In this article, Elizabeth Birr Moje, Melanie Overby, Nicole Tysvaer, and Karen Morris challenge some of the prevailing myths about adolescents and their choices related to reading. The reading practices of youth from one urban community are examined using mixed methods in an effort to define what, how often, and why adolescents choose to read. By focusing on what features of texts youth find motivating, the authors find that reading and writing frequently occur in a range of literacy contexts outside school. However, only reading novels on a regular basis outside of school is shown to have a positive relationship to academic achievement as measured by school grades. This article describes how adolescents read texts that are embedded in social networks, allowing them to build social capital. Conclusions are framed in terms of the mysteries that remain - namely, how to build on what motivates adolescents' literacy practices in order to both promote the building of their social selves and improve their academic outcomes.
For well over a century, women have sought acceptance in the medical profession. The first breakthrough in this effort, in the late nineteenth century, resulted in a "golden age": women then accounted for up to half of some medical school graduating classes. These early successes were not followed by subsequent gains. The twentieth century became a period of stagnation for women physicians with respect to both their number and their power. Against the background of this earlier history, this article analyzes contemporary efforts to empower women as physicians.
This article reports the results of an investigation of the effect of father absence on young children in terms of the patterns of math and verbal aptitude scores which these children later attain on college entrance examinations. The author relates the findings to sex-identification theory. (31 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Both the print and electronic media recently have highlighted the problems faced by severely abased and neglected children in America. Many suggestions have been offered for ameliorating the conditions leading to child abuse and neglect,but few hard data exist to tell us which social policies can be most effective in combatting these conditions. In this article, several sources of data are examined to estimate the incidence of abuse, its social and demographic features, and the nature of available child abuse case reports. Three potential social policies are analyzed in detail: national health screening, education in child rearing, and the development of profiles of abusing families with the hope of offering them preventive help. Each analysis has two underlying themes. First, even with incomplete data it is often possible to evaluate the probable effectiveness of a social policy before it is implemented. Second, data initially collected in a non-experimental setting ran still be used to suggest improvements in policy. The author concludes with a series of recommendations urging more systematic and carefully designed investigations of reporting systems and ameliorative efforts. Such investigations are necessary to enable firm inferences about the comparative effectiveness of different programs to reduce the incidence of child abuse and neglect.
The interests and values of approximately 8000 high school boys and girls were measured by a questionnaire. Irrespective of the wide differences in parental background, type of school, and type of community, there was a marked nonchalance and even a negative attitude towards scholastic matters. Possible origins of this situation are considered and a remedy, in terms of a changed reward structure, suggested. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
This is a search of supporting evidence for divergent views as to the nature of the development of mental processes, or abilities, in studies of analogous function revealed in the learning of children and in pathological cases. The ability to apprehend or classify objects and to make abstractions demonstrates, to the author's satisfaction, that learning is achieved not as a unitary function but by increasingly complex process-patterns, which are quite different at different levels. Not only achievement, but knowledge of the method or process employed by a child as well, becomes an essential for both genetic psychology and education. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
It is argued that the current position of the school counselor really contains 3 diverse and contradictory functions. The effects of each role on the counselor, student and school administrator are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
"Initiation of Structure" and "Consideration," identified as fundamental dimensions of leader behavior, were studied by means of a specially-devised Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ) in 2 groups of educational administrators and aircraft commanders. In both leader behavior and leadership ideology, administrators revealed greater Consideration and less Initiation of Structure than aircraft commanders. Low correlations existed in both samples between real and ideal behavior, but a tendency to a closer relationship was indicated for that dimension of leader behavior which is least supported by the institutional mores. 19 references. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Conducted research in a school in a poor area of a large northeastern American city. In a system of about 80 elementary schools, this one consistently evidenced the lowest group IQ scores. School records and extensive interviews with past pupils over a 25-yr period were used to relate IQ changes, teachers' attitudes, and subsequent adult status. In striking contrast to many recent studies, a dramatic relationship was demonstrated between 1st-grade teachers' attributes and adult status, both in terms of academic self-concept and achievement in school and later life. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Presents an essay about tactics on trying to change public policy as it affects children. A case of citizen advocacy effort at the local level directed at remedying the exclusion of children from school is studied. The validity and pitfalls of a variety of advocacy tactics are examined. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Interviewed in the community, school system, and individual schools and observed classrooms in 3 geographically distinct school districts to develop an agenda for future research on microcomputers (MCs). A large southwestern city introduced MCs through centralized authority and used MCs located in resource rooms for teaching packages and programming and literacy instruction. Students left their classrooms to use MCs an average of 10 min/day/student. A large midwestern city had decentralized introduction of MCs; half of the 80 in the system were owned by schools. MCs were used for programming and drill and for innovative programs proposed by individual teachers using key resources provided by the central administration and a statewide computing organization. A northeastern suburban system, where most authority resided at the grassroots level, was beginning to become concerned about the lack of coherence and policy about MC use. The 6 areas suggested for study, as a result of these observations, are access to MCs, new roles in response to MCs, integration of MCs into elementary classrooms and curricula, quantity and quality of software, preparation of teachers for using MCs, and the effects and outcomes of the instructional use of MCs. (25 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
First American reactions to Piaget's work were characterized by an understandable skepticism; it is difficult to accept data that contravene cherished beliefs. This was followed by a desire among both psychologists and educators to accelerate development, even though Piaget cautioned against doing this. Convinced behaviorists remain convinced and the debate continues in Geneva and elsewhere. A review of these developments leads to the conclusion that the dilemma suggested by the title of this article is both false and beside the point. Issues of greater relevance and educational concern are raised by recent Piagetian research in Geneva. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Examines 4 prevalent explanations for specific reading disability in children: deficiencies in visual processing, deficiencies in intersensory integration, dysfunction in temporal-order perception, and deficiencies in verbal processing. Both direct and inferential evidence suggest that the last is the most convincing; i.e., there is a relationship between reading problems and dysfunction in the semantic, syntactic, or phonological aspects of language. By implication, the linguistic problems of certain poor readers necessitate emphasis upon the internal structure of words. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The authors review research on the effects of amphetamines on children, particularly hyperactive children in the classroom. They point out that there is no clear evidence these drugs should be prescribed as often as they are. The "hyperkinetic syndrome" remains vague both in its diagnosis and its etiology, and the mechanism of amphetamine action is unclear. The assumption that amphetamines have a paradoxical,calming effect on hyperactive children, unlike the stimulating effect they exert on adults, may accurately describe the apparent effects of the drugs on attention and other aspects of socially accepted classroom behavior, but it does not justify the interpretation that amphetamine effects are qualitatively different for children than for adults, without the same potential for harm. The authors conclude that the possible adverse effects of these drugs and their unknown long-term risks require that we consider the present policy of amphetamine administration in the schools.
Kenneth and Yetta Goodman argue that reading, like speaking and writing, is an active language process in which readers display their sophistication as functional psycholinguists. The authors note, however, that it is difficult to gain access to and understand these active, underlying processes. To make such processes accessible,the authors advocate the use of oral reading as a data base. The Goodmans maintain that when oral readers depart from the written text—when miscues occur—the underlying processes of reading begin to be revealed. Using examples from children and adults, the authors present a typology of miscues and demonstrate how miscues provide a window on reading and other language processes. Throughout the article the Goodmans note the implications of miscue analysis for research and teaching.
Research has so far failed to reveal any evidence that sex differences in mathematics performance are biologically based. However, expectations of success and patterns of attribution are sex-linked. Prevailing programs for the correction of "math anxiety" need to be evaluated in the light of contemporary theories of learning that attempt to provide clearly articulated behavior change models to the learning of mathematics. Techniques arising out of such perspectives could be effective in reversing female underachievement in mathematics. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
In the late 1960's and early 1970's, M. Horner employed the TAT to establish the widely and still accepted notion that women fear success or are anxious when they expect it. Close scrutiny of Horner's methodology and interpretation of her data in the light of more recent research lead to an alternative conclusion: It is the climate of competition that arouses the anxiety rather than success itself. Much depends on the definition of "anxiety" employed. Drawing on the constructivist model, it is suggested that women's "success anxiety" is primarily a reflection of the female way of constructing reality. Rather than attempting to eliminate "fear of success" by training women to compete according to the prevailing masculine rules, society's institutions require restructuring to facilitate other routes to success. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Examination of pertinent studies indicates that (1) training for the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) can effectively help students raise their scores and (2) the test adds little to the student's high school record in predicting college performance. Although an "aura of secrecy" surrounds the SAT and detailed information about the test is hard to come by, these findings would seem to be contrary to pronouncements by both Educational Testing Service and the College Board. Students who believed that they did not have to prepare for the SAT or who had limited opportunity for preparation may have been needlessly deprived of admission to the college of their choice. Furthermore, if low scores are interpreted as an indication of personal deficiencies, students who accept the validity of the SAT as a measure of aptitude may needlessly suffer loss of self-esteem. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Discusses a popular education project in Chile, called the Learning Workshops, which is aimed at using the educational potential of the community to confront the educational failure of children from low-income families. Autonomy has been achieved in some areas after the withdrawal of professionals, and the transference-appropriation process that leads to such autonomy is examined. Some of the strategies and processes that are crucial for achieving appropriation include linking the learning process to daily life, identifying motivation, and using permanent follow-up mechanisms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Reports on an 8-yr study of school and agency child-classification procedures, based on standardized intelligence tests, in a California city of about 130,000 population. A disproportionately large number of Chicanos and Blacks were labeled as mentally retarded. It is argued that current classification procedures violate a number of key rights of children. Supplementary evaluations are proposed which assess a child's competencies outside of school: Only children scoring in the lowest 3% on standardized IQ tests and adaptive behavior evaluations should be placed in classes for the mentally retarded. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Rejecting A. R. Jensen's (See 43:7) contentions with respect to the influences of genetic determinants upon intelligence in Negroes and whites, it is hypothesized instead that, given the necessary relationship between the physical structure of the nervous system and the behavior of the system (as in IQ), it is necessary to provide rich postnatal experience to develop the inherent structures. Analogies from animal research suggest that the physical development of the brain is directly influenced by its information-processing activities and that these activities are especially effective in neonatal organisms. (48 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Assaults teacher-proof curricula and abstract, formal learning theories in the kindergarten classroom. It is suggested that kindergartners are aware of their own learning needs and will practice activities necessary to satisfy those needs if allowed to do so. A key to developing these individualized curricula is an autonomous teacher with ample time to discover and help with what the children are trying to learn on their own. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
In the past decade, the authority of school administrators and school boards has been called into question by members of two emerging groups—teachers' unions and advocates of community control. While both movements have received much attention, the relationship between them has gone largely unrecognized. Charles W. Cheng argues that collective bargaining between unions and school systems is creating an infrastructure of labor-relations experts who are removing decisionmaking power from both school boards and rank-and-file teachers; as enlargement of the scope of bargaining pulls more and more educational-policy decisions into the collective-bargaining arena, parents and communities are pushed further than ever from the educational power structure. Yet ways exist to include parents and communities in educational decision making without sacrificing the gains which teachers' unions have won. Challenging teachers to reexamine the policies their leaders have pursued, the author describes and assesses several strategies for opening up the bargaining process.
Examines the assumptions underlying those intervention programs which tacitly label Negro behavior as pathological. It is suggested that the failure to recognize and utilize existing cultural forms obtaining within the lower-class black community in order to teach new skills constitutes a form of institutional racism and dooms programs such as Head Start to inevitable failure. Research on the Negro has been "guided by an ethnocentric liberal ideology which denies cultural differences and thus acts against the best interests of the people it wishes to understand and eventually help." A cultural difference model in which black children are described in sociolinguistic terms as speaking a highly developed but different variety of English from that which epitomizes the mainstream is presented as a viable alternative to existing genetic inferiority and social pathology models which tends to view the black man as a kind of "sick white." (64 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Discusses the question of whether the relatively new field of learning disabilities can back up its claim to knowledge and special assessment skills with valid empirical evidence. Scrutiny of the 10 most frequently recommended diagnostic tests suggests that it cannot. Such tests fail to demonstrate that children categorized as learning disabled are neurologically impaired. The evidence that problems of minimal neurological dysfunction exist which impede academic learning is "less than compelling." Nevertheless, children continue to be diagnosed in this fashion, perhaps because the prevailing social system takes refuge in biological explanations for problems that require social solutions. (4½ p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Argues that current controversies about meaning, comprehension, acquisition, reading, and reasoning as functions of language are rooted in differing assumptions about the extrinsic or intrinsic relation of meaning to language. On both individual and cultural levels, there has been development from language as utterance (meaning extrinsic to language) to language as text (meaning intrinsic to language). Schooling, particularly learning to read, is for the individual the critical process in the transformation from utterance to text. The history of conventionalized, explicit language is traced from the invention of the Greek alphabet to the rise of the British essay. The resulting concept of language is discussed, with its implications for the linguistic, psychological, and logical issues previously raised. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Traces the historical development of the federal government's involvement in the formation of policy for bilingual education, and discusses its impact on legislation, court decisions, regulations, and guidelines for meeting the language needs of over 3.5 million school aged children. Instructional models and such research-assessed outcomes as students' achievement, self-image, and integration are reviewed. Implications for federal policy of these legal and research issues and the problem of fiscal support for bilingual programs are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Notes that judges currently have wide discretionary authority to remove "neglected" children from their natural parents. This coercive process is examined in detail and it is concluded that the standards require predictions which cannot possibly be made on a case by case basis. It is suggested that too much discretion is given to individual judges to inject their own values into the decision-making process. Corrective measures are proposed and delineated. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The author discusses the status of children's rights according to various philosophical conceptions of social justice. He describes three traditional paternalist views of children and concludes that, on the whole, they are discouraging in their implications for children. After analyzing some of the difficulties of previous philosophical attempts to create systems of justice ensuring children's rights, Worsfold sets forth three criteria which any adequate justification for children's rights must fulfill. He argues that these criteria are best met within the theory of justice proposed by John Rawls which, while still paternalistic, presents a more adequate framework for securing children's rights to fair treatment.
Large scale educational intervention programs at the national level should incorporate evaluation as an integral part of the program development. Rather than judge a total program as either worthy or otherwise, a sequential approach is suggested which searches out those few versions which are working well so that they can be improved and replicated in future centers. Possible statistical techniques are suggested and the Head Start experience utilized to illustrate many of the proposed points. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Examined whether the ideology of working-class youth has shifted away from a focus on upward mobility toward a radical critique of the society. High school students (IQ's over 115) were interviewed in depth, 1st in a pilot study and then in 3 contrasting community settings. In all 3 communities, Ss' needs to define and work towards personal goals greatly overshadowed their concerns with societal issues. It is suggested that adolescent ideology evolves in different ways depending upon the individual himself and the community context. Political consciousness raising among working-class adolescents by middle class persons introduces complex problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Discusses the developing tendency of US courts to examine within-school practices which classify students on the basis of academic performance or potential. Such practices-which include ability grouping, special education placement, and exclusion of "ineducable" children-are examined in detail in terms of the constitutional meanings of equal educational opportunity. The plausibility of treating student classification issues in equal protection and due process terms is assessed, together with the policy consequences of such treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Collected data from 129 elementary and 887 secondary classrooms using a physical environment inventory, daily summary, classroom snapshot, and 5-min interaction. Little variety was found in teaching practices across schools. The majority of class time was spent in teachers lecturing to the class or in students working on written assignments. Less than 3% of classroom time could be characterized as positive or negative, so that the effect over 95% of the time could be described as neutral. (47 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Difficulties encountered in attempting to apply Piaget's theory to education stem from intrinsic ambiguities within the theory itself. This is illustrated (a) by a review of curricula that derive their educational objectives from Piaget's developmental stage sequences, and (b) by an examination of programs whose educational methods are derived directly from Piaget's theories about the process of cognitive development. To achieve more comprehensive developmental theory and more effective application, the efforts of educators to utilize developmental theory and the efforts of developmental theorists to construct a more adequate theory of cognitive development must be integrated. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
While agreeing "for the most part" with A. R. Jensen's (see 43:7) article, certain reservations are made with respect to the qualitative validity of the assumptions made when drawing inferences from existing studies in biometrical genetics. The samples employed in many twin and sibling studies are limited in size and it is also doubtful how representative they are. Compensatory education programs should be abandoned too readily and ways of intensifying and improving their effectiveness should be sought. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Current school competency schemes take 2 main forms: controlling grade-to-grade promotion and providing a minimum basis for awarding high school diplomas. These programs are examined nationwide and arguments are presented for a careful consideration of the following important unresolved issues: the definition of what constitutes "minimal competence," the determination of appropriate measures, and the use of the concept of minimal competence in formulating educational goals. (51 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The teaching of words, and of the meanings and concepts they designate or convey, is one of the principal tasks of teachers at all levels of education. It is a concern of textbook writers and programmers of self-instructional materials as well. Students must be taught the meanings of unfamiliar words and idioms;they must be helped in recognizing unfamiliar ways in which familiar words may be used; and they must be made generally aware of the possibility of ambiguity in meaning and the role of context in resolving it. Often the task that presents itself to the teacher is not merely to explain a new word in familiar terms, but to shape an entirely new concept in the mind of the student.
Revolutionary changes are rapidly altering traditional educational practice. Of particular concern to the psychologist is the danger of acceptance of oversimplified conceptions about motivation and learning in the school. 3 topics pivotal to current trends in the revision of curricula and teaching practice are examined. These pertain to (1) ideas, facts and operations; (2) curiosity and learning; (3) discovery and learning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
"A NUMBER OF ISSUES IN READING AND READING DIFFICULTY ARE DERIVED FROM A CONSIDERATION OF THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF DEFINITIONS OF READING AND FROM AN ANALYSIS OF THE KINDS OF EXPLANATIONS OFFERED TO ACCOUNT FOR READING DIFFICULTY. BASED ON THE ISSUES CONSIDERED . . . A MORE INTEGRATED CONCEPTUALIZATION OF READING AND READING DIFFICULTY (IS ADVANCED)." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
There is sufficient evidence now available to warrant redefining conditioning and problem-solving in rather special ways so that learning will be seen to consist of two basic processes, associationism and hedonism. A completely monistic explanation seems to be impossible. We should probably refer not to "
the learning process," but to
two such processes. This is not, however, a renewal of the "vicious convenience" of using both the laws of effect and exercise, since these latter two principles were ordinarily applied to the same learning process. In the current formulation, which was made fairly explicit by Skinner a decade ago, conditioning—the acquisition of secondary drives—is related to the autonomic nervous system, problem-solving—the reduction of primary or secondary drives—to the central nervous system. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
L. Kohlberg's typology posits 6 hierarchical stages forming a Piagetian developmental sequence. The 1st 4 moral judgments do define a Piagetian stage sequence. The last 2 (higher) stages appear to be existential or reflections of earlier stages. Greater attention must be accorded to the distinction between natural and existential human development. Kohlberg's uniform treatment of human ethical constructions is deficient on 2 counts: the implication that even the principled orientations conform to stage criteria; and the uniform claim for all constructions as stages, which fails to take into account the distinction between implicit theories-in-action and detached reflections upon one's theories in action. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The contextual grounding of the meaning of human activity and language has been largely ignored in traditional approaches to research in the social and behavioral sciences. The prevailing positivist model has led to a quest for general context-free laws and to methods in which the role of context plays no part. This is now beginning to change, especially in the fields of developmental and social psychology, and in educational research. Drawing examples from phenomenology, sociolinguistics, and ethnomethodology, alternative approaches are proposed which are more appropriate to the study of meaning in context. (37 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Teachers and children use systems of relations to make sense of each other, and this classroom interaction can promote or retard learning. Many children spend most of their time in relational battles rather than learning tasks. How learning styles depend upon cultural context is illustrated by examples from diverse school systems, including Amish and inner-city American. Building relations and developing successful learning environments must start with an ethnographic sense of what we are trying to accomplish and of the nature of the relevant institutional contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Raises 3 principal questions: What part should traditional training schools play in providing treatment for youthful offenders? How do community-based treatment services compare in effectiveness with institutional treatment for juvenile delinquents? What problems arise in undertaking a radical change in policy and program from institution to community-based services? The Center for Criminal Justice of Harvard Law School is currently evaluating reforms undertaken by the Massachusetts Department of Youth Services to answer these questions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Amethod is presented for the teaching of "creativity" through the development of a theory of "sub-selves" within the individual's total personality structure. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Systematically examined neglected court records and other sources to show how females were discriminated against in the early 20th century in the US. Female juvenile delinquents often received more severe punishments than males, even though males were usually charged with more serious crimes. This discriminatory treatment stemmed from such factors as racial prejudice, new theories of adolescence, and progressive-era movements to purify society. There is an intimate relation between a society's values and the correctional systems that it develops. The values and beliefs that shaped a discriminatory system of juvenile justice in the Victorian and progressive eras still dominate the administration of female juvenile justice today. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Presents a feminist criticism of the content, methods, and purpose of knowledge about women as currently defined by the social sciences and as used to interpret women's experiences, and discusses alternative approaches. (45 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The author critiques Ivan Illich's Deschooling Society, arguing that, despite his forthright vision of the liberating potential of educational technology, Illich fails to understand fully how the existing educational system serves the capitalist economy. Gintis evaluates and rejects the book's major thesis that the present character of schooling stems from the economy's need to shape consumer demands and expectations. Instead, he offers a production orientation which maintains that the repressive and unequal aspects of schooling derive from the need to supply a labor force compatible with the social relations of capitalist production. Gintis concludes that meaningful strategies for educational change must explicitly embrace a concomitant transformation of the mechanisms of power and privilege in the economic sphere.
A quarter century of research has disclosed striking similarities and markeddifferences in performances by children in varying cultures and world-wide locations on cognitive tasks designed to test J. Piaget's theory of genetic epistemology and its hierarchical, universal, and invariant sequence of stages. These findings are analyzed and evaluated in terms of certain conceptual and methodological criteria, and suggestions are made for improvement in conducting future investigations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)