Geodesy and Cartography

Published by Vilnius Gediminas Technical University
Online ISSN: 2029-6991
While continuing researches on ancient cartography (Lukoševičius 2013) the publication is aimed at viewing maps of Lithuania Minor and Prussia in the perspective of historical events, with a special emphasis on most important historical events as well as cartography development moments. The method used is analysis of different maps, by different authors, found in cartographical archives. The article presents the authors and designers 48 maps of Lithuania Minor and Prussia and discusses map characteristics. It also provides links that are helpful for the readers interested in a more detailed studies of specific maps. Summarizing research results the authors conclude that ancient maps where Lithuania Minor is marked are true historical witnesses helping to understand long and complicated formation process of Lithuania Minor and the state of Lithuania; however the analysis alone is insufficient to fully reveal its historic concept.
The performed investigations are aimed at estimating the accuracy of image processing using different image point measurements. For this purpose, digital close-range images were processed applying photogrammetric software PhotoMod. The measurements have been made employing two methods: stereo and manual mode. Two or more overlapping images are matched when control and tie points are estimated. The images of two objects have been taken for experimental investigation. Control points and tie points were measured switching either to stereo or manual mode applying the required software. The control points of the first object are distributed on the surface of a smooth facade and on the surface of different (a few) levels. The process of image matching includes the calculation of the correlation coefficient, vertical parallax residuals and the root mean square of the object. Following image transformation (adjustment processes) to the created 3D model, the accuracy of the measured points is determined. All these values show the precision of close-range photogrammetric processes. Such accuracy satisfies requirements for creating a proper digital terrain model and orthophoto generation.
The paper deals with the calibration of a flat angle measuring system. The article describes a comparative method for using a multi-angular prism (polygon) with autocollimator along with an angle measuring system. The components of angle measuring system is analysed in the paper. The article also presents polynomial error approximation and the obtained results of calibrating the precision angle measuring system as well as discusses preliminary assumptions for further research. © 2013 Copyright Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU) Press Technika.
Coordinates of points in the local network using a clas- sical geodesy method
Differences in elevation for individual points in relation to the point 13 determined in a trigonometric way.
This article deals with monitoring the stability of the geodetic base Skalka. Introduction of the article briefly describes the history and purpose of the geodetic base Skalka, gradually resulting in the current characteristics of the base. Main part of the article deals with monitoring the stability of points of the inner and partly outer part of the base. The result is the evaluation of performed geodetic works with the assessment of the testing base stability. Identified vertical and horizontal shifts show that the base can be considered stable in terms of both geological and geodetic points of view.
Schematic representation of the main base in t Ott's triangulation network
Ott´s system of coordinates
Overall representation of Ott´s triangulation in the OKR
Division of the Ostrava area into two parts for purposes of triangulation works in the stable cadastre system
The coal district system of coordinates for mines located in the Ostrava region was established in 1858 by Dipl. Ing. František Ott, Surveyor of the Emperor Ferdinand Northern Railway (Severní dráha Ferdinandova). Coordinates of all significant points of existing mine shafts, characteristic mine surface points, and points in terrain, were determined by establishing mine triangulation within the Western part of the Ostrava-Karviná Coal District (OKR) on an area comprising almost 58 km2. Said points were stabilized by granite stones. The reason to establish this system of coordinates was to determine the points of a uniform basis of coordinates for making surveys both on the mine surface, i.e. for connecting the underground mine working, and simultaneously for removing any discrepancies occurring with respect to mine boundaries among particular proprietors, i.e. to allow for exact demarcation of mine areas bestowed to them by the state. Thus, nowadays Ott's system of coordinates that used to be applied during the period, in which within the OKR redevelopment works took place, like abatement the coal mining consequences.
While continuing researches on ancient cartography the publication is aimed at viewing maps of Lithuania Minor and Prussia in the perspective of historical events, with a special emphasis on most important historical events as well as cartography development moments. The method used is analysis of different maps, by different authors, found in cartographical archives. The article presents the authors and designers 37 maps of Lithuania Minor and Prussia and discusses map characteristics. It also provides links that are helpful for the readers interested in a more detailed studies of specific maps. Summarizing research results the authors conclude that ancient maps where Lithuania Minor is marked are true historical witnesses helping to understand long and complicated formation process of Lithuania Minor and the state of Lithuania; however the analysis alone is insufficient to fully reveal its historic concept.
The article gives a scientific overview of the graphical documents of the Vilkmerges pavietas (administrative territorial unit) landed estates in the first half of the 19th century of Lithuania. Specifically it analyses plans of possessions of Pakruojis and Seduva landed estates in Upytes pavietas and plans of possessions of landed estates in Rokiskis county. The article analyses the principle of making the plans and their authorship, orientation, scale, conventional signs, environs, technique they are carried out, and elements of their decoration. It also analyses names of settlements, rivers, woods, bogs and peat bogs that are marked on the maps comparing them with their present-day standardised names. The article concludes that toponyms and hydronyms have essentially preserved the elements of identity. More visible changes are observed in the names of lakes. Article in Lithuanian XIX a. Lietuvos dvarų valdų planų ypatumai Santrauka. Straipsnyje aptariami XIX a. pirmos pusės Lietuvos Vilkmergės pavieto dvarų valdų grafiniai dokumentai: Upytės pavieto Pakruojo ir Šeduvos dvarų valdų ir Rokiškio grafystės žemės valdų planai. Nagrinėjami planų sudarymo principai, aptariama autorystė, jų kryptingumas, masteliai, sutartiniai ženklai, apimamos teritorijos, gamybos technika, puošybos elementai. Analizuojami planuose pateiktų gyvenviečių, upių, ežerų, miškų, pelkių ir durpynų pavadinimai ir lyginami su nūdienos sunormintais jų pavadinimais. Konstatuojama, kad vietovardžiai ir vandenvardžiai iš esmės išlikę tapatūs. Labiau pakitę kai kurių ežerų vardai. Prasminiai žodžiai: žemės valdos, dvarai, planų sudarymo principai, vietovardžiai, Pakruojis, Šeduva, Rokiškis, Litviniškės.
