The authors examined the feasibility, acceptability, and potential for physical activity behavior change of a 21-week, 10,000 Steps program in an academic work site. In a pre-post, noncontrolled study design, participants were supplied a pedometer, online resource, and health promotional activities. Means, medians, ranges, and frequencies of self-reported average daily steps (ADS) described physical activity behavior change. An online exit survey assessed the acceptability of the intervention. Of 1,322 eligible participants, 619 (47%) registered; 74% of participants tracked step counts at least once, and 57 (9%) tracked them all 21 weeks. The proportion of cohort participants with < 7,499 ADS tracking all 21 weeks was significantly less than that same cohort tracking only at baseline (p < .02). Survey results showed that 85% of the participants reported general satisfaction with content and navigation of the program Web site. Results suggest elements of feasibility and acceptability but limited potential for physical activity behavior change. Future studies should assess pre-enrollment ADS and barriers to retaining participants.
Videos are powerful tools for enhancing the reach and effectiveness of health promotion programs. They can be used for program promotion and recruitment, for training program implementation staff/volunteers, and as elements of an intervention. Although certain brief videos may be produced without technical assistance, others often require collaboration and contracting with professional videographers. To get practitioners started and to facilitate interactions with professional videographers, this Tool includes a guide to the jargon of video production and suggestions for how to integrate videos into health education and promotion work. For each type of video, production principles and issues to consider when working with a professional videographer are provided. The Tool also includes links to examples in each category of video applications to health promotion.
Advocacy for the public's health and for the profession are widely recognized as responsibilities of health educators. Increasing emphasis on advocacy by professional organizations has peaked the interest of health educators, yet knowing where to begin as an advocate is, to many, a mystifying process. This article provides basic advocacy terminology, dispels concerns about participating in advocacy activities, and provides a practical and stepped approach to becoming an effective advocate. A tiered approach is used in relation to the advocacy strategies of voting behavior, electioneering, direct lobbying, grassroots lobbying, Internet use, and media advocacy to help individuals in their quest to begin or enhance their engagement in advocacy. A compendium of highly accessible resources is also provided. Finally, this article provides motivation for the beginning advocate.
Crowdsourcing is a problem-solving approach that taps the knowledge, energy, and creativity of a global, online community. Like marketing, crowdsourcing originated and continues to evolve in the private sector. Health communicators and social marketers can use crowdsourcing across the research-development-dissemination process. This article provides an overview of crowdsourcing and how it can be used to speed up and enhance social marketing and health communication. Nielsen's 1/9/90% model is presented as a guide for engaging appropriate crowds for tasks throughout the development process. The four Fs that motivate online contributors-Fun, Feeling good (fulfillment), Fame, and Fortune-are also presented as ways of incentivizing crowd engagement and matching the incentive to the task at hand. Crowdsourcing resources, such as curating agencies, websites, and crowd labor markets, can be tremendous force multipliers. If done strategically, crowdsourcing has the promise of giving well-researched and creative social marketing results for less money and in less time than traditional methods.
No one could have predicted the events of September 11. The days following this tragic event put public health educators' skills to the test as they transferred theory to practice to assist rescue workers, victims, and community residents to cope and rebuild their lives. As health educators working in New York City at that time, the authors were quickly thrust into experiences, roles, and responsibilities for which they thought they had little preparation. But as they worked at Ground Zero in the days immediately after the attack and later in the neighborhoods of lower Manhattan, they realized their health promotion practice and research training provided them with what they needed to play their part. This article briefly illustrates their experiences and describes the skills and knowledge they tapped into to assist the community.
The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended immunization schedule for adolescents includes three vaccines (tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis [Tdap]; human papillomavirus [HPV] vaccine; and meningococcal conjugate vaccine [MCV4]) and an annual influenza vaccination. Given the increasing number of recommended vaccines for adolescents and health and economic costs associated with nonvaccination, it is imperative that effective strategies for increasing vaccination rates among adolescents are developed. This article describes the development, theoretical framework, and initial first-year evaluation of an intervention designed to promote vaccine acceptance among a middle and high school-based sample of adolescents and their parents in eastern Georgia. Adolescents, parents, and teachers were active participants in the development of the intervention. The intervention, which consisted of a brochure for parents and a teacher-delivered curriculum for adolescents, was guided by constructs from the health belief model and theory of reasoned action. Evaluation results indicated that our intervention development methods were successful in creating a brochure that met cultural relevance and the literacy needs of parents. We also demonstrated an increase in student knowledge of and positive attitudes toward vaccines. To our knowledge, this study is the first to extensively engage middle and high school students, parents, and teachers in the design and implementation of key theory-based educational components of a school-based, teacher-delivered adolescent vaccination intervention.
