1. HL-004 decreased absorption of cholesteryl ester from the intestine into the lymph in a rat lymph-fistula model. 2. HL-004 reduced serum cholesterol level in acute cholesterol-fed rats. 3. HL-004 simultaneously decreased hepatic cholesteryl ester content and increased free cholesterol in cholesterol-fed rats. 4. These findings suggest that: (1) the hypocholesterolemic effect of HL-004 is principally due to inhibition of cholesterol absorption via inhibition of ACAT in the intestine; and (2) changes in hepatic cholesterol metabolism due to direct inhibition by HL-004 of hepatic ACAT may account in part for reduction of serum cholesterol level by HL-004.
1. A novel ACAT (acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase) inhibitor, HL-004, exhibited a strong inhibitory effect on the hepatic and intestinal ACAT, but was less effective on the adrenal ACAT in vitro. 2. HL-004 selectively decreased serum VLDL cholesterol, and inhibited hepatic ACAT activity in hamsters fed normal chow. 3. These results suggest that the cholesterol-lowering effect of HL-004 can be attributed to a decrease in hepatic VLDL secretion via inhibition of ACAT.
1. Several behavioral tests were used to compare the pharmacological activity of the potential antidepressant UP 614-04 with those of viloxazine and imipramine. 2. Orally-administered UP 614-04, like viloxazine, reduced locomotor activity in mice, and, like viloxazine and imipramine, it antagonized the hypothermia or ptosis induced by reserpine or tetrabenazine and the hypothermia induced by a high dose of apomorphine. 3. UP 614-04 antagonized oxotremorine-induced hypothermia, and to a lesser extent, oxotremorine-induced tremors, indicating that it possesses some CNS anticholinergic activity. 4. Both imipramine and viloxazine were more potent than UP 614-04 in potentiating yohimbine toxicity in mice. 5. Orally-administered UP 614-04 potentiated d-amphetamine-induced stereotypy to a greater extent than viloxazine, but to a lesser extent than imipramine. 6. Intraperitoneally-injected UP 614-04 was much more potent than viloxazine in increasing tryptamine convulsive potential in rats, indicating that it might exert an inhibitory action on monoamine oxidase. 7. These results indicate that UP 614-04 has a behavioral profile that is consistent with an antidepressant action, but that it differs from imipramine and viloxazine.
1. Administration of VA-045 [2-(nitrooxy)ethyl apovincaminate] and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) led to improvement in the closed head injury (CHI)-induced neuronal dysfunction such as the loss of righting reflex and disruption of spontaneous movement in rats. 2. The improvement seen with effect of VA-045, but not TRH, was abolished in rats pretreated with N-2-chloroethyl-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP4), a selective noradrenaline (NA) neurotoxin. DSP4 reduced endogenous NA levels in all central nervous system (CNS) regions analyzed. 3. The extracellular concentrations of NA in the frontal cortex (FC) and in the locus coeruleus (LC) of urethane-anesthetized rats were measured using in vivo microdialysis coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical detection. VA-045 had no effect on extracellular concentrations of NA, in both FC and LC. Perfusion with clonidine, and alpha 2 adrenoceptor agonist, led to inhibition in NA output in both FC and LC, and VA-045 antagonized the effect of clonidine. 4. These findings indicate that the mode of action of VA-045 may be, at least in part, related to central NA neuronal systems.
1. We characterized the binding sites of VA-045 [(+)-eburunamenine-14- carboxylic acid (2-nitroxyethyl)ester] in the rat brain. 2. VA-045 showed no affinity for various types of well-known neurotransmitter-related receptors or channels. However, radiolabeled VA-045 ([3H]VA-045) bound to rat brain membranes in a saturable and reversible manner. The Kd and Bmax values of [3H]VA-045 binding were 58.2 nM and 2685 fmol/mg of protein, respectively. 3. The largest specific binding of [3H]VA-045 was observed in the cerebellum, among seven brain regions, and in subcellular synaptosomes. 4. Specific binding of [3H]VA-045 was inhibited by VA-045 (Ki = 0.06 microM), a levorotatory enantiomer of VA-045 (VA-213) and its structural analog, vinpocentine. Moreover, compounds with calmodulin antagonistic activity inhibited the [3H]VA-045 binding. 5. These results suggest that VA-045 binds to specific sites, which may resemble calmodulin, on synaptic membranes in the brain.