This study aims to create a system model that implements the concept of Geovisualization on shoreline changes in Padang city. This implementation is to make it easier to identify shoreline changes. The method used to detect changes is by interpreting satellite imagery with the Modified Normalized Difference Water Index (MNDWI) approach and the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS). The imagery used is Landsat 7 and Landsat 8 from 2000 to 2020. The model is designed with a Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) approach. The results obtained are in the form of twenty shorelines per year as well as the amount of abrasion and accretion values from the interpretation. These results are visualized on an online-based map system that allows users to explore, synthesize, present and analyze the interpretation data. In conclusion, the Geovisualization system model is able to make serial data imagery presented dynamically to facilitate identification of shoreline changes.
The scheme of coordinate transformation from UCS-2000 to the new realization of WGS-84
Scheme of coordinate transformation from UCS-2000 to the old realization of WGS 84
According to the Order of the Ministry of Agrarian Policy of Ukraine, published in 2016, about the procedure for using the national coordinate system UCS-2000, this was the first time officially presented parameters of the Helmert transformation from the UCS-2000 system to the ITRF-2000 system. However, all software products are used for communication between various coordinate systems as the main coordinate system, WGS-84. The Helmert transformation parameters between the UCS-2000 and WGS-84 systems are found for the new realization of WGS-84 (G1762) based on GPS data and the old realization of the WGS-84, based on the US Satellite Navigation System, known as DOPPLER Transit. It is shown that the use of the transformation parameters of the old realization WGS-84 for the processing of present GPS measurements will result in a systematic error of the order of 0.6 m. Obtained transformation parameters can be used as the first approximation to obtain accurate Helmert transformations based on GPS measurements at points with known coordinates in the UCS-2000 system. The described procedure for determining the parameters will be especially useful in the case when a more accurate connection will be established between the systems ITRFyy and WGS-84, than the current one.
Average number of fires per 1000 inhabitants in 2010–2012  
Fires vs. registered crimes in 2012  
Fires vs. constructional materials in 2010–2012  
The paper describes the results of investigation into urban fires in the city of Vilnius, Lithuania in the three-year period of 2010-2012. Cartographic and geospatial analysis of fires is needed due to dynamism of this phenomenon, risks for inhabitants, importance to city's socio-economic development and lack of geographic approach to research of urban fires in Lithuania. The registered fires were mapped and grouped by their type (abandoned building fires, open space fires, fires in tower blocks of flats, garbage can fires, vehicle fires and arsons), cause, location type (open space and premises) and by fatality rate. Spatial distribution of fires at different scales was analysed using cartographic method and spatial analysis with GIS. Some unexpected patterns have been revealed, analysed and compared with building materials that dominate in different areas of the city. It was found out that relative frequency of fires depends on complex parameters of socio-demographic environment whereas constructional materials have little or no impact. We expected to observe a relationship between criminal activities and fires due to similar influencing socio-demographic factors. Positive correlation, though insignificant, supported this hypothesis. The study showed that fire distribution patterns may be very specific for an individual city and difficult to explain by general assumptions. Different methods of spatial, statistical and cartographic analysis must be combined in order to make reliable generalisations.
16 stabile benchmarks of EVRS realization in Latvia
Latvian National First Order Levelling Network consist of 15 polygons and 51 lines and was re-established in 2011. From 1st of December of year 2014 in Latvia Republic is new Latvian normal height system at epoch 2000, 5. Normal heights are widely used in origination and application of geospatial data in civil engineering and quasigeoid computation etc. The main objective of this work is to describe 2nd order leveling network development idea, purpose and process. Essential of work is option, check, used and analyze historical height data, which has all Eastern European countries, and newly measured height data.
An open space could be defined as a space, which is restricted by a surface, that is generated over the physical Earth‘s surface, natural and artificial objects, and in which the distances between its objects are less than given critical tolerance. In other words, we have in mind the moving objects of certain dimensions, which could freely move in such an open space. The technological peculiarities of an open space 3D model generation are analysed. In general, the two sources of data were suggested to apply: the raw LiDAR data and the orthophotomaps. The method for generating an open space surface is presented too. An open space 3D model of the experimental territory was generated. The data of single orthophotomap on a scale of 1:10000 was applied. LiDAR and orthophotomap data is for the year 2009.
The purpose of this work is to increase the accuracy, quality and information content of geodetic surveys of vertical steel tanks by using modern geodetic equipment and creating algorithms for data processing of these observations. Method. In order to increase the information content of data for straightening, it is proposed to calculate the geometric parameters of vertical steel tanks not only in places where data are directly obtained through instrumental observations, but also at any point of the 3D surface of the tank. The paper describes an algorithm for creating a 3D surface of a tank by bicubic spline interpolation (BSI). Results on the basis of the conducted research, it was established that the developed algorithm could be used and the 3D-surface spatial coordinates were determined. The method of determining the geometric parameters of vertical steel tanks by using BSI is improved. Scientific novelty and practical significance. Bicubic spline interpolation (BSI) was used for the first time. It greatly increases the accuracy and informality of the results of the control. The practical significance is confirmed by the control of the geometric parameters of a vertical cylindrical steel tank with a nominal capacity of 75.000 m3 with a floating roof and a double wall of the LODS “Brody” company.
The paper presents triangulation-based accuracy test procedures for PhotoScan 3D modelling software with automatic features including camera station identification, point cloud construction and the generation of polygon networks and polygon net textures. The process starts with establishing the camera resolutions. Then, internal orientation elements of the cameras are established by means of different calibration techniques and comparisons between them are made. 3D models are then tested using diverse model generation parameters and different configurations of sets of images including how each type of calibration affects the resulting 3D model accuracy. To conclude, 3D model accuracy is compared with geodesic surveying results.
Equivalences between 2D and 3D spaces
It is growing interest in creation topological 3D GIS models for many areas such like cadastres, urban planning, environmental monitoring, telecommu-nications, etc. The article presents problems and possible theoretical solutions of creation 3D topological GIS model and calculation topological relationships. The main idea is to use object-oriented model based on simplexes and graph theory, to calculate possible topological relationships using 9-intersections model and to compare with results obtained by other researchers. Article in Lithuanian Topologinio 3D modelio kūrimo geoinformacinėse sistemose ypatumai Santrauka. Sudarant 3D topologinį modelį geoinformacinių sistemų erdvėje iškyla topologinių ryšių tarp objektų trimatėje erdvėje nustatymo problema. Straipsnyje pateikiamos topologinio 3D modelio kūrimo problemos ir nagrinėjamas teorinis topologinių ryšių nustatymo būdas. Ryšiams nustatyti panaudotas objektiškai orientuotas modelis, pagrįstas simpleksais bei grafų teorija. Galimos topologinės sąsajos trimatėje erdvėje nustatytos taikant devynių susikirtimų modelį. Gautų sąsajų tarp objektų trimatėje erdvėje skaičius skiriasi nuo kitų autorių gautų rezultatų, todėl galima patvirtinti, kad jis priklauso nuo pasirinkto modelio, topologinių sąsajų nustatymo būdo bei kitų išankstinių sąlygų. Raktažodžiai. 3D GIS modelis, topologinės sąsajos 3D erdvėje.
