Group Processes & Intergroup Relations

Published by SAGE Publications
Print ISSN: 1368-4302
Two hundred and twelve first-year undergraduates completed an authority interaction checklist every time they had a (self-defined) meaningful interaction with university authorities during the first two weeks of their first semester. Students' degree of university identification before they began the term moderated the influence of campus authorities' treatment quality on academic engagement three months later. These longitudinal data provide support for the argument that people who identify with the group the authority represents will interpret the authority's behavior as indicative of their value to the group.
This study examined the relationship between White Americans' genetic explanations, conceptualized as genetic lay theories, for perceived racial differences and for sexual orientation, and attitudes toward Blacks, and gay men and lesbians, respectively. Considering contrasting public discourse surrounding race and sexual orientation, we predicted that genetic lay theories would be associated with greater prejudice toward Blacks, but less prejudice toward gay men and lesbians. The findings, based on a representative sample of 600 White Americans, were consistent with expectations. Results are discussed in relation to the literature on essentialism and implicit theories of the malleability of traits. The present research broadens our view of lay theories by showing how they support either prejudice or tolerance, depending on the target group.
Sample stimuli.  
ERP measures of face processing. (a) P1 response recorded from electrodes O1 and O2 showed modulation of peak amplitude, occurring between 129–135 ms, by type of facial expression of emotion F(4,52 = 2.56, p < .05). (b) N200 response recorded from electrodes T5 and T6 displayed modulation of peak amplitude, occurring between 160–240 ms, by type of facial posture F(4,52 = 3.06, p < .05).  
Humans use facial cues to convey social dominance and submission. Despite the evolutionary importance of this social ability, how the brain recognizes social dominance from the face is unknown. We used event-related brain potentials (ERP) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the neural mechanisms underlying social dominance perception from facial cues. Participants made gender judgments while viewing aggression-related facial expressions as well as facial postures conveying dominance or submission. ERP evidence indicates that the perception of dominance from aggression-related emotional expressions occurs early in neural processing while the perception of social dominance from facial postures arises later. Brain imaging results show that activity in the fusiform gyrus, superior temporal gyrus and lingual gyrus, is associated with the perception of social dominance from facial postures and the magnitude of neural response in these regions differentiates between perceived dominance and perceived submissiveness.
Mean competence and warmth ratings by condition 
Correlational support for the hypothesized causal links between societal structure and group bias.
Standardized emotion ratings by condition 
The stereotype content model (SCM) posits that social structure predicts specific cultural stereotypes and associated emotional prejudices. No prior evidence at a societal level has manipulated both structural predictors and measured both stereotypes and prejudices. In the present study, participants (n = 120) responded to an immigration scenario depicting a high- or low-status group, competitive or not competitive, and rated their likely stereotype (on warmth and competence) and elicited emotional prejudices (admiration, contempt, envy, and pity). Seven of eight specific predictions are fully confirmed, supporting the SCM's predicted causality for social structural effects on cultural stereotypes and emotional prejudices.
Pull scores of the three ingroup favouring-allocation strategies within each domain by participants in the HS and LS groups.
Ingroup favouritism in point allocations (ingroup minus outgroup) by each sample within each domain.  
Ratings of the competence and warmth of HS and LS groups.
Ingroup favouritism in resource allocations (ingroup minus outgroup) by each sample within each domain.
Research on intergroup discrimination has focused on the cognitive and motivational mechanisms involved, but the role of stereotype content has been neglected. Drawing on social identity theory and stereotype content research, the current studies investigated the role of stereotype content in intergroup differentiation and discrimination. Across two studies, students from high- and low-status groups differentiated themselves positively on stereotypes of competence and warmth respectively, and in allocations of resources in domains relevant to competence (academics, research) and warmth (sports, community outreach). Furthermore, there was evidence that discrimination by high- and low-status groups was driven by their respective stereotypes of competence and warmth. It is argued that stereotypes of competence and warmth, derived from status and power relations between groups, define the domains in which groups pursue positively distinct identities.
Hebrew University of Jerusalem students participated in two experiments of repeated play of the Intergroup Prisoners' Dilemma (IPD) game, which involves conflict of interests between two groups and, simultaneously, within each group. The experiments manipulated the level of competition exhibited by the out-group members (i.e., their level of contribution to their group's effort in the conflict). Consistent with the hypothesis that participants use strategies of reciprocal cooperation between groups, higher levels of out-group competition caused participants to increase their contribution and lower levels caused them to decrease it. In addition, participants had accurate recall of the contribution levels of out-group members, and they attributed motivations to out-group members in a manner that reflected their level of contribution. The nature of reciprocation with the out-group is discussed in light of both behavioral and cognitive data.
This study examines the contribution of a personality variable in motivation losses in group performance. Differences in the endorsement of the ‘Protestant Work Ethic’ can account for variance in motivation losses in group work. Male student scores on the Mirels- Garrett Protestant Work Ethic Scale and Ho’s Australian Work Ethic Scale as well as different preferences for reward distributions were used as moderator variables. The study tested motivation losses in a situation that was designed to provoke the free-rider effect and in a situation that was designed to provoke the sucker-effect. Results showed that different facets of the Protestant Work Ethic have different effects on behavior in group work situations: Whereas approval of the equity principle moderates the sucker-effect, belief in work as a value moderates the free-rider effect.
