Group Dynamics Theory Research and Practice

Published by American Psychological Association
Online ISSN: 1930-7802
Print ISSN: 1089-2699
Publications
One of the most troublesome dynamics evident in the airplane cockpit is related to patterns of authority relations between the captain and the first officer: Too often, captains fail to listen and first officers fail to speak. The authors propose that many instances of superordinate and subordinate behavior in the cockpit--the captain's tendency to reject input from other team members and the first officer's hesitancy to question the captain--represent cases of status generalization. First, the authors describe the theory of status generalization and show support for the operation of the theory by presenring examples of flightcrew behavior that the theory predicts. Second, an initial empirical test was conducted to instantiate the claim that captain-first officer differences can be seen as status differences. Finally, the significance and implications of this perspective are discussed.
 
Although the importance of team training has become widely recognized, research is needed to more clearly understand what instructional strategies actually lead to enhanced teamwork and performance. This research incorporates a theoretical framework, based on the work of J.A. Cannon-Bowers, S.I. Tannenbaum, E. Salas, and C.E. Volpe (1995), to guide the systematic development of training that targeted specific team competencies (i.e., knowledge, skills, and attitudes). The theoretically designed training was delivered to 42 male aviators from an undergraduate naval aviation community. A comprehensive evaluation of this training was conducted using a multiple-measurement approach. Results provide strong support for the effectiveness of this team training in improving critical team competencies.
 
Means, Standard Deviations, and Intercorrelations for Study Variables, Study 1 ___________________________________________________________________________ 
Research on work group diversity has more or less neglected the possibility that reactions to diversity may be informed by individuals' beliefs about the value of diversity (vs. homogeneity) for their work group. We studied the role of such diversity beliefs as a moderator of the relationship between work group diversity and individuals' identification with the work group across two studies. Study 1 was a cross-sectional survey that focused on gender diversity and gender diversity beliefs. Study 2 was a laboratory experiment in which work group diversity and diversity beliefs were manipulated. Results of both studies support the prediction that work group diversity and group identification are more positively related the more individuals believe in the value of diversity
 
Intercorrelations Among Key Variables in Study 2
We explored how the process of e-mail negotiation differs from face-to-face negotiation and then tested hypotheses about how its liabilities can be minimized. In the first experiment, participants negotiated one-on-one, either face-to-face or via e-mail. Consistent with expectations, negotiators took advantage of e-mail by exchanging more complex, multiple-issue offers than they exchanged face-to-face. Yet, e-mail reduced rapport-building conversation about non-negotiable, contextual issues, and clarifying questions which prevent misunderstandings and facilitate rapport. E-mail negotiators compensated with more explicit statements about the relationship, but these were less effective in preventing mistrust and misunderstanding. In a second experiment, we tested the power of a minimal intervention designed to reduce the liabilities of e-mail. Half the negotiation dyads had a personalized telephone conversation ("schmoozed") before engaging in e-mail negotiations, and the other half did not schmooze. Even though the telephone conversation was strictly non-business, schmoozing negotiators anticipated and planned a cooperative, positive negotiation experience from the outset, and they attained better economic and social outcomes. This was primarily true among mixed-gender dyads.
