Helia

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Efficacy of a synthetic detergent “Surf Excel” as a potential male gametocide in Helianthus annuus was evaluated. Foliar applications of three concentrations of “Surf Excel” solution (1.0, 2.0 and 3.0% w/v) at different plant development stages caused reduction in plant height, pollen fertility, total yield/ plant, 100-seed weight and brought about early flowering in comparison with control plants. All treatments with “Surf Excel” solution caused elongation of the style in floral buds resulting in protrusion of receptive stigmas from the buds, which facilitated cross-pollination by honeybees. The plants sprayed once with 1% “Surf Excel” solution exhibited protruded receptive stigmas and 99.87% pollen sterility along with insignificant reduction in total yield in comparison with control plants.
 
Scatter plots of seed length against kernel length in the F 2 (left) and F 3 (right) generations.
a: The genetic linkage map and locations of the QTL detected in both generations. Designations of markers are on the right and genetic distances (cM) are on the left.
Information on fixed and arbitrary primers used in the current study
This paper reports the results of analyzing the quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying sunflower seed morphological traits in a segregating population derived from an oilseed by confection cross. A linkage map containing 165 target region amplification polymorphism (TRAP) and 44 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers was constructed from 120 F2 plants. This map contained 17 linkage groups and spanned a total genetic distance of 1784.3 cM. A total of 52 QTL for 12 seed traits were detected and 32 of them were identified in both F2 and F2:3 generations. Each QTL explained 5.1-29.3% of the phenotypic variation, suggesting these traits were controlled by multiple genes. Most of the QTL were clustered in seven chromosomal regions and four of these regions were located in the same chromosomal regions as previously reported by other researchers studying similar QTL. Moreover, alleles from the confection line at these QTL had positive effects on these traits. The information generated by this study could be useful in confection sunflower breeding.
 
The aim of storage is to preserve properties of products and their freshness. If suitable storage conditions aren't supplied according to product variety, quality and quantity losses increase. Decreasing this losses is possible with providing suitable storage condition and storage management. In this study, sunflower storage buildings in the Thrace Region were examined. Influences of storage condition on product losses were investigated. The study was conducted in one of the Thrace Union's reinforced concrete store, temporary store and a model store having aeration system built specificly for this research in Tekirdag Agricultural Faculty's area. Temperature and relative humidity of the sunflower mass as storage conditions in the stores and moisture content, oil content and free fatty acids contents as quality parameters were monitored during the storage. According to the results of experiments in selected stores, the worst storage conditions and the most quality losses were determined in the concrete store, on the other hand the most suitable conditions and the least losses were determined in model store. © 2005, by Walter de Gruyter Berlin/Boston. All rights reserved.
 
Hybrid Rada was developed with simple cross of Bulgarian line cms2607 and mutant line 12002 R. Mutant line was developed after treatment of immature sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) zygotic embryos of fertility restorer line R 2574 with gamma irradiation at dose of 8 Gy for 1 min. Hybrid Rada was tested for three years in testing plots of Dobroudja Agricultural Institute – General Toshevo and for two years at the seven locations of State Variety Testing Commission. The ANOVA procedure proves that the parents (2607 A and 12002 R) and the received hybrid Rada are with different genetic potential in the studied indices. In our study, all six characters recorded positive and significant heterosis in the direction of both relative to parental average (h1) and relative to better parent (h2). The correlations of the hybrid Rada with the mean values of the parental lines (h1) and with the mean value of the parent with higher indices (h2) were statistically significant. In h1, the variation was from 1.52% to 17.92%; in h2, the variation was within 1.49–12.81%. The highest positive heterotic effect (h1 = 17.92%) in the hybrid Rada was for trait seed yield per head relative to parental average h1. The model of inheritance of studied indices is additive dominant with partial or full dominance in relation to parent with the higher value. This was markedly expressed for indices seed yield per head.
 
Occurrence of broomrape races in region of north-east Bulgaria (in %) 
Occurrence of broomrape (in %)-average values for all observed Bulgarian regions 
Highest percent of broomrape attack in the investigated fields 
In order to determine the race composition and distribution of broomrape in Bulgaria during the period 2007-2011, samples (seeds) of the parasite were collected in 116 different locations from the main sunflower production regions. The collected seeds were used to infect differential sets of genotypes by a standard methodology. According to the results obtained from this investigation, the broomrape population in Bulgaria includes 4 races: E, F, G and H. Races E and G were most widely distributed. During the years of investigation race E gradually decreased its percentage in the population but was still predominant in the region of north-east Bulgaria while becoming almost equal with race G in the region of central north Bulgaria. In south-east Bulgaria, the population included only race G, which will probably increase its percentage in other regions as well in the upcoming years. Race F was of sporadic occurrence. It was isolated in single years, its distribution was limited and there is no danger of its mass occurrence. The population identified as race H was isolated only in 2007. This population may be considered a "primary" source of infection that will be expanding from now on; for the time being, however, it is localized on a very small area.
 
The climatic changes during the recent years and the general usage in the agricultural practice of resistant varieties and hybrids are the main reasons for the limited distribution of downy mildew on sunflower (Plasmopara halstedii Farl. Berlese ét de Toni) in Bulgaria. The disease has occurrence only in separate locations, with a low percentage of attack - up to 10%. Our investigations showed that the current situation stimulated the pathogen to develop new races. Thus, for example, during 1988-2000, i.e., over a period of 12 years, only two downy mildew races were identified in Bulgaria. Now, however, there are five: 300, 330, 700, 721, and 731. Race 700 has the largest area of occurrence. This race has been isolated from 20 samples with origin from northern Bulgaria during the years of investigation. Its percentage in the downy mildew population was 45.5%, and it is of the greatest economic significance for sunflower production in this part of the country. Races 721 and 731 were isolated in the last two years. They had equal percentages in the population - 15.9% each, but their area of occurrence was quite different. Race 721 was distributed in south-east Bulgaria, its range of occurrence was large, and it is the most significant race in this region in economic terms. The other new race, 731, was localized only in the region of the Dobroudja Agricultural Institute (DAI) and has currently no economic significance for sunflower production. Race 330 is also a new one for Bulgaria. It was isolated in 2006 in single fields in north Bulgaria and its percentage in the population was 13.6%. Race 300 had the most limited distribution during the last two years - 9.1%. This tendency has been observed for the last few years and most probably race 300 will soon disappear from the downy mildew population.
 
