Hamdard Islamicus: quarterly journal of the Hamdard National Foundation, Pakistan

Online ISSN: 0250-7196
Publications
Article
This paper discusses the expansion of the mosque of the Prophet in Madinah by Caliph 'Umar b. al-Khattāb. The paper concludes that the undertaking was in full consonance both with the spiritual benchmarks of the Islamic message and the emerging socio-cultural Traditions and norms of the nascent Muslim community. So significant was the expansion and at such a critical juncture in the Muslim history, that it set some high standards for the future development and nurturing of the spiritual as well as human dimensions in the sphere of Muslim architecture. The main discussion of the paper focuses on three vital dimensions of the Mosque expansion which proved significant for the early development of the authentic identity of Muslim architecture: the role of consultation and mutual agreements, which is tantamount to what is today called public participation in architecture; the significance and impact of the dynamic process of institutionalization of the mosque of the Prophet myriad religious, educational, social, cultural and political activities; and the austere, yet judicious, views of 'Umar b. al-Khattāb on architecture which, by and large, reverberated the core of the Islamic attitude towards the prospect of erecting buildings. The three dimensions are dealt with after the main physical features of the Mosque's expansion have been expounded. The paper also shows that so interwoven were the evolution of Muslim architectural identity and the community development processes in Islam, that successfully investigating the former without systematically referring to the latter can never be complete. Thus, the orb of Muslim architecture, both as a concept and sensory reality, should always be seen as a multidimensional, universal, fluid, vibrant, expressive and as much scientific, technological and applied, as spiritual, educational and ethical, phenomenon.
 
Article
Contemporary Islamswissenschaft considers dating Traditions or Ahǎdïth as a key to uncovering the origins of Islam. These Traditions are a unique genre of historical documents which offer a view into the early history of Islam owing to the fact that their textual vehicle or isnǎd accompany the transmitted text or main. With reference to the unique manner in which the transmission history of these texts was also recorded along svith them by their collectors, contemporary western H adit h studies generally adopt one of the three types of methods for dating these Traditions: dating by matn as Joseph Schacht did, dating by isnǎd as GHA Juynboll did, and dating by isnǎd and matn simultaneously. The latter of these methods has its merit in that it recognizes the unique nature of Hadǐth mentioned above and the current paper focuses on its pioneer and primary proponent in today's western academia, Harald Motzki. Although he applies this method to different kinds of Traditions like the biographical, the legal and the exegetical ones, the current paper concerns itself with an instance of its application by Motzki on their latter kind.
 
Article
The Islamic criminal justice system provides fundamental guarantees to the accused. The Islamic criminal law presumes the accused innocent unless proven guilty. In addition, Islamic criminal justice system has provided many safeguards to the accused that are always upheld during detention, investigation, trial, and post-Trial. These rights are: 1) the right of each person to the protection of life, honour, liberty and property; 2) the right to due process of law; 3) the right to a fair and public trial before an impartial judge; 4) confrontation and cross-examination of the accusers and witnesses; 5) freedom from compulsory self-incrimination; 6) protection against arbitrary arrest and detention; 7) prompt judicial determination and; 8) right of appeal. Thus, the Islamic criminal law has provided basic guarantees to an accused person. First, he should not be charged under the principle of legality. If charged, he has many defences, especially under the doctrine of uncertainty (shubhah) in cases of hudood and homicide. He has rights during the investigation of the crime and his right to honour and privacy are more important even if it means forgoing an investigation and thus permitting a crime to go unprosecuted and unpunished. The trial has to be fair and the cross-examination of accusers and witnesses is a must. The accused cannot be incriminated by the court during the trial or during the investigation. Upholding these principles mean that the rights of the accused are fully guaranteed under the Islamic criminal law that has provided excellent procedural requirements to guarantee the rights of the accused. Books of the classical Islamic law do not focus on the basic principles of Islamic law. Those that exist are either mentioned in a separate chapter devoted to a specific crime or they must be found by deduction. Adhering to these principles is intended to avoid a miscarriage of justice under the Islamic criminal justice system.
 
Article
The paper traces the concept of Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) in the Shari'ah and law in genera!. The details of various modes of ADR (Arbitration, Mediation, Conciliation Negotiation, TalikJm and Sulh) have been left aside, owing to the fact of concentration on the issue under investigation. In this work, focus, therefore, remains on ADR's meaning, evolution, legal status, need and significance in both systems; with minute details. It also discusses the origin of ADR in the modern law, the various stages through which it has been passed, the era of invention of the phrase 'ADR1 and the advantages of this mechanism of dispute resolution, both for the state and individual/individuals. As a complementary requirement, Pakistani Legal System has also been analyzed profoundly in the ADR perspective. It also discovers the similitude of term 'ADR' in the Shari'ah. A comprehensive tabulated comparison between ADR and formal litigation is made in the present work, followed by a comprehensive conclusion of the issue under investigation. In addition, content analysis technique of qualitative research method has been used for the critical analysis of the secondary data, available on the concept of ADR and i TahkTm, both in the conventional and Islamic law respectively.
 
Article
The role of farmers is indispensable for the accomplishment of various human needs. Among these, food is the most significant and crucial one for the survival of human society. But instead of this great importance, farming community always faces financial problems to fulfil their agricultural requirements, both for crop and non-crop activities. The Pakistani farmers face harsh economic realities. Avoiding interest at all costs, as advised in Islam, they do not want to secure any such financing facility whether formal or informal. Being a complete'code of life, Islam suggests alternate ways through the application of various modes of Islamic finance. Among these Ijārah (leasing) is one. The present work discusses the theoretical background of this mode, made available in the scholarly contribution of classical and contemporary Muslim jurists, followed by a viable model proposed for the provision of financing to the lower and middle class farmers. The empirical results make obvious that Ijārah can be effectively used for the development of agricultural sector, particularly its sub-sector of local farming that exists in rural areas of the Country. However, the basic principles, rules and regulations of the transaction, envisaged by Islamic finance, need to be adhered to in order to achieve the intended and anticipated objectives.
 