 
Review of book: R. Scott Tindale et. al (Eds.) Theory and Research on Small Groups. New York: Plenum Press. 1998, 277 pp. Reviewed by Mark F. Stasson, Michael J. Markus, and Jason W. Hart. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Measures of acceptance of self and of others that represent central constructs of interpersonal theory were used to rate the within-group conduct of 868 participants near small group Hours 23 and 46. Group outcome indicators included (a) interim residual gains or losses on each acceptance scale, (b) related mean Hour 46 ratings from pooled others, (c) cumulative ratings of emotional climate, and (d) final appraisals. These variables interrelated largely as expected, although separate factors undergirded data from group leaders and members. Direct ratings of overall benefits were associated (median r = .42) with Hour 46 ratings of self- and other-accepting conduct, but only with gains in self-acceptance despite very large effect-size increments by each acceptance scale. Several outcome measures correlated negatively with the percentage of males in groups. The findings support the relevance of interpersonal theory to small-group processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
In several areas of research, most notably in industrial/organizational psychology and in addictions treatment research, there have been calls for advances in modeling the impact of turnover in membership within dynamic small N groups. The present study examines the utility of latent class growth analysis (LGCA; in combination with other approaches) in modeling turnover in group membership within a dynamic work group from popular culture: the National Basketball Association’s (NBA) New York Knickerbockers (Knicks) of the 1960s and 1970s. Changes over time in the proportions of 5 longitudinal player efficiency classes accounted for variability in regular season wins, number of NBA All-Star Game appearances and the proportion of (eventual) basketball Hall-of-Fame members across a 20-year span. Using LCGA, there was a clear match between the empirical model and the “historical reality” with respect to identifying the players that were responsible for the success of the Knicks, particularly in the early 1970s. This study provides a practical example of how LCGA may be used to capture the impact of turnover in group membership on group-level outcomes across multiple areas in which groups with dynamic membership are studied. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
This article responds to J. E. McGrath's (1997) integrative review of the small group literature and subsequent recommendations including the application of dynamical systems theory in group research. Parallels to the patterns and themes found in social psychology research are described from the therapeutic literature. Theoretical and methodological advantages of dynamical systems theory are noted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Latent semantic analysis (Landauer & Dumais, see record 1997-03612-001) was used to derive pairwise similarity ratings based on the content of the abstracts from 97 articles published in Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice from 1997 to 2002 under the journal's first editor. The resulting similarity matrix was then analyzed with cluster analysis to empirically identify the content themes of these published articles. The cluster analysis identified six content themes in the articles. The six content themes, in order of frequency, were (1) Cohesion and Group Identification, (2) Attributions and Perceptions in Groups, (3) Leadership and Performance in Groups, (4) Power and Relationships among Group Members, (5) Knowledge and Cognitive Process in Groups, and (6) Group Psychotherapy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
P. Moxnes's (see record 1999-13879-001) model of deep roles is contrasted with alternative taxonomies of roles, including ones developed by F. Redl (1942), R. F. Bales (e.g., T. Parsons, R. F. Bales, & E. A. Shils, 1953), G. Polti (1977), and A. P. Hare (see record 1994-98134-000 and 1995-05269-001). Moxnes's analysis has implications for the development of roles in groups over time, but questions can be raised about the emphasis on individual roles (rather than their combination) and the automaticity of evaluation. As a new perspective on roles, Moxnes's work provides an opportunity to reassess past work to see how much variance has been left unaccounted for by studies of roles. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
This comment reviews the implications that T. Y. Craig and J. R. Kelly's (see record 1999-01744-001) study of creativity in groups has for groups in organizational settings. The methodological and conceptual differences between traditional laboratory studies of creativity in groups and studies of creativity in applied settings are reviewed, along with recent findings generated by management researchers studying creativity in organizations. Suggestions for future research on creativity in real-world settings are offered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
M. P. Sullivan and R. R. Reno (1999) (see record 1999-03790-003) provided evidence that group members can accurately assess the task-related performance of other group members, thus contributing to the small number of studies linking interpersonal perceptions to objective criteria. This evidence, along with Sullivan and Reno's finding that consensus does not exist for liking (i.e., liking is more a function of the relationship between target and perceiver rather than anything specific to either), may have important implications for theorists and clinicians alike. Unfortunately, Sullivan and Reno may have confounded the appropriate levels of analysis used to frame their questions and justify their conclusions. This comment explores the level-of-analysis issue and considers some group therapy implications of lack of consensus for likability. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
This article is in response to J. J. Dose's (see record 1999-08068-003) article examining the role of values similarity in group composition. The themes of leader–member and team–member exchange, group composition, values similarity, and leader–member differences serve as the focus. Specifically, the authors suggest how themes from the organizational and group therapy literatures can serve to enrich theory and research in each domain. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Analyses of effort problems in groups, like that of P. Huguet, E. Charbonnier, and J.-M. Monteil (see record 1999-13879-004), have implications for how tasks are designed for work teams, how outcomes are distributed, and the complex interrelations between personality characteristics of team members and their response to the work situation. Whereas group members working on uninvolving tasks tend to loaf, when task interdependence is high and the goals are meaningful individuals in groups often expend more rather than less effort. Moreover, whereas the group's outcomes are sometimes determined by the qualities of the individuals in the groups, in other cases the experience of working collectively changes individuals (e.g., individuals who prefer to work alone change to prefer working in groups after experiencing the benefits of working collectively). In consequence, findings about individual differences are often the hardest to apply when making decisions about work group design and composition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
The appropriateness of P. R. Kilmann et al.'s (see record 1999-13879-006) treatment intervention is reviewed in light of attachment theory. As is widely known, J. Bowlby wrote extensively about childhood antecedents of later psychopathology. Not so widely known are Bowlby's insights regarding an attachment–theoretical understanding of therapy and therapeutic change. Bowlby's therapeutic perspective is described, beginning with the notion of the "secure base" and its special relevance for therapy, followed by a discussion of general and specific goals for successful therapy. Kilmann et al.'s treatment is then analyzed with respect to Bowlby's ideas, with suggestions for future research on attachment-focused intervention with individuals experiencing relationship difficulties. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
The most instructive aspect of the article by D. M. Paskevich, L. R. Brawley, K. D. Dorsch, and W. N. Widmeyer (1999) (see record 1999-03790-005) is not what it tells us about collective efficacy but what it tells us about the process by which psychological concepts are socially constructed. Collective efficacy is not an entity whose true nature remains undiscovered. It is an abstraction whose definition remains socially unconstructed. Recognition of this fact is the first step toward understanding collective efficacy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Prevention programs and interventions to reduce aggression in children can be evaluated in terms of costs of treatment versus long-term economic and social benefits. The group psychotherapy approach by Z. Shechtman and M. Ben-David (see record 1999-01744-003) is quite brief and seems to demonstrate short-term reductions in aggressive behavior. If effective, this approach could be cost-beneficial. But its enduring efficacy is unclear, and the potential iatrogenic effects of placing aggressive children with other aggressive children make this approach risky. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
This article comments on J. E. Cameron's (1999) (see record 1999-03790-001) empirical examination of the relationship between aspects of social identity, the notion of possible selves, and the psychological adjustment of college students. The theoretical implications of Cameron's study, the application of the findings to real-world phenomena, and recommendations for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
M. A. Clark, V. Anand, and L. Roberson's (see record 2000-12222-001) article is a welcome addition to the growing literature on the nature, dynamics, and effects of diversity on small groups. Their model linking diversity with communicative practices and subsequent group and member outcomes provides an important conceptual framework that can help to synthesize existing research and suggest directions for future research. This article notes the contributions and limitations of the proposed model. Concerns are raised about what constitutes diversity, how best to conceptualize communicative behavior in groups, and methodological practices appropriate for studying diverse groups. Alternative conceptual lens and methodological procedures are offered for diversifying the study of diversity and communication in groups to ensure that the process mirrors the desired outcome. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
This article discusses specific areas of cohesion research and expands the focus by examining other research on the beneficial components of therapeutic group processes. Exploring the P. C. Terry et al (see record 2000-12222-004) article and other outcome-based studies in the field provides direction for future research on group cohesion and other therapeutic factors. Similarly, the excellent piece of measurement development by P. A. Estabrooks and A. V. Carron (see record 2000-12222-003) generates discussion of issues in relation to other group measurement research. Cautions about producing research with limited generalizability are discussed in the context of unifying a broad spectrum of group investigations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Field research like that of A. L. Turner (see record 2000-03669-001) has the potential to develop theory about coping and treatment processes. We discuss theoretical concepts from social support research, social comparison theory, and emotional processing models, which