Map of Delta state showing the study area 
Distribution of level of study respondent
Distribution of scores of statistical mapping test questions within level of study
Percentage distribution of lecturer response
This research work examined the effectiveness of cartographic method as a tool in the illustration of research data, by examining the role cartographic method has over descriptive method, it effectiveness, and process involved; in Delta State University Abraka. In line with these a structured questionnaires were administered to 200 student from various levels of study; that is from 100 to level and some questionnaire were also administered to some lecturers of the department in other to obtain information on the effectiveness of cartographic method usage. The data generated where analysed using the spearman’s rank correlation and the student’s’ test. For the spearman rank analysis, the test revealed that the calculated t value (8.53) is greater than the tabulated t value (2.35) at 5% level of significance, the student‘t’ test analysis showed that the calculated t value (0.00) is less than the tabulated value (2.78) at 5% level of significance. The result of the research at the end of the day reveals that, there is a strong relationship within all the level of study based on the cartographic technique employed in research data illustration. On the other hand, with the use of statistical diagram and map, it shown that with the information extracted there is no strong relationship between the two methods. Based on the findings, recommendations were made on the use of cartographic method toward adequate coverage of the entire study topic.
The calibration of satellite radar altimetry has been extremely important for altimetry community and studying sea level changes. The main purpose of this contribution is to provide ongoing absolute calibration of altimeter bias near the Southern seas of Iran using the Iranian tide gauge network that equipped with GPS receivers to measure the sea surface heights synchronously in the same geocentric reference frame as the corresponding altimetry records. The sea level time series of coastal tide gauges have been used to estimate the bias, drift and annual/semiannual constituents of altimeter range measurements using (i) linear regression and (ii) combination of linear regression and harmonic analysis. To this end, three Iranian tide gauges located at Bushehr, Bandar Abbas and Chahbahar ports as well as Geophysical Data Records (GDR) products of Topex/Poseidon, Jason-1and Jason-2 have been considered. The numerical results have indicated that the mean absolute biases of Topex/Poseidon, Jason-1 and Jason-2 are about –26.23, 120.21 and 205.17 mm, respectively. The reliability of method has been assessed via GPS vessel at the altimeter bin nearby the Bushehr tidal stations. The presented method is viable to perfectly estimate the systematic errors, and as such, it can address the demands of high-accurate applications.
Digital Elevation Models (DEMs), are fundamental data that allow to represent topographic information continuously. They are widely used in various applications such as geoscience, and in the graphical representation of the landscape surface. Performing the analysis by using DEMs in which the real shape of the surface is adjusted, this would contribute significantly in obtaining their results as we would be approaching the actual occurrence of the object of study in the landscape. Currently, several global DEMs are freely available. However, various investigations have produced different results, so there are uncertainties as to which model is more appropriate for some areas. In that sense, the research was aimed at comparing the vertical accuracy of four DEMs in the city of Bucaramanga using central tendency statistical methods such as mean analysis, standard deviation and root mean squared error. As a result, the model that showed the best vertical accuracy was the one generated by the Advanced Land Observation Satellite program – Synthetic Aperture Radar and X-band Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, with a root mean squared error of 8.22 and 8.55 m respectively. Moreover, the one that best represented the shape of the landscape was the X-band Shuttle Radar Topography Mission X model.
OpenStreetMap, a web mapping platform, is the most popular web map source for use in locationbased services with specific emphasis on pedestrian navigation, tourist guide applications, and other location-based search applications. This paper tests the positional accuracy of OpenStreetMap for the mapping applications using the case study in the campus of UMM El-Qura University, Makah, Saudi Arabia. The proposed testing method consists of statistical comparative approach using OpenStreetMap data and accurate land surveying reference data. The results show that OpenStreetMap data has positional accuracy of 1.57 m which is suitable for generating planimetric maps of scale 1:5000 or smaller. The obtained results open the door for using the OpenStreetMap maps for applications such as general preliminary planning where larger areas are covered but only moderate accuracy is needed. Applications include mapping the general layout of potential construction sites, proposed transportation systems, and existing facilities. The proposed methodology in this paper is of great interest to small engineering firms for the generation of local area maps from OpenStreetMap data.
This article analyses the accuracy of global DTM comparatively to the Soviet topographic maps. The main aim of this study is to estimate the possibility of utilising global DTM for the purposes of road planning. In order to reach this aim, three separate territories with mountain, hill and plain topography were chosen. A DEM was generated for those territories from three different scale levels of Soviet topographic maps. The generated DEM rasters where then subtracted from SRTM and ASTER GDEM global DTMs. Results of the subtraction were analysed using statistical methods and verified with ground data. The Possibility of the replacement of DTMs generated from topographic maps by the global DTM data was proven for the different territories. The results obtained could be useful for the road engineers who still use Soviet topographic maps for the purposes of road planning. Also, some of the findings might be interesting for GIS-professionals who frequently use global DTMs.
OpenStreetMap, a web mapping platform, is the most popular web map source for use in location-based services with specific emphasis on pedestrian navigation, tourist guide applications, and other location-based search applications. This paper tests the positional accuracy of OpenStreetMap for the mapping applications using the case study in the campus of UMM El-Qura University, Makah, Saudi Arabia. The proposed testing method consists of statistical comparative approach using OpenStreetMap data and accurate land surveying reference data. The results show that OpenStreetMap data has positional accuracy of 1.57 m which is suitable for generating planimetric maps of scale 1:5000 or smaller. The obtained results open the door for using the OpenStreetMap maps for applications such as general preliminary planning where larger areas are covered but only moderate accuracy is needed. Applications include mapping the general layout of potential construction sites, proposed transportation systems, and existing facilities. The proposed methodology in this paper is of great interest to small engineering firms for the generation of local area maps from OpenStreetMap data.
Riegl VMZ system two antennas, IMU placement and DMI reference point on the vehicle (Hybrid Mobile Laser Mapping System, 2014, p. 57)
Installed onto the roof of the vehicle are a horizontally terrestrial laser scanner Riegl VZ-400, IMU/GNSS, secondary GNSS antenna and camera Nikon D800 (Kokamägi 2016 referred to in Annok, 2017)
RTK GNSS and aligned MLS point cloud data calculated with four different schemes difference from levelled height (Annok, 2019)
Mobile laser scanning is being used more often in Estonia and abroad to obtain geospatial information. As the system is still new and being upgraded, different methods are being used to find out how accurately the mobile laser scanner can measure in different conditions. In this article the mobile laser scanner accuracy is being examined depending on surrounding environment and the importance of postprocessing. Mobile laser scanning elevation data accuracy obtained in difficult conditions is being assessed. Difficult conditions are considered locations where there are tall objects that interrupt the satellite signals’ trajectory to the receiver. To determine the elevation accuracy of mobile laser scanner data, coordinates with the raw broadcast and final ephemerides with the combination of the GNSS receivers’ data that were installed in ideal and not ideal environmental conditions were computed. As a result of the study, the error of the elevation data in the first polygon, situated in difficult conditions was 7 mm when the Kunda reference station data was used with raw broadcast and final ephemerides. Error in the second polygon was accordingly 17 mm and 19 mm. When calculations were conducted using raw broadcast ephemerides in a base station in an imperfect environment, the error in the first polygon was 103 mm and in the second 75 mm. When the precise ephemerides were added to base station data, the error in the first polygon was 6 mm and in the second 21 mm. From the study results, it could be concluded that the mobile laser scanning system measures within 2 cm accuracy even in a complicated environment.
Levelling techniques is classified as geometric levelling, trigonometric levelling and GPS/Levelling depending on used instruments or the methods applied. Accuracies of geometric levelling with using three equipments (Leica NA-720 optical level, Topcon RL-VH4G2 laser level and Leica NA-3003 digital level), the trigonometric levelling with using two equipments (Topcon GTS710 total station and Topcon Imaging Station) and GPS/levelling with using Sokkia GSR2600 receiver were investigated to determine their performances against precise levelling that yields the most precise results. For this purpose, measurements were taken at hundred points on the ground of a well-protected site. The comparison of the results was performed based on accuracy, time cost and terrain independence. The comparison shows that levelling using digital level produces the closets results to precise levelling results, the time cost of GPS/levelling was 74% and 41% less than geometric and trigonometric levelling respectively, and trigonometric and GPS/levelling are independent of the terrain surveyed.
Received values of RMSE of spatial m spat , planned m plan and height m height location of points
In this research, the practical check of regression equation to calculate the prognostic root mean square error (RMSE) of the final point position of the base line in relation to the initial one has been executed. For the investigation, experimental data from three satellite receivers within two days on 5 points have been used. According to the received results, the regression equation to calculate the RMSE of spatial, planned and height position of the final point of the base line in relation to the initial value has been made. These equations allow executing the prognostic evaluation of accuracy for conducting satellite calculations based on data about available obstacles. The dependencies received for the duration of observations sessions for 1 hour, the vectors with the length of 4 km, and the coefficient value of openness from 5.17 to 10.31 have been presented.
Statistical parameters of DTM height differences
Accuracy data of 50×50 m resolution DTM
In the article the accuracy, position and density of the initial data which directly influence the of digital terrain model (DTM) are analysed. The main task – to obtain the data of the first-rate quality which would suit the requirements for terrain model. The number of points should be of sufficient density, not only for terrain model, but also for monitoring accuracy. Qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the data, economic indexes depend on the chosen method of measurement of points of heights. The accomplished research was performed with the purpose to estimate the accuracy of the initial data intended for creation of digital terrain model. Article in Lithuanian Skaitmeninių reljefo modelių, sudarytų taikant įvairius pradinius duomenis, tikslumo tyrimas Santrauka. Analizuojamas pradinių duomenų, turinčių tiesioginės įtakos sudaromo skaitmeninio reljefo modelio (toliau SRM) kokybei, tikslumas, padėtis ir tankis. Svarbu gauti kokybiškus aukščių duomenis, kurie atitiktų reljefo modeliui keliamus reikalavimus. Taškų skaičius turi būti pakankamai tankus, kad aukščių taškų pakaktų ne tik reljefo modeliui sudaryti, bet ir tikslumo kontrolei atlikti. Duomenų kokybinės ir kiekybinės charakteristikos bei ekonominiai rodikliai priklauso nuo pasirinkto aukščių matavimų metodo. Atliktas tyrimas, siekiant įvertinti pradinių duomenų, skirtų skaitmeniniam reljefo modeliui sudaryti, tikslumą. Raktažodžiai: skaitmeninis reljefo modelis, tikslumas, InSAR metodas, automatinis stereofotogrametrinis metodas, stereofotogrametrinis metodas.
The purpose of depth measurement is to bring the altitude from the surface to the connected horizon (level) by means of a vertical mine. Points, for which the height is determined in this way, are part of the fundamental mining vertical control, and their height should therefore be determined as accurately as possible. There are several ways of this measurement and the temperature has influence on accuracy of each of them. The paper is dedicated to evaluation of influence of temperature, applying results of height connection measurement carried out at Karvina mine. Two measurements were performed in ČSA 2 shaft and the other in shaft Mir 5 of Darkov mine in Ostrava-Karvina Coal District, CZE. Height connection measurement by a vertical mining work was done in two ways: using the depth tape and using the electro-optical distance meter.
Stations coordinate
Mean tropospheric delay difference (mm) between new equations and NIM
Mean values of the factor K for Egypt at different elevation angles
Tropospheric delay difference (in mm) between different models and NIM
The tropospheric delay still remains a limiting factor to the accuracy of space based positioning techniques. The estimation of station positioning, especially height component, which is particularly important for more applications is susceptible to errors in modeling the tropospheric delay due to correlations between the station positioning and residual troposphere delay parameters. As the demand on positioning accuracy and precision has increased, it has begun a necessary of relaying on large external data sets, rather than relatively simple models for treating the tropospheric delay. This method has been possible by advances made in numerical weather models which provide accurate representations of global atmospheric conditions and by advances in computing speed which allow us to perform a large number of computations over a short period of time. The purpose of this work is to develop a new model for estimating the tropospheric delay and then assess the benefits of applying this model at various geographic atmospheric conditions of Egypt. By comparing new model with some common models such as Saastamoinen model, Hopfield model, Niell-MF, Black & Eisner-MF, UNB3 model and Vienna-MF, the results show that, new model for estimation tropospheric delay has an acceptable level of accuracy in describing the dry tropospheric delay in Egypt as it agrees closely with the numerical integration based model. The mean accuracy of this new model has been assessed to be about 9.64 mm with rms 11 mm at an elevation angle of 30° and for an elevation angle of 5°, the mean accuracy is about 83.23 mm with rms 96.42 mm for atmospheric conditions of Egypt.
The purpose of depth measurement is to bring the altitude from the surface to the connected horizon (level) by means of a vertical mine. Points, for which the height is determined in this way, are part of the fundamental mining vertical control, and their height should therefore be determined as accurately as possible. There are several ways of this measurement and the temperature has influence on accuracy of each of them. The paper is dedicated to evaluation of influence of temperature, applying results of height connection measurement carried out at Karviná mine. Two measurements were performed in ČSA 2 shaft and the other in shaft Mír 5 of Darkov mine in Ostrava-Karviná Coal District, CZE. Height connection measurement by a vertical mining work was done in two ways: using the depth tape and using the electro-optical distance meter.
Project area and GNSS network
Project area in Afyon
The coordinates and standard deviations of the N1, N2 and CORS-TR reference points
Time schedule of the CORS measurements by using two (VRS/FKP) methods
Post-processing kinematics (PPK) is positioning process in which signals received from a mobile receiving device store location data can be adjusted using corrections from a reference station after data has been collected. The processed kinematic screening method provides the surveyor with a technique for high production survey measurements and can be used in areas with minimal satellite barriers. PPK uses significantly reduced observation times compared to static or fast static observations. This method requires least squares adjustment or another multiple basic statistical analysis that can produce a weighted average of observations. The results obtained using PPK are between 1 cm and 3 cm for horizontal coordinates and from 1 cm to 10 cm for vertical coordinates.
General duration of observations at the points
Measured length of lines and heights differences
Received RMS of determining base vectors by deviation of one-hour sessions from the values taken as standard
Value of DOP criteria for the point 001 with the horizon closedness 42% received from the program planning
Received absolute errors of base vectors results by deviation of optimal sessions from the values taken as standard
In this paper, the exploration of accuracy of empirical GPS observations within the limited horizon has been conducted. The exploration has been done by assessing the outcome accuracy conducted at six points with a different percentage of limited horizon. The accuracy evaluation has been done in two variants. In the first one, the measured values of one-hour sessions have been compared with the values for the whole period of observations (6–12 hours) taken as standard. In the second variant, in order to get the independent data check, the measurement of distances and heights differences between the indicated points using the electronic total station has been conducted. In the second variant, the accuracy evaluation has been done basing on outcome deviations of one-hour session observations from the values measured by electronic total station. As the inadequate results of accuracy have been received (on the level of dozens of centimeters), it has been decided to check the measurements accuracy on observation sessions with a minimal value of DOP. In order to do this the preliminary planning has been completed and the optimal onehour sessions of observations at each point have been selected. After that, the absolute errors of observation outcomes have been calculated at these points in both mentioned above variants. The research results prove that upon doing the preliminary planning the accuracy on the level of 0.5–3 cm can be achieved.
Spatial distribution of the selected GPS points (red triangles) over the city of Montreal and the suburbs. The figure also shows locations of Figs 4, 5, and 7
True GPS and GE coordinates and their differences (misfit vectors) for the selected GPS points
Parameters of the similarity transformation
(A) Relief displacement over the central part of the jacques Cartier Bridge, the city of Montreal. (B) The displacement is reduced when the relief is near the nadir point. The yellow line shows the trajectory measured with the GPS receiver, and red arrows point to the four towers around the structure. This location is marked by a red diamond in Fig. 1
The test trajectory for validating the results. Contour lines show the magnitude of correction in meter
The horizontal positional accuracy of Google Earth is assessed in the city of Montreal, Canada, using the precise coordinates of ten GPS points spatially distributed all over the city. The results show that the positional accuracy varies in the study area between ∼0.1 m in the south to ∼2.7 m in the north. Furthermore, two methods are developed for correcting the observed positional errors: (a) using a set of transformation parameters between true coordinates of the geodetic points and their coordinates in Google Earth, and by (b) interpolating the misfit vectors at the geodetic points. The former method reduces the overall accuracy to ∼67 cm RMSE, whereas the latter one practically removes all the distortion (RMSE = 1 cm). Both methods can be developed for other places in the world subject to availability of appropriate control points. In addition, a displacement problem caused by the topography of the area and the viewing angle of the imaging satellite is discussed, and it is shown that the true positions can be shifted even up to several meters, as a consequence.
The article presents the analysis results of calculation error for a swept wing of NACA4415 airfoil. Coefficients of aerodynamic forces for this wing were calculated by means of a vortex step method including special algorithm to account non-linear characteristics of an airfoil. Calculation error of aerodynamic coefficient is determined by means of equation (1) for the lift force coefficient and equation (4) for the drag force coefficient of a separate element of wing model. Equations (3) and (6) are used to determine calculation errors of lift and drag force coefficients of the complete wing. Error dependence on an angle of attack of the wing and a sweep angle of the wing are presented in several graphs. Article in Lithuanian Mažų greičių lėktuvo sparno aerodinaminių parametrų skaičiavimo tikslumas Santrauka. Pateikiami strėlinio NACA4415 profilio sparno skaičiavimo paklaidų analizės rezultatai. Šio sparno aerodinaminiai koeficientai buvo apskaičiuoti taikant sūkurio žingsnio metodą, papildytą specialiu algoritmu netiesinėms profilio charakteristikoms įvertinti. Kiekvieno sparno modelio elemento aerodinaminių koeficientų skaičiavimo paklaidos buvo nustatytos pagal (1) formulę keliamajai jėgai ir (2) formulę pasipriešinimo jėgai rasti. Viso sparno aerodinaminių jėgų koeficientų skaičiavimo paklaidos apskaičiuotos pagal (3) ir (4) formules. Grafiškai pateikiama paklaidų priklausomybė nuo sparno atakos ir strėliškumo kampo. Raktažodžiai: aerodinaminiai koeficientai, skaičiavimo paklaidos.
Results processing and accuracy evaluation of GPS and other systems operating in real time by discreet Kalman filter are analysed. Recurrent principle was used for processing observation data accumulating in portions by least squares adjustment. New results are used for improvement of previously computed parameter vector values and their covariance matrices. Formulas are derived for adjusted parameter vector values computation and their covariance matrix determination. Article in Lithuanian GPS matavimo rezultatų tikslumo įvertinimas apdorojant diskrečiuoju Kalmano filtru Santrauka. Straipsnyje analizuojamas GPS ir kitų sistemų, veikiančių realiojo laiko masteliu, matavimo rezultatų apdorojimas ir tikslumo įvertinimas, taikant diskretųjį Kalmano filtrą. Besikaupiantys matavimo duomenys apdorojami tam tikromis porcijomis mažiausiųjų kvadratų metodu, taikant rekurentinį principą. Gavus naujus matavimo rezultatus tikslinamos anksčiau apskaičiuotų parametrų vektorių reikšmės ir jų kovariacijų matricos. Išvedamos formulės išlygintų parametrų vektorių reikšmėms skaičiuoti bei jų kovariacijų matricai nustatyti. Raktažodžiai: Kalmano filtras, kovariacija, GPS.
Accuracy of geodetic coordinates transformed from one coordinate system to another is analysed in the publication. Values for transformation parameters are computed using the least-squares method. Accuracy of transformation parameters and transformed coordinates is determined by identical points accuracy in both systems. Influence of additional parameters, used for coordinate systematic errors elimination, accuracy of coordinate transformation parameters and transformed coordinates is analysed. Formulas for evaluating matrices on the transformation parameters and coordinate covariance are presented. Article in Lithuanian Geodezinių koordinačių transformavimo Helmerto algoritmu tikslumas Santrauka. Straipsnyje nagrinėjamas geodezinių koordinačių tikslumas, transformuojant jas iš vienos koordinačių sistemos į kitą. Transformavimo parametrų reikšmės apskaičiuojamos mažiausiųjų kvadratų metodu. Transformavimo parametrų bei transformuotų koordinačių tikslumas nustatomas atsižvelgiant į identiškų taškų abiejose koordinačių sistemose tikslumą. Analizuojama papildomų parametrų, taikomų koordinačių sisteminėms klaidoms eliminuoti, įtaka koordinačių transformavimo parametrų bei transformuotų koordinačių tikslumui. Pateikiamos formulės transformavimo parametrų ir transformuotų koordinačių kovariacijų matricoms įvertinti. Raktažodžiai: transformavimo parametrai, kovariacija.
Study area for bathymetry retrieval in Karimun water with extensive area of coral reef (left, source:
Worldview-3 spectral radiance response for the visible and near-infrared (VNIR) bands (source:
The determination coefficient (R 2 ) of band ratios against in-situ depth
Statistical evaluation of bathymetry retrieval in Karimun water
Bathymetry map is instrumental for monitoring marine ecosystem and supporting marine transportation. Optical satellite imagery has been widely utilised as an alternative method to derive bathymetry map in shallow water. Nonetheless, interactions between electromagnetic energy and Earth’s atmosphere causing the atmosphere effects pose a significant challenge in satellite-derived bathymetry (SDB) application. In this study, Worldview-3 imagery was used to obtain bathymetry map in shallow water. Three atmospheric correction models (ACOMP, FLAASH and QUAC) were employed to eliminate atmospheric effects on Worldview-3 imagery. Three simple band ratios involving coastal blue, blue, green and yellow band were used to test the performance of atmospheric correction models. ACOMP combined with blue and green band ratio efficaciously provided the best performance where it explained 77% of model values. Bathymetry map obtained from Worldview-3 was also validated using bathymetry data acquired from bathymetric survey over the study area. The estimated depths shared aggregable results with measured depths (depth < 20 m) with accuracy of 2.07 m. This study shows that robust atmospheric correction combined with suitable simple band combinations offered bathymetry map retrieval with relatively high accuracy.
The paper describes the method and the basic results of research into data on criminal activities in Vilnius city. Approximately 100000 incidents registered by police in both 2010 and 2011 have been located and geocoded using their street address information. Analysis of territorial distribution of the incidents in general and of themost common types (assaults, robberies and thefts, motor vehicle thefts and minor offences) in two years reveals that there exist higher concentration areas for all types of crimes. Over one year such areas grew but generally retained their shape and location. The density of incidents is generally dependent on population density, but also tends to concentrate around some shopping centres and entertainment areas. Kernel density spatial analysis method produces visually expressive results and should be applied for fast visual analysis and comparison of data.
A simple method for close range and aerial photogrammetry applications has been developed. The method is in the form of bundle block adjustment which utilizes only the measured distance(s) between points for generating adjusted relative three dimensional (3D) coordinate system. Software based on the proposed method has been developed and tested using simulated data. The effects of block size, number and location of measured distances, and random errors on bundle block adjustments using the proposed and the conventional methods have been studied using simulated and actual photogrammetric data. It was found that the accuracy of the bundle block adjustment using the proposed method is comparable or better than the results of conventional method. The proposed method, is suitable for photogrammetrists and non-photogrammetrists in different fields such as architectural, archaeological, forensic and aerial photogrammetry, where relative 3D coordinates system may be required. It has a significant effect on reducing the overall cost of the photogrammetric project. Merging the capabilities of the developed software and Computer Aided Design (CAD) technology, especially 3D drawing generation, widens its applications areas to include recording buildings and monuments which is necessary for architectural and archaeological applications.
Continued of Review article: Gliožaitis, A. (2012). Administrative division of Lithuania on the Russian maps of the XIX and XX centuries (1 of 3). Geodesy and Cartography, 32(2), IIa-IIf. The administrative division and changes of boundaries of Lithuania on the Russian maps of the XIX and XX centuries are analysed. The administrative division and its changes reflects the official politics of the Russia against the neighbouring conquered countries. Analysis of old maps and related documents shows the methods and scale of Lithuania’s denationalization, executed by the Russian tsars and secretaries-general of the Communist party. Article in Lithuanian Lietuvos administracinis skirstymas XIX ir XX a. Rusijos žemėlapiuose (2 iš 3) Santrauka. Iš užkariautų kraštų įkūrusi imperijų carų valdžia jos administraciniam padalijimui skyrė nuolatinį dėmesį. Prie Rusijos mokslų akademijos 1739 m. įsteigtas Geografijos departamentas. kuris vadovavo visiems geodeziniams ir kartografiniams darbams, reikalingiems administraciniam padalijimui atlikti, žemėtvarkai, bei kitiems valdymo reikalams [1]. Vėliau jis buvo pertvarkytas į kitokias organizacijas [2]. Administracinės sritys yra pažymėtos rusų topografų ir kartografų sudarytuose žemėlapiuose ir savaip atspindi Rusijos politiką užkariautų kraštų atžvilgiu [3]. Pavartykime dokumentus bei žemėlapius ir pamatysime, kokiais būdais carai ir TSKP generaliniai sekretoriai vykdė Lietuvos nutautinimą, į kokius administracinius vienetus skirstė Lietuvą ir kur žymėjo jos rytinę ribą [4] .
This article is devoted to the development of a conceptual model of the structure of the geoinformation system (GIS) for the administrative and economic management of regional airports, taking into account the requirements of world and national experience, international and national standards, modern technologies of geospatial data collection. The research is aimed at structuring all the facilities and objects of the airport complex and isolating components by location and function; development of a generalized scheme of directions for the use of administrative and business GIS at airports based on the analysis of world and domestic experience; establishing the need to use international and national standards of the “Geographic Information / Geomatics” series when creating an airport GIS; development of a generic scheme of the composition of the database of the Digital Single Topographic Base of the Airport, basic and profile geoinformation resources for the administrative and economic GIS; development of conceptual model of structure and functional purpose of GIS of administrative and economic management of the airport. The developed conceptual model reflects the main production processes and needs of airports, based on the database of the Digital Numeral Topographic Framework, is a complete and consistent model of the relationship between the administrative and economic needs of airports and the functionality of modern geoinformation systems for the efficient operation of objects, structures and facilities communications, analysis of the current state, monitoring and management decision-making.
Seasonal snow-covered surface has a critical role in global water resource supplement especially providing fresh water for humankind and flora's consumptions as well as local underground water storages. The in situ measurements of seasonal snow-covered variability are extensively prodigal and costly particularly in existence of severe climate conditions such as high latitude regions and polar areas. It is therefore necessary to apply remote sensing techniques and observations to estimate accurately the snowpack melting and accumulation for different seasons. In this paper, we estimate snow-covered surface variability for four different seasons of year in Mount Odin, Canada using aerial photos. In order to do this, firstly Digital Elevation Model (DEM) with respect to Earth Gravitational Model 1996 (EGM96) for each flight mission of A, B, C and D from these aerial photos by applying Bundle Adjustment (BA) triangulation is being generated precisely. Moreover, the displacement of each two DEMs is computing in order to determine snow-covered surface variability between each two flight missions. The results demonstrate that flight mission C has the highest elevation topographically compare to the missions A, B and D while mission C was planned in February 2011 in existence of vast snow throughout Mount Odin area as well as mission C's DEM which has higher elevation values than the others. The proposed methodology and problem solution and the case study information with the details of each flight mission are discussed in expatiation.
Configurations for mathematical photogrammetric blocks of photographs
Results of self calibration block adjustment (Case of random errors only)
DLT has gained a wide popularity in close range photogrammetry, computer vision, robotics, and biomechanics. The wide popularity of the DLT is due to the linear formulation of the relationship between image and object space coordinates. This paper aims to develop a simple mathematical model in the form of self calibration direct linear transformation for aerial photogrammetry applications. Software based on the derived mathematical model has been developed and tested using mathematical photogrammetric data. The effects of block size, number and location of control points, and random and lens distortion errors on self calibration block adjustments using the derived mathematical model and collinearity equations have been studied. It was found that the accuracy of the results of self calibration block adjustment using the derived mathematical model is, to some extent, comparable to the results with collinearity model. The developed mathematical model widens the application areas of DLT method to include aerial photogrammetry applications especially when the camera interior and exterior orientations are unknown.
The work aims to analyze and study the possibilities of using “Cetus” unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for performing topographic aerial surveys. The authors developed and tested aircraft-type UAV for topographic aerial photography. The studies were conducted on a specialized landfill, at which there is an appropriate number of situational points whose coordinates are determined with high accuracy. These points were used as both reference and control points. The obtained UAV aerial survey materials were subjected to a phototriangulation process to determine the orientation elements and to analyze, first and foremost, the angular orientation elements. The surveying was carried out on a mountainous territory, where the spatial coordinates of 37 situational points were determined by the method of ground-based GPS survey with an average accuracy of up to 0.05 m. These points were used as reference and control points. Aerial photography was performed in such a way that the scale of the images was as uniform as possible. The design solutions implemented in the Cetus UAV provide all the possibilities to perform aerial surveys of territories in strict compliance with the projected flight parameters. UAV equipment provides the necessary real-time correction of the position of the aerial camera. At the same time the optimum straightness of routes, stability of scales and mutual overlapping of pictures is reached. Regarding the accuracy of obtaining the spatial coordinates of the points of terrain objects, using “Cetus” UAV surveys, plans can even be made on a scale of even 1: 1000. As a result of the creation of the UAV “Cetus”, it became possible to perform the topographic aerial survey of the territories and to create large-scale orthophotos that fully meet the instructions. As a result of testing the “Cetus” UAV, it can be used in production processes when drawing up topographic plans for a large-scale series: 1: 1000 – 1: 5000, which will significantly save the cost of performing topographic work.
For scanning analog aerial photographs, digital photogrammetry requires specific and expensive photogrammetric scanners. However, we only have a simple A4 format scanner useful for solving some special photogrammetric tasks applied for analyzing the possibilities of scanning photographic material. The paper investigates the peculiarities of scanning analog aerial photos using the scanner processing pictures smaller than an A4 format. The achieved results are compared with digital data obtained using a professional photogrammetric scanner. Experimental photogrammetric measurements have showed that the results of aerial photographs scanned by a nonprofessional scanner satisfy accuracy requirements for topographic mapping at a scale of 1:5000.
The conception process of the generalization of land cover
Generalization operations for polygon features of land cover
Reference spatial data sets represent the least changing natural and anthropogenic features of terrine. As a rule, such data are stored in different scales and most frequently updated consequently starting with a spatial data set of a larger scale (usually base scale) thus later performing an update of data in smaller scales. The generalization of features in a larger scale is one of the major processes employed in the creation and update of spatial data of a smaller scale. In order to effectively carry out works, it is recommended to use automatic procedures and generalization only in those cases when changes in features are significant, i.e. affect the update of features in a smaller scale. The article discusses the relation between changes in polygon features (identify land cover territories in a base spatial data set) and different generalization processes as well as the evaluation of significance of likely changes.
Land-use planning, which requires finding a balance among different conflicting social, economic and environment factors, is a complex task needed everywhere, including Africa. One example is the city of Zanzibar in Tanzania, which is under special consideration for land-use revision. From one side, the city has high potentials for tourist industry and at the other side there are major challenges with the city structure and poor accessibilities. In order to prepare a proper land-use plan for the city, a variety of influencing conflicting factors needs to be considered and satisfied. This can be regarded as a common problem in many African cities, which are under development. This paper aims to address the problem by proposing and demonstrating the use of Geographical Information System (GIS) and multi-objective optimization for land-use planning, in Zanzibar as a case study. The measures which have been taken by Zanzibar government to address the development challenges through the Zanzibar Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty (ZSGRP) were identified by studying related documents and interviewing experts. Based on these, two objective functions were developed for land-use planning. Optimum base land-use plans were developed and mapped by optimizing the objective functions using the NSGA-II algorithm. The results show that the proposed approach and outputs can considerably facilitate land-use planning in Zanzibar. Similar approaches are highly recommended for other cities in Africa which are under development.
The structural and logical scheme of effective functioning of the agricultural lands market
Transformed state table
Comparison table
Calculation of the base of the valuation of the comparison elements
The distance of comparison objects from the evaluation object
The article deals with the main problems of creating the agricultural lands market in Ukraine due to the absence of the normative and legal support of its circulation, which should define the set of rights and restrictions of the implementation of this process. It is determined that the agricultural lands market is a social and economic complex that functions in accordance with market laws, national specificity, territorial scope and consists of a set of enterprises, establishments and representative offices, which are directly related to turnover of agricultural lands market. The main prerequisites for formation of effective functioning of the agricultural lands market are substantiated. Structural and logical scheme of this process implementation is constructed. Despite the ban on the purchase and sale of agricultural lands, the market value of land for private peasant farming has been calculated according to an expert assessment of a comparative methodological approach in determining the degree of similarity of objects using the Euclidean distance. The proposed method is appropriate to use in determining the market land value, regardless of its target use, by the degree of similarity of the objects of comparison according to the area, location, physical characteristics, functional characteristics and the availability of improvements, which allows to take into account its quantitative and qualitative characteristics.
The issue of the effectiveness of agricultural land consolidation in the environment of land relations being reshaped, with Ukraine as the example has been scrutinized in the research. Land reallocation as the key constituent of land consolidation has been considered according to the existing approaches. Necessity for substantiation of the peerness of land plots to be reallocated has been singled out. Key factors influencing the peer agricultural land exchange in the process of reallocation have been defined. It is offered to define the peerness of agricultural land plots by a set of qualitative and spatial and technological characteristics. The improvement of the existing approaches to land reallocation by limiting for the reallocated land plots peerness by the preset characteristics has been suggested. The gist of the modelling is the minimization of distance from land plot to the farmhouse. Technical data characterizing the qualitative and spatial and technological characteristics of land plots at the reallotment have been defined. The assessment of the provided reallocation model with the example of the agricultural land mass has been provided. Land reallocation is accomplished by the voluntary land plot exchange. The analysis of the reallocation results using the provided model has been executed.
Calculation of normative monetary valuation of land plots Objects of evaluation
The problem of rationalizing the use of agricultural land is increasingly complicated in Ukraine. Today it has various aspects, the most important of which are technological, economic, organizational and environmental. That is why the level of use of land in Ukraine is now so critical that further land degradation potential in agriculture can have disastrous consequences. The objective of this paper is to study the economic effects of agricultural land use on example of Kyiv city. It is revealed that the problem of rational use and protection of agricultural land in Ukraine is deteriorating year by year. In today’s conditions, this manifests itself in various directions, among which, in our opinion, the deterioration of the ecological state as a result of irrational use. On examples of land plots of the Kyiv city, the procedure for calculating the normative monetary valuation of agricultural land as one of the main instruments for accompanying capital transactions has been considered. The information on the weak and strong sides of the objects of evaluation is shown, which allows to evaluate the effectiveness of its functioning, current, past and future costs and incomes, as well as development prospects, which as a result serves as the basis for making effective management decisions on the valuation object. According to the research results, which consists in changing the agricultural land purpose in Kyiv city, it was ascertained that the normative monetary valuation of these lands will increase over 6 billion UAH.
IDEF0 model of automated natural agricultural zoning technology
Weights of factors and indicators of natural agricultural zoning for the areas of Polyssya and Forest Steppe
Maps of natural agricultural zoning of Zdolbuniv district of Rivne region
Calculation of normative monetary evaluation of the land plot
We have developed IDEF0 model of automated natural agricultural zoning technology based on the research of implementation of natural agricultural zoning, land management automation works with efficient application of new technologies and system approach. The hierarchical model has been developed, determining the weight of the main indicators. To construct GRID-model zoning elementary unit was determined. On the basis of the weights of indicators and obtained values of indicators, weighting coefficients of natural agricultural zoning are calculated and cells of GRID-model are combined according to their weight coefficients in natural agricultural districts by the method of “natural groups”. As a result, we have a new border between Rivne and Ploska-Buderaz natural agricultural districts of Rivne region. To test the need to clarify the limits of natural agricultural districts, we fulfilled normative monetary evaluation of the land, which is located on the border of two natural agricultural districts. As a result of GRID-model use, the normative monetary valuation increased almost 2-fold, resulting from a more detailed consideration of natural conditions of the area. The developed model makes it possible to automate the process of natural agricultural zoning and periodically make adjustments to the limits of districts depending on the change of the lands state and their indicators.
DEM of the territory of the village council
Cartogram of lands feasibility of the village council has been created in an automatic mode (scale of feasibility value is in table 1)
Coding of agroproduction groups of soils (agroproduction groups of soils for the investigated territory have been provided)
Coding of slopes
The conceptual model of automated building of the cartogram of ecological and economic lands feasibility with the agricultural determination has been developed. The coding system for attributive characteristics of agroproductive groups of soils and reliefs has been proposed. The represented concept has been realized in the ModelBuilder module of the software product called ArcGIS with the help of creating an instrument to build the cartogram for the ecological and economic feasibility of lands in an automatic mode. As a result, the instrument, which allows the execution dividing the territory into the feasibility groups of lands, has been received basing on the input raster or vector values
Top-cited authors
Khalid El-Ashmawy
  • Helwan University
Augusts Rubans
  • University of Latvia
Artu Ellmann
  • Tallinn University of Technology
Polina Lemenkova
  • Université Libre de Bruxelles
Olena Malashevska
  • National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine