Group & Organization Management

Published by SAGE Publications
Online ISSN: 1059-6011
Publications
Article
The objective of our study is to provide a complementary approach with regard to organizational justice in the domain of compensation. It presents research undertaken on a sample of six hundred employees in three different Canadian organizations. The results reveal that employees distinguish clearly between pay satisfaction and benefit satisfaction, and that distributive justice perceptions are better predictors of pay satisfaction than procedural justice perceptions. This result is reversed for employee benefit satisfaction: procedural justice perceptions are better predictors than distributive justice perceptions. Lastly, the results show that distributive justice perceptions with regard to pay play a more important role than procedural justice in job satisfaction and satisfaction with the organization. Cet article a pour but d'apporter un éclairage complémentaire en ce qui concerne la justice organisationnelle dans le domaine de la rémunération. On y fait état de recherches réalisées auprès de six cents salariés appartenant à trois organisations canadiennes différentes. Les résultats révèlent que les salariés dissocient bien la satisfaction à l'égard du salaire, de la satisfaction à l'égard des avantages sociaux. Ils montrent également que les perceptions de justice distributives permettent de mieux prédire la satisfaction à l'égard du salaire que les perceptions de justice procédurales. Le résultat est inverse en ce qui concerne la satisfaction à l'égard des avantages sociaux : les perceptions de justice procédurales sont de meilleurs prédicteurs que les perceptions de justice distributives. Ils montrent enfin que la perception de justice distributive concernant les salaires joue un rôle plus important que la justice procédurale dans la satisfaction à l'égard du travail et à l'égard de l'entreprise.
 
Article
Previous studies explain situational antecedents of OCB using social exchange theory. However, the effects of factors such as perceptions of job characteristics on OCB seem to require a different explanatory mechanism. We propose that these effects can be explained through a new exchange relationship that we call work exchange. We develop a theory for the situational antecedents of OCB that includes economic, work, and social exchange relationships. The theory is tested using structural equations.
 