can help to understand what is happening in group-based interventions and to plan interventions that address the interface between socially supportive processes and individual differences in anxiety reactions. We discuss methodological approaches that can be used to assess how treatment effects are mediated and suggest settings where controlled evaluations are possible. Such research can enrich theory about group processes and build the effectiveness of group-based interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Group-as-a-whole theory is an applied branch of group dynamics research and theory. It evolved in the heart of a century punctuated by 2 world wars. These wars and the sociopolitical climate that fostered them provided historical context and clinical impetus for group-centered approaches to psychotherapy. The contributions of Wilfred Bion, S. H. Foulkes, and Kurt Lewin are recalled in light of the historical context in which their work evolved and the currently active and vital body of theory and practice that may be traced to their efforts. Two fundamental themes are emphasized: (a) the perennial tension between individual and collective needs and (b) the equally ubiquitous tension between authoritarian and democratic patterns of group life. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
This article provides a context for this special journal issue devoted to the topic of evidence-based prevention groups. To begin, a history of the field of prevention is presented. Second, the authors highlight how prevention groups have evolved as part of the broader history of prevention. Finally, the authors discuss the implications of the history of prevention and prevention groups for future research and practice in the field of group work. The overall goal of this article is to provide a base of knowledge that practitioners and researchers may utilize to expand and advance the field of prevention group practice and research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
The present study sought to examine the efficacy of an abbreviated version of the Bully Busters program, a psychoeducationally based group intervention and prevention program designed to increase teacher's knowledge and use of bullying intervention skills, as well as teacher self-efficacy in intervening with bullying so as to subsequently effect change in the school climate. Teacher-participants attended seven group sessions designed to provide them with exposure to the didactics of the model, as well as to engage them in active learning, role-playing, and cognitive and emotional processing of their experiences of the impact of bullying behaviors on their teaching efficacy as well as the school climate. Materials and experiences from these groups were then taken to the classroom and implemented with the student-participants vis-à-vis classroom exercises. The findings suggest that an abbreviated group-based version of the Bully Busters program can have positive effect on teacher reports of efficacy in intervening with bullying behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Little is known about the actual practices of group leaders of childhood sexual abuse groups. A survey of 60 group leaders of CSA groups for children, adolescents, and adults found that most are adhering to ethical and training guidelines. The groups range from psychoeducational and support to counseling and therapy groups. Many of the groups are co-led, especially children and adolescent groups. The article discusses the screening, group structure, and interventions that leaders are using and suggests multiple areas for further research, as well as tips for practitioners. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
A model that can account for influence outcomes beyond the compliance–acceptance dichotomy and that illuminates important conceptual ties between individual and group influence is proposed and tested. In a problem-solving setting, participants who were able to systematically process information complied with implausible majority responses and accepted plausible majority responses. Acceptance generalized to related items and persisted over time. Participants who were unable to systematically process information accepted majority responses, although acceptance neither generalized to related items nor exhibited other characteristics of effortful processing, The latter form of acceptance emerged regardless of norm plausibility, revealing an unanticipated influence outcome, blind acceptance. Discussion centers on implications toward an integrated model of individual–group influence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Although evolutionary perspectives such as the inclusive fitness theory (Hamilton, 1964) have made unique contributions to explaining human altruism, their implications for interpersonal and intergroup aggression have remained largely overlooked. It is advanced that many of the same kin-based psychological mechanisms that promote altruism and prosocial behavior can be used in a similar fashion to promote or deter aggression and antisocial behavior. On the basis of a conceptual framework that incorporates evolutionary and social psychological constructs, a kinship, acceptance, and rejection model of altruism and aggression (KARMAA) is proposed. The KARMAA bridges the conceptual gap between human altruism and aggression, unites altruism and aggression under the common rubric of evolutionary psychology, and incorporates two key proximal constructs--social acceptance and rejection--that mediate the direct links between kinship cues and altruism, and between kinship insults and aggression, respectively. A critical review of the extant empirical literature supports the proposed links that comprise the KARMAA. The limitations of the KARMAA, as well as its broader implications for researching interpersonal and intergroup aggression, are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
