Print ISSN: 1212-0014
The clusters of types of water quality changes in the Elbe River basin generated for the BOD-5, N-NH 4 and N-NO 3 indicators. Obr. 3. Vygenerované zhluky modelů změn kvality vody pro ukazatele BSK 5 , N-NH 4 a N-NO 3 .
The spatial distribution of trends of water quality changes in the Elbe River basin in the BOD-5 indicator. Obr. 4. Prostorové rozložení trendů změn kvality vody v povodí Labe v ukazateli BSK 5 .
The spatial distribution of the trends of water quality changes in the Elbe River basin in the N-NH 4 indicator. Obr. 5. Prostorové rozložení trendů změn kvality vody v povodí Labe v ukazateli N-NH 4 .
The spatial distribution of trends of water quality changes in the Elbe River basin in the N-NO 3 indicator. Obr. 6. Prostorové rozložení trendů změn kvality vody v povodí Labe v ukazateli N-NO 3 .
The shares of areas of the Elbe River basins according to the relevant models of the BOD-5, N-NH 4 and N-NO 3 change dynamics. Obr. 7. Podíly plochy povodí Labe podle vývoje kvality vody odpovídajícímu jednotlivým modelům v ukazatelích BSK 5 , N-NH 4 a N-NO 3 .
With regard to the water quality changes, the area of the Czech part of the Elbe River basin is extraordinarily dynamic. In the 20th century it experienced an enormous increase of load of pollution. Since the beginning of the 1990´s due to the political and economical changes we have witnessed a particularly intensive decrease in the emission volume and a related increase in water quality of watercourses. However, positive changes in the pollution load balance have occurred mainly in the biggest watercourses and these changes have not been accompanied by similar development in the whole river system. Using a newly created classification methodology the basic models of dynamics of water quality changes in the Elbe River basin have been derived. Based on GIS geostatistical analysis, regions with analogous water quality development trends have been defined for selected parameters and critical areas have been identified. It has become apparent that the prevailing part of the Elbe River basin has been experiencing a gradual increase in pollution. In addition, after a previous decrease, a number of watercourses experienced a recurrence of the increase in load. These areas are priorities for further development and the control of surface water protection against pollution.
Geomorphological conditions of the Broumov Basin and the Bohemian part of the Table Mountains, East Bohemia, are described in this article. Current geomorphological processes in the Martínkovický potok (Martínkovice Creek) catchment are analyzed (gully erosion, landslides). Detailed geomorphological map is included.
The autor recalls one of the greatest Soviet geographers, the classic in Marxian economic geography whose work has lost nothing of its reality. It covers the theory of general geography, especialy economic geography, economic-geographic cartography, methods of teaching geography and the history of geography. In Baranskij's opinion geography was a joint system of sciences, a unity of the economic and social process in the development of regions, towns and other complexes. The author describes the most important moments from the life of Baranskij including personal recollections of their meeting. He also comments his works and evaluates (in 10 points) his scientific contribution.
The author recalls Jan Hromádka, born on December 18th 1886, one of the greatest Czechoslovak geographers, the founder of the modern Slovak geography and the author of an outstanding work called The Orographic Classification of the Czechoslovak Republic.
The goal of the present article is to provide a brief overview of the development and usage of classifications of atmospheric circulation, particularly classifications of circulation patterns. In the first section, the motivation to conduct research into atmospheric circulation and the role of classifications in this research are discussed. In addition, basic approaches to classification are described. In the second section, manual classification methods are introduced; the focus is on those methods that have been widely used in the Czech literature-the synoptic catalogues of Brádka and Hess-Brezowsky. To our knowledge, such an overview has not been published yet. In the third section, the development of automated methods is described and the most commonly used methods are briefly introduced. We conclude with an overview of one of the fastest developing fields in synoptic climatology-the application of circulation classifications to climate modelling.
The introductory report delivered on the opening of the 14th Congress of the Czechoslovak geographers in Levice is printed in the Slovak language. Here the author states a brief analysis of the development of geography during the last three years, evaluates the position of the Czechoslovak geography in the international context and points out the basic ways of research activity in geography for future coming years. At the same time he lays the particular emphasis concerning the effectiveness in the contribution of geography for scientific organization of landscape - regional ways and the way of landscape syntheses.
The author refers to the programme, course and close of the All State Congress of the Czechoslovak geographers taking place in Levice (West Slovak region) during the days 3rd-8th July 1978. She also states the entire list of works in four sections: 1. Geography and living environment, 2. Theories and methods of the study of natural medium, 3. Theories and studies of territorial and socio-economic units, 4. Cartographical interpretation of the landscape. Instead of the traditional lectures, for the first time, the form of the panel-talk, concerning the reports, was chosen. The two excursions, a mountanous one to the Štiavnice range and Pohron Inovec and the second one to the lowland (south-east part of Podunaj lowland) were the part of the Congress. On the last day of the Congress a large gathering of both geographic societies in ČSSR - Czech and Slovak - took place. New central committees were elected for 3 years' function.
Distribution of winter (a) and summer (b) Czech temperature indices (1500-1854) and winter (c) and summer (d) Prague-Klementinum temperature anomalies (1771-2007). Reference period 1961-1990. Black circles highlight extreme seasons delimited at the 5th and the 95th percentiles.
Extremely cold/mild winters (DJF) and extremely cold/warm summers (JJA) in the Czech Lands were derived from series of temperature indices based on documentary evidence (1500-1854) and from series of air temperatures measured at the Prague-Klementinum station (1771-2007) over the past 500 years. Altogether 24 cold winters, 23 mild winters, 18 cold summers and 21 warm summers emerged. Czech extremes were compared with the Central European temperature series and series of documentary-based temperature indices for the Low Countries, Germany and Switzerland. Analysis of composite sea level pressure fields confirms advection of cold air from the north-west (extremely cold summers) or from the east (extremely cold winters). Mild winters are related to warm airflow from the west or south-west and extremely warm summers to the influence of high pressure related to the Azores High. Spatial correlations of extremes for winters proved better than for summers. We demonstrate that documentary evidence explains temperature variability for winter better than it does for the other seasons.
The aim of this article is an analysis of the spatial distribution of places with damage done by gales and windstorms in Czechia in the course of the last 500 years. Descriptive documentary data derived from historical climatology are used for this analysis and the specific features contained within these data are mentioned. Using ArcGIS tools, thematic maps of the locations damaged by gales for each century are presented and the spatial distribution of the places is characterized. This spatial distribution is connected to a large degree with the quantity and quality of available historical sources. However, spatial analysis enables the characterization of the most affected localities and also the most significant cases, "the windstorms of the century".
The authors refer on the course of the Congress, on congress expositions of geographical publications and maps, and on congress excursions. They give as well a report on the meeting of members of the Czechoslovak Geographical Society, on the election of members of the new central committee of the Society and on the final resolution.
The article gives a historical overview of Czech travellers to Latin America. The history of Czech interests in this region is outlined. The author focuses on the period between 1506 (when the first Czech-written information on the American continent was probably published) and the end of the 19th century. Contacts between Central Europe and Latin America entered a new period at the beginning of the 20th century. While in between the 16th - 19th centuries contacts between Bohemia and Latin America were mostly realized by individuals and small groups, since 1900 Latin America has become an integral part of the Czech society.
Meteorological observations of the physician Johann Carl Rost at Zákupy (north Bohemia) in the years 1718 - 1720, published in the overviews of meteorological observations from several European localities by a Wrocław physician Johann Kanold, are analysed. Whereas from October 1718 to December 1719 and from April to December 1720 it is only summary monthly information, from 21 December 1719 to 31 March 1720 Rost performed three times a day measurements of air temperature and pressure and observations of the wind direction and the course of the weather. These records are the object of detailed climatological analysis, completed by the reconstructed surface pressure field of these months. The summarising monthly information is compared with accessible data of Czech narrative sources. Rost's observations are so far the oldest systematic instrumental measurements in the Czech Lands.
The manuscript of the "Introduction to the Knowledge on the Hereditary Markgraviate of Moravia" as an appendix to the lecture of political science at the Olomouc lyceum written in 1797 by Prof. Kryštof Passy deals also in several paragraphs with the description of the climate of Moravia. The author, departing from the meteorological observations by Josef Gaar in Olomouc, mentions the description of air pressure, temperature and moisture, evaporation and wind. Besides the description of regional peculiarities of the Moravian climate, Passy tries to explain their causes and deals in detail with the effect of eight basic wind directions on changes in air temperature, air moisture and the course of weather from January to July. Passy's description is verified with respect to the results of modern measurements and the present-day knowledge on Moravian climate.
The paper treats of the programme and the subject of the 17th Congress of the Czechoslovak Geographical Society which took place from the 6th to the 10th July, 1987. It describes the programme of its individual sections, and the results of the nomination committee of the Society which repeatedly elected Professor Dr. V. Král DrSc. as chairman.
The author gives an outline of the development of this discipline since its beginnings in antique times, starting from Herodotos up to the Geographia generalis by Bernard Varenius, marking in the mid-17th century a decisive turn in the further development of regional geography. The author describes the gradual dissemination of knowledge in individual regions as well as written and cartographic procedures. They constituted the basis for a further research with more recent regional interpretations linking up with them.
The article presents a representative selection of a nearly hundred of the oldest maps of Central Europe which were influencing the development of map representation of Czech countries and mostly have not yet been published in Czech literature. Geographical content of map representation of Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia in maps of the Central European area is as informative as in separate maps of these territories. Cartographical information does not end an the other side of our border, but it links to representation of neighbouring countries and stresses political, religious, communication, linguistic and other connections and particularities as well. The selection is based on typographical classification (into ten groups) of printed maps of the Central European area of German, Italian, Dutch and French origin dating from the end of the 15th century to the middle of the 17th century. Its knowledge is necessary to determine genealogy of Central European and regional maps from the period approximately till 1650.
The tree-ring width and the maximum wood density of Norway spruce ( Picea abies (L.) Karst.) have been examined in order to reconstruct air temperature of the summer half-year during the period 1804 - 1989. The trees examined come from a natural spruce stand of Labský důl (Elbe Valley) in Krkonoše (Giant Mts.), North Bohemia. The results obtained by this way have been compared with a similar reconstruction made for Central Europe and with air temperature records from the Prague-Klementinum station. Both temperature series (reconstructed and measured), however, show only 36 % of commonly clarified variability. Differences may follow from the standardization of dendrochronologies as well as from other factors which may have influenced the growth of spruce. The quality of air temperature measurement may play also role.
The paper outlines the periodization of land use structural development on the Czech territory in between 1845 and 1995. It aims to demonstrate how does the land use structural changes reflect phases of the social, economic, and political development, as well as some ecological changes. Basic information on the research project on detailed long-term land use development are presented. Tables containing original data are included.
Geografie-Sborník CGS, 101, 2, pp. 92-109 (1996). - The article presents basic information on the long-time research programme dealing with long-termed land-use changes. This research programme is based on the land-use data of 1845, 1948, 1990, and 1995. It deals with issues marked by the International Geographic Union in 1995 as important part of the interdisciplinary research. Apart from the methodological process the article also outlines the evaluation of land-use structural changes at the district level by the index of change. This is an overall index reflecting all changes in the respective region. The case-study of Semily District verifies the methodology used at the cadastral level and shows possible applications in detailed studies of the nature/society relations.
The observations made by Pavel Olexík in 1848 are accepted as the beginning of standardised meteorological measurements in Brno. Three times every day, from September 1861 to December 1867, Professor Alexander Zawadzki, a teacher of physics and botany at a Brno technical secondary school, kept recording the values of air pressure, air temperature, precipitation, wind and atmospheric phenomena. His observation diary also includes phenological data and information about meteorological and other natural events across the Czech Lands and Europe. Because there is neither a great distance nor difference in altitude between the places in which Zawadzki and Olexík made their observations, the pressure and temperature readings show only negligible divergences. The differences are not significant for wind direction, precipitation totals and days with rain and snow, but they are greater for atmospheric phenomena. The contemporary meteorological activities of Gregor Johann Mendel also vastly contributed to Brno becoming an important centre of meteorology in the eastern part of the Czech Lands in the 1860s.
Air temperature series of three weather stations in Brno from different parts of the period 1891 - 1995 were homogenized with the use of Maronna-Yohai and Alexandersson tests. Temperature series of the stations Vienna-Hohe Warte and Hurbanovo were used as reference homogeneous ones. One compiled air temperature series was made for Brno in the above mentioned period from the homogenized series. Long-term changes and periodicity of monthly, seasonal, and annual values of air temperature were examined (smoothing with the Gaussian filter, linear trend, autocorrelation analysis and spectral analysis Blackman and Tukey). The analyses confirmed warming trends in all months ranging from 0.04 (October) to 0.15 (August) °C per 10 years.
The article reports on the Czech Geographical Society meeting which was held on May 14, 1994 on the occassion of 100 years of existence of the Society. It brings information both from the festive part of the meeting which was devoted to the 1OOth anniversary and from the regular sessions. New executive committee has been elected with Mr. Ivan Bičík as president. Information on the activities of the Czech Geographical Society in past years are included, too.
Thobias Gruber (*1744, +1806), a member of the expedition of the Czech Science Society to the Krkonoše range, two centuries ago, should be considered the founder of the physico-geographical research in the Sudeten Mountains, and a pioneer in geomorphological studies, mainly with respect to nivation and glacigenic modelling.
-Change in the activity of persons
-Change in the activity of persons in European regions in
-Median of standardized values of input data for individual types of regions: 1 -moderate, 2 -substantial (main activities), 3 -significant, 4 -extreme, 5 -substantial (secondary activities)
Typology of European regions according to cluster analysis
Change in the activity of persons in European regions in Workplaces category
Due to the current situation, and preventive measures taken to tackle COVID-19, it is crucial to keep society well-informed. Besides media and official news, that often include tabular data, it has also become a new standard for information sources to incorporate a map application or geovisualization. This paper offers a comprehensive and systematic overview describing the most prominent and useful map applications and map visualizations. News outlets should place the same importance on data analysis and interpretation as they place on data visualization. This paper emphasizes the role of geospatial data and analysis during the COVID-19 pandemic and aims to provide insights into the topic in order to better understand the consequences caused by the disease. Specifically, the paper deals with the COVID-19 Community Mobility Reports dataset, offering unique information about changes in human activity due to the pandemic. We show how this dataset can be utilized in terms of geovisual analytics and clustering in order to reveal the spatial pattern of such changes in human behavior.
The COVID-19 Pandemic has become an object of many studies and research papers. Although knowledge of the demographic features of the illness could be important for targeting the prevention, or treatment and evaluation, of the situation, demographic research was rather limited in the initial phases of the pandemic. This paper aims to present the basic demographic aspects of the illness (age-specific and crude rates) and to estimate the effects of age-specific rates and age structures on the overall, generally used measures. For this analysis, Italy, Spain, Germany, and South Korea were selected. The most important differences among these countries were traced based on the age-specific measures and age structures. The demographic method of decomposition was used for the most crucial part of the analysis. It was proven that the level of incidence (particularly at higher ages) is noticeably significant regarding the observed differences. The effects of population age structure and the level of fatality are somewhat weaker.
The global health threat of the novel coronavirus virus SARS-CoV-2 has been the most severe virus since the (A) H1N1 influenza pandemic of 1918–1920. The aim of this paper is to document the spread of the COVID-19 epidemic, on the basis of daily WHO and Chinese CDC data, from the time of the first recorded outbreak of the epidemic. Furthermore, the aim of the paper, based on knowledge of the epidemic cycle in the province of Hubei, is to attempt to simulate the future development of the epidemic in the Czech population. According to the optimistic prediction model, it is expected that the epidemic peak could occur in Czechia in mid-April with a daily number of 700–750 new cases. The total number of people with confirmed disease could reach roughly 20,000 (20% of people may experience serious health complications). The conclusion of the article points to the need for Czechia to build its own infrastructure to cover the needs of the state – especially in the areas of preparedness of medical facilities, medical staff, and the availability of protective equipment and medicines.
The paper deals with the appraisal of the space and time suffrage stability of four traditional political parties - the People's Party, the Socialist Party, the Social Democratic Party and the Communist Party. The evaluation demonstrates connections between voting patterns in 1920-1946 and the spatial differentiation of 1990 election results.
This paper analyzes the automobile accessibility of Prague from the Czech territory over a 100-year period: from the creation of independent Czechoslovakia to the planned completion of an arterial network of motorways and high-speed roadways in 2020. Using publications containing information about the evolution of the road network in Czechia, we digitised historical maps and created geo-databases of the road infrastructure. We then produced accessibility models and performed accessibility analyses for four years - 1920, 1960, 2001 and 2020, using ArcGIS 9.3. These were compared and changes in accessibility were identified using cartographic tools. © Česká geografická společnost, 2011 (Czech Geographic Society).
The paper treats of the development of the concentration of population in zones accessible by public transport means. It shows the basic trends in the changes of population migration in 1921, 1950 and 1980.
This article examines historical patterns in the political preferences of Slovakia’s urban population based on the results of the 1929 democratic parliamentary election. Within the group of 114 towns existing at that time, the authors define nine types of towns with specific patterns of political preferences, identified by using the cluster analysis. Individual types are named according to the dominant political orientation. These types are also characterized in terms of their geographic location, size, ethnic origin and religious makeup, which is essential to explain spatial electoral patterns of the day. The article also delineates the position of individual towns and their clusters in relation to the main cleavages (centre/periphery, conservatism/secularism, right/left) existing within the party system in interwar Slovakia.
The article deals with territorial distribution of four basic groups - Roman Catholics, Protestants, confessors of the Church of Czechoslovakia and atheists - in 1930 and 1991, the only censuses with accessible data about religious structure of population since 1921. The stability of areas with traditionally high support of each denomination and atheists is discussed as same as regional variability of the secularization process.
This paper deals with the development of the largest cities in the whole world in period of 50 years. Author compares the cities of one million or more inhabitants from different points-of-view.
BLAHUSIAKOVA, A, MATOUSKOVA, M. (2012): Analysis of floods in the upper course of the Hron River in 1930-2010. Geografie, 117, No. 4, pp. 415-433. - The main focus of this research is concentrated on the flood analyses in the upper course of the Hron River in the period 1930-2010. The study includes an evaluation of the flood seasonality, frequency and extremity in two periods 1930-1991 and 1992-2009. The year 2010 has been added because of a very high amount of precipitation between May September 2010 which caused extreme flooding. The most extreme flood in the 20th century occurred in October 1974. At the gauging station Banska Bystrica, discharge values reached 560 m(3).s(-1) which corresponds to the 100-year flood. In the last decade, extreme floods occurred in years 2002 and 2010. The main reason for the flooding was an intense rainfall and local storms with high amount of precipitation. The frequency analysis (in equally long periods 1950-1979 and 1980-2009) proved that there is a higher frequency of floods since 1980 (17 in the period 1950-1979 and 27 between 1980-2009). Higher water levels during floods were reached in the period 1950-1979. The summer floods dominate in both observed periods, but winter floods also occurred very often (7 floods in the period 1950-1979 and 12 in 1980-2009). This is due to the hollow relief of the upper course of the Hron River.
Through the use of orthophotomaps from 1938 and 1952, this paper examines the development of horizontal channels of selected rivers in mountain areas of the Bohemian Massif. Two study sites in northern and southern part of Bohemian Massif were analysed in order to evaluate changes in river channels under similar natural conditions. Developments on the Upper Jizera River and its tributary, the Jizerka River, were investigated for the time period of 1938-2012. The Upper Vltava (Moldau) river, along with its tributaries, was studied in regards to developments taking place over the period of 1952-2012. Historical orthophotomaps were georeferenced and river banks were subsequently determined through the use of ArcGIS software. Both sites are situated in wide valleys with a low gradient, representing an exceptional relief in generally mountainous regions. Channel changes are documented via fluvial lakes, paleomeander remnants and meander cut-offs. Together with high precipitation rates in both basins, periods of extreme floodings seem to have a significant influence on channel development and transformation. Lateral erosion is somewhat less intense when compared to other rivers in similar natural environments across Central Europe. The estimated maximum lateral erosion in the Upper Jizera River basin is 0.5 m.year(-1), whereas in the Vltava River basin, the lateral erosion reaches up to 1.1 m.year(-1)
Geography is a science developed as a scientific branch studying immediate environment of the human society. Geography always studied the geographical milieu of the human society. The author analyses environmental studies of Czech geographers in the period 1945-1985. Czech geographers substantially contributed to the study of protection and formation of the environment in the Czech Socialist republic in the above mentioned period. Many important papers were published. But there are still further possibilities to contribute to the protection and formation of the optimal environment of the socialist society.
– Index of change (axis x, % of total area of Czechia) in the last one and a half century recounted per average of one year in the observed period. Notes: I: The Revolution of 1848/49; The abolition of serfdom, land becoming a free good; Climax of the Agricultural Revolution; The dominant impact of differential rent I; The extensive development of agriculture. II: The transition to agricultural intensification; Greater impact of differential rent II; Competition with cheaper grain from the U.S.A.; The drawn-out Agrarian crisis. III: A boom in agriculture; the 1 st phase of the technological-scientific revolution in agriculture; the impact of World War I. IV: The 1 st land reform; Onset of the use of electricity and the combustion engine in agriculture; State monopoly on grain trade; Policy of customary protection of the domestic agrarian market. V: The large economic crisis of 1929–1933; the impact of World War II; German occupation of Czechia. VI: The transfer of the Czech Germans 1945–1948; The 2 nd land reform; Extensive development of the economy and its nationalization; Collectivization of agriculture. VII: Economic depression; Attempts at agricultural intensification deepening; Completion of collectivization. VIII: Economic stagnation; Joining of small cooperatives and state farms; Simplification of rural landscapes with large plots of land; The Agricultural Land Protection Act approved in 1976. IX: Re-introduction of the market economy; Restitution of private property and land; Capital transition of cooperatives (cooperatives of owners) and privatization of state farms; Increase of small-scale farming; Competition between Czech and more better subsidized agricultural products from abroad. X: 2000–2007: Preparation and realization of accession to the EU; Competition between Czech and the better subsidised agriculture of the older EU Members States. Source: Database LUCC Czechia 2001, Charles University in Prague. The index of change shows the balance of areas in Czechia from the total area on which total of any category of land changes occurred. 
This paper outlines the recent state of environment in former Czechoslovakia on the background of some historico-geographical features. Special attention is devoted to the period 1948-1989. Main trends in unfavourable environmental changes, their political, social and economic causes, connections and consequences are discussed. Some possible solutions to the recent environmental situation are inducated. -from Author
The paper gives basic information about concrete results of the historico-geographic research in the CSSR during the last thirty years. The main attention is paid to the results achieved in the Institute of Czechoslovak and World History of the CSAS, which is the basic institution of historico-geographic research in Czechoslovakia.
The paper treats of the increase in the number of inhabitants and their territorial distribution from 1961 to 1980. It describes general trends as well as regional differences.
The paper deals with basic tendencies of development and changes in the geographical distribution of Czechoslovak industry in the period 1962-1988 divided into three stages with respect to the development of the sectorial structure of economy and long-term process of industrialisation on the Czechoslovak territory. The analysis is based on employment rate data. Part 1 of the paper evaluates sectorial development of Czechoslovak economy in comparison with selected developed countries. An extensive economic development in the period 1948-1989 resulted in a large-scale increase of employees. Share of economically active population exceeded 50%. The development of economy and industry was closely connected with location and geographical distribution. In Part 2 of the paper, the development and changes in the geographical distribution of Czechoslovak industry in the period 1962-1988 is analysed. The paper reassumes on the studies of long-term process of industrialisation in the period 1780-1960 by J.Mares. In the period 1780 to 1948, the centre of industrial development was in northern part of Czech lands and in major cities Praha, Brno and Plzen. Establishing the so-called "socialist' system in February 1948 resulted in a fundamental change of geographical and geopolitical position and orientation and of economic policy. Long-lasting economic and industrial development and localisation was interrupted. The socialist period was characterised by a shift towards greater industrial development in the whole of Slovakia, especially in periods 1962-1967, 1967-1978 and 1978-1988. A significant industrial shift towards Slovakia, which began in the 1930s and accelerated after 1945 and 1948, peaked in the period 1962-1988. In 1988, 46.4% of all Slovak industrial employees originated from this period. Number of industrial employees were either stable or declined first of all in traditional regions of Czech lands. Such development was closely tied with structural changes, with heavy industry playing the main role. Weakening of the light industry affected the traditional Sudety industrial belt. A boom in Slovakia and eastern Moravia has been reflected in creation of a strong industrial region along the Slovak-Moravian border, where the industrial intensity almost reached the level of most industrial areas. Geographical distribution of Czechoslovak industry in 1988 reflects the situation before an important historical change. Czechoslovakia appears again on the historical intersection after 1989, when the socialist system collapsed and geopolitical position and orientation again have been changed. An effort to rejoin the interrupted development before 1948 is evident. New stage of long-term development and geographical distribution of economy and industry and of differentiation among individual regions will take place. -from English summary
The evaluation concerns selected indices of oxygen regime and of basic physical and chemical indices: BSK 5 , N-NO 3 ⁻ , N-NH 4 ⁺ , P-PO 4 ³⁻ , the total phosphorus and dissolved matters. A particular attention is paid to a comparison of average levels for the whole observed period and for the last five years. The indices of quality are selected to register mainly local sources of pollution which most influence the quality of water in the Ohře river and in its affluents.
The aim of this article is to analyze the motives of some of the decisions made in the Norwegian urban and regional planning and to illustrate them on several issues and cases from recent years. It argues for a more social behavioural approach in study, including more attention being paid to the perceptions of both the researchers and the politicians involved in planning and planning decisions, as well as to the socio-economic context of their decisions.
The second introductory report, delivered on the 14th Congress of the Czechoslovak geographers in Levice, is printed here in the Czech language in the full form. The author evaluates here the development of the geography jn the world and compares it with the development of the geography namely in the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic. In the conclusion he engages himself in the perspectives of this line for the course of the nearest three years. He emphasizes the necessity of solving theoretical problems, geographical prognoses in the frame of the situation in ČSSR concerning the reorganization of the geographic instructions at schools of all grades.
The authors analyse precipitation and runoff in the drainage basin of the upper and middle Jizera during the great flood, August 8-10, 1978, caused by extraordinary intensive precipitation in the area of the Jizerské hory (Mts.) and the western Krkonoše (Giant Mts.). The flood caused changes in river beds and on flood-plains and much damage for the national economy.
In 1978 the Institute was engaged in research for the third year of the 6th Five-Year Plan. Significant tasks were completed, including an analysis of the potential of industry and the compilation of the system for landscape protection, and ideas to combat soil erosion. Research in progress is summarised and most important publications listed.- after English summary
Top-cited authors
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  • Charles University in Prague
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  • Charles University in Prague
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  • Charles University in Prague
Miroslav Marada
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Zdeněk Kučera
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