Article
Examined the impact of organizational socialization tactics and the moderating effect of organizational tenure on role innovation or the extent to which expatriate American managers overseas changed the procedures and objectives of their jobs. A sample of 220 American expatriate managers working in the Pacific region responded to a questionnaire, and 157 of their spouses responded to a spouse questionnaire. The results suggest that collective, serial, and fixed tactics had a significant relationship with role innovation. Organizational tenure moderated the relationship between collective and serial tactics with role innovation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Supervisory ratings of performance have been criticized for inaccurately portraying actual job performance. The purpose of this special issue, "Performance Appraisal: Evolution and Change," is to elaborate on findings that cumulate from recent research on the impact of both appraisal organizational contexts and rater individual variables on various indicators of rating behavior such as rating elevation, discrimination among ratees, and appraisal dimensions. In the article, Jawahar (see record 2005-01416-002) draws attention to the necessity of raters to consider the extent to which the condition in which ratees operate affects the quality of performance ratings. Curtis, Harvey, and Ravden (see record 2005-01416-003) report the findings of a study indicating that two contextual variables (appraisal purpose and rater accountability) are likely to affect ratings. Villanova, Bernardin, and Morrison (see record 2005-01416-004) suggest how to characterize circumstances that generate feelings of discomfort in appraisal situations. Tziner, Murphy, and Cleveland (see record 2005-01416-005) review demonstrates that raters' attitudes, beliefs, personalities, and orientations toward performance systems on rating behavior. Brown and Benson (see record 2005-01416-006) demonstrate that rater participation, in the performance-appraisal process, may heighten feelings of work overload. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Analysis of Variance for Culture Scales by Organization NOTE: Individual N = 506 to 523; organization N = 18.
Article
Evaluated the theoretical framework underlying the Organizational Culture Inventory by R. A. Cooke and J. C. Lafferty (1983, 1986), which profiles the culture of organizations and their subunits in terms of behavioral norms and expectations. Data provided by members of diverse organizations are used to illustrate that there was agreement within organizations, and that there were significant differences across organizations, with respect to the norms and expectations measured by the inventory. Subcultural differences within organizations were found to occur across hierarchical levels. Data on preferred norms indicate that members of different organizations agreed that the ideal cultures for their firms would promote achievement-oriented, affiliative, humanistic, and self-actualizing thinking and behavioral styles. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
This longitudinal field study examined how leader behavior influences performance ratings of leaders and how this relationship varies with the hierarchical role of the person doing the ratings. 526 direct-report subordinates completed questionnaires about the leader behavior of their 73 midlevel managers. 10 wks later the subordinates, the leaders themselves, and their 37 managers completed a 2nd questionnaire rating the leaders performance. Results indicated differences in the way leader behavior correlated with subsequent performance ratings, depending on who completed the rating. Leaders who were seen as challenging the status quo and encouraging subordinates' independent action were rated lower by their superior managers, but rated higher by their subordinates. The authors conclude that these variations in ratings can stem from legitimate differences in the structural role of the person rating the leader. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Responds to R. R. Blake and J. S. Mouton's (1981) comments on the Managerial Grid. The present authors maintain that the differences between the grid and situational leadership are in the areas of attitudes and behavior. The grid emphasizes concern for production and concern for people, which are attitudinal dimensions. Situational leadership emphasizes task behavior and relationship behavior, which are dimensions of observed behavior. The difference between self-perception and leadership style for the 2 approaches is compared. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Explored the question of whether encouraging women to behave more dominantly in leadership situations will undermine their effectiveness rather than increase it. 188 male and female graduate business students engaged in role play in groups of four. As predicted, women who enacted a dominant approach were somewhat less influential overall than women who enacted a considerate, problem-solving approach and significantly less influential when they supervised male rather than mixed-sex subordinates. Women in subordinate roles gave dominant female supervisors slightly higher ratings of effectiveness than considerate ones. Overall, women subordinates disliked their female bosses more than men did and judged them more negatively no matter which approach they enacted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
8,938 utility-company nonsupervisory employees completed a job diagnostic survey to measure task complexity and internal work motivation. For analysis, the task-complexity and task-goal-attribute variables were dichotomized. ANOVA showed that goal clarity and participation in goal setting led to higher levels of internal work motivation for Ss on simple, low-complexity jobs. Findings suggest that difficult, challenging goals and participation led to higher levels of intrinsic job satisfaction for Ss. Ss who participated in goal setting and perceived a higher degree of goal clarity reported higher levels of intrinsic job satisfaction independent of the degree of task complexity. It is suggested that participation in goal setting leads to increased goal clarity. Only goal difficulty had a significant positive effect on the intrinsic job satisfaction of Ss on highly complex jobs. It is further suggested that management-by-objectives programs that ignore lower levels of the organization are likely to exclude those who will benefit most from the process. (32 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Team members with different levels of experience may understand the process of teamwork very differently, and if these differences are identified, team training, team management, and team performance might be enhanced. The authors investigated representations of teamwork knowledge as a function of team experience in 23 Ss (mean age 22.8 yrs). Teamwork knowledge structures were assessed using multidimensional scaling and "freehand" concept maps. Consistent with contemporary expert–novice literature, results revealed that more highly experienced team members conceptualized teamwork more concisely and in more abstract terms than did less experienced team members. In addition, results from the 2 methodologies converged to a greater degree for more highly experienced Ss than for less experienced Ss, suggesting that more highly experienced individuals can express consistently what they understand about teamwork. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Use of Balance Theory for the Jesus Christ Study  
Article
this article focuses on an experiential approach to strategies for change. It begins with a short exercise for the reader. (This approach could be easily extended to a classroom situation). Following this, two strategies are discussed. The first is the one most commonly used; the second, called the Delta Technique, is developed from a substantial body of published research. One aspect of the experiential approach is that you are asked to solve a problem before you are given n technique for solving it. Thus, I will ask you to solve the COMPU-HEART case before I present the Delta Technique. Another aspect of the experiential approach relates to your orientation as a reader. It is suggested that the Delta Technique is a proven method -- for others. But it may differ from your current approach to change. How would you react to this information? There are other possibilities, but check the item closest to your expected reaction: (A) I will disagree with the Delta Technique. This article will not provide enough information to convince me. (B) I will decide that it was really a communication problem -- that I already use the Delta Technique but have different words for it. (C) I will feel that I had read an exciting article and agree that the Delta Technique is excellent. (D) I will take action by experimenting with the Delta Technique. Alternative D, to experiment, creates stress. Yet D has the most value to you and your organization. Those selecting A will feel bad, Bs will feel O.K., and Cs will feel good: But D provides an opportunity to benefit from this article. (If you would like to compare your responses with others, a sample of MBAs from two organizational behavior courses at Wharton answered this question before reading this article. Of the 23 respondents, 65% sele...
 