There is a growing body of theory and initial research into the application of group interventions with survivors of trauma, whether natural disaster, accidental, or man-made. This article reviews current thought and practice as well as recent studies of group interventions with trauma survivors. A case study involving a fatal bus accident during an international studies program is presented, along with observational outcomes and a discussion of future research directions for this unique and critical form of group work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Previous research has demonstrated that groups are more likely to discuss information shared by all group members than unshared information (G. M. Wittenbaum & G. Stasser, 1996). In the present study, it was hypothesized that groups may be less likely to overlook unshared information when they are held accountable to an audience outside the group for their decisions. University students read a murder mystery and then met in 3-person groups to select who they thought was most likely to have committed the crime. Contrary to hypotheses, the results showed that accountable groups were less likely to focus on unshared information than groups who were not held accountable because of an increased focus on irrelevant details by accountable groups. Implications for future research are considered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
This study examined patient, therapist, and group variability accounting for alliance and cohesion over three stages in a sample of 145 patients attending short- and long-term psychodynamic group therapy. G-study variance components were estimated for the 14 sources of variation identifiable by the research design. Results indicated that patient variability represented the strongest clinically relevant contribution to both alliance and cohesion. Therapists were important for alliance at all stages, but for cohesion only in the middle stage. The therapist × group interaction was important to the alliance in early therapy and for cohesion within the two first stages, but this contribution then decreased. Group length did not account for any variability in the process measures. Theoretical implications were discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Performance by Cue Condition for Study 1
Social Decision Model Tests for Study 2 Model test D max
Estimation tasks typically fall between the extremes of the intellective-judgmental task continuum. To the extent that these tasks are intellective, models predicting intragroup influence on the basis of the accuracy of proposed alternatives should provide better fit (analogous to the "truth wins" social decision scheme). To the extent that these tasks are judgmental, models predicting influence on the basis of the centrality (i.e., intragroup "averageness") of alternatives should provide better fit. Thus 2 competing hypotheses are plausible. Findings from 2 studies indicate support for the latter hypothesis. For both studies, both a median-based model and an exponentially weighted centrality model adequately fit the obtained group judgments. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Regression Analyses of the Relationships Between Team Composition and Team Cognition
Regression Analyses of the Relationships Between Team Cognition and Team Effectiveness
This study examined the relationships between team cognitive ability and personality composition in relation to the similarity (MM-similarity) and accuracy (MM-accuracy) of team task-focused mental models. The relationships between MM-accuracy and MM-similarity with multiple indicators of team effectiveness were also examined. Sixty-seven three-person teams performed a simulated search and capture task. Results indicate that the team mean-level of cognitive ability was positively related to both MM-accuracy and MM-similarity, and the team mean-level of team agreeableness was positively related to MM-similarity. In turn, MM-accuracy was positively related to perceived coordination processes and goal accomplishment, but not team viability. In contrast, MM-similarity was positively related to team viability, but not goal accomplishment or perceived coordination processes. Implications of the findings for understanding factors that facilitate the emergence of task-focused mental models in teams with a limited life span or during the early stages of team development are discussed, along with the implications of team mental models for team success. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Correlations Among Study Variables 
This study investigated the impact of computer-mediated communication on teamwork by examining 40 4-person teams working in either face-to-face or computer conferencing environments. Results were consistent with the belief that computer-mediated teams have trouble maintaining mutual knowledge. Compared with their face-to-face counterparts, computer-mediated teams viewed their discussions as more confusing and less satisfying, spent more time devising decisions, and felt less content with their outcomes. Discussion time mediated the relationship between the communication medium and outcome satisfaction. Confusion and outcome dissatisfaction predicted inaccuracies when members independently recorded team decisions; accordingly, the electronic communication medium reduced decision recording accuracy. By clarifying several shortcomings associated with computer conferencing, these results can be used to inform choices when selecting and developing effective team communication media. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
This study bridges a gap between traditional group perception research and person perception research by relating group members' perceptions of others to their perceptions of the group's functioning. Ratings of ability, responsibility for a group task, and liking of others were gathered from college students completing group assignments. Group members were able to accurately perceive other group members along task relevant ratings. A social relations model analysis further revealed that individuals' liking of specific others did not impact the accuracy of their judgments of others' abilities or of the group's functioning as a whole. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