Tobacco marketing contributes to adolescent smoking initiation, and the Master Settlement Agreement (MSA), therefore, included relevant restrictions. We analyzed data from large population surveys of Californians, conducted in 1992 (11,905 adults, ages 18 years and older), 1993 (5,531 adolescents, ages 12 to 17 years), and 1996 (6,252 adolescents, 18,616 adults) before the MSA, and in 1999 (6,090 adolescents, 14,729 adults) and 2002 (5,857 adolescents, 20,525 adults) following its implementation. Camel lost favorite-advertisement popularity after 1996, and between 1999 and 2002, there were large increases in the percentages declining to name a favorite advertisement. Ownership of tobacco promotional items declined from its peak in 1996. Furthermore, in 2002, close to 90% of adolescents and young adults reported seeing anti-tobacco messages on television in the past month, significantly higher than 1996. These trends indicate less receptivity to tobacco advertising and promotions following the MSA but leave room for additional restrictions to further reduce receptivity.
The communications literature firmly establishes the significant role of media advocacy in setting public agenda and influencing the direction of public opinion on social issues. Recent public health campaigns embrace media advocacy as an integral part of efforts to change public health policies, yet further studies are needed on the best strategies to promote legislative action. This article examines press coverage in the Baton Rouge Advocate and the New Orleans Times-Picayune newspapers and Louisiana State legislation pertaining to underage drinking from January 1994 to June 2003 and focuses on evidence of media priming and framing of underage drinking and four related legislative policies. High press coverage of alcohol bills during the legislative process was associated with defeated legislation, whereas little or no press coverage was associated with bills successfully passed into law. The authors conclude that more work is needed to understand how media advocacy strategies may hinder enactment of bills.
On November 23, 1998, a legal settlement of historic proportions took place. The five major U.S. tobacco manufacturers signed an agreement with 46 states, the District of Columbia, and five U.S. territories to settle pending lawsuits by compensating the states for Medicaid costs of treating smoking-related illness. This multistate Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) seemed to herald a new era in public health as it provided a potential source of funds for state-based tobacco-control programs (estimated at U.S.$206 billion for the first 25 years) and also banned an array of advertising and marketing efforts to attract young people to tobacco. Five years after the settlement, however, it appears that most states have not committed a significant portion of the funds for tobacco prevention efforts but rather have used the money to support other state needs. Moreover, tobacco companies have continued aggressive marketing efforts to reach youth.
Research indicates that one impact of the Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) may be to increase the focus of the tobacco industry's marketing approach on the retail tobacco environment. This article aims to provide an overview of and trends in the post-MSA American tobacco retail environment from 1999 to 2002, nationally, by region, and by locale. We examined the following specific retail tobacco environment issues: price, promotions, advertising, and placement, which stimulate or reduce demand for tobacco products. Data for this article were obtained as part of the ImpacTeen Project-A Policy Research Partnership to Reduce Youth Substance Use. Results show overall high levels of advertising, promotional activity, and price increase trends across the United States. Tobacco promotions in stores increased between 2001 and 2002. Stores in the south and rural areas tended to have the lowest prices and highest prevalence of promotions and advertising, suggesting a need for tobacco control intervention.
The authors examined the role of youth ethnicity in youth access to tobacco with large, random samples of stores and large samples of ethnically diverse youths for the first time. From 1999 through 2003, White, Black, Latino, and Asian youths made 3,361 cigarette purchase attempts (approximately 700 per year) statewide. Analyses revealed that Black youths had significantly higher access than other youths and that access rates for Black and Asian (but not Latino or White) youths exceeded the Synar-mandated < or = 20%. Clerks who failed to demand youth proof of age identification (ID) sold 95% of the tobacco that youths received and sold significantly more often to minorities and to girls, whereas clerks who demanded youth ID sold equally infrequently to all youths. These findings highlight significant ethnic disparities in youth access to tobacco and imply that those might be eliminated by policies and interventions that increase clerk demands for youth ID.