A field experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Slation Bhavanisagar. Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, India during rabi (Sep-Octl seasons 2000 and 2001 to study the pollen use efficiency of sunflower lines CMS 234 A and RITA 6D-1. The experiments consisted of four treatments, 100% pollen (To), 75% pollen plus 25% borax as filler material (T1). 50% pollen plus 50% borax as filler material (T3) and 50% pollen and 50% flour of finger millet (Eleusine coracana L) (T3). The results showed that the treatments were significantly differed from each other. All the traits studied recorded superior performance only at 100% pollen availability: the seed yield was very much increased only with ail assured availability of sufficient pollen fertilization. The mean comparison of the treatments for all the characters was T0>T1>T2>T3. Though the seed yield was reduced to some extent while supplementing pollen with filler material. It was concluded that 75% pollen with 25% borax filler material may be used Instead of lO0% pollen, without affecting die economic yield much in the case of pollen scarcity /pollen insufficiency/ in locations where "pollen theft" is common. Borax can be used as supplement at die time of pollination. The use of flour of finger millet as die filler material in the case of pollen insufficiency during pollination does not have any effect on the seed yield and yield attributing characters. In dial case the yield was affected only below 50% of pollen availability.
 
Citations of articles published in the journal Helia over the past 10 years, as well as the values of two-and five-year impact factors
View countries of origin (according to corresponding authors) and the number of papers published from these countries in the past six-year period
Journal Helia started its "mission" nearly 36 years ago, very unpretentiously, as an information bulletin FAO Research Network on Sunflower, with the founders' intention to allow a quick and easy exchange of knowledge gained from experimental field trials of improving and breeding important oilseed crop species, such as sunflower. With the time passing, the number of scientists gathered around the project development and promotion of sunflower growing under the FAO Research Network on Sunflower has risen slowly but steadily, while the projects have become more extensive, complex and serious. The abundance of scientific research results, realized in the framework of a research network, determined the direction of the evolution journal Helia in scientific journal with internationally recognized quality, peer-reviewed papers and its relatively high ranking in the scientific society. Since the beginning of publishing in Serbia (1990th), the Journal published by the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, as the publisher and editorial office headquarters, was under the auspices of F.A.O. and ISA until the 2006th when the editorial office was transferred to the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts; Branch in Novi Sad, which also assumed the role of the main publisher, while the Institute remained co-publisher. Since 1990 a total of 24 volumes with 47 regular and two extraordinary numbers have been published in the scientific journal HELIA. That is a pretty impressive library with 6900 pages of printed material in 746 scientific papers in English. So far 2125 authors and co-authors of scientific papers from 43 countries from all continents have participated in publishing scientific papers in the journal All submitted manuscripts are subjected to anonymous international review (so-called "single-blind peer review", where the authors of the papers do not know who the reviewers are, but the reviewers know who the authors of the papers are) and published in the journal only after receiving a positive review by two independent reviewers and the final opinion of the editor. Regarding the impact factor of the ISJ Helia in the last 10 years, according to citation indicators of some papers published in the journal, it can be concluded that it has had relatively high levels over the past 10 years, with a trend of significant increase in 2011 and 2012. Focusing on that parameter, and relatively high two- and five-year impact factors in 2011 and 2012, we can be very satisfied about these trends, which have led to our journal being ranked near relatively influential journals on the global level.
 
SUMMARY Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is susceptible to diseases of various kinds. Downy mildew is a destructive disease in many sunflower-growing countries. The disease is mainly seed-transmitted in nature. Hence, in the period 2000-2003, a new emulsion form of metalaxyl fungicide, Apron XL-35 E.S., was evaluated for its efficacy as seed dressing in the management of sunflower downy mildew disease at Oilseeds Research Station, Latur (M.S.). The three years of experimentation revealed that Apron XL-35 E.S. when used for seed dressing at 3 ml/kg of seed could effectively manage downy mildew, without phytotoxic effects.
 
Phyllody in sunflowers ( Helianthus annuus L.) is characterized by the appearance of bracts and ray flowers in the centre of the heads. It has been discussed for decades among the sunflower plant breeders and experts without a clear “unique” explanation for it. The erratic appearance of the phenomena has led to consider it either a disease or hybrid defect and the plants with Phyllody as off-types, raising several farmers claims to seed producers. However, the auxins gradient, in the growing Asteraceae heads, determines the differentiation pathway of the undifferentiated cells. i.e., bracts and ray flowers at the border and disk flowers in the centre of the head. Disruption of the natural auxin gradient alters the cell differentiation in the growing heads and causes bracts and ray flowers to grow where only disk flowers should grow. The disruption of the natural head bottom auxin gradients may be caused by small injures in the fast-growing head receptacle. The most common causes of Phyllody are hormonal herbicide damage and Boron (B) deficiency, even temporary. Plants growing with B deficiency have brittle cell wall and membranes while a plant with high B levels produces plastic or elastic cell wall and membranes. Brittle cell walls are susceptible to breaks during growth. Sunflowers genotypes may react to crack or small damages in the sunflower bud in two ways. Some tend to repair the damages by regrowing new organs such as ligules or bracts and forming Phyllody. Others do not regrow and only heal the wound creating the funnel hole head shape.
 
Areas of detection of Plasmopara halstedii races 713, 733 and 734 in the Krasnodar region (Russian Federation) during 2016 and 2017.
Sunflower differentials used in cross inoculations during testing of new Plasmopara halstedii races.
The samples of Plasmopara halstedii (the causal agent of sunflower downy mildew) were collected on sunflower fields in south of the Russian Federation: in the Krasnodar, Rostov and Stavropol regions, and in the Republic of Adygea in 2016 and 2017. Virulence code of 545 isolates was identified; i. e. 280 isolates originating from 24 fields in 2016, and 265 isolates from 17 fields in 2017. Races 330, 334, 710 and 730, widespread within the region in previous years, were found in all mentioned areas. In addition, races 713, 733 and 734 have been detected in several districts of the Krasnodar region since 2016. This is the first report of these races in Russia and above that the first record throughout Europe and Asia for the races 733 and 734. The identification of new P. halstedii races was confirmed by the method of cross inoculations from individual differential lines. The phenotype corresponding to virulence code 734 was in some cases disclosed as a mixture of race 334 with 710 or 730. The presence of several P. halstedii races on an individual plant was also confirmed for the first time in the territory of the Russian Federation.
 
The target region amplification polymorphism (TRAP) marko- technique was employed to expand the published sunflower simple sequence repeat (SSR) linkage map constructed from a recombinant inbred population derived from the cross of RHA 280 × RHA 801. A previous report described the mapping of 183 TRAP markers generated by using fixed primers designed against the conserved Arabidopsis-type telomere sequence repeat into the above mentioned map of 577 SSR markers. Thirty-two markers were mapped to the outermost positions of the linkage groups, defining 21 of the 34 linkage group ends. This paper reports the integration of an additional 220 TRAP markers onto the same map. These newly added TRAP markers were generated by 23 combinations with fixed primers designed against selected sunflower ESTs showing homology with components of plant disease resistance genes and homeobox genes. The resulting map consists of 980 markers in 17 linkage groups (LG) and the total length is 1920 centiMorgan (cM). Although the average distance between two markers is less than two cM, there are four gaps larger than 20 cM (one in LG2, one in LG4, and two in LG6). The gaps could be due to the lack of polymorphism between the two parental lines in these chromosome regions with respect to the type of markers used in this study.
 