This essay introduces the special issue of Group Processes and Intergroup Relations (2004, Vol 7[4]) on evolutionary approaches to group research. We discuss how and why the evolutionary/adaptive perspective is essential for social psychology, especially for group research. We argue that studies of social/group behaviors armed with the adaptive meta-theory can potentially play one of the most central roles in human and social sciences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Interaction between target race and partner race. 
The Ponzo illusion. 
Examples of face positions in the distance conditions. 
Interaction between target race and size. 
The cross-race effect (CRE) is the tendency to remember same-race (SR) faces better than cross-race (CR) faces. While there has been debate about the causes of the CRE, recent perspectives suggest that a lack of motivation to remember CR faces causes this effect. We provide direct support for this model across two studies manipulating the perceived importance of target faces. In Study 1 participants were outcome-dependent on a Black or White research partner. When participants were dependent on a Black partner compared with a White partner, the CRE was reduced through an increase in Black face recognition. In Study 2 we used a novel procedure to increase the perceptual size of target faces. According to conceptual metaphor theory, targets that appear subjectively large will be perceived as more important. We found that the CRE was eliminated when CR faces appeared larger than SR faces.
The role of prior beliefs in mediating the effects of newspaper religion on perceived bias. Note: The coeffi cient in parentheses represents the direct effect with no mediator in the model. The coeffi cient to the right represents the direct effect when the mediator (prior beliefs) is included in the model.  
Effects of identifi cation and participant religion on perceived bias
People have a tendency to view media reports of intergroup conflicts as biased against their own group (hostile media :perception). However, limited research has been conducted investigating how group membership of the perceiver and group membership of the media source combine to influence perceptions of bias. Muslims and Christians in Indonesia (N = 212) read an article describing inter-religious conflict. The article was attributed either to a Muslim newspaper, a Christian newspaper; or an unidentified newspaper. Results indicated the hostile media perception only among high identifiers. There was also some evidence for the predicted role of newspaper religion in influencing perceptions of bias: the article was seen to be biased in favor of Muslims when attributed to a Muslim newspaper, biased in favor of Christians when attributed to a Christian newspaper, and intermediate when the newspaper was not identified. The effect of newspaper religion was mediated by prior beliefs of bias. Results are discussed in terms of heuristic explanations of bias perceptions in the media.
Two well-established predictors of collective action are perceptions of group efficacy and feelings of anger. The current research investigates the extent to which the relative impact of these variables differs when fear is or is not also included as a predictor of collective action. The results of two experiments indicate that when fear is not assessed, the importance of anger as a predictor of action is underestimated while the importance of group efficacy is overestimated. The results further indicate that fear, in addition to affecting the impact of known causes of collective action (anger and group efficacy), is a powerful inhibitor of collective action. The implications for current theoretical models of collective action instigators are discussed.
The norm of group interest dictates that group members should consider the interests of their group. We propose that individual variability in adherence to this norm accounts for intergroup attitudes and behavior. Study 1 developed a measure for the norm of group interest, and found that adherence to the norm predicted evaluations of the outgroup independent of group identification and collective self-esteem. Studies 2 and 3 demonstrated that the norm of group interest increased competitive behavior only when a competitive group norm was salient, but not when a cooperative norm was salient. These findings highlight the importance of both the norm of group interest and group norms to understanding attitudes and behavior in the intergroup context.
Descriptive data for study variables Variable Mean SD Cronbach's alpha
Interaction between perceived group status and perceived social permeability on academic adjustment at high levels of legitimacy. Low permeability High permeability
We examined intergroup predictors of cultural adjustment among Asian international students in Australia. Sociostructural beliefs (status, legitimacy, and permeability) and initial adjustment were assessed (N = 113) at Time 1, and measures of adjustment were obtained (N = 80) at Time 2 eight weeks later. International students who perceived their cultural group to be relatively low in status experienced lower levels of psychological adjustment. Also, as expected, the effects of status were moderated by perceptions of both the permeability of intergroup boundaries and the legitimacy of the status differential. At high levels of legitimacy, perceptions of permeable group boundaries were associated with better psychological, sociocultural, and academic adjustment among international students perceiving their group to be low in status, but lower levels of adjustment among students who perceived their group to be high in status. At low levels of legitimacy, irrespective of group status position, perceived permeability was not related to adjustment.
The study investigated the structure of outgroup attitudes among adolescents from the majority group in Norway (N > 1100), using confirmatory factor analysis. Five non-Western immigrant groups were used as attitude objects. The analysis found that attitudes toward the five outgroups could be seen as dependent on two strongly correlated second-order factors. Two alternative models of second-order factors gained support, while the structure of outgroup attitudes appeared more stable across subsamples than anticipated. The discussion concludes that attitudes toward different ethnic outgroups will tend to be interrelated; probably dependent on both higher-order categories of outgroups as well as complex effects of intergroup contact. The paper addresses several hypotheses that may be investigated in future research.
Images shown to participants in the study. 
Interaction effect of target gender and target height on leadership perception (dependent variable “ This person looks like a leader ”). 
Mediation model showing standardized regression coefficients for female targets. * p < .05 (one-sided p -values). 
Mediation model showing standardized regression coefficients for male targets. * p < .05 (one-sided p -values). 