A structured group intervention, Student Success Skills (SSS), targeting academic and social outcomes, involving over 1,100 students in grades 5, 6, 8, and 9 is described. The goal of the project was to evaluate a combination guidance/psychoeducational and counseling/interpersonal problem-solving group model using rigorous research methods. Results from a series of four studies that consistently demonstrate the effectiveness of the SSS intervention are presented along with a sample large group lesson and sample small group session. A discussion of effective group work practices supporting effective implementation of the SSS intervention and other structured group interventions follows. The article concludes with tips for helping professionals in schools who want to show they make a difference in academic and social outcomes for students. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Substantive participation during small group discussion is based on the distribution of information resources within groups. However, those with an information advantage may choose not to contribute to the discussion for a variety of reasons. The authors hypothesized that interpersonal control (defined as the ability, desire, and skill to influence what is talked about and by whom during discussion) moderates the relation between information and participation. One's perceived interpersonal control, however, is relative to that of his or her colleagues; the amount of control one exerts is related to that exerted by others. Participants, in groups of four, collaborated on a psychological profile task. Results indicate a complex relation among information quantity, interpersonal control, and partners' interpersonal control. Discussion addresses participation in competitive and collaborative group contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
The relationship between a group member's and other group members' perceptions of therapeutic factors and session evaluation were examined using Kenny, Mannetti, Pierro, Livi, and Kashy's (2002) model. In addition, I examined the relative variance in therapeutic factors as a function of sessions, group members, and groups. Thirty-six growth-group participants participating in six 28-session growth groups filled out critical incident (CI) forms and session evaluations. CIs were rated on 10 therapeutic factors dimensions derived from Bloch, Reibstein, Crouch, Holroyd, and Themen (1979). On average, 95% of the variance in the therapeutic factors was at the session level, 4% of the variance was at the person level, and 1% of the variance was at the group level. Contrary to the hypotheses, individual's perception of therapeutic factors was not significantly related to session depth or smoothness. Contrary to the hypothesis, other group members' perceptions of therapeutic factors were not significantly related to session depth, although there was a trend (p = .06). As hypothesized, other group members' perceptions of therapeutic factors were significantly related to session smoothness. The findings support Yalom and Leszcz's (2005) contention that the group leaders' primary function is to create a therapeutically effective group culture and not to focus on individual group member change. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
The interactive effects of MM-quality and MM-similarity in relation to team adaptation-structural networks metric.
Multi-Facet, Multi-Method Matrix of Shared Mental Model Metrics
This paper empirically examines the convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity of three team mental model measurement approaches. Specifically, this study measures the similarity (MM-similarity) and quality (MM-quality) facets of team strategy-focused mental models using structural networks, priority rankings, and importance ratings. The convergent and divergent relationships among the three mental model metrics are then examined via a multi-facet multi-method matrix. Finally, the relative utility of each metric for understanding the relationships between team mental models, team adaptability, and decision effectiveness are compared. The study was conducted in a laboratory setting, modeling 56 four-person decision-making teams. Results indicate little convergent and extensive discriminant validity across the three mental model metrics. In addition, only mental models measured using the structural networks metric were found to have predictive validity in relation to team adaptation and performance. The quality and similarity of team structural networks were found to have interactive effects in relation to adaptation such that mental model quality was most strongly related to adaptation for teams with low mental model similarity and unrelated to adaptation for teams with high similarity. In turn, adaptation was critical for team decision effectiveness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Some Hypothesized Domains and Associated Cues of Exploitability Domain Hypothesized cues to exploitability
Human groups contain reproductively relevant resources that differ greatly in their ease of accessibility. The authors advance a conceptual framework for the study of 2 classes of adaptations that have been virtually unexplored: (a) adaptations for exploitation designed to expropriate the resources of others through deception, manipulation, coercion, intimidation, terrorization, and force and (b) antiexploitation adaptations that evolved to prevent one from becoming a victim of exploitation. As soon as adaptations for exploitation evolved, they would immediately select for coevolved antiexploitation defenses--adaptations in target individuals, their kin, and their social allies designed to prevent their becoming a victim of exploitation. Antiexploitation defenses, in turn, created satellite adaptive problems for those pursuing a strategy of exploitation. Selection would favor the evolution of anticipatory and in situ solutions designed to circumvent the victim's defenses and minimize the costs of pursuing an exploitative strategy. Adaptations for exploitation have design features sensitive to the group dynamics in which they are deployed, including status hierarchies, social reputation, and the preferential selection of out-group victims. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
In this paper, we present an evolutionary framework, multilevel selection theory (MLS), that is highly amenable to existing social psychological theory and empiricism. MLS provides an interpretation of natural selection that shows how group-beneficial traits can evolve, a prevalent implication of social psychological data. We outline the theory and provide a number of example topics, focusing on prosociality, policing behavior, gossip, brainstorming, distributed cognition, and social identity. We also show that individual differences can produce important group-level outcomes depending on differential aggregation of individual types and relate this to the evolutionary dynamics underlying group traits. Drawing on existing work, we show how social psychologists can integrate this framework into their research program and suggest future directions for research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Results from previous research have revealed a positive relationship between team building (TB) and several measures of adherence in adult exercise settings (Carron & Spink, 1993; Spink & Carron, 1993). However, research has yet to examine the efficacy of using a TB intervention to impact the exercise adherence of youth. The main purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a TB intervention on specific adherence behaviors of youth in an exercise club setting. A second purpose was to investigate the effects of TB on participant's satisfaction with the group's functioning (group task satisfaction). Participants were 122 youth (13–17 years) participating in 10 rural, school-based exercise clubs. Clubs were randomized into five TB (n=65) and five control groups (n=57). Results revealed that following the introduction of the intervention, the two groups differed significantly on the adherence measure of session attendance but not on dropout behavior. Further, significant differences were found between the groups in group task satisfaction. The study findings extend previous TB research to a youth population and support TB as an effective group-based intervention to improve session attendance and group task satisfaction in an exercise setting in this population. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
This study examined the relationship between groupness and self-reported exercise adherence. Exercise participants (N = 86) recalled a structured setting where they had been active with others during the last six months. To capture groupness, five group variables (i.e., common fate, mutual benefit, social structure, group processes, and self-categorization) were assessed. Indicators of self-reported adherence were participant's recall of frequency (times/month) and percent attendance in a specified structured exercise setting. Results from structural equation modeling revealed an acceptable fit: χ² = 18.89, p > .05, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) = 0.075, Comparative Fit Index (CFI) = 0.95 for the hypothesized model. Groupness was positively related to self-reported adherence explaining 20% of the variance in adherence. These findings provide preliminary support for the idea that perceiving a collection of exercise participants as being more like a group may be associated with adherence in a structured exercise setting. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Group treatment data are nested by design, that is, clients nested in groups. Dependence associated with the nesting of group intervention data can inflate Type I error rates, which poses unique challenges to group treatment researchers. This article evaluates the extent and variability of dependence in data taken from 3 previously published randomized clinical trials of group psychotherapy. Three methods of assessing dependence by calculating intraclass correlation coefficients (ρ) were examined. Results showed great variability in ρs across studies, across methods of calculating ρ, and across outcome variables. The distribution of ρs suggested that the amount of dependence in the data was moderate. Two methods of addressing dependence in grouped treatment data through multilevel modeling were used. These methods resulted in minimally compromised statistical power compared with results from uncorrected data. These 2 methods may allow researchers to reliably assess their group treatments. Group intervention researchers are encouraged to consider their assumptions and conceptualizations of treatment change, and to choose corresponding methods of assessing for and addressing ρ. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Regression Equation Predicting College Adjustment Using Personal and Group Attachment as Predictor Variables Standardized B t R 2 Adjusted R 2 Change R 2 F Change