Combining ability studies in oilseed sunflower were undertaken with a set of 5 × 4 line × tester including parents for the characters seed yield, 1000seed weight, days to flowering, days to physiological maturity, plant height, head diameter, stem diameter, oil content, fatty acid content (oleic, linoleic, palmitic, and stearic acids), protein content, seed length, seed width, and hull percentage. General (GCA) and specific combining abilities (SCA) and heterosis of inbred lines and their hybrids were estimated in a line x tester analysis during the first and second crop production seasons in Menemen, Izmir, Turkey. The variances due to GCA and SCA were highly significant for most of the characters in both environments. The ratio (H/D)l/2 and σ 2 GCA/ σ 2 SCA depicted the preponderance of non-additive type gene action for all the characters except plant height, head diameter, seed length, palmitic acid content, and stearic acid content. However, both types of gene action were observed for seed yield, hull percentage, 1000-seed weight, oil content, and stem diameter at stem curve point. In this study, GCA effects were found to be highly significant for all traits, while SCA effects were non-signiflcant for most of the traits. Based on GCA effects in the first and second crop production seasons, the inbreds 0043 cms, 0046 cms, 0195 cms, 0583 cms, 0704 cms, 0708 Rf. 0845 Rf, 0951 Rf, and 1097 Rf exhibited desirable GCA effects and were found to be good general combiners for most of the traits. Thus, they can be exploited by further breeding for developing superior genotypes and hybrids in sunflower.
 
In this study, mitotic effects of gamma rays on Ekiz 1 variety belonging to Helianthus annuus L. (2n= 34) in the MO (first irradiated seeds), M1 and M2 generations have been investigated. Seeds (MO) were irradiated with gamma rays at 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 kR doses. Percentage of total abnormalities in the MO, M1 and M2 generations increased parallel to the increasing dose of radiation. These abnormalites have been observed as C-metaphase, chromosome stickiness, laggards and bridges with or without fragment. Mitotic index (M.I.) in the MO, M1 and M2 generations has decreased parallel to the dose increase. When the generations are compared, both the amounts of decrease in mitotic index and in the percentage of mitotic abnormalities were mostly observed in MO. © 2001, by Walter de Gruyter Berlin Boston. All rights reserved.
 
A field experiment was conducted at Gandhi Krishi Vignana Kendra, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore to study the effect of irrigation regi-mens on the biomass accumulation, canopy development, light interception and radiation use efficiency of sunflower. The treatments includes irrigating the plants at 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 cumulative pan evaporation. The results indicated that the aboveground biomass, canopy development, radiation interception and radiation use efficiency were influenced favorably by the irrigation regimens. Irrespective of the irrigation regimen, the radiation use efficiency of sunflower increased from 15 DAS to 75 DAS and then tended to decline. The decrease in RUE after anthesis is coupled with decrease in leaf nitrogen content. In general the RUE of sunflower ranged from 0.49 g MJ-1 to 1.84 g MJ-1 at different growth stages. The light transmission within the canopy increased exponentially with plant height and the canopy extension coefficient is found to be 0.8.
 
Carduus acanthoides L (spiny plumeless thistle) a biannual wild species with 2 n = 22 chromosomes was crossed with Helianthus annuus L. When crossing, pollen from C . acanthoides germinated and pollinated the stigmas of sunflower lines HA 89A after 48 h. The crossability rate was low, but seeds and hybrid plants were obtained. The F 1 plants strongly resembled the cultivated sunflower with the most important bio-morphological characters, even though they had an intermediate type of heritability. The hybrid nature was confirmed by RAPD markers. The polymorphism between H . annuus , C . acanthoides , and their F 1 hybrids was studied using RAPD. The result showed introgression of C . acanthoides in the hybrid progeny. It was established that the wild species carried Rf genes for the CMS PET-1. After self-pollination and sib-pollination of the F 1 plants and back-crossing with cultivated sunflower, F 2 , BC 1 and next generation hybrid progenies were obtained. The investigation encompassed the period 2000–2007 and 2014–2018. Some of the new lines have been included in a heterosis breeding program for developing hybrids for the sunflower market.
 
Sunflower is attacked by several pathogens that reduce both the quantity and quality of harvested grains. It is necessary to keep evaluating the germ-plasm of this oil crop in order to detect new resistance sources to be included in breeding programs. Different accessions from North Central Regional Plant Introduction Office, Ames, IA, were evaluated for reaction to A. tragopogonis and S. sclerotiorum infections on levaes and capitula, respectively. Under our conditions, statistical analysis showed differential responses to white rust severity, white rot incidence and relative incubation period. Accessions were classified according to their level of resistance to each infection type. A general and favorable association between white rust and white rot performances was absent in the evaluated genetic material. The accession PI 343790 had the highest level of resistance to each quantified variable while the accessions Ames 3224, Ames 4040 and Ames 4050 had the lowest levels of resistance. Applicability of these results in sunflower genetic improvement for resistance to the studied diseases is discussed.
 
Discriminant plot for Jerusalem artichoke accession classification using tuber mineral composition Figure 2: Discriminant plot for Jerusalem artichoke accession classification using leaf mineral composition
Jerusalem artichoke accessions examined for mineral element concentrations
Mann-Whitney test showing variables significant for origin group differentiation
Percentage of correctly classified Jerusalem artichoke accessions using LDA of tuber and leaf mineral composition
Contribution of variables to accessions classification based on tuber mineral composition. A analyzed with included element ratios, B analyzed without element ratios.
Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was used to classify 138 accessions of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.). The analysis was performed using mineral element concentrations of tubers and leaves for N, P, Ca, Mg, K, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu. Higher classification accuracy was obtained using tuber (92.8%) than leaf (78.3%) mineral concentrations. Elements that contributed most to discrimination were Zn, Mg, and Cu for tubers and P, Mg, Zn and Cu for leaves. Accession separation in LDA figures was acceptable. Three distinctive groups that matched accession origins from the USA, Montenegro and cultivars were found according to tuber mineral concentrations. Leaf mineral concentrations provided a LDA graph where accessions from Montenegro and cultivars were grouped in two distinctive groups while accessions from the USA overlapped mostly with cultivars and to a certain degree with Montenegrin accessions. The obtained results indicate that LDA of tuber mineral composition can be useful as an additional tool for classification of Jerusalem artichoke accessions according to their origin using data of five elements (Na, Zn, Mg, Cu, Fe and K).
 