Research suggests that tall individuals have an advantage over short individuals in terms of status, prestige, and leadership, though it is not clear why. Applying an evolutionary psychology perspective, we predicted that taller individuals are seen as more leader-like because they are perceived as more dominant, healthy, and intelligent. Being fit and physically imposing were arguably important leadership qualities in ancestral human environments—perhaps especially for males—where being a leader entailed considerable physical risks. In line with our expectations, our results demonstrate that by manipulating an individual’s stature height positively influences leadership perception for both men and women, though the effect is stronger for men. For male leaders this height leadership advantage is mediated by their perceived dominance, health, and intelligence; while for female leaders this effect is only mediated by perceived intelligence.
Negotiation strategies (+ SE) depending on negotiation round and experimental condition. Solid bars represent contending, open bars represent problem solving.
Means, standard deviations, and correlations among the main dependent variables
Main outcome and process measures depending on experimental condition
This experiment (N = 68 dyads) tested the influence of experience and advice on behavior and joint outcomes in integrative two-party negotiations. Dyads in an advice condition received short tactical advice to question fixed-pie assumptions and to exchange information. Afterward, they negotiated once. Dyads in an experience condition negotiated twice in successive rounds. Finally, dyads in an experience-and-advice condition negotiated twice and received advice prior to the second negotiation. Dependent measures were negotiation behavior, negotiation duration, joint outcome, and judgmental accuracy. Results showed that the combination of advice and experience led dyads to apply more problem solving and fewer contentious strategies, which mediated the higher joint outcomes that these dyads reached in shorter times. Experience or advice alone was not sufficient to make negotiators use different strategies or to exploit the integrative potential of the negotiations better than they did before they received advice and/or gained experience.
We examined how rhetorical style affects evaluations of group advocates, and how these evaluations are moderated by group identification. University students were given a letter to the editor defending student welfare. The argument was either constructed using personal language ('I believe') or collective language ('we believe'). Furthermore, the letter was either attributed to an official advocate (president of the student union) or an unofficial advocate (a rank-and-file member of the student body). Consistent with the social identity perspective, participants who showed strong identification as a university student thought that the group would feel better represented by official advocates using collective rather than personal language. Low identifiers, however, did not rate the rhetorical styles differently on representativeness. Furthermore, low identifiers (but not high identifiers) rated official advocates as more likable and more effective when they used personal rather than collective language. The discussion focuses on the conflict low identifiers might feel between (a) needing to homogenize with other group members in order to maximize the influence and political effectiveness of their message at the collective level, and (b) protecting themselves against categorization threat.
Recent theorizing and research has attempted to explicate the functions of moods and emotions within small groups. In this paper, we examine these areas and suggest that affect in groups, as well as specific mechanisms to regulate and maintain certain affective states in groups, have had important roles in promoting group survival over evolutionary history. Specifically, we suggest that affect in groups serves a coordination function, which can take one of two forms. First, affect in groups quickly provides information about the environment and group structure to other group members, thus coordinating group activity via a communication function. Second, shared affect in groups coordinates group activity through fostering group bonds and group loyalty. These two functions of affect in groups are closely related and mutually reinforcing. Current research and directions for future research within an evolutionary perspective are also discussed.
Theoretical model.  
Means, standard deviations and intercorrelations of the variables
The O-type/P-type continuum.
b. Competitiveness of peripheral group members as a function of group norm and need to belong.  
a. Competitiveness of prototypical group members as a function of group norm and need to belong.  
This study explores the role of intragroup dynamics in intergroup conflict. In a computer-mediated negotiation experiment (N = 107), we investigated how a group representatives standing in the group, group norm, and the representatives need to belong influence behavior in intergroup negotiations. We hypothesized that the extent to which peripheral representatives adhere to group norms is contingent on their need to belong, whereas prototypical representatives behave in norm-congruent ways regardless of their need to belong. In support of this idea, results showed that prototypicals behaved more cooperatively when the group norm prescribed cooperation rather than competition. By contrast, peripherals only adhered to the group norm when they had a high need to belong. These findings suggest that peripherals only represent the interests of their group when doing so furthers their self-interest. We discuss implications for theorizing about prototypicality, social exclusion, and conformity to group norms. Copyright 2011 by SAGE Publications
Example stimuli used in Study 1 (left) and Studies 2-3 (right). Figure 1a provides an example of the mug shot pairs and question wording used in Study 1. Due to concern over ethics, however, the actual mug shot pairs used in Study 1 could not be published. As such, the example mug shot pairs shown here are of actual mug shots taken from The people depicted in these photos were not suspected of the crime listed in the question wording shown above. The photo in Figure 1b is of the final picture shown in the situmulus video used in Studies 2-3. Full-color reproductions of these images are available by contacting the corresponding author. 
Mistaken identifications are the primary cause of wrongful convictions. Though studies have examined when these errors are likely to occur, none have specified whom these errors are most likely to affect. We address this oversight by arguing that the type of crime committed affects whom eyewitnesses misidentify. Study 1 demonstrated that people have stereotypes about a perpetrator’s appearance that vary by the crime committed. Study 2 showed that these stereotypes affect identifications in a stereotype-consistent manner—participants who believed they saw a target accused of a stereotypically Black crime remembered him as being higher on perceived stereotypicality (viz., having more Afrocentric features) than did participants who believed they saw a target accused of a stereotypically White crime. This finding was replicated in Study 3 using a different pair of crimes. These studies demonstrate that the type of crime committed systematically affects whom eyewitnesses mistakenly identify.