The current study applied Smith, Murphy, and Coates' (1999) group attachment measure to college adjustment using 109 college students. Prior researchers have found that adult dyadic attachment styles predicted college adjustment. This article is the first to explore the relationship between both group and dyadic attachment styles and college adjustment as measured by the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that personal attachment anxiety, not avoidance, accounted for the most variance in college adjustment. Group attachment avoidance also accounted for a significant amount of variance, above and beyond dyadic attachment styles, in the prediction of college adjustment. This study supports the importance of exploring both dyadic and group attachment styles in studying overall adjustment to the transition to college life. Implications of the findings for research and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Two experiments investigated whether groups use reputational information to recruit new members. The authors manipulated the candidate's reported self-sacrifices to enter the group and the source of this information. The authors found that third party information was more influential in group admission decisions than information from the candidates themselves, suggesting the power of reputations. Furthermore, group admission rates were also influenced by opportunities to socialize new group members. These results are discussed in light of their contribution to research on reputations and group dynamics. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Results of a preliminary effectiveness evaluation of a school-based postwar program for war-exposed Bosnian adolescents are described. The evaluation centered on a manualized trauma/grief-focused group psychotherapy protocol for war-traumatized adolescents based on 5 therapeutic foci: traumatic experiences, trauma and loss reminders, postwar adversities, bereavement and the interplay of trauma and grief, and developmental impact. Fifty-five secondary school students (81% girls; age range = 15–19 years, M = 16.81) from 10 Bosnian schools participated in the evaluation. Students completed pregroup and postgroup self-report measures of posttraumatic stress, depression, and grief symptoms and postgroup measures of psychosocial adaptation and group satisfaction. The evaluation yielded preliminary but promising results, including reduced psychological distress and positive associations between distress reduction and psychosocial adaptation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Primary prevention has increasingly become a focus of the child and adolescent research literature over the past 25 years. Groups are a natural milieu within which to work with children and adolescents. The current research reviews the literature on child and adolescent prevention-oriented group interventions for the decade 1990-2000 to follow up the work of previous reviews in this area, identify current trends, and suggest future directions for the literature. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
The current study examined the relationship between 63 intake clients’ and 28 college student’s attachment styles and their attitudes of group psychotherapy. The authors examined the relationship between attachment anxiety and avoidance and the subscales of the Group Therapy Survey-R (Carter, Mitchell, & Krautheim, 2001). Results revealed a significant relationship between attachment avoidance in adult romantic relationships and increased fears of being vulnerable in group psychotherapy. As hypothesized, avoidance in romantic relationships was related to fears of shame and humiliation in group therapy. Contrary to predictions, clients’ anxiety ratings were negatively related to negative myths of group psychotherapy. The greater the clients rated fears of being rejected and abandoned, the less they rated negative myths about group treatment. Neither attachment anxiety nor avoidance was related to ratings of group therapy efficacy. Implications of the findings for future research and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
This review examined the effectiveness of group psychotherapy for older (55+) adults. Results from 44 studies with pre-post designs and 27 controlled studies indicated that group psychotherapy benefits older adults, with average rs of .42 and .24 for pre-post and controlled designs, respectively. The type of therapy provided and the age of the clients were associated with pretreatment to posttreatment improvement. Clients in cognitive-behavioral group therapy improved more than those receiving reminiscence therapy. The older the average age of the group members, the less they benefited from therapy. Number of sessions attended, length of therapy sessions, the percentage of women in the group, and client living situation were not significant moderators of outcome. Overall, group interventions for older adults appear to be effective and the average effect size for pre-post studies was quite similar to those yielded by meta-analyses of group therapy with younger adults and adolescents. However, the average effect size for controlled studies of group therapy with older adults appears to be somewhat smaller than the values reported in meta-analyses with younger clients. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
On September 8, 1994, USAir Flight 427 from Chicago crashed on its descent to the Pittsburgh International Airport. All 132 passengers and crew were killed. This crash was unique in that more than 80% of the victims were residents of the greater Pittsburgh area. In this regard, the need for professional intervention became vital. Group intervention allowed the professionals to promptly serve a large number of affected families. It was hypothesized that the group experience would lead to bonding and support that would persist beyond the time limits of the group. A group-based intervention program for adult and child survivors is described, including its administrative structure, therapeutic objectives and interventions, and group process. A direct outcome of this group was the establishment of The USAir Flight 427 Disaster Support League and, subsequently, the development of the National Air Disaster Alliance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Top-cited authors
Brian Nosek
  • University of Virginia
Anthony Greenwald
  • University of Washington Seattle
Mahzarin Banaji
  • Harvard University
Anat Drach-Zahavy
  • University of Haifa
James E Driskell
  • Rollins College