The second generation of Internet-based applications (i.e., Web 2.0), in which users control communication, holds promise to significantly enhance promotional efforts within social marketing campaigns. Web 2.0 applications can directly engage consumers in the creative process by both producing and distributing information through collaborative writing, content sharing, social networking, social bookmarking, and syndication. Web 2.0 can also enhance the power of viral marketing by increasing the speed at which consumers share experiences and opinions with progressively larger audiences. Because of the novelty and potential effectiveness of Web 2.0, social marketers may be enticed to prematurely incorporate related applications into promotional plans. However, as strategic issues such as priority audience preferences, selection of appropriate applications, tracking and evaluation, and related costs are carefully considered, Web 2.0 will expand to allow health promotion practitioners more direct access to consumers with less dependency on traditional communication channels.
Advocacy for the individual health needs of others, for the health of the public, and for the profession have always been critical underpinnings of the field of health education. The explosion of technology and freedom of the Internet provide a multitude of possibilities for revitalized advocacy efforts. This article suggests just a few examples of how we might engage in Advocacy 2.0. Developing advocacy campaigns that use both tested and untested methods gives us an opportunity to achieve new victories in health education advocacy.
Priority setting is an important component of systematic planning in health promotion and also factors into the development of a comprehensive evaluation plan. The basic priority rating (BPR) model was introduced more than 50 years ago and includes criteria that should be considered in any priority setting approach (i.e., use of predetermined criteria, standardized comparisons, and a rubric that controls bias). Although the BPR model has provided basic direction in priority setting, it does not represent the broad array of data currently available to decision makers. Elements in the model also give more weight to the impact of communicable diseases compared with chronic diseases. For these reasons, several modifications are recommended to improve the BPR model and to better assist health promotion practitioners in the priority setting process. The authors also suggest a new name, BPR 2.0, to represent this revised model.
This study explored Facebook™ to capture the prevalence of driving safety promotion user groups, obtain user demographic information, to understand if Facebook™ user groups influence reported driving behaviors, and to gather a sense of perceived effectiveness of Facebook™ for driving safety promotion targeted to young adults. In total, 96 driving safety Facebook™ groups (DSFGs) were identified with a total of 33,368 members, 168 administrators, 156 officers, 1,598 wall posts representing 12 countries. A total of 85 individuals participated in the survey. Demographic findings of this study suggest that driving safety promotion can be targeted to young and older adults. Respondents' ages ranged from 18 to 66 years. A total of 62% of respondents aged ≤ 24 years and 57.8% of respondents aged ≥ 25 years reported changing their driving-related behaviors as a result of reading information on the DSFGs to which they belonged. A higher proportion of respondents ≥ 25 years were significantly more likely to report Facebook™ and YouTube™ as an effective technology for driving safety promotion. This preliminary study indicates that DSFGs may be effective tools for driving safety promotion among young adults. More research is needed to understand the cognition of Facebook™ users as it relates to adopting safe driving behavior. The findings from this study present descriptive data to guide public health practitioners for future health promotion activities on Facebook™.
The 1998 Tobacco Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) resulted in a singular and unanticipated revenue stream flowing to state governments from U.S. tobacco companies. In response, public health leaders were challenged with an opportunity to secure funding for much needed health programs. However, state leaders have chosen to utilize these new funds for a wide variety of purposes; in many instances, expenditures totally unrelated to health or health care. In contrast, Arkansas is unique among all states in choosing to utilize MSA funds solely to establish new health-related programs. Examination of the educational and developmental process through which Arkansas designed its expenditure plan, secured political support, and initiated new health programs in a time of budgetary constraints will inform public health officials to more effectively engage policy makers at local, state, and federal levels.
In this study, the authors examined whether men and women in the United States had received a physician recommendation to get a colorectal cancer screening test, by race, ethnicity, and health insurance status using data from the 2000 National Health Interview Survey. Among men and women who had had a doctor visit in the past year but who had not had a recent fecal occult blood test, about 94.6% (95% CI 94.0-95.2) reported that their doctor had not recommended the test in the past year. African Americans, Hispanics, and American Indians/Alaska Natives were less likely to report receiving a recommendation for endoscopy compared to Whites.
Despite most teenage smokers wanting to quit, their likelihood of success resembles that of flipping a coin. Evidence-based cessation programs, like the American Lung Association's Not-On-Tobacco (N-O-T) program, are effective. Evaluation of program dissemination is critical. This study uses the RE-AIM framework to evaluate the N-O-T program in West Virginia from 2000 to 2005. RE-AIM components consisted of four measures. Regional dissemination was measured using comparative differences between Regional Educational Service Agency regions (RESAs). Significant associations were found between RESAs for numerous characteristics. Among the RE-AIM components, two measures of Implementation were significantly different between RESAs. Variability between RESAs provided valuable descriptive evidence of N-O-T program dissemination in West Virginia. Therefore, geographical tailoring grounded in community-based participatory research could increase the N-O-T program's overall dissemination.
Most immunization coalitions have originated with health care providers, potentially excluding families without medical homes. This study focused on a community-based approach to providing timely vaccinations. A coalition of 23 organizations developed an immunization program in a low-income community in New York City. Nearly 1,000 community health workers incorporated immunization promotion into social service and educational programs. Outcomes were coverage rates for the 4:3:1:3:3 series at 19 to 35 months, which were compared with national data by ethnicity, as reported in the National Immunization Survey 2002-2006. Parents (n = 10,251) of children <5 years received immunization education and reminders. The 2003-2007 rates of 80% equaled or exceeded the national rates for 19- to 35-month-olds, and the 2007 rate of 96.8% far surpassed the national average. Coalitions can effectively integrate immunization promotion activities into community programs. Immunization rate improvements maintained for a 5-year period, suggesting this approach to be sustainable.
The Department of Health and Human Services initiated a pilot "microgrant" or small grants program in 2001 to promote Healthy People 2010 (HP 2010) implemented by the Yale-Griffin Prevention Research Center. This article describes the 103 agencies funded under this initiative and 67 control group agencies. It evaluates the HP 2010 focus areas targeted and the effectiveness of promoting HP 2010 objectives through microgrants. Forty-four percent of the grant recipients and 79% of the control group agencies indicated low levels of familiarity with HP 2010 goals. Changes in knowledge of HP 2010 goals for the microgrant group increased significantly from 5.24 +/- 3.67 to 7.83 +/- 1.86 (p < .05). The results suggest that microgrants can be a useful mechanism to plant the seeds for developing community and organizational capacity to define local health priorities, practice and test new initiatives or expand existing programs and promote knowledge about HP 2010.
To obtain in-depth community input using qualitative and quantitative methods to guide development and marketing of a bike-share program in Chattanooga, Tennessee.
Focus groups and surveys assessed bicycling attitudes, beliefs, barriers, and behaviors of residents, workers, and university students. The authors completed nine focus groups (N = 56): five sessions with downtown workers, three with downtown residents, and one with university students.
Health, recreation and transportation benefits of bicycling were commonly identified. Concerns regarding bicycling in traffic are apparent because of lack of facilities and a need for public education on safe motorist and bicyclist behavior. Practical limitations can inhibit bicycling during the day, including shower access and personal hygiene concerns.
Public desire for environmental, educational, and enforcement tactics to support safe bicycling was noted. Marketing tactics for bike-share usage should emphasize health, recreational, and transportation benefits. Worksites can reduce barriers related to bicycling and encourage bike-share use. Future studies should assess bike-share impact on perceptions and behavior, as well as the resulting policy and environmental changes.
To compare chronic disease risk factors and their correlates for African American and Hispanic residents of REACH Detroit, Michigan, and the United States.
Behavioral Risk Factor Survey data from 2001-2003 were used for comparisons and regression models.
Several chronic disease risk factors were more prevalent among REACH Detroit residents than their Michigan and U.S. counterparts. In REACH Detroit, greater fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with more than high school education and older age among Hispanics, and meeting exercise guidelines and older age among African Americans. Less than high school education, smoking, and male gender were associated with lower consumption among African Americans. Greater physical activity was associated with younger age, male gender, and more fruit and vegetable consumption among African Americans, and unemployment among Hispanics.
Surveillance of health behaviors in high-risk communities contributes to planning interventions and policies for reducing racial and ethnic disparities.
Health disparities, differences in health status, and mortality among different groups have challenged the public health commitment to health for all. African Americans and Latinos have historically experienced greater prevalence and mortality from many chronic diseases than Whites. Community mobilization is a promising approach to addressing health disparities. The Kansas City-Chronic Disease Coalition (KC-CDC), a REACH 2010 initiative, aimed to engage neighborhoods and faith organization in changing conditions to reduce risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Using a time series design replicated with each of these two sectors, we examined the effects of a microgrant strategy and a resource distribution strategy on the coalition's facilitation of community change. Results indicate that both strategies increased the implementation of community change by neighborhood and faith organizations, with higher rates of change for the microgrant strategy. This study holds important implications for public health practitioners working with neighborhood and faith-based organizations to address health disparities.