Article
Agriculture is the most noteworthy source of food through which farmers augment food supply for themselves and others. Majority of these farmers in Pakistan, predominantly in the KPK, belong to the lower class and, as a result, are not in a position to bear out their basic agricultural wants. They borrow it, therefore, from various sources on interest basis including organizations, banks and other various financial institutions. However, these institutions offer loan facility on interest basis which is stringently prohibited by Shari'ah for a Muslim farmer. Being a complete code of life, Islam gifts, as alternate, a comprehensive way for farmers and Islamic banks to enter into various commercial trade based transactions, feasible and worthwhile for all the stake holders. These transactions can be divided into Murǎbahah, Salam, and Istisnǎ'. The theoretical part of the work is primarily based on qualitative research technique and, therefore, the theoretical part is entirely based on secondary data, derived from the work of Muslim scholars. A focussed group technique is used where the farmers and agricultural credit officers are interviewed regarding the proposed models. The testing of the proposed models proves that how the newly developed models are very much operable at ground level, having a potential to fulfil all farmers' basic agricultural needs, both for crop and non-crop activities.
 
Article
This paper reviews the history of Sumaniyyah doctrines in the Arabic-Islamic discourse. The author collates diverse materials on Sumaniyyah from various Arabic sources to analyze and characterize them. Beginning with the term's origin, Sumaniyyah's etymology, homony my and historical background are explored to clarify similarities and differences between what was called Sumaniyyah and Buddhism. The methodology used is qualitative description and content analysis with a focus on what early Muslim scholars wrote on Sumaniyyah until the 13th century of hijrah. The writers, highlight key doctrines including the transmigration of soul, idol worship, concepts of universe and creation, the belief in prophecy, the belief in the world's eternal nature, and limitations on certain types of knowledge.
 
Article
To begin with, when I started working on this study, it was not my intention to study it in depth; it was only confined to the date of birth of the Prophet MuÍammad ( ). But later on when I could avail an occasion to go through the biographical records of the Prophet ( ), and met with the considerable varying statements of the Muslim, as well as, the oriental scholars in respect of the dates of the events, particularly, the corresponding Christian dates, and variant climatic conditions noticed on those dates are quite different to the actual climatic conditions as prevailed at that time. This very truth prompted me to study all the key-events of the Prophet’s life encompassing the time-span between 571 and 632 A.D.
 
Article
In order to ensure continued food supply to ever-growing populations, especially in developing and leastdeveloped countries, enough production of genetically modified (GM) agricultural produce is sine qua non. It is for this reason that agricultural biotechnology has been given priority and is getting all kinds of supportfrom the governments of developed and developing countries. But almost all living modified organisms (LMOs) and GM foods have their origin in Western countries, especially from multinational companies, significantlyMonsanto of the United States. These companies though are marketing their GM products both at national andinternational levels without giving due consideration to their safety aspects, especially to human consumption. Most of the biotech companies and scientists around the world, engaged with producing genetically modifiedorganisms (GMOs), living and their use as non-living, are motivated either by short-term monetary gains or toearn fame. Some of their errant researches are tainted with violation of ethics pertaining to science andtechnology. In order to ensure the safety to human, animal or plant life or health there are two internationallegal instruments supported with local laws made thereunder. Both of them resort to application ofprecautionary principle but to serve different purposes. But the zeal to promote international trade hasdominated the conservation of the biodiversity imperatives. Although Islam requires for all edibles to bepermissible (halāl) and good for human consumption (tayyib), accentuated in form of the precautionaryprinciple - which, enshrined in several international and national legal instruments, has to be observed byproducing and importing countries and which has to be environmentally friendly - but producing countries do not ensure the safety of biotech food. The precautionary principle has further been strengthened by various Sharī'ah principles. This paper demonstrates the ethical and islamic perspective of production and use of GMOs.
 
Article
DNA testing of paternity represents the most celebrated achievement in the field of forensic technology to solve litigations on paternity in the Modern Legal Systems. Unlike the Western law of evidence, the question of adopting DNA test of paternity within traditional means of establishing paternity is a contentious issue among contemporary Muslim legal scholars. Some approve its restricted use, others advocate its complete adoption even to connect illegitimate children to the male party in an unlawful sex. An interesting development, however, is that on both sides of the discourse, it is agreed that DNA test can be used selectively to identify corpses during natural catastrophes and other emergency situations. In this context, an important issue with which jurists and lawyers grapple in Malaysia is the possibility of using istilhdq as the basis for solving the problem of illegitimate children born less than six months from date of marriage. As to whether DNA test can be another framework is a question which this paper endeavours to explore. In the pages which follow, we delineate the modern juristic debate over use of DNA test in determining paternity in general, and then its contextualization to the problem in Malaysia.
 
Article
Unprecedented advancement in medical technology and its rapidly growing field of allied sciences indisputably have contributed significantly to the treatment of diseases and even inborn defects. However, they challenge many traditionally cherished age-old conceptions about diseases, natural deformities and even end-of-life care. Victims of accidents and those suffering from irrecoverable chronic diseases are put in life-support in the intensive care of the hospital thereby creating a new kind of life and possibility for terminating such a life. Thus, modern means of dealing with end-of-life matters raise topical issues of bioethical import, such as euthanasia and brain death, for both the scholars of bioethics and jurists to speculate. In the Muslim world, juridical bodies and individual jurists have come hard on active euthanasia but by and large endorsing medical definition of brain death to be in consonance with Islam. This has led critics to question the legitimacy of such juridical pronouncements on larger ethical and metaphysical grounds and propose methodological framework to remedy the situation. This paper, therefore, by engaging with such a discourse argues for a holistic approach to meet the medical challenges of end-of-life care in line with both ethical and legal ethos of Islamic Sharī'ah.
 
