GEODIVERSITAS

Online ISSN: 1638-9395
Publications
Article
The mainly late Miocene equid genus Hipparion Christol, 1832 still occurred in the early and middle Pliocene of Eurasia. Known European finds are here reviewed; most are referred to a "H. crassum Group", chiefly because of their common dental morphology, but also on their limb bone proportions when known. The group may comprise more than one species, as indicated by metapodial proportions, but new taxa are not formally described, because of the paucity of the material mostly consisting of isolated teeth. Some other finds from the same period, sometimes referred to H. crassum Gervais, 1859 but of uncertain relationship, are discussed.
 
Article
Palaeoreas lindermayeri (Wagner, 1848) is represented in the upper Miocene of Hadjidimovo-1 (Bulgaria) by what may be the largest known sample of a fossil Bovid species from a single locality. The size of the animals is on the average larger than at the type locality, Pikermi, but the biochronological usefulness of size and other inter-populational differences remain, in our opinion, doubtful, in spite of the restricted geographic range of the species. P. lindermayeri was probably a gregarious and territorial Bovid, perhaps similar to the blackbuck in its ecology and behavior, but it cannot be referred to any modern tribe. © Publications Scientifiques du Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris.
 
Article
The equid material from the late Pliocene locality of Sesklo (Thessaly, Greece) is described and compared in this article. It belongs to a large and fairly stout Equus stenonis form, which shares many morphological characters with the species samples from Saint-Vallier, La Puebla de Valverde and Olivola, as well as with already known Equus stenonis samples from other Greek localities (Dafnero, Volax). Its main features are the big skull and limbs, the short protocones and the very simple enamel plication in the teeth. Large sized and relatively robust stenonid horses are common elements of the late Pliocene faunas of Greece.
 
Article
A taxonomic revision of the late Miocene Boselaphini is proposed on the basis of the description of abundant Turolian material from the locality of Hadjidimovo, Bulgaria. The genus Tragoportax Pilgrim, 1937 as usually understood is divided into two genera - Tragoportax and Miotragocerus Stromer, 1928 - the latter itself divided into two subgenera - M. (Miotragocerus) Stromer, 1928 and M. (Pikermicerus) Kretzoi, 1941. The sexual dimorphism and the paleoecology of the taxa are discussed as well as the taphnomy of Tragoportax from Hadjidimovo. © Publications Scientifiques du Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris.
 
Article
The paleontological surveys in the lignites of the Tertiary basin of Nong Ya Plong in Central Thailand have led to the discovery of a new fossiliferous locality. This locality, located in the Cha Prong pit, has yielded relatively well-preserved fossils (two mandibles and isolated teeth) of a diatomyid rodent, Fallomus ladakhensis Nanda & Sahni, 1998, which was first described only from two isolated lower molars from the Oligo-Miocene Kargil Formation in Ladakh (India). This additional material allows better characterization of the Diatomyidae and to discuss the possibility of phylogenetic relationships with the Pedetidae. The occurrence in Nong Ya Plong of F. ladakhensis in association with a typically late Oligocene rhinocerotid (of western European affinities), testifies to the existence of Oligocene deposits in Thailand – a period still scantily documented in South Asia. The Paleogene/Neogene transition is particularly significant in South Asia in terms of climatic changes, which are related to the important paleogeographic and paleogeomorphologic events consequent to the India-Eurasia collision. The fauna from Nong Ya Plong, coupled with those of the Oligocene of Pakistan and India, provides a glimpse into the evolutionary history of mammal communities in South Asia and into the paleoenvironmental conditions (inferred) during this critical time interval.
 