Men's experience of collective guilt as a function of the diffi culty of making reparations for gender inequality.
We examined how the difficulty of making reparations for the harm done to another group affects the intensity of collective guilt. Men were confronted with information documenting male privilege and were told that they would have a chance to help women and reduce patriarchy by collecting signatures on a petition. We manipulated the difficulty of making reparations by asking participants to collect 5, 50, or 100 signatures. As predicted by Brehm's (1999) theory of emotional intensity, collective guilt was a non-monotonic function of the difficulty of making reparations. Men in the moderate difficulty (50 signatures) condition expressed greater collective guilt than participants in the low (5) or high (100) difficulty conditions. Results are discussed in terms of the implications for the theory of emotional intensity, collective guilt, and collective emotions more generally.
This paper examines how attitudes toward violence against women (VAW)—in terms of justification—influence the behavioral intentions of Afghan police officers when dealing with a case of intimate partner violence (IPV). An experimental study was carried out with 108 Afghan police officers who took part in a training course at the NATO Training Mission in Afghanistan (NTM-A) bases in Herat and Kandahar. Participants read an extract of a police intervention for an IPV case. They were faced with honor-related attitudes and possible actions to be taken to help victims and arrest perpetrators. In the experimental condition, in the questionnaire provided to police officers, there was reference to the victim admitting to an affair with another man. No such reference was present in the control condition. Results showed that admitting an infidelity produced more lenient attitudes toward the violence against the woman, which in turn reduced police officers’ intention to intervene by arresting the man and providing support to the victim. Results are discussed in terms of the role and function of the so-called culture of (masculine) honor and the rule of law and its implications.
The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between African American audiences, rap music videos, Black collective self-esteem, and attitudes towards women. One-hundred and forty-one African American college students participated in a survey measuring their amount of rap music video viewing, collective self-esteem, Afrocentric identity, and their belief that rap degrades women. The results revealed that viewers who consumed more rap music videos also had a higher sense of collective self-esteem. Additionally, individuals who had strong Afrocentric features tended to identify with rap music videos that contained characters with strong Afrocentric features. Finally, consumption of misogynistic rap content was negatively related to the belief that rap music degrades women. These results are discussed in light of Allen's (1993, 2001) cultural lens perspective, Appiah's (2004) theory of ethnic identification and the priming paradigm. Suggestions are made for future research concerning African American audiences and rap music.
Intercorrelations among dependent measures from Study 1 (N = 32). 
Intercorrelations among dependent measures from Study 2 (N = 65). 
The Stereotype Content Model proposes that competence (or alternatively, agency) is a fundamental dimension of stereotypes. According to this model, beliefs about agency are partially due to the status relations between groups, such that high status groups are perceived to possess agency, whereas low status groups are perceived to lack agentic characteristics. Despite the considerable support for this model, the psychological processes that produce these stereotypes have not been fully explored. In the current studies, we examined whether the correspondence bias may be partially responsible for the stereotype that members of low status groups lack agentic characteristics, relative to those who belong to high status groups. Across both studies, a measure of the correspondence bias predicted such stereotypical beliefs, even after accounting for variables that are known to be associated with beliefs about high and low status groups. This effect was observed when beliefs about the status of groups were experimentally manipulated, and when we measured stereotypical beliefs about two sets of actual high and low status groups.
Mediation models for Study 2 for the relationship between cultural group and aggression as explained by family and masculine honor. Unstandardized beta values are reported for the direct paths and the c' paths. Only the indirect path for family honor between Dummy 2 and own aggression is significant, because its confidence interval does not contain zero (Preacher & Hayes, 2004). 
Means, Standard Deviations, and F-tests for All Dependent Variables in Study 2. Dutch M (SD) Turkish-Dutch M (SD) Turks M (SD) F(2, 64) 2 
Masculine honor has been found to explain the relationship between insults and aggression in the USA. However, detailed accounts of Mediterranean honor cultures suggest that family honor may be more important in explaining cross-cultural differences in aggression. Two studies revealed that people from Turkish honor culture intended to aggress more after being insulted than Dutch people from a nonhonor culture (Study 1), and that this effect was driven by differences in family honor rather than differences in masculine honor (Study 2). We posit that family honor may be a key factor in explaining insult-related aggression in Mediterranean honor cultures.
Although citizen panels have become quite popular for policy making, there is very little research on how the procedures these groups employ to manage consensus affect their decision making. We measured the effect of a simple procedural mechanism, agenda order, on individual and group allocations for an HIV policy. Allocations made in a large-small (state-region-city) order were substantially smaller, overall, than were allocations made in small-large (city-region-state) order, and group allocations were smaller, overall, than were individual judgments. The Social Judgment Scheme model (Davis, 1996) provided a good fit of the group allocation, and suggested a mechanism for this overall downward shift in judgment. Normative (i.e. calibration) analyses, as well as subjective impressions (e.g. confidence, repeat judgments) favored relatively smaller allocations so that judgments made in large-small order, and judgments made in groups were arguably more defensible than were individual or small-large judgments. We discuss these strong agenda influences and their implications both for citizen panels and for theoretical research on group consensus.
In this paper, we report the findings of a meta-analysis investigating the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and constructive conflict management, and the moderational role of leadership position and age. A total of 20 studies yielding 280 effect sizes and involving 5,175 participants were examined. The results supported the hypothesis that EI is positively associated with constructive conflict management, and this relationship was stronger for subordinates than leaders. Contrary to our predictions, age was not a significant moderator. The limitations and implications are discussed in terms of psychometric issues, use of EI in leadership development and facilitation of problem solving, and for the further development of a constructive organizational culture.
Recent research on animal behavior suggests that group decision-making may not be uniquely human. Based on Tinbergen’s (1963) “four questions,” this paper proposes that linking biological- and social-science approaches is important to a better understanding of human group decisions. Toward this end, we first review some recent findings on collective behavior by social insects (ants and honeybees in particular). We then argue that several fundamental processes (e.g., positive feedback, nonlinear responses to social frequency information, and use of quorums) commonly underlie human and non-human group decision-making under uncertainty, while key prerequisites for the emergence of collective intelligence may be more vulnerable to social nuances in human contexts. We sketch some future research directions to promote cross-fertilizations between the two fields.
Interaction between perceived instability of context and perceived permeability of group boundaries on blatant prejudice at high levels of perceived ingroup status.
Means (standard deviations) and intercorrelations
Interaction between perceived instability of context and perceived permeability of group boundaries on blatant prejudice at high levels of perceived legitimacy.
Interaction between perceptions of legitimacy of status and perceived ingroup status on blatant prejudice.
Subjective intergroup beliefs and authoritarianism were assessed in a field study (N=255) of White Australians' anti-Asian stereotyping and prejudice. A social identity analysis of intergroup prejudice was adopted, such that perceptions of the intergroup structure (instability, permeability, legitimacy and higher ingroup status) were proposed as predictors of higher prejudice (blatant and covert) and less favorable stereotyping. Consistent with the social identity approach, both independent and interacting roles for sociostructural predictors of Anti-Asian bias were observed, even after demographic and personality variables were controlled. For example, perceived legitimacy was associated with higher prejudice when White Australians' status position relative to Asian Australians was valued. Moreover, when participants evaluated Whites' position as unstable and high status or legitimate, perceptions of permeable intergroup boundaries were associated with anti-Asian bias. The present findings demonstrate status protection responses in advantaged group members in a field setting, lending weight to the contention that perceptions of sociostructural threat interact to predict outgroup derogation. Implications for theories of intergroup relations are discussed.
Imagined intergroup contact (Crisp & Turner, 2009) is a new indirect contact strategy for promoting tolerance and more positive intergroup attitudes. We asked whether the positive effects of imagined contact are contingent upon characteristics that define the experience of intergroup relations. Specifically, we tested whether precontact intergroup anxiety makes imagining contact more cognitively effortful, and if it does, whether this detracts from its effectiveness. In two studies participants were asked to either imagine contact with an outgroup member or a control scene. We found that imagining contact counteracted the negative impact of intergroup anxiety on outgroup communicative behavior. Furthermore, performance on an ostensibly unrelated Stroop task revealed that this compensatory benefit requires cognitive resources proportional to the level of precontact anxiety. We conclude that the detrimental impacts of intergroup anxiety can be assuaged by imagining contact, but that doing so requires the allocation of attentional resources proportional to the positivity of preintervention contact experiences.
Interaction of trust and apology of outgroup predicting responses of Arab participants to Jewish assistance (1 = most positive to 7 = most negative). Note. Simple slopes computed with one standard deviation above and below the mean of perceived trust in the outgroup (i.e., Jews in Israel).  
Interaction of trust and apology of outgroup predicting responses of Arab participants to Jewish assistance (1 = most positive to 7 = most negative). 
Summary statistics and correlations between variables (Study 1; N = 66). 
Summary statistics and correlations between variables (Study 2; N = 70). 
Recent research on intergroup helping has shown that offers of help from a high- to a low-status group can be responded to negatively by members of the low-status group. The current research, consisting of two studies, explored factors that can influence how helping by a high-status group is responded to and how much it is sought by members of a low-status group, specifically considering the roles of intergroup trust and apologies in this process. Study 1 investigated reactions of Israeli-Arabs to help offered by Israeli-Jews. Study 2 examined willingness of Israeli-Arabs to seek help from Israeli Jews. Converging results across the two experiments showed that responses to assistance were most positive and helping was most strongly sought when there was an explicit apology by a representative of the outgroup for a recent transgression and Israeli-Arab participants had a relatively high level of intergroup trust. Theoretical and applied implications are discussed.
The effect of pervasiveness and legitimacy of discrimination on group identification with others with body piercings: Experiment 1. 
The effect of pervasiveness of discrimination and legitimacy of discrimination on outrage: Experiment 2. 
The effect of pervasiveness of discrimination and legitimacy of discrimination on ingroup member liking: Experiment 2. 
The effect of pervasiveness of discrimination and legitimacy of discrimination on individual mobility through passing: Experiment 2 
Two experiments tested the hypothesis that perceptions of the legitimacy of discrimination moderate the extent to which targets respond to pervasive discrimination with commitment to their ingroup. Both the perceived pervasiveness and legitimacy of discrimination directed toward the ingroup were manipulated among group members of a stigmatized group: People with body piercings. Generalizing previous research findings to this non-typical stigmatized group, perceiving discrimination as pervasive and legitimate affected group commitment. On a number of group commitment indicators, we found that pervasive and legitimate discrimination lowered group identification (Experiment 1), outrage about the treatment received, and liking for a victimized ingroup member, but enhanced willingness to remove body-piercings in order to pass (Experiment 2) compared to legitimate and rare discrimination. Group commitment was relatively high when discrimination was appraised as illegitimate and was not affected by pervasiveness of discrimination. These results highlight that, for this non-typical stigmatized group, pervasive discrimination that is appraised as legitimate undermines group commitment.
Although biases against homosexuals (and bisexuals) are well established, potential biases against a largely unrecognized sexual minority group, asexuals, has remained uninvestigated. In two studies (university student and community samples) we examined the extent to which those not desiring sexual activity are viewed negatively by heterosexuals. We provide the first empirical evidence of intergroup bias against asexuals (the so-called “Group X”), a social target evaluated more negatively, viewed as less human, and less valued as contact partners, relative to heterosexuals and other sexual minorities. Heterosexuals were also willing to discriminate against asexuals (matching discrimination against homosexuals). Potential confounds (e.g., bias against singles or unfamiliar groups) were ruled out as explanations. We suggest that the boundaries of theorizing about sexual minority prejudice be broadened to incorporate this new target group at this critical period, when interest in and recognition of asexuality is scientifically and culturally expanding.
Although transformational leadership (TFL) has been extensively investigated, the mechanism and process by which perceived TFL exerts its influence on followers’ social identification development behaviors is relatively unexplored. Accordingly, this study proposes a latent growth model based on social identity theory to address these influences. To test the proposed model, data were collected by surveying 1,501 employees of R&D departments at Taiwanese IT firms at multiple points in time over a 10-month period. Therein, we found that as employees perceived more TFL at Time 1, they were more likely to show increases in social identification development behaviors over time. Further, increases in social identification development behaviors demonstrate their positive relationship with task performance and organizational citizenship development behaviors over time. My empirical model confirms all of my proposed hypotheses, and these findings highlight that the potential dynamic consequences of organization behaviors can lead to employee career development.
Psychological Centrality Scores for Times 1 and 2. 
Stability coefficients for centrality, Time 1 to Time 2 
Self-esteem by type and degree of change in commitment. 
The impact of a major life transition on identity change is examined in this longitudinal study. Drawing on a framework provided by symbolic interactionism and identity theory (Stryker, 1968, 1987), we examined global self-esteem, interactional commitment and the identity hierarchies of a group of students while they were in secondary school and, again one year later, when they had made the transition to further or higher education. Overall, the data suggested considerable stability across all identities. Analysis examining the relationships among interactional commitment, self-esteem and psychological centrality provided some support for the theoretical framework but also highlighted differences across identities. The implications for future models of long-term identity change are discussed.
Dependent variables by target and participant gender (Experiment 1). 
Dependent variables by target and participant gender (Experiment 2). 
Mediation of men's target effects on liking and stigmatization (experiment 2). 
Gender egalitarian men are vital for women’s progress, yet attitudes toward and beliefs about them are underinvestigated. In three experiments, women liked gender egalitarian men more so than men did, but both genders stigmatized them as more feminine, weak, and likely to be gay, compared with control male targets. This was true even when the gender egalitarian was an actual presidential candidate for the American Psychological Association (Experiment 3). We examined whether stigmatization was due to (a) gender egalitarians’ presumed affiliations with women and/or gay men (stigma-by-association); (b) the gay male feminist stereotype; or (c) a threat to men’s gender identity. Results supported stigma-by-association, but only for affiliations with women (not gay men). The gay male feminist stereotype was robust, but did not account for stigmatization, and men’s reactions to male gender egalitarians were independent of their gender identity. Implications of these findings for gender equality are discussed.
Witnessing an ingroup member acting against his or her belief can lead individuals who identify with that group to change their own attitude in the direction of that counterattitudinal behavior. Two studies demonstrate this vicarious dissonance effect among high ingroup identifiers and show that this attitude change is not attributable to conformity to a perceived change in speaker attitude. Study I shows that the effect occurs-indeed, is stronger-even when it is clear that the speaker disagrees with the position espoused, and Study 2 shows that foreseeable aversive consequences bring about attitude change in the observer without any parallel impact on the perceived attitude of the speaker. Furthermore, the assumption that vicarious dissonance is at heart a group phenomenon is supported by the results indicating that attitude change is not impacted either by individual differences in dispositional empathy or measures of interpersonal affinity.
Early jury simulation research, reviewed and meta-anyalysed by MacCoun and Kerr (1988), suggested a leniency asymmetry in criminal jury deliberations such that a given faction favoring acquittal will tend to have a greater chance of prevailing than would an equivalent sized faction favoring conviction. More recently, a handful of field studies of actual juries have reported either no such leniency asymmetry or one in the opposite direction (a severity asymmetry). A potential bias in the coding of these field studies’ data is identified, one that would tend to underestimate any leniency asymmetry. The data from three field studies are re-analyzed after correcting this purported coding bias. The results of these re-analyses show a leniency asymmetry effect, although one that is less pronounced than observed in mock jury studies. It is argued that this difference in degree (not existence) of leniency asymmetry can plausibly be attributed to greater imbalance in evidence strength in the typical actual trial relative to the typical stimulus case in simulation experiments. It is also noted that failure to observe such a leniency asymmetry effect in actual juries would raise important questions about their adherence to the reasonable doubt standard of proof.
This investigation explores the effects of organizational identification on employees’ Implicit Leadership Theories (ILTs) and the perception of leader behaviors. The study involved a cross-sectional survey of 439 employees from seven companies based in South Wales. Respondents completed two questionnaires that measured their organizational identification, ILTs, recognition of ILTs in their manager, manager’s leadership behaviors (transactional and transformational), and psychological reactions (job satisfaction, well-being, and turnover intentions). The level of organizational identification did not affect the prototype of an ideal work-based leader. However, high organizational identification was associated with more positive ratings on the actual manager, the extent to which their manager displayed transactional and transformational behaviors, and with more positive psychological reactions to work. Employees high in organizational identification based their judgments of their leader’s transactional and transformational behaviors on the extent to which they recognized their leader as possessing leadership traits. However, those low on organizational identification allowed their prototype of their ideal leader to bias their judgment of their actual leader’s behavior. Finally, there was partial support for the augmenting hypothesis (that tranformational leadership would predict additional variance in psychological outcomes above that predicted by transactional leadership) for those high in organizational identification but not for those low in organizational identification.
This research examines whether evaluations of positive deviates (i.e. high achieving group members) are influenced by the attributions they make for their performance. We argue that ingroup positive deviates who make group attributions help enhance the ingroup's image and thus attract favorable evaluations. In Experiment 1, ingroup positive deviates who made group attributions were generally evaluated more favorably than ingroup positive deviates who made individual attributions. There was also evidence that the positive deviates' attribution style influenced group and self-evaluations. Evaluations of outgroup positive deviates were not influenced by their attribution style. In Experiment 2, an ingroup positive deviate who was successful and attributed that success to the group was upgraded relative to an ingroup positive deviate who made individual attributions. Group evaluations were also higher when the positive deviate made group attributions. This pattern did not emerge when the positive deviate failed. The results are discussed from a social identity perspective.
The present research examined whether reactions to procedural discrimination (favoring self vs. favoring other procedures) are qualified by whether the authority is an ingroup or an outgroup member. We argue that because we tend to demonstrate ingroup bias in an intergroup context, we should react more positively when we are favored over an outgroup other than when an outgroup other is favored over us. Furthermore, we reason that because compared with outgroup authorities, ingroup authorities are perceived to be more related to us, we should react more strongly to procedural discrimination exercised by the ingroup authority. Across the two studies, results support our predictions. Results are discussed with reference to the social identity perspective and the group-value model.
Six studies explored the hypothesis that third parties are averse to resolving preference disputes with winner-take-all solutions when disputing factions belong to different social categories (e.g., gender, nationality, firms, etc.). Studies 1-3 provided empirical support for the claim that third parties' aversion to winner-take-all solutions, even when they are based on the unbiased toss of a coin, is greater when the disputed preferences correlate with social category membership. Studies 4-6 suggested that reluctance to resolve inter-category disputes in a winner-take-all manner is motivated by a desire to minimize the affective disparity - the hedonic gap - between the winning and losing sides. The implication is that winner-take-all outcomes, even those that satisfy conditions of procedural fairness, become unacceptable when disputed preferences cleave along social category lines.
A self-regulatory systems model of socially awkward situations was assessed through a mixed-methods analysis of an ecologically valid simulation. Specific hypotheses were that introducing social novelty and inducing explicit social attention would increase reported feelings of social awkwardness. Participant awkwardness ratings, recorded from continuous measurement devices operated by participants viewing taped simulations, were analysed and results were consistent with hypotheses. Further exploratory analysis revealed that events associated with extreme increases in awkwardness ratings included non- and counter-normative situations and behaviors, negative social judgments, and events that made social processes explicit. Events associated with extreme decreases in awkwardness ratings included social acts that emphasized common, shared or familiar interests, helping behaviors, acts of positive social evaluation, and acts that diffused social awkwardness through humor. These findings were interpreted as offering general support for the model and suggesting its utility in distinguishing dispositional and situational factors involved in alienated social functioning.
According to infrahumanization theory, people ascribe outgroups lesser humanity than their ingroup. Infrahumanization has been proposed as a relatively subtle and indirect form of emotional prejudice. We tested this assumption further in an experiment during which participants were asked to take on the perspective of a prejudiced or a nonprejudiced person or received no such instruction before completing a questionnaire that included measures of dehumanization and explicit prejudice. Results showed that whereas the infrahumanization effect was unbiased by faking instructions, participants readily faked their responses on the more direct measure of prejudice. The results support the notion that infrahumanization represents a rather indirect form of discrimination that is less prone to social desirability tendencies than other self-report measures of prejudice. Moreover, our findings point to the importance of emotion valence in the context of infrahumanizing others. Implications of our findings will be disussed.
Much of the research on small group performance shows that groups tend to outperform individuals in most task domains. However, there is also evidence that groups sometimes perform worse than individuals, occasionally with severe negative consequences. Theoretical attempts to explain such negative performance events have tended to point to characteristics of the group or the group process that were different than those found for better performing groups. We argue that typical group processes can be used to explain both good and bad group performance in many instances. Results from a pair of experiments focusing on two different task domains are reported and used to support our arguments.
Mean productivity (number of aeroplanes) as a function of level of surveillance. 
Mean level of helping behaviour as a function of type of identity and level of surveillance. 
Common sense and prior research into performance suggests that people will work harder and more productively when they are monitored. However, we predict that there are boundary conditions to this effect. High levels of surveillance may undermine aspects of people’s performance and their willingness to provide extra help, especially when they expect to share a sense of identity with those in power. In an experimental study (N = 98) we demonstrated that, compared to low surveillance, high surveillance led to higher productivity on a task, but also that the quality of work suffered. Additionally, we demonstrated that when surveillance was low, individuals offered more help to a leader they shared identity with, rather than to an outgroup leader. However, the beneficial effect of shared identity disappeared when surveillance was high. The results point to the rather paradoxical finding that surveillance, where it is not needed, can do more harm than good.
Study 1: Prediction of behavioral intentions as a function of Anglophone and Francophone group norms and cost-benefit evaluations
Study 1: Fit statistics for the present theoretical model (1) and three alternative path models
Means, standard deviations (SDs), and intercorrelations for group norms, cost-benefit expectancy-value scores, and intentions
The present paper articulates a model in which ingroup and outgroup norms inform 'rational' decision-making (cost-benefit analysis) for conflict behaviors. Norms influence perceptions of the consequences of the behavior, and individuals may thus strategically conform to or violate norms in order to acquire benefits and avoid costs. Two studies demonstrate these processes in the context of conflict in Quebec. In the first study, Anglophones' perceptions of Francophone and Anglophone norms for pro-English behaviors predicted evaluations of the benefits and costs of the behaviors, and these cost-benefit evaluations in turn mediated the norm-intention links for both group norms. In the second study, a manipulated focus on supportive versus hostile ingroup and outgroup norms also predicted cost-benefit evaluations, which mediated the norm-intention relationships. The studies support a model of strategic conflict choices in which group norms inform, rather than suppress, rational expectancy value processes. Implications for theories of decision-making and normative influence are discussed.
Drawing on the social identity theory of leadership and optimal distinctiveness theory, this research examined differences in perceived attitude similarity to in- and outgroup leaders among Liberals and Conservatives before and after the 2008 U.S. presidential election. We predicted Liberals and Conservatives alike would perceive their ingroup leaders (Obama or McCain) to be attitudinally similar to themselves before the election. After the election, however, Conservatives were expected to distance themselves from McCain and to accentuate similarity to Obama. Using a longitudinal design, analysis of American National Election Survey (N = 742) data showed that Liberals and Conservatives viewed themselves to be similar to their respective ingroup leader and dissimilar to the outgroup leader. Consistent with expectations, Conservatives significantly accentuated perceived similarity with Obama following his electoral victory, and significantly distanced themselves from McCain following his loss. Liberals’ similarity with either candidate did not change from pre- to postelection. Implications for social identity in inter- and intragroup leadership contexts are discussed.
Adopting an intergroup perspective, the research was designed to examine predictors of employee responses to an organizational merger. Data were collected from 120 employees of a newly merged scientific organization. As predicted from social identity theory, the most negative responses to the merger were apparent among the employees of the low status premerger organization. There was also evidence of ingroup bias among both groups of employees involved in the merger—as expected, the bias was most marked on the status-irrelevant dimensions for the employees of the lower status organization, but most marked on the status-relevant dimensions for the employees of the high status organization. Also, in support of social identity theory, the perceived legitimacy of the basis for the status differentiation between the groups was associated with more positive responses to the merger among employees of the low status premerger organization, but with poorer responses among employees of the high status premerger organization. There was consistent evidence that the status by legitimacy interaction was mediated through the extent to which employees of the newly merged organization perceived a common ingroup identity
Meta-stereotypes, the stereotypes believed to be held about one’s ingroup by an outgroup, represent barriers to positive intergroup contact. Little is known, however, about factors accounting for meta-stereotypes. Although previous researchers have speculated on conceptual overlap between social projection (perceiving one’s personal attitudes to be commonly held) and meta-stereotypes, these constructs are typically studied separately. We propose the notion that meta-stereotypes can be explained by social projection processes. We examined Whites’ “bias meta-stereotypes” (perceptions that Blacks consider Whites biased) across two studies. Participants projected personal biases onto both their ingroup (Whites) and outgroup (Blacks); in turn, both ingroup and outgroup bias perceptions uniquely predicted bias meta-stereotypes. Overall, the positive relation between personal bias perceptions and bias meta-stereotypes was fully mediated (i.e., explained) by heightened perceptions of ingroup (White) and outgroup (Black) bias. Overall, there is considerable value in integrating basic social projection within intergroup domains, particularly with regard to meta-stereotyping.
Top-cited authors
Miles Hewstone
  • University of Oxford
Richard J Crisp
  • Durham University
Samuel Gaertner
  • University of Delaware
Jim Sidanius
  • Harvard University
Vincent Yzerbyt
  • Université Catholique de Louvain - UCLouvain