Article
This article extends the concept of corporate culture to the level of industry culture and examines regional influences on management practices in Silicon Valley and Route 128. In-depth interviews with CEOs and executives in mature electronics firms were conducted. Results from the data indicate that these high-technology cultures and related management practices differ significantly and are influenced by particular regional characteristics. Conceptual and consulting implications are discussed.
 
Moderating role of Performance Orientation on the relationship between (A) Extraversion and Achievement Motive, (B) Conscientiousness and Achievement Motive, and (C) Openness and Achievement Motive  
Moderating role of Humane Orientation on the relationship between (A) Extraversion and Affiliation Motive, (B) Agreeableness and Affiliation Motive, and (C) Neuroticism and Affiliation Motive  
Mean Scores on Achievement, Affiliation, and Power Motive by Country (17,358 Managers in 24 Countries)
Moderating role of Power Distance on the relationship between (A) Extraversion and Power Motive, (B) Agreeableness and Power Motive, and (C) Conscientiousness and Power Motive  
Article
Using a cross-cultural sample of 17,538 managers from 24 countries, this study explores the interrelationships between McClelland’s motives and specific aggregate-level cultural dimensions and personality factors. The results reveal significant relationships between the Achievement, Affiliation, and Power Motives, and the cultural dimensions of Performance Orientation, Humane Orientation, and Power Distance, respectively. Support for posited relationships between the managers’ motives and aggregate-level personality, as measured by the Big Five factors, was also obtained. Finally, the results demonstrate that the relationships between McClelland’s motives and managers’ aggregate-level Big Five factors are moderated by the cultural dimensions of Performance Orientation, Humane Orientation, and Power Distance.
 
Article
Ethical codes and the systems in which they are situated are complex and intricate, making them difficult for both academicians and practitioners to research and understand. Through a qualitative research lens we examine the honor and ethics system at the United States Military Academy at West Point. Our findings suggest that the complexity of ethical systems can be better understood by examining the competing tensions that simultaneously work for and against ethical systems. We find that organizational members at West Point engage in counterintuitive thinking along with reframing and repositioning to negotiate some of these tensions. This approach provides feedback loops that steer the organization away from future ethical failures and long-term ethical declines. Our findings build on and extend several organizational and ethical theories to include environmental scanning, moral awareness, peer justice, the stages of moral development, and hyper-resiliency. We discuss implications for both theory and practice.
 
Article
Although persons with disabilities compose a growing portion of workers, when compared with other aspects of diversity (e.g., race/ethnicity or gender), disability has received relatively little research attention. In a between-subjects experimental design with more than 600 participants, we evaluated the roles of disability type (AIDS, cerebral palsy, and stroke), stigma, and employee characteristics in acceptance of a coworker with a disability. Stigma largely mediated the relationship between disability type and acceptance. Employee characteristics had direct effects on some aspects of acceptance. Exploratory factor analysis of stigma revealed six factors; however, only a “performance impact” factor was consistently related to acceptance, suggesting that perceived implications of the coworker’s disability for job performance are critical.
 
Article
Using a quasi-experimental design, the effects of purpose (evaluate vs. developmental) on both peer-rating quality and user acceptance were examined. Subjects were 65 undergraduates divided into 11 project groups. six groups conducted peer ratings for evaluative (i.e., grading) purposes, whereas the remaining 5 did so for the purpose of providing developmental feedback. Peer ratings conducted for evaluative purposes tended to contain greater halo and to be more lenient, less differentiating, less reliable, and less valid than those performed for developmental purposes. User acceptance as measured by recommendation for future use was more favorable under the developmental than the evaluative conditions. These results suggest that the quality of peer rating and user acceptance are highly susceptible to the influence of rating contexts and that peer ratings are more useful for developmental than for evaluative purposes. Implications of these results for future peer-appraisal practices and research are discussed.
 