As part of a comprehensive approach to combating the obesity epidemic, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health launched the "Sugar Pack" health marketing campaign in fall 2011. Carried out in three stages, the campaign sought to educate and motivate the public to reduce excess calorie intake from sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. The primary Sugar Pack creative concepts provided consumers with information about the number of sugar packs contained in sugary drinks. Data from formative market research as well as lessons from previous campaigns in other U.S. jurisdictions informed the development of the materials. These materials were disseminated through a multipronged platform that included paid outdoor media on transit and billboards and messaging using social media (i.e., Twitter, Facebook, YouTube, and sendable e-cards). Initial findings from a postcampaign assessment indicate that the Sugar Pack campaign reached broadly into targeted communities, resulting in more than 515 million impressions. Lessons learned from the campaign suggest that employing health marketing to engage the public can lead to increased knowledge, favorable recognition of health messages, and self-reported intention to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, potentially complementing other obesity prevention strategies in the field.
Could an annual event be an effective strategy to improve physical activity? Based on 25 years of data, we argue that it could be. Although there are eight recommended strategies to promote physical activity in the Community Guide, there is insufficient evidence for six others. Qualitative data collected from Trek Across Maine participants and other cause-specific events suggests that goal setting (i.e., individually adapted health behavior change) and family-based social support may be key factors in helping individuals become more physically active.
Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) communities face enormous health disparities, with tobacco use contributing to high rates of cancer and heart disease. There is growing interest nationwide on the influence of environmental factors on tobacco use. AAPI communities have been found to have higher exposures to tobacco company marketing compared to the general population. The authors describe the use of Photovoice (a qualitative needs assessment technique) to empower AAPI youth to identify and understand environmental characteristics associated with tobacco use in four AAPI communities in California and Washington. Of the six major environmental themes identified from the photos, three themes were found across all four communities. Debrief sessions with youth and community leaders underscore the relevance of Photovoice for identifying community needs and motivating community organization for change. Despite some logistical challenges, Photovoice exemplifies the power and potential of this community-based methodology to capture how the environment influences youth on tobacco use.
AARP conducted a 2.5-year social-marketing campaign to improve physical activity levels among older adults in Richmond, Virginia and Madison, Wisconsin. This article presents formative evaluation findings from the campaign's policy/environmental change component. Evaluation data were abstracted from technical-assistance documentation and telephone interviews. Results include 11 policy and 14 environmental changes attained or in-process by campaign closure. Differences between the cities' results are explained through differences in program implementation (e.g., types of changes planned, formalization of partnerships). Project teams took less time deciding to pursue policy change than environmental change; however, planning the policy activities took longer than planning environmental-change activities. Recommendations for future policy/environmental change interventions focus on the selection of strategies; planning for administrative resources; formalizing partnerships to ensure sustainability of impact; ensuring training and technical assistance; and documenting progress. Similar intervention results may be attainable with a multi-year timeframe, adequate part-time coordination, and committed volunteers.
This pilot study evaluates a community lay health advocate (CLHA) intervention in promoting follow-up for abnormal mammograms among African American women. A controlled trial was implemented at an urban hospital in Atlanta, with 48 women in a CLHA intervention group and 35 in a usual care group. Participants were 25 or older and had an abnormal mammogram between March 25, 2002, and May 2, 2003. Intervention group women received CLHA support including encouragement of timely abnormal mammogram follow-up, reminders of follow-up appointments, identification and removal of barriers to follow-up, and accompaniment to follow-up appointments. Women in the intervention group were significantly more likely to keep their first abnormal mammogram follow-up appointment, all of their scheduled follow-up appointments, and their biopsy or fine needle aspiration appointment. CLHAs are effective in promoting abnormal mammogram followup among African American women and may be an important resource in reducing racial disparities in breast cancer mortality.
Overweight and obesity are associated with several life-threating comorbidities, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Obesity is a growing health concern in North America, with some groups experiencing higher levels of obesity than others. One group of particular interest is urban Aboriginal youth because they are a quickly growing population who experience high rates of obesity. Obesity is a complex condition with many contributing factors, diet being one of the primary contributors. In this article, we discuss the findings from an ethnographic study that examined determinants of diet for urban Aboriginal youth. Results revealed two themes: (a) Traditions and Sharing, and (b) The Struggle. The findings with Traditions and Sharing showed that food-sharing networks are often used to acquire traditional food. Traditional foods were believed to be healthy and desired by the participants. The theme The Struggle provides insight into the daily challenges the participants faced with food insecurity. Health promotion professionals need to consider the multiplicity of determinants of diet for urban Aboriginal youth in order to plan and implement culturally appropriate health promotion programs.
The purpose of this exploratory study was to describe factors that contribute to successful postpartum smoking abstinence among women who quit smoking during pregnancy. Research questions addressed the primary motivators and lifestyle characteristics of women who do not return to postpartum smoking. Participants were recruited from a feasibility study (N = 16) based on their ability to remain smoke free for at least 6 months following delivery. Individual interviews were analyzed using content analysis strategies. Women's narratives described the process of postpartum smoking abstinence. Four themes emerged: (a) child's health as the primary motivator, (b) demanding a smoke-free home or environment, (c) smoking perception changes from one of primarily comfort to one of disgust, and (d) viewing abstinence as a lifelong change. Clinical implications include educating families about the effects of smoke-free environments on the health of their children while redirecting smoking habits with healthy behaviors.
Although evaluation is considered an essential component of community health initiatives, its function requires actual use of the data to inform practice. The purpose of this case study was to examine how often and in what ways practitioners in a state system for substance abuse prevention used participatory evaluation data. To assess uses of data, interviews and surveys (N = 13) were conducted with practitioners. Questions focused on the frequency of use for several functions of evaluation data. Results showed that 77% of participants reported using their data within the past 30 days to review progress of the initiative, and 64% had used the data to communicate successes or needed improvement to staff. Fewer participants indicated they had used the data to communicate accomplishments to stakeholders (54%) or to make adjustments to plans (38%). This study suggests that participatory evaluation data can have multiple functions and uses for community health practitioners.
The successful development and implementation of prevention curricula requires seeking strategies that combine the strengths of researchers and community members. Because young people are considered to be the experts in their own lives, it is important to determine effective ways to engage them in substance abuse assessment and prevention initiatives. The community-based participatory action research methodology of photovoice is one way to engage youth in assessment of this public health issue. "Our Community in Focus" was a project that used the photovoice methodology to engage high school youth in a community-based assessment of adolescent substance use and abuse. Through the photovoice method, youth were able to reflect their community's strengths and concerns with regards to adolescent substance abuse, as they took photographs to answer the question "What contributes to adolescents' decisions to use or not to use alcohol and other drugs?" The youth and the community were highly receptive to the project and its methodology, and photographs taken by photovoice participants presented a compelling argument for action.
The West Virginia Prescription Drug Abuse Quitline (WVPDAQ) is a resource that offers education and support to individuals and families affected by prescription drug abuse. The WVPDAQ began functioning September 11, 2008, through the use of mobile phone and laptop technology. Although some helplines and quitlines use some aspects of remote technology, most function through traditional call center and landline technology, making the WVPDAQ unique. This article describes the process evaluation of the WVPDAQ and outlines both the positive findings and challenges faced by the WVPDAQ. Lessons learned and future recommendations for remote quitline endeavors are also presented. It is hoped that the experiences and information regarding the WVPDAQ presented can provide best-practice insight for public health practitioners and evaluation personnel who are considering using alternative technologies to deliver quitline services.
This study examined the perceptions of community members' engaged in community-academia partnerships involved in developing nutrition interventions in three communities in the Lower Mississippi Delta. Perceptions on effectiveness of the partnerships were investigated. Six focus group interviews were conducted, with 33 participants that included 27 females and 6 males. The data were analyzed by content coding. Emerging themes were identified and related to accomplishments, barriers to success, and factors related to success of the partnerships. Accomplishments included the establishment of active committees, positive changes in health behavior related to food choices, and participation in community events. Barriers to success included the slow pace of intervention implementation, difficulties with understanding the role of the community in the participatory research process, the decision-making processes, and project name recognition. Factors related to success were tangible benefits to the community, participation that was representative, simplification of the research process, and the decision-making processes.
H.U.B. City Steps is a 5-year community-based participatory research walking intervention designed to help lower blood pressure in a majority African American population in southern Mississippi via community collaboration and capacity building, increased walking, culturally tailored health education sessions, and motivational interviewing. Building community capacity for physical activity is a key component of this intervention. Qualitative and quantitative methods have been used to assess how project stakeholders perceive the community capacity-building efforts of the project. This article illustrates the baseline results of this mixed methods approach from the perspective of three groups of stakeholders: project researchers and staff, community advisory board, and intervention walking coaches. Eight constructs were examined, including leadership, resources, external networking, visibility and recognition, personnel sustainability, ability and commitment to organize, communication with community members, and relationships with influential others. Quantitative results indicated significant differences among stakeholder groups for project leadership and personnel sustainability. Qualitative perspectives provided an opportunity to examine possible reasons for these differences. Overall findings provide direction related to improving intervention outcomes and sustainability.
Research suggests that stakeholder investment is maximized when partnerships understand the assumptions held by partners of the benefits to be derived and contributions to be made to the partnership. In 2011, representatives from seven rural county high schools and five university departments participated in a planning workshop designed to identify elements of an effective community-academic partnership to address adolescent obesity disparity in Southern Appalachia. The purpose of this investigation was to examine key elements of partnership building by way of the Give-Get Grid partnership tool. Content analysis was conducted to identify emerging themes. University representatives consistently identified more proposed program contributions as well as benefits than their high school partners. University personnel responses generally pertained to their level of participation and investment in the partnership, whereas high school personnel tended to identify contributions fundamental to both partnership and program success. Additionally, content analysis uncovered programmatic facilitators and potential barriers that can be instrumental in program planning and forming program messages. Findings suggest that although partners often share common goals, perceptions of the value of investment and benefits may vary. The Give-Get Grid can be used during the program-planning phase to help identify these differences. Implications for practice are discussed.
Lower Mississippi Delta Nutrition Intervention Research Initiative (Delta NIRI) is an academic-community partnership between seven academic institutions and three communities in Mississippi, Arkansas, and Louisiana. A range of community-based participatory methods have been used to develop sustainable nutrition intervention strategies. Focus groups were conducted with 22 faculty and staff members from the academic partners on the project to document their perceptions of community-based participatory processes in a federally funded, multi-academic-community partnership spanning a decade. Focus groups were conducted to glean insights or lessons from the experiences of academic personnel. Focus groups were transcribed and analyzed using the constant comparative method. Two researchers analyzed each transcript independently and reached consensus on the consistent themes. Participants candidly shared their experiences of working with community members to devise research plans, implement programs, and evaluate outcomes. The majority of faculty and staff members were attracted to this project by an excitement for conducting a more egalitarian and potentially more successful type of research. Yet each academic partner voiced that there was an underlying disconnect between community practices and research procedures during the project. Additional barriers to collaboration and action, located in communities and academic institutions, were described. Academic partners stressed the importance of open and ongoing communication, collective decision-making strategies, and techniques that support power sharing between all parties involved in the project. Findings from this research can inform academic-community partnerships and hopefully improve the community-based participatory research process implemented by academic institutions and communities.
Interventions that utilize academic detailing to improve childhood immunization have been implemented across the country. This study evaluates the effectiveness of an academic detailing intervention to increase childhood immunization rates in pediatric and family medicine practices in a major metropolitan area. Educational teams of one physician, nurse, and office manager delivered 83 peer education sessions at practices in the intervention group. Postintervention immunization rates for children 12-23 months of age increased 1% in the intervention group and decreased 3% in the control group. Postintervention coverage levels for children 12-23 months of age did not differ between the intervention and control groups. Results indicated this office-based intervention was not sufficient to effect measurable changes in immunization coverage levels after 1 year of participation. Future interventions need to provide initial feedback regarding practice immunization coverage levels prior to the educational interventions and include multiple encounters.
To effectively attenuate cancer disparities in multiethnic, medically underserved populations, interventions must be developed collaboratively through solid community-academic partnerships and driven by community-based participatory research (CBPR). The Tampa Bay Community Cancer Network (TBCCN) has been created to identify and implement interventions to address local cancer disparities in partnership with community-based nonprofit organizations, faith-based groups, community health centers, local media, and adult literacy and education organizations. TBCCN activities and research efforts are geared toward addressing critical information and access issues related to cancer control and prevention in diverse communities in the Tampa Bay area. Such efforts include cross-cultural health promotion, screening, and awareness activities in addition to applied research projects that are rooted in communities and guided by CBPR methods. This article describes these activities as examples of partnership building to positively affect cancer disparities, promote community health, and set the stage for community-based research partnerships.
Established in 2002, Latinos in a Network for Cancer Control is a community-academic network supported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Cancer Institute. The network includes >130 individuals from 65 community and academic organizations committed to reducing cancer-related health disparities. Using an empirically derived systems model-the Bergen Model of Collaborative Functioning-as the analytic frame, we interviewed 19 partners to identify challenges and successful processes. Findings indicated that sustained partner interaction created "meaningful relationships" that were routinely called on for collaboration. The leadership was regarded positively on vision, charisma, and capacity. Limitations included overreliance on a single leader. Suggestions supported more delegation of decision making, consistent communication, and more equitable resource distribution. The study highlighted new insights into dynamics of collaboration: Greater inclusiveness of inputs (partners, finances, mission) and loosely defined roles and structure produced strong connections but less network-wide productivity (output). Still, this profile enabled the creation of more tightly defined and highly productive subgroups, with clear goals and roles but less inclusive of inputs than the larger network. Important network outputs included practice-based research publications, cancer control intervention materials, and training to enhance the use of evidence-based interventions, as well as continued and diversified funding.
Partnering with communities is a critical aspect of contemporary health promotion. Linkages between universities and communities are particularly significant, given the prominence of academic institutions in channeling grants. This article describes the collaboration between a school of public health and several community-based organizations on a maternal and infant health grant project. The partnership serves as a model for ways in which a university and community organizations can interrelate and interact. Central lessons include the significance of sharing values and goals, the benefit of drawing on the different strengths of each partner, the gap created by the university's institutional focus on research rather than service and advocacy, and the strains created by power inequities and distribution of funds. A key element of the partnership's success is the emphasis on capacity building and colearning. The project demonstrates the potential of employing community-academic partnerships as a valuable mechanism for implementing community-based health promotion programs.
A community-academic partnership was formed in Minnesota's Red River Basin for a 1-year planning grant preceding a larger intervention to reduce pesticide exposure among children. Photovoice, developed by Dr. Caroline Wang, was used by mothers to document pathways to pesticide exposure for their children along with other health and safety concerns. An evaluation of the partnership was conducted for mothers, and for the research team of local stakeholders and academics. Surveys consisting of structured and open-ended questions elicited information on the perception of the process and short-term outcomes. Questions were created based on objectives of the Photovoice project, satisfaction, and principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR). A high percentage of study participants and researchers indicated that the objectives of the effort had been met, the principles of CBPR had been realized and they were satisfied with the benefits of participation. A need for more thorough planning was identified related to long-term dissemination of knowledge generated. The evaluation provides insight on the strengths and weaknesses of the project, demonstrates to team members and funders that formative and summative outcomes were met, and serves as a model for community-academic partnerships utilizing Photovoice as one CBPR method.
The HIV epidemic is a health crisis in rural African American communities in the Southeast United States; however, to date little attention has been paid to community-academic collaborations to address HIV in these communities. Interventions that use a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach to address individual, social, and physical environmental factors have great potential for improving community health. Project GRACE (Growing, Reaching, Advocating for Change and Empowerment) uses a CBPR approach to develop culturally sensitive, feasible, and sustainable interventions to prevent the spread of HIV in rural African American communities. This article describes a staged approach to community-academic partnership: initial mobilization, establishment of organizational structure, capacity building for action, and planning for action. Strategies for engaging rural community members at each stage are discussed; challenges faced and lessons learned are also described. Careful attention to partnership development has resulted in a collaborative approach that has mutually benefited both the academic and community partners.
This case study examines the comparative effect of no-use school tobacco policies and restricted-use tobacco policies on teacher and student smoking behaviors and attitudes. Data from teachers (n = 1,041) and ninth-grade students (n = 4,763) at 20 schools in five districts in southern Louisiana were available. No significant difference was observed between teacher smoking (11% vs. 13%, p = .42) or student smoking (24.6% vs. 25.2%, p = .75) at no-use versus restricted-use policy schools. The proportion of teachers smoking on campus at no-use or restricted-use schools was not significantly different. Teachers at restricted-use schools were however less concerned about students seeing teachers smoke and less supportive of a no-use policy than teachers at no-use schools. Tobacco use policies are often not promoted, and enforcement of policies impacting teachers is complex. Changing social norms for smoking at high schools through policy promotion and enforcement is understudied.
The purpose of this study was to identify the barriers and benefits to human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in a low-income, Latina farmworker population in central Florida. This study reports on formative qualitative research conducted on perceptions of benefits, barriers, costs, place, and promotion related to the HPV vaccine from surveys and interviews with a sample of 46 low-income, Latina farm workers and 19 health care workers serving this population. It was found that Latina farmworkers hold many misperceptions about the HPV vaccine and the potential links between HPV infection and cervical cancer. In addition, it was observed that HPV vaccination intention was inversely related to concerns about adolescent sexual behavior and low perceived risk of infection but might be positively influenced by belief in illness prevention and physician recommendation. These findings add to the growing research on HPV vaccine acceptability among Latina subgroups to inform intervention development, marketing materials, education, and policy.