Article
Though the ritual of fasting is common to most of the known religious traditions, its practice and symbolic value may vary considerably. This paper aims at a comparative study into meaning and significance of this ritual with special reference to the three Semitic religions namely Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Some interesting similarities and dissimilarities in this connection are noted. It is discerned that quite often fasting is observed in these religions to commemorate certain events of religious significance during specific days of the year. Moreover, feasts and festivals which occur before or after various fasting periods in the selected religious traditions remind us of the social significance of this ritual. However, sometimes fasting also signifies spontaneous individual expression of thankfulness to, or repentance before God. It is observed that fasting in these religions is envisioned to facilitate self-control, invoke mercy and sympathy for others, create the sense of bondage, establish and assert religious identities, and release the negative feelings like guilt consciousness. In the final analysis, it is maintained that as a form of asceticism fasting does not necessarily imply negation of body or society. Rather, by facilitating self-control and freedom from one's inner fears and other emotional weaknesses it can also lead to a deeper affirmation of the self and greater integration into the society.
 
Article
The World knows Muslims and Jews as one of the bitter enemies of each other especially due to the ongoing clashes between Israel and Palestine, paid by thousands of innocent lives from both sides. Amid this hatred and violence many stories of coexistence and cooperation occurred but little known to both sides and the World. In this paper some of these stories and peace building initiatives are presented which could invoke the inspirations of love and compassion in the hearts of both sides and could be helpful in reducing the emotions of hatred and enmity. The readers will find unexpected behaviour of humanity and cooperation from both sides in contrast to what has been widely propagated that both cannot live together peacefully.
 
Article
The term Turkish Model' becamc a catch phrase in the Western as well as the Muslim world following 9/11. During the Arab Spring, the idea was actively advocated by many in the West and the Middle East. Turkey as a modern Muslim democracy was actively promoted as a 'model' for the rest of the Muslim world. The land of Anatolia owing to its geographical location has served as a bridge across Islam and the West divide for centuries. The idea of the Turkish model is generally traced back to the late Ottoman era which was shaped by the impact of modern Europe on the Ottoman empire. The current study argues that in order to better understand the historical context of the idea of the Turkish model, the relationship between Islam, West and Anatolia prior to the advent of the modern age must be examined as European modernization itself has been largely shaped by the impact of the Muslim world on the West. The study presents an extensive historical overview of Islam and the West encounter, their confrontation, cooperation and the historical role of Anatolia as a melting pot of the two contending civilizations.
 
Article
Recent scholarship on the practices of critique has unsettled the Eurocentric assumption that critique is something specific to and the hallmark of secular/Western societies. By implication, Muslim societies and their various religio-social trajectories by virtue of their location in traditional-religious environments are unable to develop critique. Based on Talal Asad's, Saba Mahmood's and others' deviant approaches that question the validity of the stated thesis, this research focuses on an empirical example of dissident voices within and around Mawdudi's ideology of political Islam (and Islamic state). The internal contestants challenged the internal logic, ideological premises of Mawdudi's thought. The paper focuses on numerous examples in the sub-continental Muslim intellectual tradition, wherein the dominant narrative of political Islam in the modern Muslim world was challenged by a number of scholars who were once close believers' in Mawdudi's ideology of Islamic revival. Methodologically, the paper analyses a number of key texts by Mawdudi and his internal critics within the framework of Talal Asad and Saba Mahmood.1.
 
Article
Indonesia has become one of the countries facing serious criticism on the methods used in the implementation of Islamic law. The Government of Aceh is the only Indonesian province with the delegated authority to legally implement Islamic law. During the first period of establishment, the perpetrators were generally Muslim, but currently non-Muslims can also be potentially treated with Islamic law. For instance, in an Aceh case, a non-Muslim having profession as alcoholic-drinking dealer was punished by the Islamic criminal law. This expanded authority happened because of the judge's interpretations. In some cases, judges can decide whether a non-Muslim can be punished with Islamic law or with other laws. However, realizing not to be punished in some occasion non-Muslim shows off alcoholic-drinking publicly. This action has violated the feelings of the Muslim majority. This fact places the judges in a difficult position, they must enforce the principal of equality before the law, and also protect legal certainty.
 
Article
In order to secure prisons and restrict criminal activities, the techniques of Strip Search and body cavity search are commonly employed in the contemporary world, particularly in the West. Specifically, in the American prisons it is adopted as a procedural method. This article will discuss the legality of this procedure in the Islamic as well as in the western law. Another type of this procedure is keeping the detainee undressed, whether he or she is detained for a little time period. The authorities in Pakistan and in the west unnecessarily behave with the inmates in this way as well. So in this research, strip search and keeping the inmates naked will be discussed side by side. However, even the nature of such a search method; indicates that its need should be limited to cases where there exists a possibility of smuggling prohibited objects, and where the efficiency of other search methods is poor. Moreover, along with the security of prison systems, the issue of protecting fundamental human rights of the prisoners is equally important. Therefore, to find and implement an alternative to the strip search method is very important.
 
Article
Eclectism or lakhayyur denotes choosing opinions from different schools of thought within Islamic law. This concept is based on non-adherence to a single school. Although there is a huge debate over legitimacy of takhayyur among Muslim jurists but it is used as a tool by Muslim states to reform their family laws. This article will analyze takhayyur as a reform methodology as employed in Pakistan. It is suggested that despite debate over legitimacy of takhayyur in Islamic law it has been proved as a successful tool for reform. The laws made on the basis of takhayyur have been proved less controversial as compared to laws made on the basis of ijtihād.
 
Measurement of Selected Variable
Results of the Impact of Independent Variables on the Stock Performance
Article
The literature related to the Islamic finance is scarce and in most of the cases it is in theoretical form. Thus, there is a need to empirically determine the stock prices of Sharia compliant stocks. This thing encouraged current study to analyze the performance determinants of FTSE Bursa Malaysia Hijrah Shariah (FBMHS) index. To execute this process, this study selected the monthly time period from year 2001to 2016 and applied Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) technique. The most important finding of this study is FBMHS performance remained resilient against inflation rate. The positive impact of inflation on FBMHS index indicate that shariah compliant stocks provide safeguard to investor against inflation rate. In addition, increase in exchange rate proved to be detrimental for FBMHS index performance. Moreover, interest rate and Global Financial Crisis (GFC) 2007-09 did not affect the FBMHS index performance. In short, this study provides valuable and useful insight to investors, policy makers and managers with respect to behaviour of FBMHS Index by considering the overall economic environment of Malaysia.
 
