Global Veterinaria

Publications
The effect of nutritional 17β-estradiol was explored on growth and survival of green tiger barb (Puntius tetrazona). Initial fish weight was 0.38+0.01 g. They were proposed to control diet (without17β-estradiol) and control det supplemented with 50, 25 and 10 mgkg 17β-estradiol. Rearing period was 60 days. Fish were fed based on 5% of total biomass at the early and 3% at the late rearing period. Results illustrated that there was no significant difference in growth performance and survival rate between dfferent treatments (P>0.05). Growth performance and survival% were lower and FCR is hgher in treatment that received 50 mgkg 17β-estradiol than other treatments but these differences were not significant.
 
Posthodiplostomum cuticola metacercariae infection has reported for the first time from monkey goby in the Zarringol Stream. In this study, 30 specimens were examined, at summer 2008. Range of frequency of P. cuticola was 7-218 per host. The dorsal and pectoral fins had the highest significant number of cysts metacercariae than other organs (p<0.05). The significant differences between the fish age and the average of parasites was also recorded. As the age increases, intensity and abundance of parasitic infection also increased (p<0.05). It seems, increasing of the infection in elder of individuals is due to larger size of the fish body surface area and long duration of parasite exposure.
 
The present study was aimed to investigate the acute toxicity of Chlorpyriphos 50% +Cypermethrin 5% EC to the juveniles, males, females and mixed population of a freshwater fish, Poecilia reticulata (Peters). The experimental water of hardness 560±5 mg/l and pH 7.4±0.3 were used in bioassay tests. The LC50 values and the 95 percent confidence limits were calculated statistically at different concentrations and time intervals (24, 48, 72 and 96 hrs) to juveniles, males, females and mixed population of Poecilia reticulata by Probit analysis method. Behavioural changes in the studied fish were also observed carefully after subjected to the various concentrations of this pesticide. The order of sensitivity of selected pesticide to different specimens of Poecilia reticulata was recorded as: females < mixed population <males< juveniles. The presumable safe or harmless concentration and safe dischargeable concentrations of Chlorpyriphos 50% + Cypermethrin 5% EC were ranged in between 4.381to 32.216 and 1.044 to1.069 ppb respectively.
 
Current study has been focused on concentration of two heavy metals, Lead (Pb) and Cadmium (Cd), in the liver and muscle tissues of the Caspian Kutum, Rutilus frisii Kutum. This subspecies has been collected randomly between Mahmoud Abad and Sari in the Caspian Sea Basin. Heavy metals studied at this research are hazardous substances in the environment. Fork length, weight and length-weight relationship of samples were measured. The length and weight of Kutum ranged from 25 to 48.1 cm and 336 to 1146 g respectively. The highest level of bioaccumulation obtained for Pb in liver tissue (0.809 μg/g) from Fereidounkenar and the lowest level obtained for Cd in muscle tissue (0.038 μg/g) belongs to Koliver station. Results of linear regression analysis showed that, there were significant relationships between the Cd contents in both liver and muscle tissues and the fish size. Comparison of heavy metal contents in both liver and muscle tissues showed that the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in liver tissue is higher than muscle. Comparisons showed that the range of Cd and Pb content in fish body is below of the international limited amounts given for these hazardous substances.
 
Pigeons are cosmopolitan birds and can be found easily in every area except poles. Several species of parasites infect pigeons throughout their global range. Among these are order Haemosporida, including Haemoproteus columbae, which louse fly (Pseudolynchia canariensis) is a vector for them. 120 pigeons were investigated in three different locations (Babol, lahijan and Firouz Koh) in Iran. Blood smears were stained with geimsa and examined under microscope using immersion oil. The prevalence rate was 30% (36/120) and in 3 of the 120 pigeons vectors were seen. There is not enough information about prevalence of avian blood parasites in the three areas. Hence, more surveys seem to be necessary for increasing knowledge about epidemiology of these parasites.
 
To study the biological characteristics and physical appearance, morph metric and electrophoric records and the genetic characteristics of Liza aurauts, polymorphism, transferrin, hemoglobin, total number of proteins and the analysis of electrophoresis are performed in Tonekabon and Larim regions across the coastlines of Mazandaran Sea (Globally know as Caspian Sea) in 2013. Based on the random sampling of 200 Liza auratus obtained by fishing in these regions (Tonekabon and Larim) and after the observation of the species in the transferrin of Liza auatus in these areas, polymorphism transferrin emerged in the forms of 1 or 2 bands by the number of Co dominants. There have been significant differences in the population of fish in both areas (Tonekabon and Larim) and there have been high significant differences observed for Liza auratus in Tonekabon than in Larim. Genotypes of the study were AA. AB. BB. AC. CC. BC. and all of the meristic and morph metric factors of the fish in Tonekabon represented larger quantities than those in Larim. In comparison with the samples obtained in Larim, genotype BB has been more frequent in Tonekabon. With regard to these studies, there have been more coefficients of variance for countable factors influenced by genetic factors such as the number of fin rays and the number of up and down scale on the lateral lines of the fish in Tonekabon than those in Larim. In addition, there have been more morph metric factors like the length of head, standard length and the height of body in the fish caught in Tonekabon than those caught in Larim.
 
One of the best methods of fish genetics is to study the polymorphism and cytology. Correspondingly, the recognition of genotypes and analysis of electrophoresis of Liza saliens (An economical important bony fish) and also polymorphism of this fish in different parts of Caspian Sea can preserve and expand the stock of this creature. The aim of this survey was to evaluate of genotypes, electrophoresis, polymorphism, Transferrin, hemoglobin and total protein of Liza saliens in Sari and Bandar Gaz regions across the coastlines of Mazandaran Sea (Globally know as Caspian Sea) in 2013. Based on the random sampling of 100 Liza saliens obtained by fishing in these regions (Sari and Bandar Gaz) and after the observation of the species in the transferrin of Liza saliens in these areas, polymorphism transferrin emerged in the forms of 1 or 2 band by the number of Codominants. There have been significant differences in the population of fish in both studied areas and there have been more significant differences observed for Liza Salinse in Sari than in Bandar Gaz. Genotypes of the study were AA. AB. BB. AC. CC. BC. and all of the meristic and morphometric factors of the fish in Sari represented larger quantities than those in Bandar Gaz. In comparison with the samples obtained in Bandar Gaz, genotype BB has been more frequent in Sari. With regard to these studies, there have been more coefficients of variance for countable factors influenced by genetic factors such as the number of fin rays and the number of up and down scale on the lateral lines of the fish in Sari than those in Bandar Gaz. Also, there have been more morphometric factors like the length of head, standard length and the height of body in the fish caught in Sari than those caught in Bandar Gaz.
 