Article
The present study compared the quality and the acceptance of group decisions on an evaluative problem (NASA Lost on the Moon Exercise). Four decision-making formats were employed: interacting, consensus, the nominal group techinique (NGT), and the Delphi technique. No idiosyncratic modifications were made in any of the formats. The results indicated that the Delphi groups produced the highest quality decisions followed by those of consensus, interacting, and NGT groups. The decisions of the consensus groups had a higher level of acceptance than did those of the other three formats, which did not differ in terms of acceptance. Predictions based on past studies using unmodified decision-making techiques were consistently supported.
 
Article
Affirmative-action issues with regard to organizational consulting remain current, despite years of practice and discussion. We asked a member of the UA staff, Dr. Phyliss Cooke, to prepare a position paper on the subject from the standpoint of her own experience and values. We invited Dr. Alice Sargent, an organizational consultant in Washington, D.C., to respond to the issues. She is well known for her views on sexism and androgyny. We offer these overlapping views to help focus the continuing concerns around this topic.
 
Demographic Ch.,lCteri.tics of Subjectl by Developmental Position
Article
This research suggests that management styles are shaped by developmental stage, that is, by the way the individual makes meaning of his or her world. Subjects were 49 MBA alumni and students, all of whom held full-time positions in a variety of organizations. Managers at later developmental stages, measured by Loevinger's Sentence Completion Test, were more likely to redefine problems on an in-basket exercise than to accept them as presented. The data also indicated, though less clearly, that later-stage managers were more likely to act collaboratively. Implications are offered for leadership theory and management development.
 
Article
Affirmative action in the workplace continues to be a controversial issue, particularly for persons soon to enter the workforce. This study examines psychological constructs and demographic variables as precursors to perceptions of the self-interest implications of affirmative action programs. The constructs of symbolic prejudice and self-esteem were found to predict perceptions toward affirmative action in the workplace. Weak effects were found for race and gender.
 
Article
The Personal Orientation Inventory (POI) was used to assess the impact of a semester-long encounter-group, personal-growth experience on stu dents seeking degrees in counseling. Both the experimental and control groups showed gains in self-actualization. The groups differed signifi cantly only on the Spontaneity Scale. Design procedures and selection artifacts associated with obtaining participants for research are dis cussed, especially as these relate to the nature of the control-group studies cited by Knapp and Shostrom (1976).
 
Article
This study investigates adaptability as a performance criterion in organizations. A multilevel approach was used to test predictors of individual-level adaptive performance (AP) and to examine how individual AP contributes to team AP. A multilevel survey found evidence for a multilevel composition pattern whereby AP varies within and between groups. At the individual level, continuous learning activities predicted individual AP. In addition, a cross-level effect was found such that team learning climate had an independent effect on individual AP. However, a hypothesized cross-level moderation effect of team learning climate on the relationship between continuous learning and individual AP was found nonsignificant. At the group level, team learning climate displayed a significant, positive relationship with team AP. A major contribution of this study is a new conceptualization of AP within a framework of multilevel theory. Practical implications to help align human resource management with higher level organizational factors are also discussed.
 
Article
The moderating effects of attitudes about the work group and task structure on the relationships between leader behavior dimensions and job satisfaction facets were explored. The results indicated that this variable was an important added moderator of leader behavior dimensions. The significant main effects and interaction effects found reaffirmed the complexity of the leadership role for practicing managers.
 
Article
This study explores the relationship of motivational cultural intelligence, an individual’s drive, interest, and confidence in adapting to cultural differences, and realistic previews to cross-cultural adjustment (work, general, and interaction adjustment) of global professionals. Regression analyses demonstrate positive relationships between motivational CQ and all three adjustment criteria after controlling for gender, age, time in the host country, and prior international assignment. Realistic job preview relates to work adjustment, realistic living conditions preview relates to general adjustment, and motivational CQ relates to work and general adjustment over and above realistic job and living conditions preview. This study demonstrates the importance and utility of motivational CQ in understanding cross-cultural adjustment. We discuss implications for cross-cultural adjustment research and suggest practical implications for organizations and individuals seeking overseas assignments.
 
Article
This study examined the relationship between three structural variables (size, vertical complexity, and administrative intensity) and the operating efficiency of all 234 metropolitan branches of a financial services company. As hypothesized, negative relationships were found between (a) size and productivity and (b) vertical complexity and productivity; however, the predicted negative relationship between (c) administrative intensity and productivity was not found — instead a curvilinear relationship emerged. On average, the smallest branches were approximately 31% more efficient than the largest ones; those with the least vertical complexity (one hierarchical level) were roughly 44% more productive than those with the greatest complexity (five levels).
 
Article
This paper examines thirty-eight research studies that were conducted on various aspects of organization development (OD) technology. The studies are compared along eight dimensions. Problems associated with evaluating OD and the limited amount of OD research are discussed. It is argued that more systematic, longitudi nal research on OD is needed.
 
Article
Recent performance appraisal research has highlighted the important role played by contextual and individual factors in shaping rating behavior. This article reviews cumulated empirical data supporting the proposition that in factors and constraints present in the organization, contexts in which appraisal systems reside and rater attributes, such as personality factors or beliefs, systematically affect rating behavior. The effects of these context and rater factors are reflected in ratings accuracy, ratings discrimination among raters/dimensions, and rating elevation.
 
Article
In recent years, agency and transaction cost approaches to incentives and control highlighted e issue of performance measurement. Although the general propositions of these economic theories have been supported in research, there are theoretical gaps with regard to the effects of uncertainty on control. Also, implications of employee skills for control have been ignored in these approaches. This article integrates the two economic approaches and develops a framework incorporating skill level as a determinant of control. Hypotheses derived from this framework were tested in two merchant shipping companies employing crews of different nationalities. The results suggest that performance ambiguity and employee skill level are significant predictors of controls. The results also indicate that the choice between behavior-based and output-based controls may be driven more by job characteristics than nationality. Using these results, implications for practice and future research are discussed.
 
Conversation 1 continued
Conversation 2: When the first conversation goes badly.
Article
The opportunities and need for interorganizational collaboration in all production sectors have increased markedly over the later part of last century, yet, despite an extensive interorganizational relationships literature, little is still known about the way work is achieved in interorganizational collaborations and teams. Studies have failed to reveal the essence of the collaborative interfirm dynamic; the relationships between operational-level employees and how these are manifested and sustained at an interactional level. This case study of interfirm collaboration in the furniture manufacturing sector in France addresses this gap in the literature by examining the communication processes between the operational-level employees who produce enduring patterns of engagement. The findings reveal how actions are coordinated at the micro level through conversations and, in so doing, clarify how collective competence is formed and becomes stable. The result is a unique contribution to the literatures on interorganizational relationships (IOR) and organizational communication.
 
Article
This study examined the extent to which subordinates' perceptions of soft (i.e., consultation, ingratiation, inspirational appeals), hard (i.e., legitimating, pressure, exchange), and rational persuasion influence tactics were associated with the self-awareness of 144 Israeli telecommunications managers. Self-awareness was operationalized by categorizing managers as overestimators, underestimators, in-agreement/poor or in agreement/good based on the difference between the manager's and his or her subordinates' rating of the manager's charismatic leadership (Atwater & Yammarino, 1997). Results indicated that underestimators tended to use more rational persuasion than overestimators and in-agreement/poor managers. Overestimators tended to use fewer soft tactics than underestimators and in-agreement/good managers. In-agreement/ good managers tended to use more exchange tactics and outperformed overestimators and in-agreement/poor managers in championing a climate of innovation and quality. The practical implications of these results are discussed.
 
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine whether self-awareness of managers (defined as agreement between self and other leadership ratings) would moderate relationships between (a) aspects of emotional intelligence and transformational leadership behavior, and (b) transformational leadership behavior and managerial performance. Multisource data were collected from 63 managers (who responded about their emotional intelligence and transformational leadership behavior), 192 subordinates (who rated their manager’s transformational leadership behavior and performance outcomes), and 63 superiors of focal managers (who rated managerial performance). Results indicated that correlations between emotional intelligence aspects, leader behavior, and performance varied as a function of self-awareness of managers. The practical implications of these findings are discussed.
 
Article
Rumors collected from a large public hospital undergoing change were content analyzed, and a typology comprising the following five broad types of change-related rumors was developed: rumors about changes to job and working conditions, nature of organizational change, poor change management, consequences of the change for organizational performance, and gossip-rumors. Rumors were also classified as positive or negative on the basis of their content. As predicted, negative rumors were more prevalent than positive rumors. Finally, employees reporting negative rumors also reported more change-related stress as compared to those who reported positive rumors and those who did not report any rumors. The authors propose that rumors be treated as verbal symbols and expressions of employee concerns during organizational change.
 
Article
Building on Tennis's comments, the authors identify various factors that must be considered in order to put the development and application of the alpha, beta, gamma change typology in perspective. In doing so, they argue that the change typology's birth and growth shows a strong similarity to that of "normal science." After commenting on the small number of investigators involved in research on the change typology and the limited set of outlets in which this research has been published, the authors address the question of what needs to be done to accelerate the advancement of the typology and its acceptance by consultants and practitioners.
 
Article
This article examines the manner in which the field of organization development has responded to the alpha, beta, gamma change typology of Golembiewski, Billingsley, and Yeager (1976a). The work of researchers investigating the concept is reviewed, and forces acting to limit its widespread application are identified. Finally, practical implications of the discipline's resistance to the concept are considered.
 
Article
Typescript. Thesis (M.S.)--Central Washington University, 1998. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 70-74).
 
MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS
CORRELATION MATRIX FOR VARIABLES USED IN THE ANALYSES
includes results of regression analyses including direct effects and interaction
Article
Agency theory is used to develop hypotheses regarding the effects of ownership proliferation on firm performance. We examine the effects of CEO ownership, executive team ownership, and all employee ownership, in addition to the moderating effect of risk, on firm survival and stock price. Firms with low CEO ownership outperform those with high levels of CEO ownership across all levels of risk, but the effect is most pronounced for low risk firms. Executive team ownership is negatively related to firm performance, while ownership for all employees is positively associated with firm performance particularly for higher risk firms.
 
Article
A case study of a consultation is presented that illustrates how two theories concerning organizational change and systems analysis were applied to a small, informal organization. The primary intervention tasks outlined by Argyris (1970) were applied throughout the consultation and the systems theory detailed by Katz and Kahn (1966) provided a con ceptual model for organizing and discussing the data. Systematic inter vention with small, less structured groups is advocated.
 
Mean and Standard Deviation of Subgroup and Organizational Measures at Baseline and Change at Time 1 and Time 2 
Bivariate Correlations Between Baseline Measures and Time 1 Change Measures 
Article
A growing body of evidence indicates that organizational identification underpins a range of important organizational outcomes. However, to date, the literature has provided little empirically grounded guidance for organizations that are trying to develop organizational identification among their employees. In this article, the authors aim to address this lacuna by testing the effectiveness of the ASPIRe (Actualizing Social and Personal Identity Resources) model—a model that specifies a sequence of structured activities designed to use subgroup identities as a platform for building organizational identification—in a bespoke workshop delivered to senior military health services personnel. As predicted by the ASPIRe model, participants reported increased levels of subgroup and organizational identification as a result of the workshop and were also more supportive of the organization’s strategy.
 
Article
This study investigated the effect of personal growth and assertive train ing classes on the sex-role self-concept of 116 women enrolled in personal growth classes and seventy women enrolled in assertive training. All classes met for ten weeks. During the first session, subjects were asked to supply demographic information; during the first and ninth sessions, they completed the Bem Sex-Role Inventory. A significant difference (t (69) = 3.021, p < .01) was noted from pre- to post-test for subjects in assertive training. The subjects increased their acceptance of masculine charac teristics. No significant differences were noted from pre- to post-test for subjects in personal growth (t (115) = 1.79). It was concluded that per sonal growth and assertive training may be effective approaches. How ever, their impact on female sex-role self-concept is different. Choice of classes should be dependent on the needs of clients and their goals.
 
Exemplars of the Characterization of the Environment as a Resource Pool 
Exemplars of the Characterization of the Environment as an Impetus for Change 
Exemplars of the Characterization of the Environment as a Target 
Article
Despite the recognized importance of groups’ external contexts to their functioning, there is little research that fully explicates the relationship between groups and their environments. Instead, much extant research treats groups as closed systems. To advance the field’s understanding, we explore the treatment of the relationship between groups and their environments in existing literature by reviewing research that incorporates groups in naturally varying environments. We identify three predominant characterizations in the literature: the environment as a resource pool, as an impetus for change, and as a target. We offer a summary of the assumptions in these characterizations, a critical examination of each characterization, and develop a future research agenda that extends each characterization and challenges its key assumptions in an effort to explore the relationship between groups and their external environments.
 
Article
Group task satisfaction has been conceptualized as the group-level counterpart to individual job satisfaction and represents the group’s shared attitude toward its task and work environment. This study investigated whether group task satisfaction would explain incremental variance in organizational citizenship behaviors, group performance, and absenteeism norms, after the variance explained by aggregated individual job satisfaction and group affective tone was taken into account. Survey data were collected from 66 work groups and 51 supervisors. Measures of group task satisfaction explained unique variance in ratings of citizenship behavior and absenteeism norms but did not explain unique variance in ratings of group performance. Our findings support the validity and utility of group task satisfaction and illustrate the importance of assessing group-level constructs directly.
 
Article
Change management research has largely ignored the effects of organizational change management history in shaping employee attitudes and behavior. This article develops and tests a model of the effects of poor change management history (PCMH) on employee attitudes (trust, job satisfaction, turnover intentions, change cynicism, and openness to change) and actual turnover. We found that PCMH, through PCMH beliefs, led to lower trust, job satisfaction and openness to change, and higher cynicism and turnover intentions. Also, PCMH beliefs predicted employee turnover over 2 years.
 
A conceptual model for the hypotheses
The moderating role of human capital level on job satisfaction
Results of HLM Analysis Testing the Mediation Mechanisms
Results of HLM Analysis for the Moderating Roles of Human Capital Level
Article
Using expectancy theory, this study investigated (1) the mediating roles of job satisfaction and organizational commitment in the relationship between group-incentive participation and turnover intention and (2) the moderating role of human capital level in these relationships. Although a few studies have found group-incentive participation to be closely related to individual employees’ attitudes, the field knows little about the mechanisms that drive this relationship and the role of human capital level in these relationships. The findings of this study provide evidence that job satisfaction and organizational commitment mediated the relationship between group-incentive participation and turnover intention. Cross-level analyses showed that these relationships were stronger in companies with more human capital than in companies with less human capital. The findings provide insight into how group incentives affect employees’ attitudes and suggest that organizations with more human capital would benefit more from introducing group incentives actively.
 
Moderating effect of functional dependence on the relationship between overall injustice climate and general political behavior.  
Regression Results. 
Moderating effect of functional dependence on the relationship between overall injustice climate and interpersonal deviance.  
Article
Recent research shows the powerful impact of counterproductive behavior in teams. This study explores how team characteristics combine to influence bad behavior in groups. It builds upon recent work in organizational justice by exploring the relationship between overall justice climate and work groups’ deviant and political behavior. Findings suggest that the structure of the work itself, in the form of functional dependence, moderates this relationship. Specifically, it is argued that the relationship between injustice climate and deviant and political behavior will be strongest when functional dependence between employees is low. Results from a sample of 539 employees and 113 supervisors in 113 work units support the hypotheses.
 
Article
This study examined two potential mediators through which leaders transmit their position power into an effectiveness outcome. Drawing upon recent work integrating trait, situational, and behavioral theories of leadership effectiveness, we hypothesized and tested a model specifying that the interactive effects of leader position power and leader political skill on follower satisfaction would be mediated by followers’ perceptions of leaders’ initiating structure and consideration behaviors. Specifically, this model indicates that leaders who are both in powerful positions and politically skilled are perceived to initiate more structure and demonstrate more consideration for their followers than their nonpolitically skilled counterparts, which, in turn, positively impacts followers’ satisfaction (i.e., an indication of subjective leadership effectiveness). Utilizing 190 leaders and 476 followers, we found support for the hypothesized model. Contributions to various literatures, strengths, limitations, and practical implications are discussed.
 
Article
This study examined the use and validity of Hersey and Blanchard's Situa tional Leadership Theory. Several predictions were made from theory: that high performing managers will be rated higher than low performers on leader effectiveness and flexibility of style, both in self-report and by subordinates and superiors, and will show greater knowledge and use of Situational Leadership; and that managers will generally rate subordinates' job performance more highly when applying the theory correctly. Subjects were 65 managers, 189 subordinates, and 56 supervisors. The results support the validity of the theory, suggesting that when it was applied correctly, the gain in subordinate job performance was both practically and statistically significant. No definite causal relationship could be established, however, because of research design constraints.
 
Article
Board committees, the most critical subgroups of corporate governance, are examined in terms of the director qualifications of type, tenure, age, internal activity, and external activity. Comparisons of subgroup members' qualifications with those of nonsubgroup members suggest that committees are generally composed of the most qualified directors. Comparisons of new members of committees with continuing and nonmembers suggest that cohesiveness and diversity pressures are balanced in the appointment of new members. The results yield insights about subgroup membership dynamics at the board level, particularly that the mandate and functions of a committee call for specific member qualifications. Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/66810/2/10.1177_1059601194193007.pdf
 
Article
The board functions at one of the interfaces between the environment and the organization and must take account of competing external and internal discourses. This article explores the institutionalizing activity manifest in the written organizational texts of board meetings of Local Health Boards in Wales. The focus of attention is how the localized discourse (1000 Lives) of an international, industry level, institution (Patient Safety), contributes to institutionalization and deinstitutionalization as recorded in the minutes of the board meetings. The conclusion is that as the boards develop and record their emerging discourse they construct and reconstruct the social reality of their organization. The organizations are composed of fragmented and competing discourses with no finality to meaning making, and continual conflict among multiple meanings looking for interpretive control, which the board [re]arranges into a seemingly coherent, unified, and meaningful discourse.
 
Multilevel Estimates for Models Predicting Affective Organizational Commitment
Multilevel Estimates for Models Predicting Dedication
Means, Standard Deviations, and Pearson Correlations
Article
Based on the perspective of the psychological contract, this study among 2,782 constabulary officers tested the hypothesis that threats of workplace violence lead to reduced job investments (i.e., affective organizational commitment and dedication). Multilevel analyses showed negative relationships between threats of workplace violence (individually experienced and as expressed in an unsafe climate) and job investments. Peer support was related to more job investments and buffered an unsafe climate, that is, the negative relationship between an unsafe climate and reduced job investments was stronger for employees with low levels of peer support. Experiencing an unsafe climate at the aggregate level by the cumulative experience of threat by employees can perhaps be thought of as facing a common enemy, and it has been shown that this has consequences for employees' attitudes that can be buffered by peer support.
 
Article
This study presents a comparison of stereotypes held by Israeli and Indian managers. Analysis of the elements constituting international managers’stereotypes shows that they are constructed as a result of direct interaction with other managers and as a product of exposure to indirect information sources. This process is highly dependent on a specific context. In addition, there are some common elements in international managers’ stereotypes that signal the existence of a common shared culture code. The study also discusses the impact of international managers’ stereotypes on the conduct of business.
 
Top-cited authors
Bruce J. Avolio
  • University of Washington Seattle
Linn NA Van Dyne
  • Michigan State University
Russell Cropanzano
  • University of Colorado Boulder
David Waldman
  • Arizona State University
Bradford S Bell
  • Cornell University