Basic Facts of Malaysia
Results Overview: Parliament Seats
Article
Transition democratization became very interesting in 14th general Election as it portrays another significant transition as it is seen as a victory for democracy that is from the bottom approach or opposition. Therefore, this article would like to discuss the analysis of the transition of democratization in Malaysia. Hence, by using the Democracy Implementation Model, this article will identify the weaknesses and the strengths pathways of responsiveness democracy in several countries. Implementation of democracy should reflect not only "from the people" such as participation and representativeness measure but also "for the people" such as responsiveness measure. It is important since to put government responsibility to increase life standard through policies impact. The findings will provide a sound and scientific understanding evidence to enrich democracy and political economy literature aspects among Malaysia and Taiwan relationship as a case study. It will give precious knowledge for not only Malaysian stakeholders and academicians but also an important lesson learned from Taiwan's responsiveness democracy.
 
Article
The study aimed to reveal the perceptions of families towards media support for their children with disabilities during the COVID-19 pandemic, in Dammam City, Saudi Arabia. The triangulation approach gives depth understanding and analyzing quantitative and qualitative data. The researchers distributed a questionnaire to (78) of persons with disabilities families. A semi-structured interview was administered to (10) families participated in the questionnaire to monitor the reality and make suggestions for improving media support for children with disabilities from the point of view of their families, and the psychometric characteristics of the study tools were ascertained, the data were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. The quantitative results showed that there was a weakness of media support to the children with Disabilities. Their perceptions were high for proposing for improvement. The qualitative analysis showed agreement with the results obtained from the quantitative analysis. The qualitative data analysis revealed four important factors about the participants' perceptions of media support for children with disabilities, namely: the factual weakness of media support, proposals for improvement, the importance of the diversity of media programs, and the diversity preferred media platforms. The study recommended activating media support for children with Disabilities.
 
Article
Various authorities, academies, and committees are constantly involved in the process of language planning. In addition, this process varies from one committee to others according to the goals of their language planning, so it is also cultivated and changed. Some processes of language planning remain similar in different cases e.g. the language of the majority in the society forced to be acquired by the speakers of other languages. Some cases are seen in pluralism and multilingual recognition and to support multilingualism. Other contents of the language planning process are language revitalization; reform of language, its maintenance, and standardization of language are also counted. According to Dr. Tariq Rahman (1977), there are 74 languages spoken in Pakistan while Dr. Atish Durrani claimed 76 languages. 65 are indigenous and 8 or more are non-indigenous. Moreover, 7 are institutional while 17 are under development and 8 languages are in the trouble of vanishing and only 2 languages. The issue of linguistics diversity is very hard to solve not only at political, cultural, and religious levels but also at the level of the medium of instruction in educational fields.
 
Six Titles of the Group of the Selected Children's Short Stories
Article
This working paper discusses the religious thought in selected children's short stories published between 2012 and 2015. The Panel of Assessor for Malaysia's Premier Literary Award (HSPM) has expressed their disappointment with the mediocre quality of children's short stories. Some believed that these short stories were written from the perspective of adult authors and did not satisfy the concept for children's literature and child psychology. The present research adopts a qualitative approach of text analysis to identify and analyse whether the religious thoughts presented in each short story have a positive impact on the children or vice versa. This research seeks to determine whether the selected children's short stories failed to provide good examples for their readers and that the authors failed to include child psychology and fulfil the literary concept for children in their writings. Scrutiny of the selected children's short stories published between 2012 and 2015 showed that presented using the teaching elements based on the moral approach, preaching approach, and community approach in the Malay Methodology (Hashim Awang). Even though the authors included religious thought in the short stories to impart positive influence on the children, they failed to present the thought comprehensively because they did not adopt the concept of children's literature and child psychology. Hence, this research seeks to identify and analyse the religious thought presented by the authors by scrutinising its positive influence on the readers, particularly children. This research adopts the model for children's needs (an integration of Maslow's theory with the Malay Methodology theory).
 
Article
The present research pertains to political discourse analysis that seeks to explore the political persuasion strategies employed by political leaders in their speeches. The persuasive strategies employed by Donald Trump in his speech delivered at the United Nations General Assembly 74th session provide primary data for this qualitative study. The study critically analyzes the ways to project political ideologies through the propagation of self-presentation and political persuasion. Political leaders make use of rhetorical fallacies, more specifically, the pretentious use of language to garner support from the masses and so is the case reflected by Trump's speech. As a world leader, due to enormous political power wielded by the US, the speech under reference provides valuable insights into the ways how language is linked with power. The present study employed the political discourse analysis (PDA) model proposed van Dijk and Dunmire. It is a descriptive study that Employs purposively sampling technique to figure out the elements of political ideology contained by the speech. The analysis of discursive elements shows that Trump's speech under reference is well-rooted in the US political ideology of declaring non-aligned countries as threats to international peace and US allies as partners to peace. This self-proclaimed positive self-presentation and negative others-presentation are employed politically, transforming the perception and political views of people.
 
Article
Internationally the focus on abolition of the death penalty has increased during the past few decades. However, 56 countries including Pakistan still hold the punishment as an integral part of their penal systems. Despite the fact, Pakistan uses the particular sentence to settle the fate of offenders in approximately 27 assorted crimes, it still remains unclear what precise reasons provide support to the institutional legitimacy of this penalty. This paper is to explore and share the standpoint of Pakistan as a Muslim retentionist state. Thus the research first expounds the Islamic perspective on the death penalty and later it elucidates how this perspective has been incorporated in the constitutional and legal regime of the state. The paper concludes that Pakistan should re-evaluate its position on retaining death penalty for those crimes which do not clash with the constitutional, religious and social limitations of the state.
 
