) in one Typhlops cubae syntype (MNHN 3218).  
The taxonomic status of Typhlops lumbricalis is discussed. Populations of Typhlops lumbricalis (sensu stricto) are redescribed and restricted to the Bahamas islands. Two new Cuban species associated with T. lumbricalis are described. The new species are medium in size; rostral in dorsal view is a narrow to broad oval, preocular contacting third supralabial only, low middorsal scale count (<300), 20 scale rows anteriorly and reducing to 18 posteriorly at around midbody. These can be placed within the T. lumbricalis species group and a key to the West Indian species is presented.
 
We review the taxonomic status of Oligodon arnensis (Shaw 1802) after examining all the name-bearing types of its synonyms, and evaluating morphological and biogeographic evidence. Oligodon arnensis sensu lato is widely distributed throughout Peninsular India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, and Bangladesh. We demonstrate that southern, eastern, and western populations in India represent three distinct species. Oligodon arnensis sensu stricto described from Arnee (now Arani), Tamil Nadu, southern India, is distributed in southern India up to 1500 m above sea level. Oligodon albiventer G¨unther 1864 and Simotes russellii var. ceylonensis M¨uller 1887 described from Sri Lanka closely match O. arnensis sensu stricto, and hence we treat them as junior synonyms. We resurrect Coluber russelius Daudin 1803 from the synonymy of O. arnensis, designate a lectotype, and restrict its type locality to Vizagapatam (now Visakhapatnam), Andhra Pradesh, eastern Peninsular India. Based on morphological differences we describe a new species from Kurduvadi, in the Deccan plateau of western India representing the western Indian population of O. arnensis sensu lato. We provide redescriptions for O. arnensis sensu stricto and O. russelius comb. nov. based on museum specimens, as both were named based on illustrations (iconotypes). Based on our update of the currently confirmed localities for O. arnensis, O. russelius comb. nov. and the new species, we discuss their biogeography and conservation status.
 
The tricarinate skink Scincus multifasciatus was described by Kuhl in 1820, without the subsequent designation of a type specimen or specific type locality. In 1930, Mertens assigned the type locality as Java, Indonesia, but still with no type specimen. Therefore, in order to stabilize the name with a recognized type specimen, we designate a neotype for Eutropis multifasciata from western Java, and we accept Merten’s type locality assignment. We examined all the available synonym type voucher specimens of E. multifasciata and associated subspecies deposited in museum collections throughout Europe, Indonesia, and India. Examination of the types of E. m. balinensis and E. m. tjendikianensis show nearly identical to the forma typica. Hence, we synonymize both subspecies to E. multifasciata. We compared the holotypes of E. macrophthalma (type locality: Java) and E. grandis (type locality: Sulawesi). Interestingly, the two species are morphologically and genetically nearly identical, and there are no diagnostic characters for their separation. Thus, we synonymize E. grandis with E. macrophthalma. The two type specimens of E. macrophthalma reached Europe from Java, through commercial animal trade, hence their type locality ‘‘Java’’ is suspicious. Eutropis macrophthalma has never been recorded from Java and the two type specimens probably originated in Sulawesi, from which museum vouchered specimens with precise locality are known. We consider E. macrophthalma to be a Sulawesi endemic, and conclude that the recorded type locality, Java, is erroneous.
 
Since 1967, the name Cnemidophorus tesselatus (Say, 1823) has been in use for a hybrid-derived complex of whiptail lizards known to include both diploid and triploid parthenogenetic populations distributed in parts of Colorado, Oklahoma, New Mexico, Arizona, Texas, and Chihuahua (México). Application of new binomial nomenclature to additional populations in the complex has long been delayed by philosophical disagreement among workers as to what constitutes a parthenogenetic species of Cnemidophorus in addition to the daunting operational challenge of constructing workable diagnoses for arguably different populations. We concur with a body of opinion that, presently, C. dixoni Scudday, 1973 is the appropriate name for certain disjunct diploid populations of lizards in Hidalgo County, New Mexico, and Presidio County, Texas, despite the fact that some workers continue to allocate these populations to C. tesselatus. We have redefined the remaining diploid populations derived from hybridization between C marmoratus marmoratus (=C tigris) and C. gularis septemvittatus (=C. septemvittatus) as an evolutionary species for which the name C. tesselatus was available. To affect stability in the assignment of this name, we designate a neotype and rediagnose the taxon which is geographically distributed in the states previously noted for the complex We allocate triploid populations derived from hybridization between normally parthenogenetic C. tesselatus and gonochoristic C. sexlineatus to a cytogenetically and morphologically distinct new species restricted to parts of four counties in southeastern Colorado. We found no evidence that the triploid population of lizards in and near Ninemile Valley of the Purgatoire River, Otero County, Colorado should be assigned to a second triploid species as was recommended by some previous authors. All specimens of C. dixoni, C. tesselatus, and the new triploid species were identifiable by highly diagnostic features of dorsal color and/or pattern (i.e , configuration of the stripes on the body and pattern of spots and/or bars on the body, posterior surfaces of the thighs, and base of the tail) evident under both field and laboratory conditions. Each of these species includes either distinctive classes of color pattern or morphological variants subject to further evaluation for taxonomic recognition. Sympatry between C. tesselatus and the triploid species was noted only in and near Ninemile Valley, Colorado; sympatry between C. tesselatus and C dixoni has been reported only in Pinto Canyon, Presidio County, Texas.
 
-Helicops apiaka sp. nov. (holotype, UFMT-R 8512): (A) dorsal, (B) ventral and (C) lateral views of the head; scales ¼ 10 mm.
-Continued.
-Helicops apiaka sp. nov. (holotype, UFMT-R 8512): general dorsal (above) and ventral (below) views in preservative. Snout-vent length, 337 mm; tail length, 214 mm.
-Helicops apiaka sp. nov. (UFMT-R 8180), live specimen from Paranaíta municipality, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, with a detail of ventral coloration (lower right corner).
-Sulcate (A) and asulcate (B) sides of the hemipenis of Helicops apiaka sp. nov. (paratype, UFMT-R 8497); scale ¼ 10 mm.
We describe a new species of Helicops from the southern Amazon Basin in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. It differs from all congeners by having dorsal scales in 21/21/19 rows in males and 23/21/19 rows in females, subcaudal keels, a banded dorsal color pattern, and 14—19 ventral blotches. Besides presenting information on the lepidosis and morphometric variation, we also describe the hemipenis and discuss the known distribution of the new species.
 
—Map of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region showing the type locality of Cyrtopodion dadunense and collection localities of the other two species of Cyrtopodion recorded from Xinjiang.  
Herein we describe a new species of the gekkonid genus Cyrtopodion from Dadun, a town between Toksun County and Turpan City, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Western China. It differs from congeners in China and adjacent countries by the combination of nostril bordered by rostral, first supralabial, one supranasal, and two subequal postnasals; dorsal tubercles arranged in regular longitudinal rows; 23-26 ventral scales across mid-abdomen; 97-108 scales along the ventrum of body from postmental to cloaca; 18-22 subdigital lamella beneath fourth toe; 8-10 precloacal pores in males; caudal tubercles broadly in contact laterally with each other; a single row of transversally enlarged subcaudals; dorsal bands in waving shape, much thinner than interspaces.
 
—Dorsal (A), lateral (B), and ventral (C) views of the head of the holotype of Bachia remota sp. nov. (IEPA 777). Bar represents 10 mm.  
—Dorsal (A) and ventral (B) views of the holotype of Bachia remota sp. nov. (IEPA 777). Bar represents 10 mm.  
—Ventral views of forelimb (A), hindlimb (B), and preanal plate (C) of the holotype of Bachia remota (IEPA 777). Bar represents 2 mm.  
A new species of Bachia of the B. heteropa group is described from the Parque Nacional Montanhas do Tumucumaque in northeastern Amazonia, Amapá State, Brazil. The new species morphologically resembles B. heteropa and B. guianensis. Nonetheless, the absence of interparietal and prefrontal scales, and the number of supraciliary scales, can distinguish the new species from its close relatives. This description increases the species diversity of the B. heteropa group after a number of decades of stasis in the taxonomy of this group in Amazonia. In addition, we present an updated key to the groups of Bachia, including the species and subspecies of the B. heteropa group.
 
-Dorsal (A) and ventral (B) views of the adult male holotype of Rabdion grovesi sp. nov. (MZB 2679) photographed in life at the collection locality. 
-Morphometric, meristic, and morphological traits of Rabdion forsteni and Rabdion grovesi sp. nov. based on examined materials (Appendix). Measurements are in millimeters. * 5 includes syntypes. 
-An adult Rabdion forsteni (RMB 2532) photographed in life in the Province of South Sulawesi, Indonesia. 
-Comparative sketches of the two species of Rabdion (shaded scales indicate morphological differences between species). Dorsal (A) and lateral (C) views of the head of Rabdion forsteni (syntype, MNHN 7210; note the narrow rostral, three posterior temporals, and nasal in contact with first supralabial). Dorsal (B), lateral (D), and ventral (E) views of the head, and ventral view of the tail base (F) of Rabdion grovesi sp. nov. (holotype, MZB 2679; note the wide rostral, two posterior temporals, and nasal in contact with first and second supralabials). FIG. 4.-Collection localities for specimens of Rabdion forsteni (circles) and Rabdion grovesi sp. nov. (square) on Sulawesi, Indonesia. 
We describe a new species of the genus Rabdion based on morphological evidence. The new species, Rabdion grovesi sp. nov., is restricted to South Sulawesi, whereas Rabdion forsteni is widely distributed on the rest of Sulawesi (Indonesia). Rabdion grovesi sp. nov. differs from R. forsteni by having a broader, shallower, and rounded rostral (vs. narrow, deep, and pointed); nasal touched by first and second supralabials (vs. first only); temporals 1 + 2 (vs. 1 + 3); 192 ventrals (vs. 130–157 in males and 152–160 in females); elongate (vs. shorter) dorsal scales; and a bluish gray dorsum (vs. grayish brown) in preservative. Finally, we provide a complete redescription for R. forsteni based on the subadult female syntype, MNHN 7210.
 
-Larvae touching the mother prior to nutritive egg deposition. 
Males of Anotheca spinosa call from water filled tree holes or bromeliad leaf axils. I used water filled containers to study the reproduction and parental care of this species in captivity. Between 48 and 311 eggs (x̄ = 157.8) were laid in a single, discontinuous layer above the water surface. The male abandoned the container immediately or 6-7 days after oviposition. Few eggs were fertilized and only 1-25 larvae per clutch hatched. The female subsequently returned to the container depositing eggs either above the water when the male was still present or under the water surface when the male was absent. The unfertilized eggs were eaten by the larvae. She returned in intervals of 1-14 (x̄ = 4.85) days feeding larvae as long as they touched and slightly sucked her skin during her visits. If this behavior was interrupted by metamorphosis or experimentally, the female did not lay unfertilized eggs but approached a calling male. Metamorphosis was reached after 60-136 days, depending on the number of larvae present. Larvae that did not receive nutritive eggs regularly either starved and were eaten by their siblings or survived until the latter had completed metamorphosis, at which time they were able to obtain nutritive eggs again.
 
Based on phylogenetic and morphological characters, we revise the systematics of the natricid genus Fowlea in Sri Lanka, comprising two morphospecies. The taxonomy of the Sri Lankan populations has long been controversial, and one of the species has, for more than a decade, been listed as Xenochrophis cf. piscator. Although the Sri Lankan populations are morphologically allied to Fowlea piscator in India, they are genetically highly divergent from the eastern Indian F. piscator sensu lato with a p-distance of 9.9–12.3%, and from southwestern Indian Fowlea species with a p-distance of 4.9–11.1% in the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Here, we resurrect M ̈uller’s (1887) variety, Tropidonotus quincunciatus var. unicolor, as a distinct taxon, elevate it to the species level, and assign it to the genus Fowlea. Therefore, the population so far recognized as X. cf. piscator will be treated hereafter as F. unicolor and we redescribe it and its holotype (by monotypy). We tentatively restrict this species to Sri Lanka and state the possibility of a population in southern India too. The second distinct species, Fowlea asperrima, which is endemic to Sri Lanka, has long been confused with its sympatric congener, F. unicolor comb. nov., and we designate a lectotype and redescribe it herein. Currently, nine species of the genus Fowlea are now recognized, but it is likely that further species (including those regarded as subjective synonyms) remain unrecognized
 
-Geographic distribution of eight operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of the Bunopus tuberculatus used in this study. OTU 1 5 , OTU 2 5 , OTU 3 5 , OTU 4 5 , OTU 5 5 , OTU 6 5 , OTU 7 5 , OTU 8 5. Delineation of OTUs is described in Table 1. 
-Ordination of the first (PC1) and second (PC2) principal components for morphometric characters of individual of all operational taxonomic units of Bunopus tuberculatus sampled from Iran. Delineation of OTUs is described in Table 1. 
-Factor loadings on the first three principal components (PC) extracted from a correlation matrix for meristic characters in the eight studied populations of Bunopus tuberculatus sampled from Iran. 
-Standardized canonical coefficients (CV) for specimens of all OTUs of the Bunopus tuberculatus belonging to four a priori groups. See text for descriptions of character abbreviations. 
-Factor loadings of the first three principal components (PCs) extracted from a correlation matrix of 10 morphometric characters in the eight studied operational taxonomic units of Bunopus tuberculatus. 
A species with populations that occur in variety of habitats might be expected to exhibit variation in morphological traits across its distribution. Based on our examination of 95 specimens of Bunopus tuberculatus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) collected across its range within Iran, we describe the geographic variation in meristic traits and morphology. Values for traits were compared using principal component analysis and discriminant function analysis. None of the populations showed sexual dimorphism in morphometric or meristic characters. One-way analyses of variance revealed that differences exist in most characters among populations. Additionally, canonical variable analyses indicate that the sampled populations of B. tuberculatus are divided into four distinct forms: (1) western and southwestern populations, (2) southern populations, (3) the population of Bampoor, and (4) eastern populations. Our results provide a comparative baseline that will help to resolve the complicated taxonomy of B. tuberculatus across the rest of its distribution in southwest Asia and the Arabian Peninsula.
 
We investigated annual reproductive and fat body cycles of Agama impalearts in the central Jbilet Mountains (Morocco) throughout 1993 and 1994. The breeding season is relatively long, beginning around mid-March (just after emergence from winter dormancy) and lasting 6-7 months. Development of the testes and epididymis were synchronous; testes volume and epididymis diameter reached maximum sizes during April-July and then showed a postreproductive regression throughout late summer and during autumn. Follicle and oviduct diameters were largest in females between May and August. Fat body size showed similar annual changes during the two years of study. However, in females lipid stores remained at a very low level during spring and summer 1993, coincident with the relatively low winter rainfall. Male fat bodies were largest during the spring mating period and just after the summer reproductive period. Oviposition took place between late May and early September, and the first hatchlings appeared in mid-July after an incubation period up to two months; 44.4% and 51.49% of females collected in late spring, respectively in 1993 and 1994, simultaneously contained oviductal eggs and vitellogenic ovarian follicles, suggesting production of two clutches per year. Larger females produced larger clutches than smaller females (r = 0.53, F(1.37) = 18.7, P <0.001). Clutch size varied from 5-23 (x̄ = 14 eggs) and did not show any significant interannual difference. The frequency of adult females that were gravid in May-June was very high (94.4% and 100% for 1993 and 1994, respectively); 67% and 57% of these laid a second clutch, respectively. There was considerable sexual dimorphism in size; males were heavier and larger than females in body size, limb lengths, and head length, but not in head width.
 
Many natural history characteristics of agamid and iguanian lizards suggest that these closely related groups occupy similar kinds of niches in the Old and New World, respectively. Do these similarities also include physiological properties? We measured field metabolic rates and water flux rates, with doubly labeled water, in Bibron's agama (Agama impalearis) during the breeding season in the field in Morocco, and compared these with values expected from regressions for an iguanian lizard having a similar autecology. Water influx and field metabolic rates of Bibron's agamas during our study were much higher than in iguanian lizards and tended to be higher than in other agamids as well. The unusual occurrence of rain showers during our measurements triggered much above-ground activity of termites, and this may have stimulated agamas to feed voraciously. Diet analyses revealed that termites were the major food consumed and that termites had unusually high water contents (80% water) for insects, providing abundant water to the agamas. The lizards apparently did not drink rain water. Rates of water influx (ml/day) in Bibron's agama and in four other desert-dwelling agamid lizards scaled with body mass (in grams) according to the relation ml/day = 0.0835 g0.777 (r2 = 0.64), which differs from the relationship for desert-dwelling sceloporine lizards (ml/day = 0.0380 g0.767 r2 = 0.53).
 
—Plotted results of principal component (PC) analyses showing morphometric separation between five species of arboreal toads: Pedostibes tuberculosus (open diamonds), Rentapia hosii (filled circles), R. everetti (open circles), Bufoides meghalayanus (open squares), and B. kempi (filled squares). (A) PC1 vs. PC2; (B) PC1 vs. PC3; (C) PC1 vs. PC4; (D) PC1 vs. PC5.  
-Factor loadings and the percentage of variance explained by a principal components analysis of morphometric values from five species of arboreal toads in Southeast Asia.
-Comparison of the characters of the morphologically similar species of arboreal toads formerly assigned to the genus Pedostibes.
—Dorsal aspect of the bodies of five species of arboreal toads collected from southern and Southeast Asia: (A) holotype of Rentapia hosii BMNH 1947.2.19.29; (B) holotype of R. everetti BMNH 1947.2.18.27; (C) holotype of Rentapia rugosa (junior synonym of R. everetti) FMNH 81297; (D) a syntype of Pedostibes tuberculosus BMNH 1947.2.22.70; (E) a voucher specimen of Bufoides meghalayanus (WII uncatalogued); and (F) a syntype of Nectophryne kempi (ZSI 18481A). In each panel, bar 5 5 mm. A color version of this figure is available online.  
-Collection localities for five species of arboreal toads in Southeast Asia, modified after Chan et al. (2016): Bufoides kempi (open square, type locality), B. meghalayanus (closed square, type locality), Pedostibes tuberculosus (closed circles), Rentapia everetti (open triangle, type locality of R. rugosa with a dot in the middle), and R. hosii (open circles, type locality with a dot in the middle).
We reassessed the taxonomic status of an Asian genus of arboreal bufonids, Pedostibes, based on examination of preserved material of the two species currently attributed to this genus. Analysis of their morphological, morphometric, and geographic distribution data revealed that Pedostibes tuberculosus, the type species of this genus from the Western Ghats, southwestern India, is morphologically distinct from the geographically separated member, P. kempi, which is distributed in northeastern India. Hence, the generic nomen Pedostibes is restricted to the type species, rendering it a monotypic genus from the Western Ghats of peninsular India. A re-examination and detailed comparisons of the types of P. kempi with other bufonid genera revealed morphological similarities with another geographically proximate toad, Bufoides meghalayanus, from northeastern India. Hence, this taxon is formally transferred herein to Bufoides with a redescription. The composition of the recently described Southeast Asian toad genus Rentapia is reevaluated and the name-bearing type specimens of the currently ascribed taxa are redescribed. A detailed examination of the types of Rentapia everetti and R. rugosa revealed morphological congruence coupled with geographic sympatry. Hence, the latter nomen is synonymized with R. everetti in accordance with the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature principle of priority.
 
The genus Corythomantis was monotypic for over 100 yr, encompassing only the species C. greeningi. In 2012, a second species, C. galeata, was described, but this species was recently reassigned to Nyctimantis, rendering Corythomantis once again monotypic. The geographic distribution of C. greeningi covers the Caatinga and Cerrado biomes from northeast Brazil, with a western limit in Tocantins state and a southern limit in Minas Gerais state. Here we demonstrate the existence of a second species of Corythomantis through molecular, acoustic, and morphological data. The new species differs in morphology from C. greeningi in head shape and tibia coloration. The new species has an advertisement call with shorter duration, higher pulse rate, and different acoustic structure. Mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) data show a genetic divergence from C. greeningi of 2.88% in the 16S ribosomal DNA gene and 14.06% in the cytochrome oxidase I gene. The geographic distribution of the new species is restricted to the Espinhaço Mountain Range at elevations from 315 to 930 m above sea level.
 
A low reproductive frequency and probable female frog harvest bias suggest that historical populations could not withstand harvest at pre-1900 levels. The decline in frog harvest observed from 1899-1940 supports this idea. Population depletion and a persisting demand for frogs were probably the inducements to import and introduce bullfrogs. -from Authors
 
The Philippine parachute gecko, Ptychozoon intermedium, originally described from a single specimen that was destroyed during World War II, is redescribed on the basis of all available museum specimens and newly acquired material from the island of Mindanao, Philippines. This Philippine endemic differs from its congeners by the combination of large size at maturity (snout-to-vent length = 68.6-99.8 mm), 8-12 pore-bearing preanal and 12-19 pore-bearing femoral scales; the usual presence of flat or slightly convex dorsal tubercles; denticulate dermal expansions along the tail ending in a small terminal flap (at most slightly larger than nearest lobe) with limited lobe fusion on its proximal edge; three transverse wavy bands in dorsal axilla-groin distance; and various body, proportions. We designate a neotype from Davao City Province, Mindanao, and describe the parachuting escape behavior of this secretive Philippine gecko.
 
We describe a new species of wide-disked ranine frog from Aurora National Park anti possibly Mt. Cetaceo, two montane localities within the geologically distinct Sierra Madres coastal mountain range, eastern Luzon Island, Philippines. This endemic differs from Philippine congeners in the R. everetti species group by the combination of a relatively small body size, the presence of densely distributed asperities throughout the skin of most males, a translucent tympanum in females and most males, an iridescent green dorsum with black spots or faint reticulum in males and an iridescent green to golden dorsum with distinctive brown reticulum in females. In addition to the new species, we support the designation of Rana everetti, R. luzonensis, and R. albotuberculata as distinct evolutionary species, and we resurrect R. igorota from the synonymy of R. everetti luzonensis.
 
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Richard Shine
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