1. We examined the alterations in cerebral free Mg2+ concentration in closed head injury (CHI) in rats and the effects of VA-045, a novel apovincaminic acid derivative, on them with in vivo 31P-NMR. 2. Free Mg2+ decreased by about 30% within 20 min after head impact and, afterward, it gradually decreased further to reach about 60% of the control level after 3 hr. VA-045 inhibited the decrease. 3. In nonimpacted rats, VA-045 did not alter the free Mg2+ level. 4. The decrease in cerebral free Mg2+ following CHI may be a critical factor in the development of irreversible tissue injury, and VA-045 may prevent it.
1. The ability of VA-045 to improve aged-related impairment on electroencephalograph (EEG), caudate spindle, performance on a passive avoidance task and cerebral blood flow (CBF) were evaluated in rats. 2. The cortical EEG of the aged rats showed a higher incidence of spontaneous spindle burst (SSB) than seen in young rats. VA-045 decreased the incidence of SSB in aged rats. In contrast, vinpocetine increased the incidence of SSB in aged rats. 3. Electrical stimulation of the striatum in aged rats lead to a higher incidence of neocortical high voltage spindle (CS) than seen in young rats. In young rats, VA-045 had no effect on the CS, whereas an age-related increase in CS was blocked by VA-045, but was enhanced by vinpocetine. 4. There were no differences in the cortical EEG arousal response elicited by stimulation of the reticular formation of the brain stem in rats of all ages. VA-045 and vinpocetine had no effect on the cortical EEG arousal response in both young and aged rats. 5. VA-045, but not vinpocetine, attenuated the age-related decreased step through latency (STL) on a passive avoidance task. VA-045 and vinpocetine did not enhance the acquisition of learning behavior in a passive avoidance task in young rats. 6. VA-045 increased the cerebral blood flow (CBF) in both young and aged rats and the potency in aged rats was greater than that in young rats. Vinpocetine had no effect on CBF in either young or aged rats. 7. The pharmacological effects of VA-045 on age-related neuronal dysfunction are discussed.
1. The effects of VA-045, a novel apovincaminic acid derivative, vinpocetine, apovincaminic acid, brovincamine and nicergoline on peripheral and cerebral circulation were examined in anesthetized dogs. 2. Peripheral circulation: VA-045 induced a transient decrease in both blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) andd an increase in vertebral arterial blood flow (VBF) without affecting femoral arterial blood flow (FBF) or carotid arterial blood flow (CBF). Vinpocetine had no effect on BP, HR, VBF, FBF or CBF. Apovincaminic acid decreased HR and increased VBF without affecting FBF, CBF or BP. Brovincamine increased VBF and decreased CBF without affecting BP or FBF. Nicergoline decrease BP without affecting VBF, FBA or CBF. 3. Cerebral circulation: VA-045 increased cerebral blood flow (CerBF) without affecting BP. Brovincamine also increased CerBF and decreased BP. The potency of VA-045 in increasing CerBF was stronger than that of brovincamine. Vinpocetine and apovincaminic acid had no effect on BP or CerBF. Nicergoline decreased BP but did not affect CerBF. 4. These findings indicate that VA-045 has a more selective vasodilative effect on the vertebral and cerebral arteries than the other reference drugs.
1. The influence of catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitor U-0521 on isotonic contraction of isolated rat vas deferens was examined to determine optimal concentration and nonspecific effects. 2. Maximum responses to (-)-epinephrine were increased at 0.4 microM and 1 microM concentrations of U-0521. Epinephrine responses were progressively decreased in the presence of higher concentrations (10 microM, 30 microM and 100 microM) of U-0521. 3. The response to the nonadrenergic agonist neurokinin A was similarly depressed in the presence of 100 microM U-0521. 4. U-0521 not only inhibits COMT, at concentrations above 1 microM it nonspecifically depresses contraction of the rat vas deferens by both adrenergic and nonadrenergic agonists.
1. We examined the effects of CP-060S on cardiac function and myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2) in anesthetized dogs. 2. CP-060S (10-300 microg/kg i.v.) decreased heart rate, increased aortic flow and decreased mean blood pressure in a dose-dependent manner. The PR interval was significantly prolonged by administration of CP-060S (300 microg/kg i.v.). 3. CP-060S (10-300 microg/kg i.v.) increased coronary blood flow in a dose-dependent manner. Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure and maximal first derivative of left ventricular pressure were not significantly affected. 4. CP-060S (10-300 microg/kg i.v.) increased coronary sinus blood flow and decreased arteriovenous oxygen difference and MVO2 in a dose-dependent manner. 5. The effects of CP-060S on cardiac function and MVO2 are qualitatively similar to those of diltiazem, a typical Ca2+ antagonist.
PY 108-068 (PY) is a potent dihydropyridine derived calcium antagonist, which is light-stable enough to allow experiments in vitro to be done under normal daylight. It potently antagonized depolarization-induced contraction of rabbit aorta (EC50: 4 X 10(-9) M) but not receptor-stimulated contraction (EC50 much greater than 10(-5) M). It also decreased the rate of spontaneously beating guinea-pig and rabbit atria very potently (EC25 2.9 and 4.3 X 10(-9) M respectively) but considerably higher concentrations were needed for negative inotropic effects on guinea-pig left atria or rabbit papillary muscles (EC25 1.5 and 1 X 10(-7) M respectively). In open chest dogs PY (10 micrograms/kg i.v.) increased coronary flow and cardiac output, lowered blood pressure, and tended to decrease heart rate while myocardial contractile force was unchanged. Myocardial oxygen consumption, however, was decreased despite the absence of cardiodepression. Similar results with respect to the systemic circulation were observed in cats. The effects of PY on the vascular beds of a large number of organs were investigated using tracer microspheres. PY effected regional vasodilatation in the heart, brain and skeletal muscle. Antivasoconstrictor effects of PY were investigated in similar cat experiments by pretreating the animals with angiotension II infusions. The vasoconstrictor effects of angiotensin II on the vessels of the kidney, stomach and small intestine were antagonized, even though no vasodilatation had been seen in these regions in the previous experiments without the vasoconstrictor pretreatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
1. Effects of consecutive administration of YM-09730-5, (3S)-1-benzyl-3-pyrrolidinyl-methyl (4S)-2,6-dimethyl-4-(m-nitrophenyl)-1,4-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarboxy lat e hydrochloride, a new calcium antagonist, for 9 wk on blood pressure and urinary excretion of electrolytes were studied in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive (SHRSP) rats. 2. YM-09730-5 (1 and 3 mg/kg per day, p.o.) prevented development of hypertension and produced a significant reduction in blood pressure from the first week of the experiment. Nicardipine (15 mg/kg per day, p.o.) produced almost the same degree of antihypertensive effect as YM-09730-5 at a dose of 3 mg/kg. 3. YM-09730-5 produced significant diuresis and increased urinary excretion of electrolytes throughout the experiment. 4. Chronic administration of YM-09730-5 (3 mg/kg) reduced the severity of glomerular lesions in the kidney and vasculitis in the mesenteric artery. 5. These results demonstrate that YM-09730-5 is a potential antihypertensive drug with a potency about 5 times higher than that of nicardipine.
Contractile responses of the isolated bronchial preparation of guinea-pig to DMPP, a nicotinic stimulant, were inhibited by ganglion blockers but not influenced by atropine, suggesting that DMPP did not bring about a contribution by stimulation of cholinergic ganglion cells. The fact that tetrodotoxin did not influence the response to DMPP suggests that a possible site of action of DMPP is not on the nerve cells.
1. Toxicity of 1,2-dibromoethane requires bioactivation via glutathione S-transferase. Since this enzyme is undetectable in the fetus of several laboratory animal species during early gestation, in vitro studies were carried out with human fetal liver to assess potential fetotoxicity. 2. Glutathione S-transferase occurs abundantly in the human fetal liver cytosol and its titer is equal to or exceeds that found in adult human liver when estimated using 1-chloro-2,4-nitrobenzene as the second substrate. 3. Human fetal liver cytosolic glutathione S-transferase metabolized 1,2-dibromoethane with a high efficiency (mean +/- SD specific activity of 3.10 +/- 0.83 nmol/min/mg protein). This reaction was enzymatic in nature and the rate of conjugation was proportional to the concentration of reduced glutathione, 1,2-dibromoethane and the enzyme present in the reaction medium. 4. A significant bioactivation with a possibility of only limited detoxication via cytochrome P-450-dependent oxidation suggests that human fetus may be at greater risk from 1,2-dibromoethane toxicity than adult.
1. The activity of two series of imidazo[1,2-a]pyrazine derivatives on cell proliferation and differentiation and on apoptosis was examined in relation to their effects on phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity and on purinoceptors. 2. In the first series SC-18 and SC-51 inhibited mitogen-induced 3H-thymidine incorporation in human lymphocytes. 3. The compounds of the new series PAB13, PAB23 and SCA40 inhibited the proliferation of the HEL cell line. 4. Nine imidazo[1,2-a]pyrazine derivatives of the new series have been studied on the Dami cell proliferation. SCA41 and SCA44 inhibited cell growth, SCA40 and PAB40 were moderately effective, whereas PAB12 and PAB30 were devoid of effect. The antiproliferative effects of these six non-cytotoxic compounds could not be related to their action on PDE or on purinoceptors, but rather to their lipophilicity. Conversely, for PAB13, PAB15, and PAB23, the decrease in cell number was related to their cytotoxic and apoptotic effects through their cAMP-increasing and PDE-inhibitory potency, but unrelated to an effect on purinoceptors. 5. Imidazo[1,2-a]pyrazine derivatives decreased the expression of Glycoprotein (GP)Ib in Dami cells while some of them enhanced that of GPIIb/IIIa. These effects appeared to involve inhibition of both cAMP- and cGMP-PDE. 6. These studies demonstrate the potential interest of imidazo[1,2-a]pyrazine derivatives in the query of novel anticancer drugs.
1. Effects of a novel imidazoindole derivative on cholinergic function were studied in isolated tissue preparations. 2. The compound demonstrated a dose-dependent (10(-11)-10(-9) potentiation (20-60%) of acetylcholine induced tension in guinea pig ileal tissue. 3. Increases in the size of end-plate potentials and nerve evoked muscle twitches were observed in frog nerve-skeletal muscle preparations. 4. Cholinesterase activity was not inhibited. 5. The results suggest that the compound has actions at the post-synaptic muscarinic receptor complex in smooth muscle and causes pre-synaptic increases in ACh release at the neuromuscular junction.
The influence and mechanisms of action of N-ethyl- and N-benzyl-1,2-diphenylethanolamines (compounds E and B, respectively) on the arterial blood pressure and the heart rate of the rat together with their effects on CaCl2-induced arrhythmias in the rat were investigated. Both E and B in doses of (1.5-12 micromol/kg IV) decreased the arterial blood pressure and the heart rate in a dose-dependent manner. Studies with various receptor blockers, enzyme inhibitors and CaCl2 revealed that E-induced cardiovascular depressant effects were mainly due to CaCl2 channel blocking action and activation of cyclic guanylyl cyclase or release of NO whereas the cardiovascular effects of B seemed to involve both blockade of Ca2+ channels and activation of parasympathetic ganglia. Both compounds (12-14.5 micromol/kg) completely protected the rat against CaCl2 (60 mg kg(-1))-induced tachyarrhythmias. The B compound seemed to be several times more potent than the E compound in its cardiovascular depressant actions. The results suggest the potential usefulness of both compounds in the treatment of hypertension and supraventricular arrhythmias.
1. The behavioral and anticonvulsant effects of several 1, 4-benzodiazepine (BDZ) and azirino[1,2-d] [1, 4]benzodiazepine (ABDZ) derivatives were studied after intraperitoneal administration in DBA/2 mice, a strain genetically susceptible to sound-induced seizures. 2. The anticonvulsant effects were evaluated on seizures evoked by means of auditory stimulation (109 dB, 12-16 kHz) in animals placed singly under a Perspex dome. 3. The 1,4-benzodiazepines were generally more potent than the related azirino[1,2-d] [1,4]benzodiazepine derivatives which, however, showed a remarkable anticonvulsant activity. The rank order of potency for anticonvulsant activity was flunitrazepam > diazepam > pinazepam > ABDZ5 > ABDZ4 > prazepam > halazepam > ABDZ1 > ABDZ3 > camazepam > ABDZ6 > ABDZ2. 4. The impairment of locomotor performance following intraperitoneal (IP) administration of the aforementioned derivatives was also evaluated by means of rotarod test. The rank order of potency for impairment of coordinated motor movements was pinazepam > flunitrazepam > diazepam > ABDZ5 > prazepam > halazepam > ABDZ4 > ABDZ3 > ABDZ1 > camazepam > ABDZ2 = ABDZ6. 5. A hypothermic activity was observed after the highest doses of the benzodiazepines studied. 6. The potency of various 1,4-benzodiazepines and azirino[1, 2-d][1,4]benzodiazepines as inhibitors of specific [3H]flumazenil binding to membranes from cerebellum or cortex was evaluated. In general, they inhibited [3H]flumazenil binding at the micromolar range. However, some ABDZ derivatives, although active as anticonvulsants, failed to displace [3H]flumazenil. 7. The azirino[1,2-d] [1,4]benzodiazepine derivatives are more lipophilic than the related benzodiazepines, but the different degree of anticonvulsant activity and impairment of coordinated motor movements cannot be directly related to the lipophilicity of the compounds studied. 8. The pharmacologic actions of ABDZ4 and ABDZ5, which appeared as the most potent anticonvulsants of the azirino[1,2-d] [1,4]benzodiazepine derivatives, were significantly reduced by treatment with flumazenil (8.24 mumol/kg IP) suggesting a clear involvement of benzodiazepine mechanisms in the anticonvulsant activity of these compounds or their metabolites. 9. The anticonvulsant activity of ABDZ4 and ABDZ5 was also evaluated against seizures induced by the two beta-carbolines, methyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (beta-CCM) and methyl6,7-dimethoxy-4-ethyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (DMCM), in DBA/2 mice. Both ABDZ4 and ABDZ5 gave better protection against the seizures induced by beta-CCM than DMCM, suggesting a preferential action on BDZ1 receptors.
1. The behavioural and anticonvulsant effects of eight pyrroloimidazopyridines (PI1a-d and PI2a-d) and four pyrrolopurines (PP) were studied after intraperitoneal administration in DBA/2 mice, a strain genetically susceptible to sound-induced seizures. 2. The anticonvulsant effects were evaluated in DBA/2 mice on seizures evoked by means of auditory stimulation (109 dB, 12-16 kHz) in animals placed singly under a perspex dome. 3. Hypothermic activity was observed after the highest doses of the pyrroloderivatives studied. 4. Our study demonstrated that the anticonvulsant effect of pyrroloimidazopyridines (PI1-7,8,8a,9-tetrahydro-6H-pyrrolo-[1',2':1,2]imidazo[4,5-b]pyrid in-6- ones) and pyrrolopurines (PP) was generally better than corresponding pyrrolobenzimidazoles (PB) and pyrroloimidazopyridines (PI2-5,5a,6,7-tetrahydro-8H-pyrrolo[2',1':2,3]imidazo[4,5-c]pyridin-8- ones) and, in some cases, comparable to that of phenytoin and desmethylclobazam. 5. The anticonvulsant potency of the derivatives studied cannot be directly related to their lipophilicity.
1. 9-Amino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroacridine (THA), an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, significantly inhibited in vitro the ATP diphosphohydrolase activity of synaptosomes from the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of adult rats. 2. THA did not inhibit in vitro the 5'-nucleotidase activity of synaptosomes from cerebral cortex and hippocampus of rats. 3. THA exerted an uncompetitive inhibition on ATP diphosphohydrolase activity. This mechanism of inhibition was the same in the 2 different synaptosomal fractions (cerebral cortex and hippocampus) studied. 4. THA, proposed as a drug for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, can alter in vitro ATP degradation in synaptosomes from the central nervous system.
1. The electrophysiological effect of 9-amino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroacridine (THA) on the rabbit sino-atrial node was studied using double-microelectrode voltage clamp methods. 2. THA (above 10 microM) caused statistically significant decreases in the maximum rate of rise, the action potential amplitude, the rate of diastolic depolarization, and increases in the spontaneous cycle length, the action potential duration at 50% repolarization. 3. On the current systems, THA obviously depressed the time-dependent outward K+ current. The compound also decreased the slow inward Ca2+ current and the hyperpolarization-activated inward current. 4. These findings indicate that THA exerts an inhibitory action on the automaticity of sino-atrial node via effects on both outward and inward current systems.
There is now ample evidence in the literature to demonstrate the selectivity of action of DPCPX for adenosine A1 vs other adenosine receptor types in tissues derived from a wide range of species. However, care has to be exercised to ensure that its physiochemical properties do not result in the production of quantitatively misleading data. In experiments using canine tissues the still limited data available in the literature clearly and consistently demonstrate that DPCPX has a lower affinity than expected in preparations which would be anticipated to contain A1 receptors. A range of in vitro experiments also demonstrate that DPCPX is not always a "neutral" or "silent" antagonist. The mechanism underlying these additional effects is unclear, but may result from an ability of the compound to disrupt the normal interaction of the A1 receptor with Gi, or may be indicative of a lack of specificity of action. The limited evidence available suggests that the compound retains its selectivity and specificity of action in vivo, and early work indicates that the compound is proving to be a useful tool with which to explore the potential of activation of adenosine A1 receptors as an important mechanism in physiological and pathophysiological processes.
Six hours after oral administration in rat liver, diisopropyl 1,3-dithiol-2-ylidenemalonate (malotilate) decreased AMP concentrations by 60% with unchanged total adenine nucleotide concentrations and significantly increased adenylate energy charges of 0.87 in comparison to those of 0.81 in vehicle administered control animals. Twelve hours after incubation in primary cultured rat hepatocytes, malotilate decreased AMP concentrations by 18% and increased ATP and GTP concentrations by 13 and 18% respectively with significantly increased adenylate energy charges of 0.89 in comparison to 0.87 in vehicle control. Increased adenylate energy charges by malotilate coincided with the initiation of increases in protein and de novo purine synthesis in vivo, and are associated with the increased rate of de novo purine synthesis in vitro.
1. The behavioural and anticonvulsant effects of 10 1,4-benzodiazepine derivatives were studied after intraperitoneal administration in DBA/2 mice, a strain genetically susceptible to sound-induced seizures. 2. The anticonvulsant effects were evaluated on seizures evoked by means of auditory stimulation (109 dB, 12-16 kHz) in animals placed singly under a perspex dome. The rank order of potency for anticonvulsant activity was alprazolam > clonazepam > flunitrazepam > diazepam > pinazepam > desmethyldiazepam > oxazepam > prazepam > halazepam > camazepam. 3. The impairment of locomotor performance following IP administration of the above reported derivatives was also evaluated by means of the rotarod test. 4. Hypothermic activity was observed after the highest doses of the benzodiazepines studied. 5. The potency of various 1,4-benzodiazepines as inhibitors of specific [3H] flumazenil binding to membranes from cerebellum or cortex was evaluated. In general, 1,4-benzodiazepines were active as anticonvulsants at micromolar range and inhibited [3H] flumazenil binding at nanomolar range. 6. The different degree of anticonvulsant activity and impairment of coordinated motor movements cannot be directly related to the benzodiazepine binding affinity or to the lipophilicity of the compounds studied.
1. Lipid peroxidation in rat brain slices was induced by Fe+3/ascorbate. 2. Brain lipid peroxidation, as measured by malondialdehyde formation, was inhibited by all the tested nitro aryl 1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives over a wide range of concentrations. The time-course antioxidant effects of the most representative agents were assessed. On the basis of both time-course and IC50 experiments the tentative order of antioxidant activity on rat brain slices could be: nicardipine>nisoldipine> (R,S/S,R)-furnidipine > (R,R/S,S)-furnidipine>nitrendipine>nimodipine> nifedipine. 3. 1,4-Dihydropyridine derivatives that lack of a nitro group in the molecule (isradipine, amlodipine) also inhibited lipid peroxidation in rat brain slices but at higher concentrations than that of nitro-substituted derivatives. 4. All the tested nitroso aryl derivatives [2,6-dimethyl-4-(2-nitrosophenyl)-3,5-pyridinedicar. boxylic acid dimethyl ester (NTP), nitrosotoluene, nitrosobenzene] were more potent inhibitors of lipid peroxidation than were the parent nitro compounds. In conclusion, on the basis of the IC50 values determined, the rank order of antioxidant potency for these derivatives can be established as: ortho-nitrosotoluene>NTP>nitrosobenzene.