Article
This research aims to study the mediating role of absorptive capacity and training in the relationship among the dimensions of human capital and organizational performance. The export of the textile sector is constantly declining. The investigation was done on three dimensions of Human Capital (HC), namely skills, health and education and two mediating variables which are training and absorptive capacity while organizational performance is as a dependent variable. A structured questionnaire was adapted. The data was collected from 280 respondents from Karachi and Faisalabad textile factories. To check the reliability and validity of data, the PLS-SEM algorithm was used. For finding a relationship, PLS-SEM bootstrapping was used. The research findings show that skills don't have a significant impact on organizational performance. Skills and education don't have a specific indirect impact on organizational performance. Findings show that dimensions of human capital are partial and full mediated via training and absorptive captivity.
 
Article
The present study explores the construction of child abuse and neglect in one of the novels written by Morrison: Home (2012). Morrison's writings have been exclusively conventionalized with one of her most narrated themes: the child abuse. Her characters are always portrayed distressed from this agonizing trauma either it is domestic violence, physiological, psychological, emotional, or sexual abuse or neglect. Morrison explores the sufferings of blacks through her different characters in her novels and tried to give a message that if children would be kept suffered like that, they cannot survive rather they would completely lose their sense and may go insane. Morrison has raised this issue in her novel Home where a female character, Ycindra (Cee) is suffering from a different kind of abuse that was ended in elopement followed by the tragic rejection by her greedy husband and at the end sheer destruction of the life. Morrison charged the abusive behavior of Lenore: her grandmother for the aches of life of Cee. Throughout the novel, she has tried to rescue herself but still had to suffer through different upsets just because of her parents who abandoned her to the custody of her grandmother. This study explores the hidden reality of society and it further investigates that Morrison's mother's abusive behavior and an act of neglect for their children. The study concluded with Morrison's most accentuated notion that says that protection is a right of any child from birth and that they [children] must be realized that they are the immortality of their parents.
 
Article
Shaykh Abū al-Ṭayyib Shams al-×aqq al-'Aẓīmabādī is one of the greatest scholars of 19 th century, and one of the brilliant authors in his field being an author of several books, such as 'Awn al-Ma'būd SharÍ Sunan Abī Dāwūd. Besides his interest in teaching ×adīth and writing books, he was known for his contribution in reviving the legacy of ×adīth. This paper studies the traits of this great scholar from his personal and scholarly aspects, and then it introduces his distinguished contribution in serving the legacy of ×adīth. The research has applied the inductive method as well as a descriptive one. According to the inductive method, the research gathered important information related to the life of 'Aẓīmabādī and his scholarly work in the field of ×adīth. As per the descriptive method, the research highlighted the important aspects of his personal and scholarly identity and his pioneering contribution in this field. The researcher has arrived through this research to some important conclusions such as that 'Aẓīmabādī has performed a significant role in spreading the legacy of ×adīth and made crucial contributions in reviving and spreading it. Further, he made commendable efforts in defending Sunnah in India and made scholarly contributions in serving the cause of ×adīth by writing some valuable books and references which are relied upon by researchers all around the Islamic world. The most important feature of his writings is that they call for implementing the Holy Qur'Én and Sunnah.
 
Article
This research was designed to investigate the effect of life skills on mental health and academic benefits of adolescents. Multistage random sampling technique was employed and data were collected from 360 school students of three district headquarters (Multan, Bahawalpur and Bahawalnagar) of Southern Punjab. For gathering the responses of participants Life Skills Scale (Vranda, 2009), Mental Health Inventory (Ritvo et al., 1997) were adapted. Whereas for measuring academic benefits, Academic Self-Efficacy Scale (Gafoor & Ashraf, 2007) Academic Resilience Scale (Martin & Marsh, 2006) were utilized and Academic Achievement was measured through class percentages of students. The data were analyzed through SPSS (25.0). The findings indicated that there is significant impact of life skills on the mental health and academic benefits of adolescents. Whereas, in terms of gender differences, life skills, academic self-efficacy and academic achievement was higher in girls, but academic resilience was higher in boys. Although, the mean scores of mental health did not show any significant differences in terms of gender. Keywords: Life Skills, Mental Health, Academic Benefits, Adolescents, Southern Punjab
 
Article
The overall development of a society's personnel is not possible without spotting on the academic intelligence as well as emotional intelligence. The competitive environment of today has always an urge to recruit such employees in the organizations who are intelligent not only in academics but also in their emotions so that they can respond well to the vibrant environment of this century. Measuring emotional intelligence students have gained great momentum due to increased personality and emotional disorders in pupils. The literature confirms a mounting pressure from stakeholders, students, parents and employers to bridge the non-ignorable gap between our graduates' emotional intelligence and their academic performances. Therefore, this study was designed to assess emotional intelligence as predictor of academic achievement among university student according to GOLEMAN S model of emotional intelligence (1995). A survey was conducted to accomplish the objectives of the study. Random sampling techniques were used to select the sample from eight departments of IER (Institute of Education and Research). An adapted questionnaire was used with four dimensions measuring the emotional intelligence (self-awareness, self-management, social awareness and relationship management) comprising 37 statements. The responses of 215 teacher educators were taken through Likert rating scale. Descriptive statistics like frequencies, mean, t-test, independent samples t-test, ANOVA, and Pearson correlation were used to analyze the data. The results of this study showed that the students possess significant emotional intelligence but the correlation between student's EI and academic achievement is insignificantly negative. This implies that the EI and AA are insignificant and the higher the emotional intelligence the lower is academic achievement and vice versa so this paper proposes that EQ is not ensured with the highest academic grades of students so components of emotional intelligence may be embedded across the curriculum.
 
Article
The Special Province of Aceh government has legal pluralism in its administrations. In its governance system, Islamic law and customary law are also applied besides the state law. Ulama (Islam Scholars) also have important roles in determining regional policies. Actually, against Islamic law, the process of food and beverage trade by micro and small business actors still uses hazardous and prohibited materials such as formaldehyde, borax and RhodamineB. This study aims to analyze and to explain the application of protection and legal certainty of food consumers and beverages marketed by Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) associated with the halal product guarantee concept. It also explains the concrete policies adopted by the Government of Aceh as a competitive consumer protection standard. This type of research is sociological juridical, which observes reactions and interactions when the norm system relating to consumer protection and the guarantee of halal products works in the community. The approach was used sociologically and qualitatively. Primary research data wasgathered from social facts processed by using descriptive analysis methods and was presented in a qualitative form. The research results show factors of the lack of consumer’s protection, namely: business actors’ difficultiesin obtaining capital, knowledge, and skills, lack of product innovation, difficulties in distributing goods, no product-branding, no consumer-loyalty program, lack of understanding of the rules of consumer protection and halal product guarantees, the traditionalaccounting records, not having business license, lack of local government supervision and the disharmonized between laws and regulations. Concrete policies stipulated by the Government of Aceh arethe ease of business licensing procedures and acceleration of ownership of non-paid halal certificates, especially for processed food business actors produced by home industry. Thus it is recommended to establish a Dispute Settlement Agency (BPSK), Non-Governmental Protection Institutions (LPKSM) in each regency/city; to conduct socialization, education as well as promotion of halal product guarantees in various events; to collaborate with the private sector as an assisting partner that can be used as a mentor for micro and small business actor in anticipating the industrial revolution 4.0. Key words: Application of the protection and legal certainty principle, Consumer protection, Micro and small businesses, Halal product guarantee in Aceh.
 
Article
This research examines Radzi Sapiee's travelogue in the form of a trilogy, which documents his travel experience as a writer. The study aims to review the success of the trilogy in discussing postcolonial discourse, and its search of identity This study employs the research framework by Thompson, who divided travel writing into two sections namely touristic travel and exploration travel, to analyse Radzi Sapiee's quest, to find himself through a spiritual journey, which led to self-awareness causing existential changes. As such, Thompson's search of identity and the others (2011) will be the main framework of this research to be applied to the Radzi Sapiee's travelogue trilogy comprising of three books-Mencari Diri dan Erti, Menjejak Salasilah Kesultanan yang Hilang (2015), Menelusuri Jejak Leluhur (2016) and Membela Syair Kesultanan Aceh (2018). This study seeks to determine whether the writer had consciously sought this experience, or if he was just seeking to validate his instincts. The analysis of the data is divided into three sections following Thompson's framework: exploitation and the others, hegemony of the mind, and effect on the others. The study found that this travelogue injects new life and provides a source of motivation and pride to the people of the Malay Archipelago who had long been considered as inferior to the western power. Radzi Sapiee has utilised literature as a cultural weapon to instil awareness and nurture pride in a heritage that had long been forgotten. The writer also uses literature as a medium to redeem the dignity and cultural legacy, as well as an identity which had been suppressed for a long time, by colonialism. In a wider context, this writing represents an effort to deconstruct and reconstruct a culture, and an individual in the culture.
 
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Students are often faced with physical and psychological challenges when learning foreign languages. Besides having to need a delineated physical willingness, they also require spiritual support that can improve the accomplishments in that languages. This study aims to identify the levels of spiritual practices and the correlation in students’ achievements in Arabic as a foreign language. This quantitative survey used questionnaires on spiritual practices and end-of-year results of Arabic language. 399 students of Religious Secondary Schools in Malaysia were chosen as respondents. Research findings showed that the level of spiritual practices were high, yet the achievements was moderate. There was a significant correlation between spiritual practices and achievements in Arabic language. The findings indicated that spiritual practices were to help one’s performance in learning foreign languages. Therefore, the research implication is that the absorbance of spiritual practices in curriculum and teachings must be done in order to obtain good Arabic language achievements.
 
-Average Formants (F1 & F2 in Hz) Differences of Closing Back Diphthongs with time duration (in Sec) of the words recorded from Oxford Advance Learner Dictionary and from YouTube videos of native speakers of Standard British English. 4.2.2. Diphthongs pronunciation by the Participants with closed exposure to the English language. The Students who's parents have relatives, jobs, or business in the foreign countries. The results participants who have very close exposure to the English language when compared with standard pronunciation, it shows very closeness. For example the word Dear, Wear and Sure were compared for centering diphthongs with Standard British English in the table 5. The average difference between Standard British English diphthongs and pronunciation by the participants was taken out. The average difference of Formant frequency F1 from Standard British pronunciation for the words Dear, Wear and Sure is 23.27 Hz, 26.99 Hz and 21.63 Hz respectively. Same is the average difference of Formant frequency F2 from Standard British pronunciation for the words Dear, Wear and Sure is 43.97 Hz, 23.33 Hz and 23.33 Hz respectively. The comparison shows that Formant frequency F1 of the participants belongs to the group of close exposure differ in a range from 20 Hz to 30 Hz which is a minor difference. The difference range of formant frequency F2 is noted between 20 Hz and
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In this study, diphthongs pronunciation of Fazaia Schools Students is acoustically compared with the diphthong pronunciation of Standard British English (SBE). The results of this study are important to linguists in the understanding, teaching, correction of language, and the development of pronunciation dictionaries. This is important in the context Pakistani English language speakers and particularly for the students and teachers of Fazaia schools system in Pakistan where many speakers use English as official language on regular basis. Further importance lies in the use of these acoustical models as a means of improving automatic speech recognition, realistic computer-speech generation and automatic accent recognition. The study will also aid in the study of acoustic phonetics. The experimental work was performed on a database that was the speech recording of diphthongs of Fazaia School"s students as shown in the table. The diphthongs sounds were recorded in single utterances of normal words having diphthong sound. Total 100 participants from four schools, 25 participants from each school were selected. The diphthongs pronunciation was then compared with standard British English pronunciation on the basis of Formant frequencies and time duration. This involved the calculation of the resonance peak tracks (formants) of the voiced speech, visual verification of the formant tracks (F1 & F2) and then producing a graphical representation of the locations of formant frequencies and time duration of the diphthongs.
 
Mean and Standard Deviation of VOT measurements of Punjabi Velar Plosives in The Minimal Pairs of Lehani Dialect
Mean and Standard Deviation of VOT measurements of Punjabi Velar Plosives in The Minimal Pairs of Majhi Dialect
Closure Duration in terms of Voicing Quality Articulation's Place of Punjabi Velar Plosives in Majhi Dialect
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Punjabi, an Indo-Aryan language, is spoken in Punjab's states of India and Pakistan as a native language. It has a number of regional dialects in both countries. The present study aims to explore the acoustic features of Punjabi velar plosives in its two dialects: Majhi and Lehandi. It also aims to uncover intrinsic acoustic cues of Punjabi velar plosives in terms of VOT, closure duration and burst. The minimal pairs and contrastive distribution of phonemes in minimal pairs are used to achieve the objectives of the study. Total participants are twenty in numbers who are selected for the study, ten from each dialect who are adult speakers of Punjabi language as well as are educated. The data are recorded by exposing them with Urdu sentences where minimal pairs are used indirectly. The data are analyzed with the help of PRAAT6046_win32. The findings show that VOT in both dialects varies from each other but velar plosives have longer VOT in both. Voiceless sounds in Punjabi language, /k/ and /kh/ have longer closure duration as compared to voiced sounds, /g/. From the above statistical data, it is found that in Lehandi dialect of Punjabi the closure duration for voiceless sounds such as /k/ and /k h / have longer closure duration as compare to voiced sound, /g/. As well as burst is concerned, Voiced sounds /g/ have weak spike as compare to voiceless sounds such as /g/. The voiced stops have rising spike while voiceless plosives have falling spike.
 
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Folktales are considered as the simplest and oldest form of stories imbedded in the local cultures. They broadly refer to orally transmitted, traditional narratives that carry cultural information. This paper analyzes Sohni Mahiwal, the renowned Punjabi folktale, by applying Greimas Actantial's model for structural analysis. The purpose of this study is to explore the narrative structure and discover the character functions based on the model. The findings show that all the major actantial categories proposed by Greimas such as subject, object, sender, receiver, helper, and opponent have been depicted in the selected folktale. The analysis revealed that many characters were found involved in several actant classes simultaneously. Structural analysis of the folktale uncovered two parallel acts/episodes. The parallelism in the contents of two acts of the tale serves a didactic function at socio cultural level besides entertaining the readers/ listeners proving the strength of true love. As far as the function is concerned, the tale successfully validates the culturally imparted message that the individuals who transgress the social norms are destined to be perished.
 
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During the peak of the sectarian war in Iraq after the US invasion in 2003, there seemed to be an absolute absence of the mind and a great deal of hatred and tension among the people of Baghdad that turned into maddening acts of terrorism, like car bombings and suicide bombers, killing thousands of innocent people. Frankenstein in Baghdad came to be the mouthpiece of that very critical phase in the modern history of Iraq. The abundant acts of killing and bloodshed during 2005 turned into an ugly form of a monster called " Whatsitsname" formed from the fragmented parts of those killed by terrorist acts. The creature bears a clear resemblance to Marry Shelley's monster in her novel Frankenstein. The monster is a loose perpetrator that kills whoever it meets. This study attempts to analyze the writer's poetics of adaptation in the novel and his debt to other literary works.
 
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During the peak of the sectarian war in Iraq after the US invasion in 2003, there seemed to be an absolute absence of the mind and a great deal of hatred and tension among the people of Baghdad that turned into maddening acts of terrorism, like car bombings and suicide bombers, killing thousands of innocent people. Frankenstein in Baghdad came to be the mouthpiece of that very critical phase in the modern history of Iraq. The abundant acts of killing and bloodshed during 2005 turned into an ugly form of a monster called " Whatsitsname" formed from the fragmented parts of those killed by terrorist acts. The creature bears a clear resemblance to Marry Shelley's monster in her novel Frankenstein. The monster is a loose perpetrator that kills whoever it meets. This study attempts to analyze the writer's poetics of adaptation in the novel and his debt to other literary works.
 
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This article discusses the importance of Makkah in the pan-Islamic and reformist thought of Afghani. Afghani framed his ideas within the context of his calls for universal Islamic unity, brotherhood and cooperation. As part of his thought, Afghani advocated that the status of Makkah as the Muslim spiritual qiblah or direction be enriched and expanded into the realms of social relations and intellectual awakening as well, thus also becoming a Muslim emotional, social and intellectual qiblah. Afghani juggled his qualified support for the Ottoman Caliphate with his reformist ideas, some of which went down well neither with the upper political echelons nor with some religious leaders in Istanbul. Afghani put forward the idea of establishing an international network of Muslim scholars, activists and even ordinary people, with Makkah functioning as a nerve centre and its annual hajj season an opportunity for regular meetings. He furthermore suggested that mosques and schools throughout Islamdom be converted into centres of teaching, propagating and facilitating Islamic unity, and that Makkah function as the unifying factor and guidance. The discussion of the article is tripartite concentrating on the meaning of Islamic unity in Afghani’s thought, the relationship between the Ottomans, caliphate and Makkah, and the role of Makkah at once as the focal point of Islam and a catalyst for pan-Islamism.
 
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The study aimed to investigate the changing culture of social engagement toward aged persons along with stereotypes that aged person be constrained in their contacts and engagement. Despite the fact that the society of Pakistan is rooted on the culture that dignifies the lives of aged person and place them on the high position of virtue but current reaction of the society is hostile regarding their engagement in terms of local community connections, religious connections and work connections by stereotypes that elderly are supposed to perform limited role. The study aimed to assess the level of social engagement, opportunities available and encouragement from different stake holder of society for the aged persons. In order to explore, the study targeted retired pensioners from government department across the south Punjab region by focusing all cadres of pensioner's i.e. Class-IV, Clerical Cadre and Gazatted. The study selected 400 retired pensioners (i.e. 302 male 98 females) from districts of South Punjab, through stratified random sampling technique. The study used proportionate sampling technique in order to select true representatives of the population from each selected districts. The study used self-constructed Social Engagement Scale for data collection through survey method and face-to-face interview schedule. The study concluded that aged persons deserve dignified life in the society. For this state should device the policies and their implementations as well along with society proactive role for those who had served their potential and still can add for the betterment of society as well.
 
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This article informs about the preventive guidance told by the Prophet Muhammad peace and greeting be upon him in order to avoid communicable diseases in the community.
 
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The central issue of ImÉm Al-GhazÉlÊ's book 'the incoherence of philosophers' (TaÍÉfut al-FalÉsifah) concerning the world's pre-eternity rotates around the cause and effect. According to philosophers once all necessary condition for a cause are fulfilled, its effect cannot be delayed by necessity. On the contrary, according to Islamic theologians, it is not necessary. After 800 years, creation unveiled mysteries in its form, which both the parties (Philosophers and theologians) did not know. However, who won the debate over world's pre-eternity is still undecided. This paper will try to fill that gap by providing a new proposal which synthesizes Religion, Philosophy and modern science by proving that ImÉm al-GhazÉlÊ's proposition was correct: i.e., The delay in effect in presence of a cause is possible. It will be established using these three different domains of universe supporting each other. Discussion on modern science will provide new insights on some of the core results of scientific theories, which have not been considered yet.
 
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This paper intends to visit the relationship among Allah Almighty, man and cosmos from Islamic philosophical outlook along with a pivotal discourse from the Holy Qur'Én especially in the light of SËrah al-RaÍmÉn. After visiting fundamental concepts of metaphysics, it is important to grasp the mutual links between microcosmic and macrocosmic entities in relation to the entire kingdom and its Creator. Contemplating this nexus, one may be familiar with the ethics, etiquettes and attitude to exercise these moral values and conduct accordingly. It is to locate oneself at the best and ideal position in the universe for physical and spiritual nourishment. Employing qualitative research methodology, themes like concept of Allah Almighty in Islam, perfect man and universal panorama from Qur'Énic weltanschauung is deliberated succinctly. Regarding this mutual link, it is imperative to know that how the Holy Qur'Én broadens one's mental horizon in this direction. It leads us to ponder our attention grasping what wisdom is associated with universal rhythm and human existence where both are in the same boat in relation to their Creator. This paper endorses the modus operandi in accordance with everlasting teaching of the Perfect Man (Øal Allah-u-'alaihe wa sallam) in which overall discourse revolves around the concept of "Ultimate Reality" either observing multiple universal phenomena or meditating one's own self.
 
Correlation and multicollinearity test
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This study investigates the moderating role of firm growth on the relationship between board vigilance and corporate debt maturity. The panel data set consist of 284 listed non-financial firms in Pakistan for a period of five ranging from 2013 to 2017. To better control the heteroskedacity and autocorrelation issues we have panel corrected standard errors regression (PCSE) technique. The board independence had a significant positive impact on debt maturity, whereas CEO non-duality had a negative but insignificant impact on corporate short debt maturity. Firm growth negatively moderated the relationship between but it was significant for board independence and debt maturity nexus and insignificant for CEO non-duality and debt maturity relationship. 1. Introduction Research on capital structure is either supported by pecking order theory (POT) or trade of theory (TOT). Proponents of POT insist on sequential use of retained earnings, debt and equity when a firm is in need of resources. The TOT believers oppose the sequential order rather they regard it as situation based. Research supports both theorists as abundant evidence is published debating this issue. However, debt maturity structure is not widely discussed if we compare it with research on capital structure. Debt maturity is crucial when we relate it to the performance or to the firm risks. Recently, Hussain et al. (2020a) and Xuezhou et al. (2020) stressed that debt maturity structure is more crucial especially in the context of insolvency risk as compared to the capital structure. Leverage with longer maturity is thought to be safe as postpones the firms risk to a latter period. The short term debt at the same time is considered risky because it involves roll over risk. Short term financing needs refinancing on regular basis which may turn to be a difficult process especially for managers with less knowledge of financial markets. On the other hand managers with good relations and reputation in the eyes of lenders can make fortune for the firm. Current research focus on the impact of vigilant board in setting the debt maturity of Pakistan based non-financial firms. A corporate board is thought to be vigilant if it includes a higher percentage of independent or/and non-executive directors. Secondly, it is also characterized by the CEO non-duality that refers to the separating the role of CEO and chairperson board of directors (Hussain et al.2020b).
 
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This study investigates the lukewarm resistance against pervasive social injustice in Rabbani"s Invisible People. Characters in these short stories may release their reactions sporadically but they fail to fight against the coercive hegemonies which continue to eat into their vitals of life. The sociopolitical structures, ideological state apparatuses and repressive state agencies address and handle these fictional characters so successfully that their quick move from bad to worse conditions of life seems inevitable. Thus the processes of interpellation and routinization go hand in hand to wreck their diagnostic aesthetics which could prove instrumental for the better future. Althusser whose theory of ideology is used as a theoretical framework for the present study says that the hegemonic and ideological interpellation tames the social beings shrewdly and successfully. Lack of commitment, pessimistic outlook, apathy, mistaken actions and erroneous reactions and absence of joining hands with each other against the cruel make them vulnerable before the oppressor. Keeping this pathetic situation in mind, Rabbani himself comes forward, like Seamus Heaney and James Joyce, to provide a voice to these suppressed souls.
 
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Muhammad Roy Purwanto
  • Universitas Islam Indonesia
Ahmad Nurozi
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Supriadi Supriadi
  • Universitas Islam Indonesia
Tamyiz Mukharrom
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Mohd Nasir Bin Omar
  • Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia