Geoforum

Published by Elsevier
Online ISSN: 0016-7185
Publications
Article
High homicide rates constitute a major public health problem in the United States. In the South high rates have been historically conspicuous, and have contributed to the elevated level in the U.S. compared to other countries at a comparable stage of development. This research illustrates the historical persistence of homicide in the South and presents a regionalization of U.S. states based on their quinquennial homicide profiles since 1935. Several social indicators are plotted against trends in lethal violence for the homicide regions. The analysis suggests a pattern of rates declining away from a core region in Alabama and Georgia, and some convergence between the high rates of the South and the increasing rates of other regions. Southern homicide rates remain high in spite of suggestions that cultural differences between the South and other regions have eroded to insignificance.
 
Article
"The study of the urban and rural growth in the State of Bahia [Brazil] during the period of 1940-80 is the purpose of this research. This study was done through an integrated analysis of the annual geometric growth rates, and the application of several growth models. The analysis showed that the urbanization and 'de-ruralization' processes were intense and that this trend will be stronger in the near future." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt
 
Article
"The general characteristics and the growth 1961-1971 of class 1 cities (those with more than 100,000 population in 1971) in India are examined. An unexpected correlation shows that the larger cities are more specialized, and growing faster. A factor analysis reduces the original variables to apparently significant factors, but these fail to classify the individual cities convincingly. An alternative simple classification of cities in terms of growth rates and degree of specialization shows strong regional components, dividing India into an emerging system of dynamic interdependent cities, and areas of stagnation and lack of specialization."
 
Article
"Using preliminary figures from the 1981 Census, this paper details recent population shifts at a variety of areal scales in England and Wales. It compares trends in the 1971-1981 period with those in the previous decade and assesses the relative contributions of net migration and natural change. Within its broad descriptive objectives, the paper considers whether England and Wales has kept abreast of patterns of counter-urbanization that have been claimed for other industrialized nations." The authors propose some definitions for various terms, including decentralization, deconcentration, and counter-urbanization. "The conclusion is drawn that even if the postulated international continuum of changes ranging from urbanization through to counter-urbanization is valid, the limited geographical size of England and Wales will preclude this country from reaching the final stages of such a model. Finally, some policy implications which stem from the recent population redistributions are introduced and some themes for future research are considered."
 
Article
The relevance of the concept of the population turnaround to the analysis of population trends in the Canadian Prairie Provinces between 1971 and 1986 is considered. "Throughout the whole period the trend to greater spatial concentration of the population has continued despite the possibility of greater dispersal. The terms population turnaround or counter-urbanization were found to be too general to summarize the varied changes in the 1970s.... In the 1980s more localized spatial trends are identified, with most places experiencing marginal growth and decline, thereby providing very different characteristics to the previous decade."
 
Article
"Some of [Australia's] most rapid population growth rates have been recorded on the North Coast of New South Wales. The paper sets this migration flow in an international context and looks in detail at the profile, decision-making, and experience of 150 households who moved to the North Coast in the 1986-1991 intercensal period. Results corroborate earlier findings that many coastal migrants are motivated by non-economic considerations. ¿Pull' factors are much more important than ¿push' factors, with the influence of the physical environment, climate and relaxed lifestyle dominant."
 
Article
In the spirited debate over cross-border migration in southern Africa there is one issue that has been conspicuously absent: the environment. The issue is raised in this article not because it necessarily deserves to be part of the debate--it will be argued, in fact that one needs to tread very carefully when drawing any linkages between migration and the environment--but because it has received an inordinate amount of attention in the academic and popular press in other parts of the world (particularly in the US) and could influence South African immigration policy and debates. In this article the authors look specifically at Thomas Homer-Dixon's influential work on environmental scarcity and migration and critically assess its relevance in the southern African context. A brief review of the history of migration and immigration policy in the region is followed by a theoretical and empirical critique of Homer Dixon's writings. It is acknowledged in the article that environmental degradation can (and does) contribute to forced migration and violent conflict in southern Africa, but it is also argued that Homer-Dixon misses some fundamental points about the political economy of (post) apartheid southern Africa and in doing so presents a very problematic interpretation of the causes and effects of migration in the region. The potential for these theories to lend themselves to a reactionary, closed-border approach to immigration in South Africa is also discussed and forms part of the impetus for the writing of this paper.
 
Article
South Africa's new democratic government inherited a system of cross-border migration management rooted in the abusive practices of the past. Under apartheid, employers such as mining companies and White farmers, were exempted from normal immigration legislation. The result was legislation and practices that are in direct conflict with the new government's commitment to transparency, equality, accountability, and fundamental human rights. The practices permitted by this system have continued after 1994. This paper documents the continuities in international migration policy and practice between the old and new South Africa and highlights the dilemmas which the government faces in transforming inherited policy. The paper critically analyzes the regulatory framework of the bilateral labor agreements and the Aliens Control Act. The paper then highlights policy proposals that contravene the discourse of the fortress and assesses, pessimistically, the likelihood of their implementation before the 1999 elections.
 
Article
The relationship between the international migration of skilled labor and government policies affecting migration both directly and indirectly in Sub-Saharan Africa is explored. "At an intercontinental scale the deleterious effects of the global division of labour have not merely been passively accepted; within the continent new patterns of skilled-labour migration have been created by increasingly differentiated economic performance and political relationships. A case study of Kenya, a country of small current net immigration of skilled workers, is used to specify some of the processes that establish the relationships between immigration and emigration policies, and how these have been mediated by conditions for skilled workers."
 
Article
Syringe exchange programs (SEPs) aim to reduce the harm associated with injection drug use (IDU). Although they have been accepted as critical components of HIV prevention in many parts of the world, they are often unwelcome and difficult to set up and maintain, even in communities hardest hit by IDU-related HIV transmission. This research examines socio-cultural and political processes that shape community and institutional resistance toward establishing and maintaining SEPs. These processes are configured and reinforced through the socio-spatial stigmatizing of IDUs, and legal and public policy against SEPs. Overarching themes the paper considers are: (1) institutional and/or political opposition based on (a) political and law enforcement issues associated with state drug paraphernalia laws and local syringe laws; (b) harassment of drug users and resistance to services for drug users by local politicians and police; and (c) state and local government (in)action or opposition; and (2) the stigmatization of drug users and location of SEPs in local neighborhoods and business districts. Rather than be explained by "not in my back yard" localism, this pattern seems best conceptualized as an "inequitable exclusion alliance" (IEA) that institutionalizes national and local stigmatizing of drug users and other vulnerable populations.
 
Article
The health field concept is examined as a framework within which to analyse spatial patterns of mortality. Disease mapping and its problems are investigated with particular reference to ischaemic heart disease in the U.K.
 
Carers for left-behind children in migrant families in Indonesia and Vietnam.
Non-parent carers of left-behind children in migrant families by family line.
Article
Recent increases in female labour migration in and from Asia have triggered a surge of interest in how the absence of the mother and wife for extended periods of time affects the left-behind family, particularly children, in labour-sending countries. While migration studies in the region have shown that the extended family, especially female relatives, is often called on for support in childcare during the mother's absence it is not yet clear how childcare arrangements are made. Drawing on in-depth interviews with non-parent carers of left-behind children in Indonesia and Vietnam, the paper aims to unveil complexities and nuances around care in the context of transnational labour migration. In so doing it draws attention to the enduring influence of social norms on the organisation of family life when women are increasingly drawn into the global labour market. By contrasting a predominantly patrilineal East Asian family structure in Vietnam with what is often understood as a bilateral South-East Asian family structure in Indonesia, the paper seeks to provide interesting comparative insights into the adaptive strategies that the transnational family pursues in order to cope with the reproductive vacuum left behind by the migrant mother.
 
Article
PIP Past and present population trends in Australia since the beginning of European settlement in 1788 are reviewed. Separate consideration is given to urbanization, immigration, internal migration, mortality, and demographic aging.
 
Article
"Highly skilled professional and managerial labour migration has become an important facet of the contemporary world economy. The operations of transnational corporations have created more opportunities for skilled migrants to work abroad.... There is a growing interest amongst economic geographers to examine this form of migration through an appreciation of global economic restructuring, labour market change and world cities. Consequently, this paper introduces a new conceptual framework...[which] is based on the rationale that world cities, and the patterns of labour market demand that exist within them, are of paramount importance in influencing highly skilled professional and managerial labour migration within the world economy. The author uses an example of highly skilled labour migration within the transnational banking sector [in London] to illustrate this new conceptual framework."
 
Article
PIP Research geographers combined LANDSAT imagery analysis and vegetation survey (LANDSAT data interpretation, ground truthing, and quantitative transect sampling) to study the spatial dynamics of forest and woodland areas in the Lake Elementeita watershed in the central Rift Valley of Kenya. Between 1973-1984, trees in forests and woodlands disappeared rapidly from a cover of 152-64 sq. km, i.e. 45-19% of total catchment. The most rapid decrease occurred between 1973-1976 which was associated with immigration into the area in the 1960s and 1970s. Indeed the annual population growth rate in the area was 5.7%. Further most of the population concentrated in the upper and middle catchment areas of Ndunduri, Ngorika, and Nyaituga where the soils and climate were best for commercial crop and livestock farming. This high concentration of people in 1 area along with the high population growth rate contributed greatly to deforestation. In fact, it resulted in a 57.9% loss of total forest and woodland areas. These trees used to cover most of the Ndunduri and Ngorika areas. Agroecosystems have replaced the Juniperus procera and Olea africana forest belts which dominated the Ngorika plains in the past. Further, in 1988, field observations revealed that very limited forest and woodland areas have remained undisturbed. Based on these results and the fact that little substantial efforts towards conservation and afforestation, the researchers predicted that most of the watershed would be with forests and woodlands by 2000. They further noted that deforestation could cause lower water levels in Lake Elementeita, especially during droughts, and worsen soil erosion. Therefore the government should initiate environmental controls in this watershed that match local conditions and the true and increasing needs of the rural population.
 
Article
PIP The introduction to this paper reviews the global economic restructuring that has led to theories of a new international division of labor (NIDL) marked by a global feminization of labor that exploits traditional feminine qualities. The argument is made that the NIDL theory fails to cover international labor migration such as that undertaken by female domestic servants in East and Southeast Asia. After summarizing recent research on international waged domestic labor, it is noted that policies of labor-sending countries have, until recently, reflected concerns with enhancing the flow of remittances home to relieve international debt rather than with the well-being of the workers. The paper goes on to focus on the effect of Singapore's state policies on incoming labor migration. After examining the conditions that created the demand for foreign maids, the paper investigates how state policy facilitated the exploitation of these women and perpetuated the social ideology of housework both as women's work and as non-work. It is shown that the official view that paid or unpaid productive labor belongs to the private domain beyond the purview of the state has detrimental repercussions for foreign domestic helpers. These arguments are bolstered with data from secondary sources and from field work conducted in 1995 involving a survey of 162 matched pairs of foreign domestic helpers and employers and in-depth interviews with 15 workers and 15 employers (13 matched pairs).
 
Article
"This paper uses the official annual population estimates to examine changes in the scale of urban-rural shift in the distribution of the British population since the 1960s. These reveal that the level of population deconcentration at regional and more local scales stood at its highest at the beginning of the 1970s and that since the mid 1970s the rate of population loss experienced by London and several other large cities has diminished markedly. An analysis of the components of population change reveals that trends in net migration have been primarily responsible, though generally reinforced by trends in natural change rates. It is concluded that...most of [the 1970s] featured the downwave of a longer cycle of decentralisation which had its origins at least as early as the first half of the 1960s."
 
Article
"This paper examines trends in British emigration using the results of the International Passenger Survey. Settlement emigration has declined in importance while in the early 1980s temporary skilled labour transfers have become dominant. Two parallel mechanisms are proposed to explain the regional patterns of skilled emigration, with particular emphasis being given to the role of international recruitment agencies in controlling which skills are sought in certain regional labour markets."
 
Article
The preponderance of females in society has steadily decreased since the last war. This paper uses Metropolitan Economic Labour Areas to examine the differential effect of these changes and suggests associations with retirement migration and increasing female economic activity rates.
 
Article
"This paper is addressed to the interplay of careers and internal labour markets (ILMs) in explaining the international migration of professional and technical personnel, particularly within transnational corporations (TNCs). It begins by reviewing the current state of the theoretical art, focusing on five main elements: the international spatial division of labour; the concept of career; the organization of ILMs; the lubrication of the migration system by recruitment, placement and relocation agencies; and reintegration of returning expatriates. There follows a discussion of selected aspects of the volume and characteristics of ILM migrations among the highly-skilled, using government, employer organization's and individual company data."
 
Article
Aspects of migration between Puerto Rico and the United States are explored. "This examination of the multiple-movement behaviour of a sample of Puerto Rican women seeks to unravel the relations between their circulation patterns, their family and contextual situations and their declared motives for undertaking international mobility. The leading question asked in this study is whether this international mobility behaviour of Puerto Rican women is autonomous or dependent upon the movement or decision-making of others. Structural theory suggests the latter is most likely, but behavioural divergence occurs in return movement."
 
Problems of presentation with suppressed data: reproduced from D E W D N E Y and RHIND, 1975. 
Chi-square measures for different observed and expected values*
Numbers of different EDs with high deprivation scores on four indicators
Article
"This paper addresses itself to one of the problems inherent in any spatial analysis of census data, namely the variable size of the enumeration units. This variation renders some proportions unstable, due to the small numbers involved. Attempts to overcome this, using visual methods, can be unsatisfactory, whilst doing nothing to aid statistical analysis. Chi-square maps are suggested as a satisfactory alternative in both contexts, and data for Reading, Berkshire are displayed to illustrate this. These maps suggest that some inferences, based upon indicators derived from proportions, may be unsound."
 
Article
PIP The demographic transition in twentieth-century India is analyzed using census data. The authors first examine the extent to which 1921 and 1951 can be identified as the two critical points in the demographic transition process. Particular attention is paid to regional differences in the pace of the transition process. The results confirm the overall validity of the two selected years as critical points in the transition although the timing of the transition was significantly different when examined from a regional perspective. They also indicate that the demographic transition model is appropriate to the Indian experience although the threshold levels at which changes occurred were different.
 
Article
PIP The patterns of interregional migration within Slovakia from 1970 to 1990 and their consequences for the Slovakian population are analyzed. The author calculates the migration efficiency, or net movement of population relative to total migration, for each administrative district. He concludes that interregional migration has declined both absolutely and as a percentage of total migration, and that a trend toward short-distance migration has become evident. As migration between the north-western and south-eastern part of the country has declined, intraregional rural-urban migration has increased.
 
Article
PIP Factors fueling urbanization in Guanacaste province, Costa Rica are explored and how the pattern of urban growth reflects gender divisions of labor is considered. Urbanization in Latin America has been due largely to the expansion of economic activities in urban centers, but in Guanacaste, rural employment persists among the poor. Towns in this peripheral province have witnessed no major expansion in urban-based employment opportunities. On the basis of an in-depth survey of urban dwellers in the province's 3 leading towns (Liberia, Canas, and Santa Cruz), an attempt is made to explain Guanacaste's urbanization. The 1st section discusses the migration, urbanization, and economic development in Costa Rica, as well as Guanacaste. The 2nd section provides the findings of the survey of 350 low-income, urban households in Guanacaste, focusing on the households' reported reasons for moving. Section 3 examines household survival strategies in the areas surveyed, paying close attention to gender and age selectivity of short-term out-migration to external labor markets. Section 4 interprets the apparent connection between gender-differentiated labor migration and the dominance of reproductive factors in household decisions to move to urban centers. Section 5 considers the implications of the migration patterns on women, while section 6 discusses the wider implications of the study. The study reveals that in Guanacaste, urbanization is more strongly linked to the reproductive (e.g., housing and welfare) needs of household survival than to productive (employment and income) needs.
 
Article
Mauritius provides 1 of the outstanding cases of modern fertility reduction in the Third World, yet there has been little analysis and virtually no comparative assessment of this important demographic progression. It is argued that fertility decline in Mauritius has been hindered by cultural composition, assisted only modestly by ongoing development, but aided significantly by family planning program intervention and by a remarkable wide recognition at government and individual levels of the diseconomies associated with population growth in a congested society; comparisons are made with other densely peopled, small islands. Spatial variations in fertility and in family planning activity are slight, but Western economic theories of fertility are found to be helpful in interpreting significant temporal fluctuations.
 
Article
PIP Changes in settlement patterns in Ireland over the past two decades are reviewed. It is noted that the population growth that has occurred has had a particular impact on the rural areas near cities and towns. The implications of these changes are discussed.
 
Article
"Socialist urbanization is not a new model of modern urbanization. East-Central European socialist countries replicate...the global process. The specific features of their urbanization result partly from their historical development--especially their belated urbanization--and partly from their political system. Behind the facade of East-West differences lies a common underlying pattern of causality: the modern process of urbanization. Capitalist and socialist political systems have different mechanisms by which to express the process but these result in similarities in long-term urban development."
 
Article
The author links changes in regional employment with demographic changes in New England during the relative economic boom that occurred in the region during the 1980s. It is noted that during this period, "New England had a very slow rate of natural population growth. The relatively high rate of growth in jobs coupled with the relatively stable population has produced labour shortages in parts of the region. It is demonstrated that the labour supply has become dependent on migrants from other regions. If the economic expansion continues, the region must significantly increase its net migration gains. If immigration to the region remains sluggish, the revival will be short-lived." This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1988 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 54, No. 3, Fall 1988, p. 428).
 
Article
"Work on the growing international phenomenon of return migration requires a base of comparative knowledge on the less conspicuous process of inter-regional return migration. Three questionnaire studies in the North-East of England identified about one-quarter of respondents as 'returned migrants' to that region. This group [is] attracted to work in new factories, but their economic status has not been markedly improved by geographic mobility."
 
Article
"The few existing empirical studies of high-status migrants in Western European cities suggest that classical urban models describing and explaining the segregation of immigrant groups in the city do not apply to these movers. When compared to low-status movers of the recent past, high-status movers display certain marked differences, particularly in the presence of dependants from the outset and in voluntary extensive employer involvement in housing provision or search, but there are also similarities in their restriction to the privately-rented housing sector. The characteristics and location of high-status migrants and of gastarbeiter in Vienna are here compared, demonstrating that there is a need for new urban models to deal with high-status migrant settlement in Western European cities."
 
Article
PIP 1976-1986 data from the National Census of Population and Housing were analyzed to examine the spatial patterns of internal migration of women and men in Iran within its Islamic patriarchal cultural system. The researcher also organized 1986 data into two interprovincial migration matrixes for men and women. Women were spatially as mobile as men (urban, 16.7% for men and 17% for women; rural, 8.4% and 8.9%, respectively). Gender spatial mobility patterns during the 10 years included: migration streams from nine provinces consistently led to Tehran province, most migration flows to Tehran and most other provinces originated from Khuzistan, East Azerbaijan province still continued to lose population (about 500,000), and out-flows generally originated from the provinces affected by the Iran-Iraq war and went to the central and eastern provinces. The strongest determinants of women's migration was men's migration ratio and the road distance between the origin and destination. Reasons for these strong associations were few employed women ( 10%), strong family ties, and traditional cultural values (e.g., women tend not to travel alone). So their migration patterns tended to be associational rather than autonomous. Despite the fact that internal migration patterns of men and women were the same, the causes, processes, and consequences of migration were still very gender-specific in Iran. There are no signs of change in the near future.
 
Article
The aim of this paper is to review the spatial mobility process with particular reference to urbanization in Kenya. The paper outlines the mobility process in Kenya its contributions to the development problems and the strategy suggested for containing the situation. The paper while underlining the demographic context of the spatial population change argues that the intensifying problems of the changes are an inseparable part of the socioeconomic transformation and conceptual framework through which the process of modernization is taking place in Africa. It argues that from the national point of view Kenya shares with the rest of Africa the demographic characteristics typical of economic transitional stage. The spatial population change is characterised by accelerating rural-urban drift particularly of youth with minimal educational background. This drift illustrates the centre periphery relationship inherited from the colonial era and it explains the increasing urban primacy of the capital city of Nairobi. (excerpt)
 
Article
"In Norway the post-war period has been characterised by centralisation of population--nationally, regionally and locally. In the mid-sixties the process slowed down and in the seventies the proportion of the population living in the nine urban regions declined. Only on the local level does the concentration process continue, but less drastically than before. With a significant exception, Gibbs' model of population concentration gives an adequate description of the changes."
 
Article
This study attempts to determine the effective population-carrying capacity of land in Pakistan under the existing socio-economic system. Statistical analysis provides the structural framework in which agricultural activities influence the concentration of population in Pakistan. Regression techniques have been used to show which factors are significant in determining the pressure of population in the country, and to present areal variations between the observed and predicted values of population density.
 
Article
The study of urbanisation under central planning, while rich in empirical documentation, still lacks a theory that can take recent advances in our understanding of the socialist (or formerly socialist) societies into account. However, one of a host of new developments in urbanisation studies, the model devised by Tolley, holds great promises in store to inform our endeavours to appreciate the circumstances under which the rural-to-urban drift might take place in a variety of settings. This prompts an effort to evaluate the model's potential contribution towards an improved comprehension of urbanisation in socialist polities. Although previous studies indicate that Tolley's model would seem to fit developments in China and that of other Soviet-type economies in a rather congenial manner, it is here suggested that it is not fully appropriate. As the original model is premised upon carefully specified causal links which are not present under central planning, the conclusions drawn from an apparent congruence of patterns derived from nationally aggregated statistics are spurious at best. Therefore, it is argued, while useful in other contexts Tolley's model sheds little light on urbanisation under central planning. More generally, scholars taking an interest in comparative urbanisation would benefit from studying the processes which mold the patterns in individual cases rather than merely comparing the patterns as such.
 
Article
"This paper examines the nature of [urban-based economic growth in Vietnam] and contends that the present size of Ho Chi Minh City and Hanoi are much greater than official figures suggest. It then goes on to review the situation with regard to urban poverty, basic needs and the environment to illustrate the extent to which this unacknowledged growth is not only threatening the sustained expansion of those cities, but also the sustainability of the economic growth on which the country is so reliant."
 
Conference Paper
A new result about the reliability models of reconfigurable digital systems is derived and then applied to the problem of establishing ultra reliability by fault injection experiments. The result shows that the complicated fault recovery procedure can be adequately described by a few parameters. The resulting reduction in modeling and experimental effort brings establishing extremely low probabilities of failure within experimental reach. There is a discussion of the differences between this approach and previous efforts. The result is used to design experiments for several example systems
 
Article
This paper examines the spatial dynamics of urbanism in Rio de Janeiro during the early nineteenth century. Conventional narratives of modernisation fail to capture the complexities of this moment, between 1808 and 1821, when the city replaced Lisbon as the capital of the Portuguese empire. The position of colony and metropolis were inverted, Portuguese absolutism was bolstered by British liberalism, and a market-economy arose alongside the expansion of slavery. As the newly-created imperial capital, Rio felt the effects of these various transformations: the physical boundaries of the city rapidly expanded, its economy diversified and the cultural life of the city was re-shaped. Our aim in this paper is to understand this particular moment of urban transformation as a product of the intersection of global networks of trade, slavery and industrial capitalism. Rather than depicting the historical geography of the city as a passive space for European conquest and expansion, we consider the extent to which its urban dynamics were shaped by a distinct local geography of globalisation. In particular, we examine the interrelated spatialities that are part and parcel of the modernising process.
 
Article
Recently, geographers and other scholars have reappraised the state’s spatial properties, roles, and strategies. According to these interpretations, modern states seek to control their subjects and coordinate economic development through various “rational” and “scientific” strategies that involve the standardization, transformation, and bureaucratization of space, territory, and landscape. Through this process social relations are increasingly configured through state discourses and institutions. The role of public health institutions in the development of state spatialities has been relatively underappreciated. This paper explores the establishment and early action of a malaria control campaign in Northwest Argentina, in the early twentieth century. I make three arguments: first, in creating a malaria control program, the Argentine state did not merely respond to a given “social fact” but rather was the key participant in constructing the “malaria problem”. Second, in response to this problem the Argentine state created a new technical-administrative territory, “the malarious zone”, which encompassed several provinces and defined the federal government’s jurisdiction for public health action. Finally, state actors came to understand the malaria problem, and potential solutions to it, through specific “rational” practices of the modern state: surveying, mapping, measurement, and statistical compilation. In its early years, the malaria campaign did not so much control the disease itself, as much as establish control over the “malaria question”, making it indisputably a state project.
 
Article
In Zambia’s Copperbelt as in most of the developing world, the water sector is undergoing reforms targeted at promoting an active participation of the private sector. Conventional wisdom suggests that the private sector will be better able to achieve universal access as opposed to the public sector which hitherto has failed to deliver. Using archival materials from the Copperbelt Province, this paper however argues that in countries like Zambia where economic enterprise was driven by private capital, access to water has always been tied to an active involvement of the private sector. The full story of failure to provide universal access to potable water cannot be told without examining this historical role of the private sector and its relationship with the public sector. At the same time, contemporary policy debates can benefit from the resonance of historical debates around economic efficiency, demand management, health and access in the production and consumption of water.
 
Number of "colonists" in the Pontine Marshes, 1932-1939 (Compiled by author from data in Mazzocchi Alemanni 1938, in Parisella 1986b: table 8: 216)
b: Internal migratory flows in Italy in the 1930s (adapted from Treves 1976: map 4: 193). 
a: Internal migratory flows in Italy in the 1920s (adapted from Treves 1976: map 3: 192). 
Article
This paper investigates the Italian fascist regime’s use of internal colonisation as part of a wider ruralisation policy aimed at promoting population growth, curbing rural–urban migration, staunching emigration, and halting the spread of industrial urbanisation. By focusing on the case study of the Pontine Marshes, the paper demonstrates how, through targeted selection procedures aimed at displacing defined social and political undesirables, migrants were chosen and effectively coerced into migrating to the “fascist” landscape of the marshes. The area, reclaimed and developed in the 1930s, was celebrated as a sign of the regime’s engineering and social success. The paper utilises Antonio Gramsci’s thought on hegemony, and argues that the overt use of coercion hints at the fact that fascism, although ideologically totalitarian and hegemonic, was contested. Although statisticians, demographers and state bureaucrats were organised and institutionalised in the construction of hegemony based on consent, fascism based itself more in coercion than in passive consent in the case of internal colonisation.
 
Article
PIP The character of changes in settlement patterns in both urban and rural areas of the northern German Democratic Republic between 1945 and 1976 is examined. The impact of a government policy aimed at concentrating population into fewer but larger central areas is analyzed, with a focus on the authoritative nature of the policy and on the desired and achieved goals.
 
Article
This paper surveys grassland management in China during the socialist period that began in 1949, examining state policies and local practices as well as views of nature underlying both. The case study is set in Uxin Ju, a Mongol-dominated community in western Inner Mongolia that enjoyed a national reputation in the 1960s for its enthusiasm in the campaign to transform its sandy land. This paper adopts a historical–cultural perspective. The grassland is a historical category whose formulation by the state has changed with the political–economic ideologies of the regime. At the same time, local views of the grassland have also changed, which facilitated the adoption of aggressive grassland practices. By examining grassland management and local change as a cultural process, this paper seeks to understand a dimension of grassland change that has not attracted much study in China. In several ways this paper contributes to the study of environmental history in socialist China. First, it adds to a complex appraisal of regional environmental change during the Mao era by demonstrating both grassland improvement and degradation in Uxin Ju. Second, this paper locates the agency of the local people in both predictable and surprising ways, both in resistance to and appropriation of state policies. Third, by covering the entire socialist period from 1949, this paper lends insights into the understanding of continuities and breaks in grassland management between the Mao (1949–1976) and post-Mao (1976–present) eras.
 
Article
This article examines the epistemological reconstitution in Japan—from Eisei (hygiene) to Kankyo (environment and ecology)—in the 1960s, particularly focusing on Yokkaichi city in the Mie prefecture that was infamous for environmental pollution. Post World War II, Yokkaichi port and its petrochemical industrial complexes were regarded as a symbol of Japan’s development. Referred to as ‘a million dollar night’s view’ for its ability to provide light the entire day, it played a central role in the country’s industrial reconstruction. Due to its reputation for ‘nature’-filled countryside, many enjoyed swimming at Yokkaichi despite the presence of the nearby industrial plants. Both these facts imply that people did not realize the risks posed by the dirtiness of the wastewater and the fumes emitted by the plants, an ignorance that may be traced back to the epistemic constitution of hygiene in Japan at the time. Since modernization, the government had adopted the idea of hygiene to control infectious and venereal diseases. The Department of Interior in 1873, and later, the Ministry of Health and Welfare in 1938 were also instituted to discipline human aesthetics through bio-politics. In the 1960s, when diseases of unknown origins began to appear and ‘scientific’ researches made the risks of wastewater and fumes visible, a new idea, Kankyo (which included but went beyond that of hygiene), was implemented to mitigate these risks. This transition saw the landscape of ‘a million dollar night’s view’ being transformed into a symbol of injustice and became a basis for grassroots political acts.
 
Article
The study of short-term electoral change at a fine spatial scale is frequently hampered by the unavailability of suitable ecological data, let alone data on individuals. In Britain, most studies of change have used the measure of swing. An alternative is presented here, using national survey data to predict short-term electoral change in each English constituency. The deviations between the observed and predicted values are the dependent variables in an analysis of the ecological determinants of short-term change. Three independent variables are suggested: the neighbourhood effect; campaign spending; and constituency type (reflecting the spatial division of labour). All three contribute substantially in regression analyses, although some of the coefficients relating to campaign spending are difficult to interpret.
 
Article
The aim of this paper is to discuss the phenomena of socio-political fragmentation of urban space, extended suburbanisation and metropolitan deconcentration, which have been important features of Brazilian urbanisation since the 1980s (metropolitan deconcentration partly since the 1970s). At the beginning it profiles the recent evolution of the country's economy, in order to make sense of the worsening situation in terms of exclusion and violence in big Brazilian cities since the 1980s. Against this background, recent trends both in terms of socio-spatial segregation and social conflict within cities (formation of enclaves dominated by drug trafficking organisations and self-segregation of the élites as a response to this) and in terms of the growing attractiveness of areas outside the biggest metropolises (extended suburbanisation and metropolitan deconcentration) are analysed. The main focus is the socio-political dimension of Brazilian urbanisation in the 1980s and 1990s, which has been undervalued by analysts.
 
Article
The 1982 U.S. summary data for retail sales (Census of Retail Trade) are analyzed in light of trends since 1958. The metropolitan economy consists of four sectors, namely CBDs, major retail centres (MRCs), non-CBD/MRC retailing and direct marketing. Total U.S. retail sales declined by some 1.6% during 1977–1982. Metropolitan retail sales increased, however, more than metropolitan population growth. This is related to the construction of outer-ring superregional centres which serve also exurban customers. Within metropolitan areas CBDs continued their absolute and relative decline, while MRCs grew, keeping their share in the metropolitan economy. Non-CBD/MRC retailing is the largest and increasingly growing sector. It represents demographic and economic changes that lead to an increased emphasis on speciality strip and small-town retailing. Direct marketing, while constantly growing, has not yet become a real threat to conventional store retailing.
 
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It has been argued that in recent years nutritional differences between developed countries have been diminishing. This paper examines the geography of food consumption in Europe and the former U.S.S.R., using the Food and Agriculture Organization's Food Balance Sheets 1986–1988. There are now few significant differences in total calorie supply per capita per day, but there remain marked contrasts in the relative and absolute importance of the starchy staples and livestock products. Differences in sugar and vegetable oils are examined and also the importance of milk and different types of meat. The significance of income per capita in determining spatial variations is discussed. It is found to be important in determining the broad pattern of consumption, but not of most individual foods.
 
Top-cited authors
Jamie Peck
  • University of British Columbia - Vancouver
Jessica Budds
  • University of East Anglia
Jonathan V. Beaverstock
  • University of Bristol
Scott Prudham
  • University of Toronto
Philip Cooke
  • Høgskulen på Vestlandet