The seed morphology of 38 samples representing O. cumana populations from Republic of Moldova were examined to explore patterns of variation among the accessions. Features of seeds were assessed employing light microscopy and analyzed statistically. The morphological differences in length/width ratio and seed shape in local broomrape populations have been established. The size of seeds ranged from 0.36 ~ 0.42 mm in length, and 0.14~0.18 mm in width. Seeds were generally small, ovoid to elongated in shape. Using one-way test (ANOVA), cluster and principal coordinate analysis, two groups were established by seed characteristics.
 
Chromatograms of inulin in TUB CG 32 (a) and inulin in TUB BP 23 (b)  
Inulin content in selected accessions of Jerusalem artichoke tubers obtained by HPLC
Diagram of cluster analysis considering the content of inulin in tubers of Jerusalem artichoke  
Jerusalem artichoke is an excellent source of inulin. Inulin has valuable nutritional and functional attributes, and therefore it is needed to know inulin content in different accessions of Jerusalem artichoke tubers. We used rapid high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method following water extraction to determine inulin content in Jerusalem artichoke tubers. HPLC conditions included Rezex RCM-monosaccharide Ca2+ column, deionized water as mobile phase and light scattering detection. It was found that inulin content of Jerusalem artichoke tubers ranged from 8.16 to 13.46% of fresh weight. The maximum value of inulin content in 12 accessions of Jerusalem artichoke was detected in TUB CG 32.
 
Effect of Si on root and shoot dry weight of sunflower plants subjected to low B external supply (0.2 μM B and 0.5 μM B). Si concentration in nutrient solution was 1.5 mM. Data are means (n=4)±SD. Significant differences at p≤0.05 are indicated by different letters.
Effect of Si on B concentration in roots and shoots of sunflower plants subjected to low B external supply (0.2 μM B and 0.5 μM B). Si concentration in nutrient solution was 1.5 mM. Data are means (n=4)±SD. Significant differences at P≤0.05 are indicated by different letters.
Study was focused on effect of silicon (Si) on growth and nutritional status of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) under low boron (B) external supply. Plants were grown under controlled environmental conditions in nutrient solutions with two low B treatments (0.2 μM B and 0.5 μM B) with or without addition of Si and control treatment containing sufficient B supply. Shoots growth was only slightly affected by Si supply while accumulation of B in fully developed leaves was significantly higher only at 0.5 μM B. In roots, nutrients contents were relatively constant, while accumulation of all nutrients in leaves was affected by addition of Si. Differences were significant only in K, Fe and Mo between treatments 0.5 μM B and 0.5 μM B with Si added and in Zn between both treatments. In comparison with other studies, results confirmed that plant species show different response to Si application. Interaction of B and Si should be involved in further research in B deficiency in sunflower.
 
Chemical desiccation with Reglone Forte has been tried in production fields under four sunflower hybrids. Reglone Forte (2 l/ha) was applied at 7-day intervals from the end of pollination till maturity. Seed moisture was determined prior to each treatment. Seed oil content was determined at maturity, using the method of nuclear magnetic resonance. The highest oil content was found in the control, the lowest in the treatment 7 days after flower (DAF). The absence of significant differences among treatments 21 DAF, 28 DAF and the control was an indication that there was no large increment in oil content in the period after the average seed moisture reached 44.34% and maturity. Considering individual hybrids, there was no large oil content increase already from treatment 14 DAF, with the exception of hybrid NS-H-43 which evidently required a later treatment. Considering the time of treatment in relation to seed moisture, this hybrid achieved maximum oil content when treated at 31% seed moisture. In hybrid NS-H-26 RM, however, maximum oil content was achieved with treatment at 25% seed moisture.
 
Even though the sunflower is the second most widespread oil plant in the Czech Republic, there is a lack of information about the effects of climate, nitrogen and micronutrients application on sunflower oiliness and fatty acid composition of sunflower achenes. To obtain such information, we established five year experiment (2008–2012) to study the effect of climate, nitrogen (C-control, N 60–60 kg N ha−1, N 90–90 kg N ha−1, N 120–120 kg N ha−1) and of foliar application of boron (N 90 + B), zinc (N 90 + Zn) and molybdenum (N 90 + Mo) on sunflower oiliness and composition of fatty acids (palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acids). According to our results, oiliness and fatty acid composition was significantly influenced by climate and fertilizer treatment. Oiliness was influenced mainly by climate (96.4%), the effect of fertilizer treatment was minor (2.5%). Within the frame of climate, the effect of precipitation was slightly higher than of temperature. A strong and negative relationship between the dose of nitrogen and oiliness was revealed (r = –0.79), the difference between C and N 120 treatment was 2.1% on behalf of C treatment. The highest oiliness was recorded in 2011 (50.72%) and in C treatment (48.48%). The fatty acid composition was not significantly influenced by fertilizer treatment, but was significantly influenced by the climate conditions of the year. Application of micronutrients was not connected with any significant increase in oiliness or in the fatty acid composition due to a high initial content of those micronutrients in top soil.
 
The genetic control of the high saturated fatty acid content in sunflower seed oil has been studied in the high palmitic acid (C16:0) mutant line CAS-5, and in the high stearic acid (C18:0) mutant line CAS-3. This review summarizes the pertinent results. The high saturated fatty acid content in sunflower seed oil is controlled by partially recessive alleles at two loci ( Es1 , Es2 ) for the high C18:0 content and at three loci ( P1 , P2 , P3 ) for the high C16:0 content. The high C16:0 and the high C18:0 traits are not inherited independently. When their combined segregation was studied, the expected phenotypic expression of both high C16:0 and high C18:0 levels was not observed. This fact was attributed to the existence of an epistatic effect of the loci controlling the high C16:0 trait on the loci controlling the high C18:0 trait. The results obtained indicate that sunflower hybrids with a high saturated fatty acid content in their seed oil can be developed and will be in cultivation in a few years.
 
The genetics of anodal esterase (Est), cathodal esterase (cEst), cathodal acid phosphatase (cAcp) and malate dehydrogenase (Mdh) has been studied in mature seeds and leaves (genetics of cAcp and Mdh has not been studied in leaves) of sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L . ). A total of ten loci (four loci of anodal esterase, two loci of cathodal esterase, three loci of malate dehydrogenase and one locus of cathodal acid phosphatase) have been identified and described. Five esterase loci (Est1, Est2, Est3, Est4, cEst5), three malate dehydrogenase loci and one locus of cathodal acid phosphatase are expressed in seeds. Three esterase loci (Est2, cEst5 and cEst6) are expressed in leaves. The analysis of linkage between these loci has been made. Two linkage groups have been found. The sequence of the loci in the first linkage group was Mdh2-Est1- Est2-Est3-cEst5. In the second linkage group it was Est4-cAcp1. Linkages have been analyzed between three isoenzymatic loci expressed in leaves and between two loci controlling morphological traits (branched stem and male fertility restoration). The linkage between morphological traits and isoenzymatic loci has not been revealed. It has been revealed in Br-Rf pair.
 
Simultaneously identify superior performing in terms of seed yield and seed oil content and broad adaptation across a wide range of different environments is an important target for sunflower breeder. So, 10 sunflower genotypes were evaluated across the eight various environments created by sowing at four locations i. e. Kafr El Hamam/ Sharkia, Shandaweel /Sohag, Tag El Ezz/ Dakahlia and Al Arish/ North Sinai Agricultural Research Stations, Agricultural Research Center (ARC), Egypt during the two successive summer seasons 2018 and 2019 using randomized complete block designs with four replications in each environment. Results showed that mean squares due to environments, genotypes and their interaction were highly significant for seed yield and seed oil content. Most stability approaches revealed that high performing stable genotypes were L240 for seed yield and Sakha 53, L110 and L235 for seed oil content under divergent environments. Hence, these four stable sunflower genotypes could be behaved as good breeding materials stock for sunflower improvement.
 
Sunflower breeding aims to developing good heterotic hybrids which can be achieved by tapping combining ability of hybrids belongs to diverse parents. Nine diversified CMS lines along with one maintainer lines were hybridized with four male lines in a line × tester manner thereby, developing a total 40 hybrids. The experimental material was grown over two environments i.e. recommended irrigation and other moisture stress environments continuously for two years 2011 and 2012 in randomized complete block design with three replications at Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India. The experiment was design to estimate combining ability of parental lines, gene effects and effect of divers CMS sources on oil content and quality traits. It was observed that the non-additive component of genetic variance played major role in inheritance of these traits as recommended by analysis of variance of combining abilities and analysis of genetic variance components. Further supporting this conclusion was the fact that the GCA/SCA ratio for oil content and quality traits observed in F 1 generation was less than one under both the environments. These results indicated the preponderance of dominant gene action and the feasibility of hybrid sunflower development. GCA estimates revealed that CMS analogues CMS-XA (Unknown), ARG-2A ( H. argophyllus ) and PRUN-29A ( H. praecox spp. runyonic ) were very good combiner for oil content under both the environments. The pollen parents RCR-8297 and P69R were observed as very good combiners for oil content and stearic acid under moisture stress condition. The male parent P100R was recorded very good combiner for oil content under normal environment while, RCR-8297 and P100R were very good combiners for oleic acid under both the environments. A total seven crosses were identified for oil content and eight crosses for oleic acid as having high SCA effects under both the water regimes.
 
Water availability is a major factor limiting plant productivity in both natural and agronomic systems. Identifying putative drought resistance traits in crops and their wild relatives may be useful for improving crops grown under water-limiting conditions. Here, we tested the expectation that a desert-dwelling sunflower species, Helianthus niveus ssp. tephrodes (TEPH) would exhibit root and leaf traits consistent with greater ability to avoid drought than cultivated sunflower H. annuus (ANN) in a common garden environment. We compared TEPH and ANN at both the seedling and mature stages under well-watered greenhouse conditions. For traits assessed at the seedling stage, TEPH required a longer time to reach a rooting depth of 30 cm than ANN, and the two species did not differ in root:total biomass ratio at 30 cm rooting depth, contrary to expectations. For traits assessed at the mature stage, TEPH had a higher instantaneous water use efficiency and photosynthetic rate on a leaf area basis, but a lower photosynthetic rate on a mass basis than ANN, likely due to TEPH having thicker, denser leaves. Contrary to expectations, ANN and TEPH did not differ in leaf instantaneous stomatal conductance, integrated water-use efficiency estimated from carbon isotope ratio, or nitrogen concentration. However, at both the seedling and mature stages, TEPH exhibited a lower normalized difference vegetative index than ANN, likely due to the presence of dense leaf pubescence that could reduce heat load and transpirational water loss under drought conditions. Thus, although TEPH root growth and biomass allocation traits under well-watered conditions do not appear to be promising for improvement of cultivated sunflower, TEPH leaf pubescence may be promising for breeding for drought-prone, high radiation environments.
 
Reasons for choosing IMIH sunflower cultivars
Reasons for choosing GRH sunflower cultivars
The ANOVA table among groups as regards seed yields
The ANOVA table among groups as regards revenue per ha
The ANOVA table among groups as regards seed amount used per ha
About 65% of sunflower production in Turkey, which is the world's 11 th largest producer of sunflower based on the FAO data, occurs in the Thrace region. The biggest problem in sunflower areas in the Thrace region is broom-rape (Orobanche cernua L.). Three types of sunflower cultivars are planted in the region, namely hybrids genetically resistant to broomrape (GRH), non-resistant ones (NRH) and IMI (Imidazolinone) herbicide resistant ones (IMIH), which control both broomrape and key weeds in sunflower production. The adoption situation and the performances of these three sunflower hybrid types were studied in the research. The research data was obtained from 571 agri-cultural enterprises, which were determined based on the Stratified Random Sampling Method in the Thrace region. Sunflower is grown on 42% of the total cultivated land surveyed in the research and accounts for 23% of the total agri-cultural revenue. The adoption rate and degree of IMIH and GRH sunflower hybrids were calculated to be over 90%. The highest yield (1,915.10 kg ha -1) was obtained from GRH hybrids in the research areas. A high yielding potential and easier weed control are seen by the farmers as being among the most important factors for choosing a particular type of sunflower seed. Statistical differences were observed among the sunflower hybrid types based on seed yield, revenue, and seed amounts. The highest net profit was obtained from GRH hybrids in the study. Additionally, based on the results, NRH hybrids were found to be more profitable than IMI hybrids.
 
Sunflower (Hellanthus annuus L.) is one of the important oilseed crops with a high oil percentage (45-50%) and oil quality. It can be grown in both the first and second crop production seasons in the Aegean Region with high yield capacity. According to the production data of 2008, sunflower was produced on 577,958 ha and 992,000 metric tons of sunflower seed were harvested in Turkey (Anonymous, 2010). Because of the gap in vegetable oil production in Turkey, sunflower is one of the alternative and leading oilseed crops for Increasing vegetable oil production. One possibility for increasing this production Is for sunflower to also be grown as the second crop in the Aegean Region. The mission of the Oilseed Research Project at the Aegean Agricultural Research Institute (AARI) is to reduce the cost of sunflower production by improving well adapted and high yielding varieties. A number of different approaches are utilized to achieve this goal. Improved germplasm for hybrid development and breeding lines of oilseed and confectionary type of sunflower germplasm (A, B and Rf lines) and also improved populations have been developed by conventional breeding techniques. To improve sunflower varieties with desired characters, genetic investigations and germplasm development of sunflower with improved yield, oil quality, resistance to disease [Sunflower rust (Pucctnia heltanthl Schw.)), insect, Orobanche sp., and adverse conditions are under consideration. The research program is aiming to develop oilseed and confectionary type of sunflowers for both the first and second crop production seasons. Sunflower germplasm has been developed from sources such as cultlvars, populations created through breeding methods, or inter-specific crosses with wild germplasm and then tested for general and specific combining abilities, oil percentage, and resistance to prevalent disease and adverse conditions to construct improved varieties. For hybrid variety development, combining ability studies in oilseed and confectionary sunflower breeding program were undertaken with line x tester analysis. More than 2000 lines, candidate varieties, and commercial varieties were evaluated in preliminary and yield trials In the first and second crop produc-Hon seasons. Variety performance tests and yield trials Indicated that sunflower can be grown with satisfactory yield performance (approximately 500-550 kg da -1) in both the first and second crop production seasons In the Aegean Region of Turkey. Improvement of oilseed and confectionary types of sunflower parental germplasms (A, B and Rf lines) including hybrid and open pollinated varieties has been carried out. The oilseed type of the open-pollinated variety Ege-2001 was developed by the S 0:1 generation testing method (modified recurrent selection) and has been registered. Effects of plant population, planting time, fertilizing, irrigation, and honeybee pollination on seed yield, oil percentage and other plant characteristics and silage quality of sunflower (Hellanthus annuus L.) were determined. Sunflower rust (Pucclnla heltanthl Schw.) race identification was performed under field conditions.
 
Vegetable oils and fats are vital components of the human diet because they are an important source of energy. In 2008, according to the production data, sunflower was grown in Turkey on an area of 577,958 ha and 992,000 metric tons of the seed were harvested (Anonymous, 2010). Because of the gap in vegetable oil production in Turkey, sunflower is one of the alternatives and the leading oilseed crop that can be used to increase the vegetable oil production in the country. Growing sunflower as a crop in the Aegean Region is one of the possibilities to increase the production. The main objectives of this study were to identify oilseed hybrids and open-pollinated confectionary varieties that could be grown with satisfactory yield performance in the Aegean Region. The experiments including oilseed and confectionary types of cultivars were conducted separately during the first crop-growing seasons of 2008 and 2009 on the experiment field of the Aegean Agricultural Research Institute in Menemen, Izmir. The experiments were conducted in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Oilseed hybrids and open-pollinated confectionary sunflower candidate varieties were used in the study as the material. An adaptation study was undertaken for the characters of seed yield, seed oil content (%), 1000-seed weight, plant height, head diameter, seed length, seed width, hull percentage (%), seed color (white, black, and intermediate), days to flowering, and days to physiological maturity. The results Indicated that statistically significant differences were found among the sunflower varieties for the characters In question. In the oilseed variety experiments, the highest seed yield (572 kg da -1) and the lowest seed yield (343 kg da -1) were obtained in 2009 from the varieties ETAE-Y-TM-2007-5 and Armada, respectively. In the confectionary variety experiments, the highest seed yield (563 kg da -1) and the lowest seed yield (202 kg da -1) were produced in 2009 by the varieties ETAE-D1-2-B2 and ETAE-Ç-P-1-2, respectively.
 
Productivity of sunflower hybrids under surface (flooding), dripping and sprinkler irrigation systems was studied in 1999 and 2000 summer seasons at the Experimental Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Suez Canal University Ismailia, Egypt, on sandy soil. Under surface as well as under drip systems three irrigation regimes (high, medium, and low according to the amount of water supplied to the crop throughout the seasons) and 4 fertilization treatments, namely 45 N+15.5 P2O5 + 25 K2O or 90N + 31P2O5+50 K2O/fad. (fad.=4200 m2), without or with biofertilization+micronutrients foliar application, were studied. Under sprinkler system, one irrigation regime and the four fertilization treatments was studied. In the 1999 season, two hybrids (XF4731 and Euroflour) were tested under surface and drip irrigation systems while under sprinkler system the tested hybrids were XF4731 and Vidoc. In the 2000 season, the studied hybrids were Euroflour and Hightec under the three systems. Over irrigation regimes and fertilization treatments in the 1999 season, XF4731 had a significantly higher seed yield/fad. than Euroflour. XF4731 attained 953, 973 and 471 kg/fad. under surface, sprinkler and drip irrigation systems, respectively. In the 2000 season, Hightec significantly outyielded Euroflour in two systems. The reverse was true under drip irrigation, as Euroflour produced a significantly higher seed yield/fad. than Hightec (523 kg). The water use efficiency (WUE - kg seeds/m3 water) of the hybrids as well as their oil yield (kg/fad) showed nearly the same trend of seed yield/fad. Meanwhile, Euroflour recorded the highest seed oil percentages under the different systems and regimes of irrigation. The studied high irrigation regimes under surface irrigation (6228-4796 m3 water/fad) and under dripping system (2690-2549 m3 water/fad) and application of high rates of NPK only under drip system or combined with biofertilization+micronutrients foliar under surface and sprinkler systems are recommended for sunflower growing on the newly reclaimed sandy soil in Ismailia Governorate, Egypt.
 
Plants of H. californicus in 20 days after germination with seeds of O. cumana germinated on their roots and on all area of a filter paper, increase: × 21.  
Reaction of 14 samples of annual wild Helianthus species to two populations of O. cumana from the South of the Russian Federation
During the last years in Rostov region of Russian Federation highly virulent biotypes of broomrape have propagated, affecting both hybrids of foreign breeding, and the native sunflower assortment, which used to be resistant earlier. Apart from that, the resistance of some known European sunflower types to broomrape races had disappeared, which testifies about the presence of the races F, G, H in the region at least. Consequently, the search of the sources of resistance is urgent. 14 samples of annual and 27 of perennial wild sunflower from the collection of Kuban experimental station VIR were tested for resistance to the most virulent broomrape population. From the annual species only H. petiolaris had weak degree of affection (1-3 tubercles/plant), while the other were affected to a high degree. The majority of perennial sunflower samples have shown the immunity. Perennial wild species of the sunflower of the same name that were used earlier in the research of Ruso et al. (1996) as resistant species against the Spanish populations of broomrape, show resistance also to high virulent O. cumana, which had propagated in the Rostov region of the Russian Federation. The immunity to broomrape of the studied wild perennial sunflower samples is not related to the absence of stimulating effect of root exudations on the seeds of the parasite. The immunity is more likely connected to physiologicalbiochemical features of cortex root cells.
 
The purpose of the study is to identify the use of qualitative and quantitative morphological traits to ascertain genetic affinity and identification of sunflower lines. A collection of 39 sunflower lines was studied according to morphological qualitative traits described in the method of establishing differences, homogeneity, stability and quantitative traits (plant organ size, 1000 seeds weight, oil content). Several lines of unknown origin were identified to each other. The material of the collection of lines proved the possibility of clustering by the method of link analysis on a set of morphological features. Generalized data show that only three lines out of 39 do not correspond to known lineages in their clusters, which is 92% of the correct cluster definition. The results of clustering, identification and breeding records were compared. To be consistent with the breeding records classification, the number of distinguished traits that are not similar must exceed 20 names given to the score.
 
Chemicals structrures named in the text (I) Coumarin (benzopirone ring) (II) Cinnamic acids (R:-H,-OH,-OCH 3 ) (III) 7-hydroxylated simple coumarins (R:-H,-OH,-OCH 3 ) (IV) Scopoletin (R:-OH); Scopolin (R:-Glucose) (V) Ayapin
Factors which have proven to induce coumarin biosynthesis in sunflower (data come from the authorsíaboratory)
Sunflower coumarins and resistance to fungi, insects and parasitic weeds
Sunflower and other Helianthus ssp. produced, among other secondary metabolites, the coumarins scopoletin, scopolin and ayapin. In the most gen-eral sense they can be defined as stress metabolites, their synthesis being induced in response to adverse environmental condition, both biotic and abi-otic. The pattern of coumarin synthesis and accumulation depends on plant variety, it is tissue dependent and developmentally regulated. Coumarin syn-thesis in sunflower seems to be part of the defence strategy against microor-ganisms, insect and parasitic plants. From an agricultural point of view the defensive potential of these compounds can be exploited in order to develop resistant varieties (either by classical plant breeding or by biotechnology) or crop protection strategies involving the use of chemicals which induced cou-marin synthesis.
 
Orthogonal comparison of three groups of the sunflower hybrids for achene and oil yield in different regions of Iran. Grey and white columns represent achene and oil yield respectively. Bars represent ± standard error of the mean for each group.
Coefficient of variation for achene yield of sunflower hybrids over the environment.
Polygon view of the GGE-biplot showing which-won-where (right) and discrimination of sunflower hybrids based on achene yield and stability compared with ideal genotype using GGE-biplot analysis (left).
In order to identifying of high yielding compatible sunflower hybrids for different regions of Iran, a set of 10 exotic hybrids from Serbia, Turkey, and Italy and four Iranian hybrids were evaluated for agronomic traits; days to flowering and maturity, plant height, head and stem diameter, 1000-achenes weight, achene number per head, oil content and achene, and oil yield. The experiments were conducted as completely randomized block design with four replications in Alborz, Mazandaran, Khuzestan, and West Azerbaijan Provinces for two years (2017–2018). According to the results growing period of the hybrids were variable from 86 days for Dukat to 98 days for Fantaziya. The hybrids Slatki and Dukat had the highest (70 g) and lowest (56 g) 1000-achenes weight. The highest oil content was observed in 08TR003 (45.6%). Among the locations, Miandoab had the highest achene yield (3110 kg/ha). In Sari; the hybrids Barzegar, Fantaziya, and Slatki (3080, 2893, and 2853 kg/ha respectively), In Dezful; Barzegar, Cartago, and Oscar (3234, 3409, and 3226 kg/ha respectively), in Karaj; Oscar, Shams, and Fantaziya (3138, 3081, and 3050 kg/ha respectively), and in Miandob Shams, Fantaziya, and Slatki (4093, 4038, and 3895 kg/ha respectively) had the highest achene yield. Considering overall mean Fantaziya, Shams, and Oskar had the highest achene yield (3286, 3145, and 3087 kg/ha respectively), as well as Fantaziya followed by Barzegar and Shams had the highest oil yield (1396, 1335, and 1330 kg/ha respectively). Considering phenotypic variability among the exotic hybrids Fantaziya, Oskar, Slatki, Novak, 08TR003, and Meteor with lower coefficient of variation and higher achene yield considered as the stable higher yielding hybrids in four test locations of Iran. Through identifying high-yielding and compatible hybrids, the results of this study can assists in increasing of sunflower yield and production in Iran.
 
(a) Phenotypic path diagram for seed yield per plant. (b) Genotypic path diagram for seed yield per plant.
The present investigation was carried out to evaluate agronomic performance and oil quality of seven sunflower genotypes at Shandaweel Research Station, Agricultural Research Center, Sohag, Egypt during 2018 and 2019 summer seasons. These genetic materials were sown in a randomized complete block design having three replications. Significant genetic variations among evaluated sunflower genotypes for agronomic traits and oil quality were observed. The superior sunflower genotypes were Line 120 for seed yield per hectare (3102.38 kg), Sakha 53 for seed oil content (44.63 %) and Line 125 for oil quality where it contained the highest proportion of unsaturated fatty acids (89.20 %). The phenotypic coefficients of variation were slightly higher than genotypic coefficients of variation for all studied traits. High heritability (exceeded 60%) and genetic advance as percent of mean (ranged from medium to high, exceeded 10%) was observed for most studied traits. Seed yield per plant positively correlated with plant height, stem diameter, head diameter, and 100-seed weight and most chemical traits at phenotypic and genotypic levels. Maximum phenotypic direct effects on seed yield per plant were observed for 100-seed weight, head diameter and total unsaturated fatty acids. While, the highest genotypic direct effect on seed yield per plant was observed for head diameter. Hence, most studied traits could be employed as selection criteria for improving evaluated sunflower genotypes.
 
A stability analysis was carried out using nine single crosses and fifteen diverse three-way crosses for nine traits across three locations viz., Dharwad, Annigeri and Raichur during Kharif 2006. The analysis of variance for stability revealed significant differences among the hybrids for all the characters except head diameter and 100 seed weight. The additive environmental variance found to be of considerable magnitude as indicated by the significance of variance due to environment (linear) for all the characters thus implying that no simple relationship existed between genotypes and the environment. The single cross hybrids CMS 17 A x RHA-95-C-1 and DCMS 51 A x RHA-6D-1 excelled in their mean performance for seed yield however, two three-way hybrids CMS 234 A x DSI-2 x RHA-6D-1 and DCMS 51 A x DSI-1017 x RHA-6D-1 regarded as the best for high seed yield besides well adaptability. Diversification of leading single cross hybrids such as RSFH-1, KBSH-44, KBSH-1 and DCMS 51 A with inbreds DSI-2 and DSI-1017 and consequent their three way crosses excelled in performance for a majority of the traits such as head diameter, number of filled seeds per head, 100 seed weight and seed yield per plant.
 
Agronomic and quality performance of yellow-and black-seeded Brassica napus canola
Fatty acid composition of Brassica oilseeds
Rapeseed (canola) Is the major Canadian oilseed and average annual production was 6,871,600 metric t for the 10-year period 1996-2005. Brassica napus is the only species grown, and only summer annual forms are cultivated in the short season areas of the western Canadian prairie. About 70% of the total production is exported, either as seed (50%) or oil (20%). We utilized inter-specific crosses between B. napus and related species to improve the disease resistance and seed quality of B. napus. We produced yellow-seed forms of B. napus from crosses with B. rapa and B. Juncea which have higher seed oil content, and lower meal fiber content to improve the feed value of the meal. We also produced germplasm with high oleic/low linolenic acid content to improve the nutritional value of canola oil as well as its technological qualities for use in the production of solid fats without trans fatty acids. The content of saturated fats in canola oil was reduced to less than 5% of total fatty acids. Inter-specific methodology was also successful in the development of B. juncea mustard as an edible oilseed crop with high yield, disease resistance and seed quality for production in the semiarid regions of the Canadian prairie. This paper will describe the crossing approaches used to develop this germplasm and discuss future research activities for canola improvement.
 
The general and specific combining abilities among 20 cytoplasmic male sterile inbred lines and four testers were estimated in order to study the poten-tial of these materials in a sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) breeding pro-gram. Test cross progenies were evaluated in three environments. Plant height, days to 50% flowering, 1000-kernel weight, seed oil content and grain yield were evaluated. Seed oil content, plant height and 1000-kernel weight pre-sented the largest proportional contribution of cms inbred lines and testers, indicating the predominant role of the additive component for these traits. On the other hand, line × tester interaction exhibited the greatest contribution to grain yield suggesting the presence of non-additive genetic effects. The testers showed capacity to discriminate within the set of inbred lines.
 
During two growing seasons there were studied 11 sunflower breeding lines and their 30 analogues obtained via backcrossing, chemical mutagenesis and selected as natural mutants. The variability of such agronomic traits as crop yield, seed oil content, 1,000 seed weight, plant height, leaf and petiole size, number of leaves and branches, and head diameter was investigated. The traits of crop yield, leaf size, number of branches were the most variable, whereas the most stable were 1,000 seed weight, seed oil content, plant height, and the number of leaves. The influence of mutant genes which control ray flower color and shape, leaf color and shape, dwarfness, number of leaves and ray flowers, and shape of bracts on the manifestation of important agronomic traits was estimated. No negative impact of the genes of ray flower color and shape and leaf color was noticed. The gene of fringed leaf margin reduced plant height while the gene of erect petiole increased development of that trait. The genes of dwarfness can negatively influence seed oil content and 1,000 seed weight.
 
During the rainy season of 1998, a field experiment was established in Cocula, Guerrero (hot subhumid climate, Awo) and in Montecillo, México (semiarid climate, BS 1 ), to evaluate the effect of nitrogen (0, 10 and 20 g m ⁻² ) and environment on phenology, yield and its components, water use efficiency (WUE), and crop evapotranspiration (ETc) and heat units (HU) accumulated during the growth cycle of sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.) cv. Victoria. The crop was planted on June 1 at a density of 7.5 pl m ⁻² in both climates. In Cocula, maximum and minimum temperatures were more extreme and rainfall was more intense, while soil was poor in total nitrogen, compared with Montecillo. Crop growth, yield and its components, and water use efficiency were affected significantly by the environment, nitrogen and the interaction environment * nitrogen. The crop cycle in the hot environment was 36 days shorter, with a greater accumulation of HU and ETc. Yield and its components and water use efficiency were significantly higher in Cocula. Nitrogen positively affected the evaluated variables. The interactive effect of environment * nitrogen was observed clearly, since in Cocula there was response to the application of nitrogen in most of the variables evaluated, while in Montecillo there was not.
 
One out of 42 Spanish isolates of P.halstedii ascribed to races 1, 2, 4, 6, 7 or 10 showed consistent tolerance to metalaxyl when seeds of sunflower ‘Peredovik’, treated with this fungicide at 2 g.a.i./kg, were inoculated by wholeseedling dipping. When this metalaxyl-tolerant isolate of P.halstedii was inoculated to sunflower seedlings by this method, the fungicide seemed to affect neither zoosporangia nor zoospores. In contrast, the incidence of seedlings with high sporulation on cotyledons after 10-12-day incubation was significantly decreased with increasing dosages of metalaxyl applied to the seeds of sunflower. EC 50 of this tolerant isolate of P.halstedii was estimated at 3.5-5 g.a.i./ kg.
 
Decline in crop yield has been a major problem in Northern Guinea savanna zones of Nigeria due to inherent low fertility status of the soils. Field experiments were conducted for two years (2003 and 2004) on an Alfisol of the Northern Guinea savanna of Nigeria to determine the effect of N fertilizer on growth and yield parameters of sunflower. Six rates of nitrogen (0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 kg N ha-1) were applied. Plant height and number of leaves were highly significant 10 weeks after planting (WAP). Highest plant heights of 120 and 138 cm were obtained in 2003 and 2004, respectively, at 120 kg N ha-1. Application of N significantly increased seed and oil yields while excess N (150 kg N ha-1) reduced the contents of the two parameters. Optimum N requirement of sunflower obtained from this study is between 90 and 100 kg N ha-1.
 
Five genotypes showing differential field reactions to Alternaria leaf and stem blight were tested for their reaction to pathogen culture filtrate under in vitro conditions. The pathogen culture filtrate reduced in vitro germination, root and shoot growth and reduction was not uniform in all the genotypes. There was significant negative association between in vitro root growth and field disease score of genotypes suggesting the reliability of this trial for in vitro evaluation. The germination and shoot length in vitro did not show any definite trend to be reliable. Similarly, the detached leaf evaluation under in vitro did not show definite trend of association with field disease score. It is suggested to test a large number of genotypes with varying degree of resistancesusceptibility to confirm the results.
 
Alternaria blight in sunflower, caused by the fungus Alternaria helianthi, is one of the major diseases that affects sunflower in Brazil. The effect of this organism on net photosynthetic rate of four sunflower genotypes was measured under field experimental conditions. Through a mathematical approach the diseased leaf area and net photosynthetic rate were related and used to analyze the pathosystem sunflower/Alternaria. An average decrease in the photosynthetic rate was observed in diseased leaves for all analyzed genotypes in comparison with healthy leaves. Alternaria blight reduces photosynthesis not only through a reduction in green leaf area, but also through an effect on photosynthesis of the remaining green leaf tissue. Leaves free of the pathogen lesions in diseased plants present also a photosynthetic reduction.
 
Top-cited authors
Jose Maria Fernández-Martínez
  • Spanish National Research Council
Siniša Jocić
  • Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops
Begoña Pérez-Vich
  • Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), Instituto de Agricultura Sostenible
Leonardo Velasco
  • Spanish National Research Council
Yalcin Kaya
  • Trakya University