The objective of this research was to study the effect of dietary L-carnitine supplementation on performance in Japanese quail from 21 to 42 day of age. One hundred ninety-two Japanese quail were fed the same basal diet that was supplementation with 0 (control), 160, 240 and 320 mg L-carnitine/kg of diet. The experimental design was a completely randomized design. Live weight and feed intake were measured for each experimental unit at 21 and 42 days of age and then weight gain and feed conversion ratio was calculated. The results of the study indicate that, The Effect of dietary L-carnitine supplementation at 240 and 320 mg L-carnitine/kg of diet had significantly higher weight gain and feed conversion ratio compared to control group. Data suggest dietary L-carnitine supplementation can be increase weight and improved the performances of Japanese quail from 21 to 42 day of age.
 
The study was conducted on Vigova Super M ducks reared for meat. The body weight of the birds was assessed using their breast angle. Breast angle at 21 days was used to predict the body weight at 21,28, 35,42,49 and 56 days. Similarly breast angles at 28, 35, 42, 49 and 56 days were used for prediction of body weight. The data was analyzed using linear, logarithmic, exponential, inverse, power, quadratic, logistic, compound, growth and sigmoid curve fit analysis. The results indicated that the growth of the ducks is different at different phases of life. Quadratic regression analysis has a better prediction (R2) value than the others at most of the times.
 
Thyroid hormones specifically T 3, improves lipid and energy homeostasis along with significant effects on cardiac contractility through thyroid hormone receptor (TR) agonism. Such effects are amplified under hypothyroid animal models and have been routinely studied. To investigate similar effects in euthyroid rats, the present study was carried out using commercially available 3, 5, 3'-triiodothyronine (T 3) at the dose of 0.065, 0.26 and 0.39 mg/kg/day for 7 consecutive days. Clinical signs observed were hyperthermia, hyperesthesia, lethargy and increased salivation from 0.26mg/kg dose. Blood examination revealed marginally lower platelet count along with significant alterations in the levels of thyroxine, lipid profile, total protein, urea, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, calcium and phosphorus. Histopathological changes were observed in heart, liver, kidney, thymus and thyroid tissues. Heart revealed multifocal myocardial degeneration with incidences of inflammatory cell infiltration from 0.26mg/kg dose. Quantitative estimation by the ratio of myosin heavy chain (MHC) α and β gene transcripts shown marked up-regulation in the cardiac tissues from the lowest dose of T 3. Altogether, molecular expression of myosin genes and histopathological changes in heart tissue including biochemical and hematological alteration can be used as a robust tool in assessing the cardiac risk factor of a compound targeting thyroid receptor during drug development.
 
Some haematological parameters (Differential WBC counts, total white blood cell count (WBC) and packed cell volume (PCV) percentages) and biochemical values (total protein, alkaline phosphatase, alkaline transferase, calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, glucose, triglyceride and cholesterol) of adult indigenous chickens compared with adult industrial broiler breeders (Ross 308). Differences among hematological parameter of Ross-308 and indigenous cocks and Ross-308 and indigenous hens were not significant except for PCV% of Ross-308 (32.60 ± 2.32) and indigenous hens (35.50 ± 2.22) (P<0.016). Comparison of biochemical parameters, showed significant differences only for cholesterol and glucose values between indigenous and Ross-308 hens. Glucose values in Ross-308 hens was higher than indigenous hens (274.50 ± 33.22 mg/dl and 245.60 ± 28.11 mg/dl, respectively) (P<0.026). In addition, cholesterol values in Ross-308 hens was higher than indigenous hens (181.50 ± 33.22 mg/dl and 152.60 ± 28.11 mg/dl, respectively) (P<0.026). No significant differences were observed between biochemical parameters values of Ross-308 and indigenous cocks.
 
Proteolytic bacteria were isolated from dairy sludge with the help of Skim milk agar plates. The isolate showing maximum activity was selected (MPTK 712) and characterized based on Bergey's manual. Upon 16S rDNA analysis, it displayed maximum similarity with Bacillus spp. and the sequence has been deposited in Genbank. For the production of alkaline protease, the strain MPTK 712 was grown on modified production medium containing dairy sludge as substrate. Different cultural parameters were optimized for maximal enzyme production. Peak proteolytic activity was observed at pH-9.0 and temperature at 55°C with 2% inoculums. Cetrimide exhibited the highest inhibitory activity followed by Tween-80, SDS and Tween-20. Alkaline protease was purified to homogeneity by Q-Sepharose revealing a molecular weight of 24 kDa. The enzyme was active and more stable at pH-9 and 55°C.
 
The Barbus sharpeyi is a species of the genus Barbus of cyprinidae with local name"Benni" distributed in shadegan and horolazim GnRHA2-effectiveness of Ovaprim, Ovatide, GnRHA2, LHRH-A2, LHRHA2+CPE and Carp Pituitary on spawning success, Latency period, working fecundity, fertilization success and hatching rate. 56 fish were divided into 7 treatments and injected intramuscullary as follows. 4mg kgG 1 b.w.of CPE as positive control, Propylene glycol as negative control, 0.5 mg kgG b.w. of Ovaprim, 0.5 mg 1 kgG b.w. of Ovatide, 1000 Iu kgG b.w. of HCG, 10µg kgG b.w. of LHRH-A2, 10µg+2 mg kgG b.w. of LRHa+CPE 1 1 1 1 in double injection 10 h apart. Results showed that LRHa+CPE combination yielded 87.5% spawning success in comparison with HCG, Ovaprim, Ovatide, LRHa and CPE. None of fish were ovulated in the groups of negative contol, HCG and LRHa, while 3/8 fish were ovulated in the group of Ovaprim and Ovatide(37.5%). 6/8 fish were ovulated in the group of CPE(75%). Therefor, LHRHa+CPE combination can be effected comparison CPE or alone other hormones.
 
The aim of this study was detection of Aflatoxin M1 contamination in cow's raw milk samples in Miandoab city (Iran) by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay) ELISA). Ten cow's raw milk samples from different milk stores in Miandoab city (a city in West Azerbaijan province, Iran) were collected during 3 months (May to July 2009). AFM1 was found in 50% of the analyzed samples. Results showed that in all positive samples (50%) the AFM1 concentrations were less than 5 ng/l. It can be concluded that AFM1 levels in Miandoab region, appear to be safe at the moment and dairy farmers must be educated by the government authorities on potential health consequences of aflatoxins.
 
Prevalence of Fasciola species in cattle slaughtered at Addis Ababa abattoir (n=600)
A cross-sectional study to estimate the prevalence of fasciolosis in slaughtered cattle was conducted between November 2010 and April 2011 in Addis Ababa abattoir, Ethiopia. A total of 600 livers from cattle selected with systematic random sampling were examined for presence and burden of liver fluke. Of 600 examined cattle, 122 (20.3%) were infected with Fasciola. Both species of Fasciola were identified during the study. Fasciola hepatica was recovered from the livers of 91 (15.2%) cattle while F. gigantica was collected from 19 (3.2%) livers. Mixed infection with both species was observed in 7 (1.2 %) animals and 19 (3.2%) cattle were infected with unidentified immature liver flukes. Worm count on the 122 infected livers revealed a mean fluke count of 73.5 per liver, with maximum and minimum fluke count of 152 and 2 respectively. Fasciola infection was highly associated (P <0.001) with body condition. Animals with lean body condition were 6.9 (95%CI=3.60 -13.15) times more likely to be infected as compared to fat cattle. It is concluded that fasciolosis, due to F. hepatica and F. gigantica, is prevalent in cattle in Ethiopia.
 
Distribution of hydatid cysts in different organs of infected sheep and goats
A cross sectional study was conducted on small ruminants from October 2010 to March 2011 at Addis Ababa Abattoir Enterprise (AAAE) to determine the prevalence of hydatidosis, the economic losses attributed to it and to test the viability of cysts. Totally, 500 small ruminants were sampled randomly of these 399 were sheep and 101 were goats and the unbalanced sample of goats was due to low availability of the species. The overall prevalence was 8.6% whereas, in sheep and goats were 8.5% and 8.9%, respectively. The percentage of hydatid cysts in different visceral organs was observed as 48.8% and 6.98%, in lung and liver respectively. Results indicated that host species, viability test, size and volume of cysts did not have significant effect (P>0.005) on prevalence of the disease, however, age had statistically significant effect (P<0.05) on the disease prevalence. The total annual financial loss due to hydatidosis was estimated at 270,691.01Ethiopian birr (ETB) and this loss was significant. It is concluded that small ruminant hydatidosis is prevalent at AAAE and it has public health importance. It is recommended to increase veterinarians' number in the abattoir to examine lungs and livers.
 
A cross-sectional study was conducted on lactating dairy cows to determine the prevalence, risk factors and bacterial causative agents in smallholder dairy farms from October, 2008 to March, 2009. The result of this study revealed that the overall prevalence of mastitis was found to be 52.27% (15.41% clinical and 36.86% sub-clinical cases). Among the total (1324) quarters examined, 61 (4.61%) had blind teats. The prevalence of mastitis showed statistically significant difference between, number of parity, stage of lactation, body condition of animals, farm hygiene and udder washing (P<0.05). However, there was no statistically significant difference noted among the risk factors, herd size, age of the animals, previous mastitis and use of contaminated towel(P>0.05). From CMT positive (146) samples sent to a laboratory for microbiological examination, 71 bacterial isolates were identified. The majority of isolates were Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus) (21.13%) followed by Streptococcus agalactiae (S.agalactiae) (18.31%) and Coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) (11.27%) and the lowest isolation rate was for Micrococcus species (2.82%). The Other species which isolated include Actinomyces pyogenes(A.pyogenes), Klebsiella species and Streptococcus uberis(S.uberis) (4.23% each), Streptococcus dysgalaciae(S. dysgalaciae) (5.63%), Corynebacterium bovis(C.bovis) and Escherichia coli(E.coli) (7.04% each), Streptococcus pyogens(S.pyogens) (8.45%) and Bacillus species (5.63%). This study demonstrated that both clinical and sub clinical mastitis is common in smallholder dairying in Addis Ababa city and that some of the risk and protective factors for mastitis can be addressed by practical management of dairy cows.
 
The prevalence of Cephalopina titillator larvae in 384 slaughtered camels was 80.72% that 76.8% in males and 86% in females. The rate of infestation was significantly greater in the rainy season (95.04%) compared to those of dry season (56.3%) (P < 0.001). No significant difference was observed between the prevalence in males and females (P > 0.1).The prevalence rate was lower in camels younger than 2 years old (68.1%) compared to those of 5-10 (72.73%) and over 10 years old (86.95%). The major gross lesions observed were congestion of the pharyngeal mucosa; nasal cavity was congested and filled with mucous. Haemorrhagic lesions were observed in early infections. The main microscopic lesions were desquamation of epithelial cells. Infiltration of macrophages, eosinophils and lymphocytes was seen in mucosa and sub-mucosal tissues.
 
A cross sectional study was conducted from November 2010 to March 2011 to identify the major causes of organ condemnation in cattle slaughtered at Jimma municipal abattoir. An attempt was also made to estimate the direct economic loss due to condemnation of edible organs during meat inspection. A total of 900 cattle were examined by ante mortem and post mortem inspections using standard inspection procedures. During ante mortem inspection, the abnormities encountered were blindness (0.11%), depression (0.55%), edema (0.11%), alopecia (0.11%), lameness (0.11%), leech infestation (0.22%), tick infestation (2.44%) and respiratory signs (0.11%). In the post mortem inspection, 580(64.44%) of Livers, 416 (46.22) % of Lungs, 11(1.22%) of Hearts and 18(2.00%) of Kidneys were condemned due to gross abnormalities. An estimated annual loss of 172,664.09 ETB (US$10464.5) was incurred due to condemnation of these organs. Fasciolosis was found to account 92.7% of all the losses. The findings showed that the rate of organ condemnation at the abattoir is very high which signifies the need for prompt disease control programs to be implemented.
 
Prevalence of C.bovis and hydatid cyst in cattle slaughtered at Shashemene town (n = 405) 
Factors associated with the prevalence of human taeniasis at Shashemene town during the six months of the study period. 
A retrospective study and active abattoir survey were conducted from December 2011 to May 2012 to estimate prevalence of metacestodes, evaluate organ level distribution of the cysts and estimate associated financial losses in cattle slaughtered at Shashemene Municipal abattoir, Southern Ethiopia. 405 cattle showed a prevalence of 10.1% C.bovis and 50.1% hydatid cyst and double infection of 8.4%. Of 78 positive organs for C. bovis cyst, 32 were tongue while of 178 recorded C. bovis cyst, large number (n=77) was recorded in heart. Laboratory results revealed that, of 157 non-calcified C. bovis cysts, 33.7% were viable. Lung was also found to be the preferable organ for hydatid cyst (62.5%, 163/405). Of 1490 recorded hydatid cyst, 813 were noncalcified of which, 75.6% (615/813) were fertile. From 615 fertile cysts, 16.9% were viable and 58.8% were nonviable. The rest 24.4% were sterile. The retrospective data of 17,187 slaughtered cattle during 2010 and 2011 also revealed the prevalence of C. bovis to be 11.9% and 10.9%; and hydatid cyst 51.3% and 49.5%, respectively. Of 61 interviewed respondents, 45.9% contracted T. saginata and there was association between the parasitism and religion (p=0.022, OR=3.6), occupation (p=0.000, OR=32.7) and age (p=0.021, OR=5.3). The overall financial loss due to hydatid cyst was 117,060 ETB (6,727.6 USD). The cost of drugs for the treatment of taeniasis during the three years was 192,071 ETB (11,038.6 USD). The financial loss and the significant distribution of metacestodes in the area need attention as well as intervention by different stakeholders.
 
A cross sectional study was conducted from November 2010 to March 2011 to estimate the prevalence of the major metacestodes of cattle slaughtered at Bahir Dar municipal abattoir. Out of 465 randomly selected slaughtered cattle, 12 (2.58%) and 148 (31.8%) were infected with Cysticercus bovis and Hydatid cyst, respectively. The prevalence of Cysticercus bovis was significantly different between castrated and uncastrated cattle. However, there was no significant difference for the prevalence of Cysticercus bovis among the different origins and management systems (p>0.05). There was also no marked difference in the prevalence of hydatid cyst in cattle among the different origins (p>0.05). In contrast, the difference in the prevalence of the hydatid cyst between the different management system was found to be statistically significant (p<0.05). Similarly, the prevalence of hydatid cyst was statistically significant between castrated and uncastrated cattle (p<0.05). Regarding organ distribution, tongue and masseter muscle were the most frequently infected organ with Cysticercus bovis. Whereas, lungs took the highest proportion among the other organs infected with hydatid cyst. The viability test of the metacestodes of cattle showed that 33.9% of Cysticrecus bovis and 20% of the examined hydatid cyst were viable. In a nut shell, the finding of the present study reflects a visible reduction in the prevalence of Cysticercus bovis from the previous years and still a higher prevalence in hydatid cyst. Therefore, serious attention should be given by various stake holders to break the life cycle of both metacestodes and hence reduce their impact on the public health.
 
A cross sectional study on bovine tuberculosis (BTB) was conducted to determine its prevalence in cattle at Akaki municipal abattoir in the period from October 2010 to March 2011. Routine and detailed meat inspection methods were used to detect lesions. A total of 720 cattle were inspected; their body condition scores and ages were recorded before slaughtering. Of the total animals, 5.83% (42/720) had lesions of tuberculosis. Out of these, routine abattoir inspection detected only 0.28% (2/720) with visible lesions and there was poor agreement (kappa=0.09) between routine and detailed inspection methods. The proportion of lesions found in the lung and associated lymph nodes, head, mesenteric and hepatic lymph nodes were 69.78, 18.75, 9.38 and 2.08%, respectively. The prevalence of the disease was significantly (P < 0.05) varying with body condition scores but it didn't significantly (P > 0.05) vary with age groups of the animals. This study demonstrated the prevalence of BTB in cattle slaughtered at Akaki municipal abattoir and low sensitivity of routine abattoir inspection. So the carcass must be examined well to reduce the chance of messing lesions of tuberculosis.
 
Incidence of fetal wastage in cattle slaughtered at Kumasi Abattoir between 2009-2012
There had been dearth of information on the level of fetal wastages in slaughtered cattle in West African countries other than Nigeria; this study evaluates level of fetal wastage in cows slaughtered at Kumasi abattoirs in Ashanti Region, Ghana. Out of a total of 154,719 cows slaughtered, 28,410 (18.4%) were pregnant. The ratio of slaughtered cow and those pregnant was 2.3 while 41.9% of cattle slaughtered were cows. There was rise in fetal wastages over the years with 2009 having the highest, while there was rise in December of most of the years and this may be related high demand for meat during the festivals and ceremonies during this period. The results indicated a high level of slaughtering of pregnant cows in the abattoirs studied. There is need to advocate for routine veterinary checks and interventions among trade animals in order to reduce the high level of fetal wastage in the country. It also gave insight to need for strategic planning and decision-making on animal food security in Ghana.
 
A cross sectional study was carried out from October, 2009 to April, 2010 at Arbaminch municipal abattoir with aim of determining the prevalence and cyst distribution of bovine hydatidosis and to estimate financial losses due to hydatid cyst as result of organ condemnation and carcass weight reduction. Postmortem examination, hydatid cyst characterization and direct and indirect financial loss estimations were conducted. From the total 600 cattle examined, 123(20.50%.) were found positive for hydatid cyst infection in one or more of its organs. From 3000 samples inspected, 287 hydatid cysts were detected in 141 samples, of which 247 (86.06%) were active and the remains were calcified. The anatomical distribution of the cysts indicated as 135 (47.04%) lung, 90 (31.36%) liver, 18 (6.27%) heart, 17 (5.92%) kidney and 27 (9.41%) spleen. From the 287 cysts collected, 66 (23%), 144 (50.17%), 37 (12.89%) and 40 (13.94%) were found as small, medium, large and calcified cysts respectively. The annual economic loss from organs condemnation and carcass weight reduction was estimated about $21,833.60. This high infection in cattle with a huge financial loss justifies a hydatidosis control program that involves due attention on veterinary activities like improvement of slaughter house facilities and proper meat inspection.
 
Both human and avian influenza virus can infect pigs and this make pigs to be intermediate hosts or mixing vessels for the generation of new influenza virus of pandemic potential, through genetic recombination. This study was designed to isolate and identify influenza virus strains from pigs at Bodija abattoir in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria, to provide information on the activity of this virus in Ibadan. A total of 186 nasal swabs samples were collected from 93 animals over a period of two months from August to September, 2010. Isolation of influenza virus was carried out using conventional cell culture (MDCK) and ten to twelve-day old embryonated hen's eggs. Identification of isolates was carried out by haemagglutination-inhibition (HI) test using selected World Health Organization (WHO) influenza virus reference antisera. Out of 93 animals tested, 16 (17.2%) were positive for influenza virus infection. Identification of the isolates showed that there was cocirculation of different subtypes of influenza virus in pigs in Ibadan. The isolates were cross reactants of the H subtypes and influenza B virus. The isolation of influenza B, a virus that is known to infect only humans, from pigs suggests that the transmission of this virus from humans to pigs was occurring in Ibadan. Studies are in progress to determine the pathogenicity of this virus in pigs.
 
The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence and the distribution of internal organs of cystic echinococcosis on cattle slaughtered in Jimma municipal abattoir from November 2009 to February 2010, Western Ethiopia. Out of 564 cattle 205 (36.3%) were harbored hydatid cyst. The percentage of hydatid cyst in lung, liver, kidney, spleen and heart were found to be 92.7%, 53.2%, 1.5%, 0.5% and 0.5%, respectively. The lung was the most predominantly affected organ followed by the liver. Cattle body conditions significantly affect the prevalence of cystic echinococcosis (%2= 7.47, P = 0.008) and higher prevalence was recorded in animals with poor body condition. Of 217 cysts collected from the lung 51 (23.5%) were fertile, 117 (53.9%) were sterile and 49 (22.6%) were calcified. Likewise from 124 cysts collected from the liver 18 (14.5%), 34 (27.4%) and 72 (58.1%) were fertile, sterile and calcified respectively. Higher numbers of large and medium sized cysts were found in the lung when compared with other organs. The prevalence of the present study was higher therefore reduction of stray dog population, regular treatment of dogs and fencing the surrounding of the abattoir are the main core points to reduce the prevalence of the disease in the area.
 
The study was conducted from December 2010 to April 2011 in Hashim's Ethiopian Livestock and Meat Export (HELIMEX) abattoir at DebreZeit. The aim of this study was to identify and determine the major health problems that cause carcass and organs condemnation and to estimate the magnitude of the direct losses attributed to the condemned carcass and organs from Ovine and Caprine slaughtered in the abattoir. Standard ante-mortem and post-mortem inspection procedures were followed throughout the study. Ante-mortem inspection was carried out on arrival and in the lairage and abnormalities encountered were recorded, followed by postmortem examination through their identification number to detect gross abnormalities and aesthetic reasons that rendered each organ to be rejected from local and international market. During the study a total of 425 Ovine's and 425 Caprine's Carcass and Organs were examined. The study revealed that in both species 139 (16.35%) lungs, 121 (14.24%) livers, 87 (10.24%) carcass, 57 (6.71%) kidney and 43 (5.06%) heart were rejected due to various causes. Emphysema 41 (4.82%), stelesia hepatica 31 (3.65%), bruising 37 (4.35%), nephritis 20 (2.35%) and pericarditis 12(1.41%) were found to be the major causes responsible for rejection of respective organs and carcass. Liver condemnation due to parasites such as Stilesia hepatica, fasciolosis and Cysticercus tenuicollis contributed to 31 (3.65%), 19 (2.24%) and 6 (0.71%) respectively of the total condemned liver of Shoat. However, there is no statistically significance difference (p>0.05) for all causes of liver condemnation between young and adult as well as between sheep and goats. The annual loss due to the rejection of carcass and organs from the shoats' slaughtered in the export abattoir is estimated at approximately 33,668,850.99 USD. This study has a paramount importance for the country by providing data in monitoring animal disease conditions and management practices which lead to the condemnation of organs and carcasses during slaughtering of animals.
 
Survival of S. enteritidis in abattoir effluent using volume germ carrier technique
Non-typhoid Salmonella (NTS) are cosmopolitan bacterial zoonotic agents. The present study was undertaken to determine the occurrence of NTS in human and camels and test the survival of Salmonella enteritidis in abattoir effluents using volume germ carriers technique. A total of 50 human stool samples including 30 diarrheic and 20 non-diarrheic were collected. Moreover, 108 camel samples were collected from 36 slaughtered camels including feces, mesenteric lymph nodes and liver, 36 each. All samples were cultured by the standard methods for NTS and serotyped. Four (8%) Salmonella isolates were obtained from human stool and 6(5.6%) from camel samples. The positive camel samples included 5 feces and one mesentric lymph nodes with the frequencies of 13.9% and 2.8%, respectively. Nevertheless, the liver samples were Salmonella free (N=36). Three replicates of volume germ carriers were inoculated with Salmonella enteritidis at 7 log CFU/ml in final mix. The contents of germ carriers were examined on days 7, 14, 21 and 28 for the detection of Salmonella enteritidis by the most probable number technique. The mean counts of the 3 replicates were 5, 3 and 0.7 log CFU/ml on days 7, 14 and 21, respectively. The mean number of Salmonella was decreased by 2.2 log weekG . On the day 28, all the 3 replicates count were found to be under detection limit (< 0 log 1 CFU/ml). The results indicate that aerobic storage of abattoir effluents could minimize the risk of salmonellosis in the environment under the research condition. It can be concluded that camels could be a potential reservoir for NTS to humans and animals.
 
Correct measures towards prevention are important in achieving global tuberculosis eradication. A study was conducted to determine the measures taken by butchers for bovine tuberculosis (BTB) prevention at Akinyele and Bodija Municipal Abattoirs in Ibadan, south-western Nigeria, with a view to providing vital information for BTB control. Four hundred and fifty butchers from the two abattoirs were randomly selected for this study and data were collected through the method of questionnaires and analysed using SPSS version 12.0. The response rate was 97.1% (437/450). Our findings revealed that their approach towards BTB prevention included practice of good hygiene (17.6%), hand washing (15.6%) after each day's work, wearing protective materials like gloves and boots (14.4%), use of preventive medicine (14.2%), immunization (12.6%), prayer (10.1%), use of herbs (9.8%) and limited contact with animals or carcasses (5.7%). On limiting cattle to cattle spread of bovine tuberculosis, early isolation of infected animals (29.2%), avoidance of close contact with the infected animals (23.3%), prompt reporting to the veterinarians (22.2%), avoidance of overcrowding of cattle in the kraal (14.9%) and early notification by the cattle handlers (10.3%) were the practices highlighted. Age groups (p= 0.006), sex (p=0.019) and length of working experience (p=0.033) were significant factors associated with the butchers' correct preventive measures against the spread of bovine tuberculosis. This study provides vital information for the stakeholders in the Public Health Sector for informed steps to be taken to better position the livestock workers especially butchers in the drive towards eradication of tuberculosis including BTB in Nigeria.
 
This study was carried out on 175 camels with the aim of identifying bacterial, parasitic and fungal species involved in lung lesions of camel's slaughtered at Matrouh main abattoirs. All slaughtered camels were originated from northwestern coast. A total of 175 lungs were inspected during the study, of which 50 (28.6%) possessed pneumonic lesions. Bacterial and mycotic growth was observed from 45 (25.7%) of the pneumonic lung samples. A total of 70 bacterial and mycotic species were isolated and identified. These included staphylococcus aureus (28.6%), Bacillus species (21.4%), Klebsiella species (10%) Escherichia coli (8.6%), Corynebacterium pyogenes (5.7%), Streptococcus pyogenes (2.9%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (1.8%), Pasteurella multocida (2.9%), Manhemia haemolytica (1.4%), Actinomyces pyogenes (1.4%), Aspergillus fumigatus (5.7%), Aspergillus flavus (1.4%) and Candida albicans (1.4%). Serological detection of Aspergillus fumigatus antibodies using IHA was found to be (14%). Hydatidosis was found in a rate of (8%). Some histopathological changes were detected in pneumonic lung tissues. In conclusion, proper abattoir records can serve as indicator for filed disease condition and consequently used by the relevant authority in planning prevention/control programmes.
 
The purpose of this research was to evaluated canola oil effects on the Iranian male native turkey abdominal fat fatty acids composition. A total of 90 turkey chicks were randomly divided into 3 experimental treatments with 3 replicates were arranged in a completely randomized design. The experimental period lasted 20 weeks. Experimental diets consisted of: Basal diet with 0% canola oil; basal diet with 2.5% canola oil and basal diet with 5% canola oil. Results showed that n- 6 fatty acids with ascending rate significantly increased compared to control group and n-3 fatty acids have same rate and increased compared to control group, this status affected this fatty acids ratios only numerically and n-6/n-3 or n-3/n-6 ratio with a partial change were not significant, Apparently due to same rate of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids the ratio not affected, but distribution of fatty acids of treatment were changed.
 
This experiment was performed using 90 male native Azerbaijan turkey for evaluation the effect of canola oil feeding on the alteration of abdominal fat saturated fatty acids composition. Turkey chicks randomly divided into three experimental treatments with three replicates were arranged in a completely randomized design. The experimental period lasted 20 weeks. Experimental diets consisted of: basal diet with 0, 2.5 and 5 percent of canola oil. Results showed that canola oil significantly alter saturated fatty acid and total saturated fatty acid percentage in abdominal fat of turkey.
 
The objective of this paper was to analyze the micronuclei (MNs) and other nuclear abnormalities (NAs) frequencies in peripheral blood of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) treated with potassium dichromate via contaminated water. Blood samples were collected from caudal vessels after potassium dichromate 12 mg.L· 1 expositions for 24 and 48 hours. The typical micronuclei were not found in control group. In the exposed groups the frequencies were 1.0 ± 1.15 at 24h and 2.43 ± 0.98 at 48h. The nuclear morphological alterations frequencies in control, 24h and 48h were 4.29 ± 4.50, 5.86 ± 3.02 and 11.0 ± 3.74, respectively. The parametric ANOVA showed a very significant difference (p < 0.01) in MNs frequencies between control and 48h groups; also there was significant difference (p < 0.05) between the two exposition times. In the NAs, there was significant difference only between control and exposed for 48h groups (p < 0.05). Results confirm the potentially adverse effects of potassium dichromate. The demonstrated sensitivity to this ion shows that Oreochromis niloticus can be used to monitor for the acute effects of pollutants on the basis of hexavalent chromium in freshwater ecosystem.
 
Some anatomical features of the ostrich`s eye. a): The rostral view of the lens of the ostrich`s eye. b): The caudal view of the vascular layer of the eye of ostrichafter removing the extra-ocular muscles and caudal part of the sclera. c): The caudal view of the ostrich eye after removing the extra-ocular muscles and caudal part of the sclera. The arrow indicates the location of the sclerotic ring. d): Lateral view of the ostrich`s eye. The arrow indicates the location of the retina.
The ostrich (Struthiocamelus) is an important animal in the commercial farming sector. Like other livestock, productivity of these birds is at threat of disease. The eye of the ostrich is the best largest amongst contemporary terrestrial vertebrates and is of the flat type. In the present study we investigated the gross anatomical features on the eye of its clinical value during ocular anesthesia in this species. For this study, twenty eyes from ten light-adapted ostriches that were killed for reasons other than ocular lesions, immediately after slaughtering were examined. After the ostriches were killed, the eyeballs were quickly removed and pierced behind the corneo-scleral junction. Then anatomical position and shape of all the structures included in the eye and orbital cavity were studied in details. The characteristic feature of eye in the ostrich is similar to that of the other domestic birds except the best largest size. The mean of vertical and horizontal ocular lengths of the ostrichćs eye were 6. 3 cm and 9. 63 cm, respectively. The total mean of the ostrichćs optic nerve length and diameter were 4. 5 cm and 0. 54 cm, respectively. In addition, there were a number of extra-ocular muscles in the caudal aspect of the eyeball. Internally, the eye of the ostrich consists of fibrous, vascular and nervous layers. These data can be useful for tracking the ocular nerves and its ramifications and are necessary for the desensitization of the skin of the upper and lower eyelid during clinical treatment of the ocular traumatic injuries. In conclusion, this article provides some anatomical features of the normal ostrich's eye which maybe facilitate selection of the appropriate surgical indication or eye anesthesia during ocular traumatic injuries in this specie.
 
Female cattle reproductive tract abnormalities and pregnancy status were studied at Sululta town slaughterhouse. A total of 640 organs were collected, of which 22.3% (n=143) showed one or more gross reproductive tract abnormalities. Higher prevalence rate of atrophied and cystic ovaries, as well as ovarobursal adhesions were found and accounted for 7.7 3.3 and 2.5%, respectively. Breed and age significantly (P<0.05) affected the prevalence rates of these abnormalities. Of the 640 total female cattle reproductive tracts examined, 28.9% (n = 185) uterus were found pregnant, 66.6% (n = 426) were cycling ovarian activities. Of the cycling cows, 7.5% (n = 32) were pregnant. 65.4% of the fetuses were at early (<3 months), 30.3% were mid (3-6 Months) and the rest 4.3% were at late (>6 months) ages of pregnancies. In general, it can be concluded that atrophied ovaries, cystic ovaries and ovarobursal adhesions were the major reproductive abnormalities; and breed, age and body conditions were main factors influencing the prevalence rates of the abnormalities. The main reasons incriminated to sell female cattle were infertility, age, emergency economic needs, with frequencies of 33.3%, 15% and 13.3% respectively.
 
prevalence of teeth abnormality in different body condition score category and selected districts
Prevalence of poor body condition score in three selected districts of Sidama zone
Cross sectional study was conducted from November, 2010 up to April, 2011 in Dale, Shebedino and Hawassa districts in southern Ethiopia; to estimate age pattern of donkeys; identify teeth abnormality and understand community perception. Five hundred fifty donkeys were sampled from selected districts proportionally. Fifty seven percent were cart and 43% packing donkeys. Age pattern ranged from one year up to 20 years and above. Community perception showed an average age estimate by community increases as conventional age estimate increases. Age pattern indicated that 27.3% samples were within 8-10years and 27.5% were within 12-17 years age groups; the remaining lies below and above the indicated age group. Donkeys above 12 years age group were mainly engaged in cart than pack; with significant difference (p< 0.05). Twelve percent teeth abnormality were observed, of these 41.8%, 31.3% and 26.9% were in Hawassa, Dale and Shebedino districts, respectively; with significant difference (p<0.05). Nine type of teeth abnormality recorded; worn teeth (38.8%) followed by fracture (10.5%), diastema (8.95%) were the major ones. Poor relationship observed between body condition score and teeth abnormality (p=0.52); but significant (p<0.05) number of teeth abnormality recorded in old age group. Twelve focus group discussions indicated that estimated productive life of pack donkeys had median of 13 and mode of 15 years, whereas cart donkeys had median 10 and mode 8years. Estimated life expectancy showed that longer age observed in pack donkey's than carts. In conclusion the age pattern ranges from 1year up to more than 20years.various types of teeth abnormality recorded, of these worn teeth were dominant in older age group. Pack donkeys had longer age than carts. Therefore: creating awareness and regular teeth assessment is paramount important.
 
Correlation among measured serumic parameters in affected group
This study was conducted on 30 heads of cows affected with the left displacement of the abomasum (LDA) and 30 heads of healthy cows in order to examination of sera concentrations of the selenium, glothation peroxides and vitamin E in these two groups. LDA affected cattle were conformed on the basis of clinical and laboratory symptoms, some bell sound in the left side and punction from the sound site and determining pH of the fluid which will be acidic in the LDA. The control group cattle also were selected from similar environmental, managerial and feeding condition. The blood sample from the jugular vein was collected and after the serum separation, the vitamin E levels in serum was measured by chromatography fluorimetry, selenium was measured by atomic absorption and Glutathione peroxides was calculated by biochemical kit. The mean level of selenium in the serum in affected and control groups were 26.44±1.02 and 31.23±0.98 ng/ml, respectively and there was significant difference between them (P<0.05). The mean level of vitamin E in these groups were 2.73±0.23 and 4.72±0.19 ng/ml, respectively in which there was significant difference between two groups (P<0.05). The mean activity level of Glutathione peroxides in affected group (61.7±1.46 Mu/mg) was higher than the control group (61.56±1.67 Mu/mg), nonsignificantly. Correlation between calculated parameters in control group was not significant but in affected group correlation between vitamin E and Glutathione peroxides was significant (p<0.05 and r = 0.421).In conclusion, anti oxidants' serum level in affected cattle is lower than the healthy cattle and must be used the supplementary containing selenium and vitamin E in the form of injection or additive in feeding for the affected cattle.
 
Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite that is considered a major cause of abortion in dairy cattle. Several serologic tests can be used to detect N. caninum antibodies including ELISA, the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and the direct agglutination test. However there is a lack of a quick method for detection of this parasite. This study was done for developing a dot-ELISA as a test for diagnosis or screening of cattle. Blood samples were collected from 32 aborted cows. All the sera were tested for serodiagnosis of Neospora caninum by using a commercial ELISA (Neospora caninum antibody test kit, IDEXX, US). An in house dot-Elisa was developed and the some sera were conducted to this assay. Results clearly show good agreement between dot-Elisa and commercial ELISA. The relative sensitivity and specifity of dot-Elisa were 71% and 100% respectively. INTRODUCTION an aborted cow is only indicative of exposure to N.
 
Brucella melitensis is a zoonotic pathogen that caused abortion and Malta fever in small ruminants and human, respectively. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence rate of B. melitensis in aborted fetus samples from caprine herds in Chahaimahal va Bakhtiari province, Iran., 140 aborted fetus samples from 17 Lori-Bakhtiari goat herds were tested. DNA was obtained directly from the abomasal contents of aborted fetuses and PCR was performed by primers derived from the omp31 gene sequence of the B. melitensis. Out of all samples 16.4% gave positive by this molecular methods. The results showed that PCR assay may be applied to detect B. melitensis directly from abomasal contents of goat and therefore could be a valuable diagnostic or screening test for herds with Brucellosis.
 
Showing electrophoretic pattern of C. abortus specific PCR product (119 bp) in 2% agarose gel stained with ethedium bromide. Lane 1: 100bp DNA marker.Lane2: Positive control (extracted DNA of C. abortus DNA), Lane 3, 4, 5 and 6: specific C. abortus PCR product (119 bp) from placenta and fetal tissues.
Showing electrophoretic pattern of specific PCR product (300 bp) in 2% agarose gel stained with ethedium bromide. Lane 9: 100bp DNA marker.Lane1: Positive control (Extracted DNA of DNA), Lane 2, 3, 4 and 5: specific PCR product (300 bp) from placenta and fetal tissues.
Sero-prevalence of abortifacient agents in small ruminants using ELISA technique
Seroprevalence of abortifacient agents in different areas of Al-Kassim governorate.
Seroprevalence of abortifacient agents in sheep and goats.
A total of 3996 serum samples was collected from aborted ewes and does in 11 flocks at five governorates of Al-Kaseem area, KSA during 2006-2007. Only 2411/3996 (60.33%) were brucella seropositive, while 1585/3996 (39.7%) animals were brucella sero-negative. 278 out of the 1585 animals (17.53%) were positive for one or both of Toxoplasma gondii and Chlamydophila abortus by (ELISA on blood samples) and confirmed by Polymerase Chain Reaction technique(placenta and fetal tissues). T. gondii and C. abortus played definite important role in ovine and caprine abortion, with an overall respective incidence of 12.48 and 9.07% with high possibilities for animal's reproductive disorders and zoonotic hazards. Mixed infection with both diseases was noticed in some animals (4.03%). It was concluded that although Brucella is the major abortifacient agent in small ruminants in KSA, also other pathogens were of great importance and should be followed in diagnosis and control.
 
Chlamydophila (c) abortus is the most important causative agent of the ovine chlamydophilosis, Complement fixation (CF) test is a good screening serological test, but it can be complicated by false positive reactions with others species of chlamydophila as C. pecorum and with some Gram negative bacteria. Diagnosis can be improved by using of indirect (I) ELISA. Moderate agreement (kappa-0.6) between CF test and iELTSA was recommended in this study. Blood serum samples from 50 ewes with reproductive disorders and 50 apparently healthy pregnant ewes were investigated by CF test and iELISA to detectct IgG against C. abortus. Sensitivity and specificity of iELISA (90% and 96% respectively) used in this study was found to be higher than CF test (70% and 88% respectively). To confirm the serological results and to evaluate iELISA, five tissue of foeti from aborted ewes with (+ve) CFT and (+ve) iELISA, also five tissue samples of foeti from aborted ewes with negative (-ve) CFT and (+ve) iELISA were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All samples revealed positive results for C. abortus at 119 bp. Therefore, PCR is proved to be specific and accurate technique in the diagnosis of ovine enzootic Chlamydial abortion.
 
In recent years nutrition advances made various terminologies were used to aid understanding of physiological process in broiler. Absorption and related terms are such as progress. Furthermore, broiler fed complete diets (supplemented by mineral pre-mix) in reared systems and it seems that not experience metabolic problems from mineral interactions. However, there are at least fifty interactions among twenty-seven elements; certain of them are more crucial to producers, but, most of them had little practical importance in broiler production. The common problems results in mineral interaction are widely known; however, knowledge concerning a problem and the practical application thereof are not always mutual. Consumption of needed quantities of mineral supplements cannot be guaranteed by every individual and, consequently, problems arising from interactions are still observed under field conditions. The broiler morbidity, mortality and even death will occur from imbalances and mineral interactions. Therefore, in this overview to have comprehensive sight on the subject of absorption, related terms were explain considerably and known and possible interactions between the macrominerals [Calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), sodium (Na), chlorine (Cl), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg) and Sulfur (S)] were considered in broiler production and some recommendations were done. It well known that interactions are affected by source, species of the element, concentrations and proportions of every mineral in the diet, bird physiological state and which element is in excess.
 
Comparison to the feed cost per weight gain for the interaction of calcium and fat levels DISCUSSION 6% dietary fat and followed with other lipid levels,  
Diet ingredients in starter period
Diet ingredients in finisher period
Effects of different levels of fat, Ca and their interactions on performance traits of broilers
This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of different levels of dietary fat on performance of broiler (Ross 308 strain) with emphasis on calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) absorption during a 56 days rearing period. A total of 360 1-day-old chicks randomly assigned to eight experiment groups, three replicates of 10 birds each. The birds with a 4 × 2 factorial design received either four levels of fat (0, 2, 4 and 6% of diet) or two levels of Ca (1 or 2 % of diet). Results showed that administration of different fat levels to broiler diets significantly (P< 0.01) increased food intake (FI), feed efficiency (FE), carcass weight (CW), abdominal fat (AF) and diet cost (DC). From the results of the present study, it was concluded that a combination of 2% of animal fat and 1 or 2 % of Ca provides the greatest performance in broiler chickens and this combination can be considered as a advantageous management practice in Ross 308 strains diets, with improving the Ca and P absorption; however, higher levels of fat intake may decrease absorption percentage.
 
In vivo correlation of enzyme activities of yellowfin seabream with water mercury
In vivo curve fit linear regression of biochemical activities of yellowfin seabream with sediment mercury.
Biochemical indices are indicators measured in a biological system which can be related to exposure to a xenobiotics compound. In the current paper some serum biochemical parameters in five creeks of Mahshahr region in North West of Persian Gulf with different levels of pollutant were detected to characterize biochemical response of Yellowfin seabream to environmental pollutant and undesirable materials. The quantitative determination of serum glucose was carried out using commercially available diagnostic Experimental Protocols kits by the glucose oxidase method. Serum total protein levels were determined with bovine serum albumin serving as standard. Values recorded for activity of total protein show depletion in infected creeks with respect to clean creek, however, there was no significant variation. Glucose significantly increased in infected that pollutants have direct correlation with fish serum biochemical abnormalities and also indicated that the different in environmental condition of marine ecosystems may cause several changes in the serum biochemical parameters of the studied fish.
 
Lab-scale microwave dryer with measurement instrument, (1) microwave oven, (2) digital balance, (3-4) RS-232 cable, (5-6) multimeter, (7-8) thermocouple, (9) computer
In this paper, a laboratory microwave oven was used to dry the alfalfa, applying microwave power in the five levels of 180, 360, 540, 720 and 900W. The drying rate curve of alfalfa contained no constant rate period, but showed a falling rate period. Drying processes were completed between 4 and 9 min depending on the microwave power level. The fitting of experimental data with three models (Lewis, Henderson -Pabis and Wang -Singh) showed that drying curves were best described by the Wang -Singh model. Effective moisture diffusivity was estimated using the analytical solution of Fick's law. The effective moisture diffusivity was found to be in the range of 2.01×10G m /s to 4.344×10G m /s for alfalfa. In conclusion, showed that higher 6 2 6 2 microwave power cause shorter drying time.
 
With the help of histological, morhpometric and statistical methods, the effect of lead acetate and statistical methods were used to study the lead acetate effect on the morphological structure of white rate female ovaries and the estral cycle exposed to lead acetate. It upsets the folliculogenesis and the rat ovaries, the morphological restructuring of the ovarian cerebral and brain matter. The cerebral matter manifests a pronouced atresion of secondary follicles. The brain matter contains larger vessels proving the intensified blood supply to the ovaries. The obtained data manifest that the lead acetate affect the estral cycle duration, primarily the diastrus stage.
 
Structural assignment and relative peak area percent of the volatile components of the essential oil obtained from of Ocimum basilicum leaves. Component LTPRI Relative peak area, % O. basilicum Component LTPRI Relative peak area, % O. basilicum a a
The current study was carried out to elucidate the effect of basil oil on gastric ulcer induced by acetylsalicylate in rats. Thirty six adult male albino rats (Sprague Dawley Strain) weight 140±10g were used and divided into 6 groups, each of 6 rats for six weeks. The first group was used as a negative control and fed on the basal diet only. Other groups had given acetylsalicylate orally (400 mg/kg B. Wt.). One of these groups left as positive control (Ulcerated rats without treatment) and other ulcerated rats groups treated with either ranitidine hydrochloride or different concentrations of the drug, 1ml, 3ml and 5ml basil oil groups. The results revealed that oral administration of basil oil at different doses showed significant increase in final weight, weight gain percentage, food intake and food efficiency ratio, gastric juice pH, gastric prostaglandin E2, gastric cytochrome P450 reductase, blood hemoglobin (Hb), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and superoxid dismutase (SOD), compared with their corresponding +ve control (Ulcerated rats) except 5ml group which showed a decrease in cytochrome P450 reductase activity. On the other side, the gastric ulcer length and volume of gastric juice, gastric nitric oxide, serum interleukin-1, serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha, gastric cyclooxygenase and blood malondialdehyde (MDA) were significantly decreased compared with +ve control (Ulcerated rats). The curative ratio percentage showed insignificant difference between 1 ml and 3 ml basil oil groups compared with ranitidine hydrochloride drug rats group except 5ml rats group. The groups that treated with basil oil at doses 1ml, 3 ml and drug groups when examined with ultrasound showed a significant decrease in gastric wall thickness, longitudinal length and width compared with +ve control (ulcerated rats), except 5 ml group. These obtained (physiological and biochemical) data are confirmed by the histopathological studies and ultrasonographic examinations. From the present study, linalool and eugenol (43.70% and 13.55% respectively) which were the major components in the essential oil of basil oil (O. basilicum), would play an important role in the antioxidant activity. The current work suggested that, basil oil could be used for healing acute gastric ulcer disease and implemented for gastric ulcer patients due to its cytoprotective effect coupled with anti- secretory activity.
 
240 one-day Ross 308 chickens divided into 6 groups A, B, C, D, E, F. Group B received 150 gr/ton Virginamycin as growth-promoter antibiotic, group C received Protexin with average dose of 100 gr/ton as probiotic, group D received 6 kg/ton Salkyn as Acidifier, group E received 3 Kg/ton A-Max as Pre-biotic and group F received 1 kg/ton Synbiotic while group A received no growth-promoter. Each group included 40 chickens and the experiment conducted with four replications for each 10 chicken in each group. On 9th, 24th and 34th day of aviculture 20 chicken selected randomly from each group and their blood sample were taken to laboratory to conduct HI test (Prevention from Hemangontinasion)and obtained humoral immunity level recorded and studied: Obtained results analyzed by statistical tests and observed that using growth-promoters not only increase humoral immunity but they improve production factors (P>0.05).
 
Top-cited authors
Belay Duguma Eticha
  • Jimma University
Geert P J Janssens
  • Ghent University
Yisehak Kechero
  • Jimma University
Moustafa Zeitoun
  • Qassim University
M. Belal Hossain
  • Noakhali Science & Technology University