Article
The dietary preference of Sivatherium hendeyi (Harris, 1976), an extinct giraffid from the early Pliocene of South Africa, was investigated by applying three dietary reconstruction tools - hypsodonty, mesowear and microwear. The hypsodonty index for S. hendeyi is 1.51 ± 0.06, which is within the brachyodont category as in most ruminant browsers. The mesowear signature of S. hendeyi is most similar to the mixed feeders (the seasonal mixed feeders). Microwear investigations also support a mixed diet for S. hendeyi. Taken together, results indicate that the dietary preference of this extinct giraffid is most similar to that of seasonal mixed feeders and show no similarities with grazers. The slight differences in the type of mixed feeding are discussed and highlight the constraints of each method for the interpretation of diets of fossil herbivores. The importance of the results in terms of the evolution of dietary strategies amongst African Sivatheriinae are also discussed. © Publications Scientifiques du Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris.
 
Article
More than 120 rhinocerotid remains unearthed in the middle Turolian locality of Akkaşdaǧι (Central Anatolia) are described. The fauna is diversified, with a pair of large two-horned species, Ceratotherium neumayri (Osborn, 1900) and Stephanorhinus pikermiensis (Toula, 1906), and two smaller species of short limbed aceratheriines (Chilotherium sp. and Acerorhinus sp.). Ceratotherium neumayri is by far the most common species, with a complete skull, 114 specimens and at least 11 individuals. The cranial, dental and postcranial remains of C. neumayri are among the largest ones described so far for this species. The coexistence of C. neumayri, S. pikermiensis, and chilotheres is common in the Turolian of Eastern Mediterranean: comparable rhinocerotid associations are known at Kavakdere (MN 12, Turkey) and Samos (MN 12, Greece). The large size of the C. neumayri specimens is consistent with the middle Turolian age for Akkaşdaǧι (MN 12), as stated on the whole mammalian fauna and radiometric data. © Publications Scientifiques du Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris.
 
Article
The taphonomy of the late Miocene fossiliferous deposit of Akkaşdaǧι (Anatolia, Turkey) is presented. The study of bone surface shows few occurrences of weathering and carnivore action. Dissolution marks (roots, fungi and micro-organisms) are the most abundant traces found on the bone surface. The study of bone orientation and some field observations testify to the existence of a predominant direction. Water is considered the main accumulating agent. Nevertheless, the study of surface abrasion shows that bones did not travel from a long distance. The events that contributed to the formation of the fossiliferous site are reconstructed: the hypothesis of catastrophic mortality causes is held as the most probable. Animals would have been killed by toxic emanations of volcanic origins. Their remains were subjected to the action of disarticulating agents, especially carnivores. Finally, they would have been transported by the water to some holes in the ground and covered quickly by tufaceous sediments. © Publications Scientifiques du Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris.
 
Article
A sauropod caudal vertebra from the lower Albian of Mesnil-Saint-Père (Aube, northern France) is described. The specimen is incomplete and there- fore a convincing systematic determination is difficult. Sauropod diversity during the middle part of the Cretaceous in Europe is discussed.
 
Article
Until now, fossil weevils of the family Belidae were unknown from fossil resin deposits. In this article, Gratshevbelus erici n. gen., n. sp. is described a from the Lower Cretaceous (uppermost Albian) amber deposits of southwestern France. Recent members of this family are present only in the southern hemisphere, therefore this new finding in northern deposits helps to better understand the first stages of the radiation of this group during the Late Mesozoic. © Publications Scientifiques du Museum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris.
 
-Streptospondylus altdorfensis Meyer, 1932 ; extrémité distale d'un fémur gauche (MNHN 9645) ; A, vue postérieure ; B, vue distale. Abréviations : C.L., condyle latéral ; C.M., condyle médial ; CR.TF., crista tibiofibularis ; S.EX., sillon extenseur ; S.FL., sillon fléchisseur. Échelle : 5 cm.
Article
Redescription of Streptospondylus altdorfensis, Cuvier's theropod dinosaur from the Jurassic of Normandy. The theropod dinosaur remains from the Callovo-Oxfordian of the Vaches Noires, figured for the first time by Cuvier, are redescribed. The systematic revision shows that Streptospondylus altdorfensis is the valid name to which the whole of the material should be assigned. A few vertebral features suggest the close relationships existing between Streptospondylus and Eustreptospondylus from the Callovian of England: both genus are related to Spinosauroidea. The diversity of the European theropods at the end of the Middle Jurassic and the beginning of the Late Jurassic is outlined.
 
Article
Four taxa of ceratomorph perissodactyls are identified from the lower Alay beds (latest early Eocene, Ypresian) at the Andarak 2 locality in Kyrgyzstan: the deperetellid Teleolophus medius Matthew & Granger, 1925 (= Deperetella ferganica Belyaeva, 1962), the rhodopagid Pataecops minutissimus (Reshetov, 1979) n. comb. (= Pataecops microdon Reshetov, 1979), the amynodontid Sharamynodon kirghisensis (Belyaeva, 1971), and the lophialetid Eoletes tianshanicus n. sp.; this new species is characterized by its small size, a low and anteriorly situated infraorbital foramen, a low zygomatic root, a long bony palate and a two-rooted P1. © Publications Scientifiques du Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris.
 
-Situation géographique du bassin de Pissouri (Chypre). Abréviations : A, Alba ; M, Mires ; P, Pissouri ; Y, Los Yesos.
-Poissons téléostéens du Messinien pré-évaporitique de la coupe de l'autoroute et de la coupe de la Bergerie (Pissouri, Chypre) ; A, « Myctophum » licatae (Sauvage, 1870), échantillon Pi 66 (coupe de l'autoroute), MNHN-LP n° PTE456 ; B, Syngnathus albyi Sauvage, 1870, écussons dermiques fossilisés, échantillon Pi 65 (coupe de l'autoroute), MNHN-LP n° PTE457 ; C, Lepidopus albyi (Sauvage, 1870), tête, échantillon Pi 2 (coupe de la Bergerie), MNHN-LP n° PTE467. Échelles : 5 mm.
— Dernière occurrence des taxons les mieux représentés observée dans les 6 m précédant le dépôt des bancs gypseux. L’intégralité de la faune disparaît dans le second intervalle stromatolithique. La légende est commune avec la Figure 2 ; 1 , Propeamussium duodecimlamellatum (Bronn, 1831) ; 2 , Abra alba (Wood, 1802) ; 3 , Cuspidaria abbreviata (Forbes, 1843) ; 4 , Cavolinia gypsorum (Bellardi, 1873) ; 5 , Spongiaires ; 6 , Cuspidaria rostrata (Spengler, 1792) ; 7 , Lucinidae indet. 
Article
The motorway section of Pissouri (Cyprus) allows to observe a nearly uninterrupted succession of marine sediments from the upper Tortonian up to the lower Messinian gypsum. Its palaeoecological analysis is given, based on the study of 180 samples containing faunal (fishes [four species], molluscs [about 25 benthic species and one planktonic], sponges [seven genera] and foraminifera [100 species]) and floral (diatoms [90 species] and silicoflagellates [four species]) assemblages. Although characterized by a low diversity, the malacofauna shows strong affinities with those of the lower Messinian sediments from Crete (Greece) and Piedmont (Italy). At the bottom of the section, the paleobiological assemblages correspond to mud deposits in a deep circalittoral or upper bathyal zone, near deeper areas. In the middle part of the section, they indicate shallower deposits (upper circalittoral). In the uppermost 5 m below the gypsum, the assemblages indicate an isolation of the basin, shallow water conditions and the disappearance of representative species (Propeamussium duodecimlamellatum (Bronn, 1831), Abra alba (Wood, 1802), Cavolinia gypsorum (Bellardi, 1873) and sponges) of the section is registered. In this context of progressive restriction of the Mediterranean, the low diversity of the fauna and the registered disappearances at the top of the Cyprish pre-evaporitic beds (Pissouri and Polemi basins) already suggest stressful environments for these oriental faunal assemblages, a long way from the Atlantic communication.
 
-Locality and schematic geological map of the Trundle-Condobolin-Mineral Hill area of central New South Wales, Australia, showing approximate localities (•) which yielded the microvertebrate samples (after Földvary 2000: fig. 1): 1, C920; 2, C923-5, C937; 3, Y4; 4, C864-5; 5, C866-7.
-Acanthodian scales from sample C925, Cookeys Plains Formation (early Lochkovian), central New South Wales, Australia; A-D, H, Nostolepis lacrima Valiukevicius, 1994; A, B, specimen MMMC02555; A, crown view; B, antero-lateral view; C, D, specimen MMMC02556; C, crown view; D, lateral view; H, vertical longitudinal ground thin section MMMC02557; remineralization has obscured histological details; E-G, Nostolepis sp.; E, F, specimen MMMC02558; E, crown view; F, anterolateral view; G, ?branchial scale MMMC02559 in crown view. Anterior of scale faces to left in A-D, and to right in E-H. Scale bars: 0.1 mm.
— Acanthodian scales from sample C923, Cookeys Plains Formation (early Lochkovian), central New South Wales, Australia; A, B, Nostolepis lacrima Valiukevicius, 1994 scale MMMC02551 in crown (anterior edge to right) and lateral (anterior edge to left) views; C, D, Nostolepis sp. scale of " N. applicata " -type MMMC02552 in crown and lateral views (presumed anterior edge to left); E, F, Gomphonchoporus hoppei (Gross, 1947) scale MMMC02553 in crown (anterior edge at bottom) and anterior views; G, H, Trundlelepis sp. scale MMMC02554 in crown and lateral views (anterior edge to right). Abbreviation: ms, median sulcus. Scale bars: 0.1 mm.  
— Placoderm scales from sample C925, Cookeys Plains Formation (early Lochkovian), central New South Wales, Australia; A, romundinid dermal bone fragment with thin base, MMMC02628; B, romundinid dermal plate fragment MMMC02629 showing edge ornament; C, romundinid scale MMMC02630, latero-crown view; D, romundinid scale MMMC02631, crown view; E, F, romundinid dermal plate fragment MMMC02632, showing thick cross-section, and close-up of ornament tubercles; G, ?brindabellaspid scale MMMC02633. Scale bars: A, C, D, F, G, 0.1 mm; B, E, 1.0 mm.  
-Placoderm and palaeoniscoid scales from sample C866, middle Lochkovian (?delta CZ) ?Connemarra Formation, central New South Wales, Australia; A, B, broken scale MMMC02623 from Terenolepis turnerae Burrow, 1995, in crown and antero-crown view (anterior edge to right); C, D, ?petalichthyid scale MMMC02624, in crown and postero-crown view; E, F, ?brindabellaspid scale MMMC02625, in crown and antero-crown view; G, H, ?palaeacanthaspid scale MMMC02626, in crown and lateral view (anterior to left); I, ?romundinid scale MMMC02627 in crown view. Scale bars: A-D, 1.0 mm; E-I, 0.1 mm.
Article
The vertebrate faunas in limestone samples of earliest Devonian age, which were collected from 10 localities near Trundle, central New South Wales, Australia, include scales of acanthodians Nostolepis lacrima Valiukevicius, 1994, Radioporacanthodes porosus (Brotzen, 1934), Gomphonchus sandelensis (Pander, 1856), Trundlelepis sp. and Gomphonchoporus hoppei (Gross, 1947), as well as scales and dermal bone fragments from romundinid, palaeacan-thaspid and ?brindabellaspid placoderms, and scales of the palaeoniscoid Terenolepis turnerae Burrow, 1995. Although the vertebrate remains are not plentiful, the assemblages are significant in being dominated by taxa which are found in coeval deposits of the circum-Arctic region.
 
Article
A large area of synsedimentary collapse covering about 25 km2 has been identified within Lower Barremian carbonate platform strata of the Southern Vercors (Vocontian Basin, SE France). New observations of the prograding/aggrading strata of the Cirque d'Archiane and the Glandasse Plateau reveal the presence of a disturbed zone, showing tilted and imbricated blocks as well as slump features. Measurements and analysis on these synsedimentary distorted strata suggest that they compose a slide which slipped on the Barremian slope. The occurence of two coarse bioclastic grainstone beds on the eastern side of the Archiane Valley, in a distal hemipelagic context, suggests that this instability generated a tsunami that reworked proximal bioclastic material, previously transported out to the hemipelagic domain at the same time as the slide, rearranging it under the influence of tractive currents. The idea of high frequency sea-level variations to explain these strata is unlikely. They do not exhibit unequivocal sedimentologic evidence (such as bundles or herring-bone stratifications) that could indicate sea-level fluctuations. Furthermore, no evidence of major subaerial exposure on the platform top has been reported, neither acceleration of downward migration of platform facies is observed on the slope. It seems more appropriate, considering the palaeogeographical setting of this area, that these grainstone beds represent bioclastic deposits controlled by tractive currents. The origin of the slide could either be sediment loading or tectonics coumpounding sediment loading. These two events (slide and bioclastic beds) are proposed to be genetically linked, as well as with numerous tectonic activity evidence already reported at other sites in the region. The events observed in this work do not allow classical biostratigraphy dating methods to be applied. The various structures observed in these disturbed zones show that the material slipped in a direction wholly consistent with the unstable setting of the margin of the Vocontian Basin in Lower Cretaceous times.
 
Article
The Middle Miocene land mammals fauna of the Savigné-sur-Lathan (France) basin. We give here, locality by locality, the lists of the terrestrial mammals we found in the Middle Miocene marine deposits (falun) of the Anjou to the North of the Loire river. These fossils are from three ages: in part they are contemporaneous with the falun (MN5); the majority is reworked from the continental sands (MN3) underlyng the falun and some are reworked from unknown MN2 deposit.
 
-Burnhamia sp. du Thanétien supérieur de Bourguillemont (Oise, France) ; A, face linguale ; B, face basilaire ; C, face occlusale. Échelle : 1,5 mm.
-Restes de vertébrés du Thanétien du Mont Bourguillemont (Oise, France) ; A, Carcharias hopei (Agassiz, 1843), vue linguale ; B, Palaeohypotodus rutoti (Winkler, 1874), vue linguale ; C, Striatolamia striata (Winkler, 1874), vue linguale ; D, E, Anomotodon novus (Winkler, 1874) ; D, vue linguale ; E, vue labiale ; F, G, Physogaleus secundus (Winkler, 1874) ; F, vue labiale ; G, vue linguale ; H, Palaeogaleus vincenti (Daimeries, 1888), vue linguale ; I, J, Squatina sp. ; I, vue linguale ; J, vue labiale ; K, L, Megasqualus orpiensis (Winkler, 1874) ; K, vue linguale ; L, vue labiale ; M-O, Lepisosteidae gen. et sp. indet. ; M, vue externe ; N, écaille faîtière, vue externe ; O, vertèbre ; P, Teleostei indet. 1, vue occlusale ; Q, R, Teleostei indet. 2 ; Q, profil ; R, vue occlusale ; S, T, Teleostei indet. 3 ; S, profil ; T, vue postérieure ; U, V, Teleostei indet. 4 ; U, profil ; V, face ; W, X, Crocodylia indet., profil. Échelles : 5 mm.
Article
Les Sables de Bourguillemont (Thanétien), associés aux calcaires sus-jacents, apparaissent comme une séquence complète. Des vertébrés sont cités pour la première fois de la localité éponyme de cette formation. Ces restes de vertébrés représentés par des dents, des vertèbres et des écailles ont permis d’identifier 10 taxons d’élasmobranches (Carcharias hopei (Agassiz, 1843), Striatolamia striata (Winkler, 1874), Anomotodon aff. novus (Winkler, 1874), Palaeohypotodus rutoti (Winkler, 1874), Physogaleus secundus (Winkler, 1874), Palaeogaleus vincenti (Daimeries, 1888), Megasqualus orpiensis (Winkler, 1874), Squatina sp., Myliobatis sp., Burnhamia sp.), cinq taxons d’actinoptérygiens (Lepisosteidae gen. et sp. indet. et quatre Teleostei indéterminés) et un crocodile indéterminé de petite taille. Ces données confirment la position des Sables de Bourguillemont au sein du Thanétien supérieur.
 
Article
The fossil fauna of freshwater turtles from the Bauru Basin, south central Brazil, includes only podocnemids (Pleurodira, Pelomedusoides). A new genus and species, Cambaremys langertoni n. gen., n. sp., represents a taxon in the stem-lineage to the crown-Podocnemidae. This phylogenetic position is given by the joint presence of a plesiomorphically expanded coracoid and an apomorphic cranially displaced caudal margin of the pectoral scute. Its holo- type and only specimen was collected from Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) rocks of the Serra da Galga Member (Marília Formation, Bauru Group), in the area of Uberaba, Minas Gerais. Although no autapomorphic features were recognised for Cambaremys langertoni n. gen., n. sp., the taxon is distinct from all other South American Cretaceous podocnemids based on an unique suite of shell features, namely: a narrow nuchal plate, seven neural plates, a second neural plate that contacts the first costal plates, a pectoro-abdominal sulcus that does not penetrate the mesoplastra, and xiphiplastra with a deep anal notch and subtriangular ischiadic sutures.
 
-Map of Africa showing location of the Gebel Zelten locality (*) in Northern Libya.
-Tomistoma lusitanica Antunes, 1967 (MNHN.LBE.300), anterior portion of the snout; A, dorsal view; B, ventral view. Abbreviations: e.n, external naris; n, nasals; mx, maxillae; pmx, premaxillae. Scale bars: 2 cm.
-Crocodylidae indet. 1 (MNHN.LBE.311), skull table and braincase in ventral view. Abbreviations: bo, basioccipital; boc, basioccipital condyle; bs, basisphenoid; f, frontal; ls, laterosphenoid; m.e.f, median eustachian foramen; po, postorbital; pob, postorbital bar; q, quadrate; stf, supratemporal fenestra. Scale bar: 2 cm.
-Crocodylidae indet. 1 (MNHN.LBE.311), skull table and braincase in right lateral view. Abbreviations: bo, basioccipital; boc, basioccipital condyle; bs, basisphenoid; e.a.m, external auditory meatus; f, frontal; f.o, foramen ovale; ls, laterosphenoid; po, postorbital; pob, postorbital bar; q, quadrate; sq, squamosal. Scale bar: 2 cm.
-Crocodylidae indet. 2; A, fragmentary skull table in dorsal view (MNHN.LBE.306); B, anterior portion of right dentary in dorsal view (MNHN.LBE.307). Abbreviations: f, frontal; p, parietal; po, postorbital; pop, paraoccipital process; q, quadrate; qj, quadratojugal; soc, supraoccipital process; sq, squamosal; sqp, squamosal projection; stf, supratemporal fenestra. Scale bars: 2 cm.
Article
The Gebel Zelten locality in Cirenaica, North Central Libya (Burdigalian, lower Miocene) has yielded numerous fossil remains of crocodilians. Although fragmentary in nature, several forms can be distinguished, among them the longirostrines Euthecodon arambourgi Ginsburg & Buffetaut, 1978 and Tomistoma lusitanica Antunes, 1967 and the brevirostrine Rimasuchus lloydi Fourtau, 1918. There are also other remains present in the collections from this locality that cannot be assigned with confidence to any known crocodilian species due to their fragmentary condition. Nevertheless, these remains indicate the presence of at least one additional taxon, a previously unidentified brevirostrine form differing from Rimasuchus lloydi in the morphology of its lower jaw. The crocodilian fauna from this locality shows similarities with that from the Burdigalian of Wadi Moghara (Egypt), pointing to the existence of a crocodilian assemblage in North Africa during the early Miocene, showing both forms endemic to the African continent (Euthecodon arambourgi, Rimasuchus lloydi) and forms that were also present at that time all around the Mediterranean basin and Asia (Tomistominae and Gavialoidea). The presence of crocodilians in North Africa at that time also indicates the existence of a tropical, warm and humid climate, before the onset of more arid conditions in the region that led to the disappearance of the crocodilians and the development and expansion of the Sahara desert. © Publications Scientifiques du Muséum national d'Historie naturelle, Paris.
 
Article
Philippe Matheron and Paul Gervais: two pioneers of the discovery and study of dinosaur bones and eggs from Provence (France). Philippe Matheron was the first to describe dinosaur bones from Provence, and the first to discover in the history of paleontology dinosaur eggs. Paul Gervais used the shell fragments discovered by Matheron to take thin sections of dinosaur eggs for the first time. The different stages of these discoveries and works are retraced and the thin sections made by Gervais and found in the collections of the Muséum are figured for the first time.
 
-Pie chart showing the percentage distribution of 344 Paleozoic genera based on their current taxonomic status: VAL., valid, 208 genera, 60.5%; SYN., junior synonyms, 82 genera, 23.8%; N.D., nomina dubia, 35 genera, 10.2%; N.N., nomina nuda, 2 genera, 0.6%; HOM., homonyms, 7 genera, 2%; Not Rad., not radiolaria, 10 genera, 2.9%. VAL. SYN. N.D. N.N. HOM. Not Rad. 
-Number of new Paleozoic genera introduced yearly since 1890. 
Article
This paper summarizes and highlights the history of descriptive genus-level taxonomy on Paleozoic radiolarians grouped in five major phases: 1) initial discoveries in the 1890s; 2) ignored during the first half of the 1900s; 3) renewed interest during the 1950s to 1970s; 4) the “fast” years of the late 1970s to 1990s; and 5) the early 21st century quest for the oldest and significant progress in the late Permian. In the 1890s, radiolarians were identified with certainty by Hinde in Ordovician radiolarian cherts. Following Hinde’s great discovery, and after a 50-year dormant period, Deflandre revived the study of Paleozoic radiolarians through his groundbreaking study of Albaillella from Carboniferous phosphatic nodules, combined with his genius for understanding evolutionary implications. Additional important work was conducted in this third phase by Foreman, particularly with respect to the description of the radiolarian internal structures based on material extracted from Devonian carbonate nodules. The late 1970s saw an expansion in studies that made extensive use of the SEM for the description of Paleozoic radiolarians, many of which had been extracted from chert using HF methods. The potential of radiolarians to unveil the structure and geodynamic evolution of Paleozoic orogenic belts stimulated taxonomic interest during the 1980s and 1990s, a prerequisite for the elaboration of radiolarian biostratigraphic schemes, which was successfully achieved for the upper Paleozoic. The fifth phase follows the discovery of well-preserved Middle Cambrian radiolarians from Australia at the end of the 20th century and subsequent description by Won of beautifully preserved Cambrian and Ordovician fauna from western Newfoundland. Research on early Paleozoic radiolarians was the main driver for the increase of the number of new genera for the last two decades. © Publications scientifiques du Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Paris.
 
Article
This work presents a taxonomic study on the Late Maastrichtian radiolarian fauna from ODP Leg 165, Hole 999B, Colombian Basin. The studied fauna is composed by 24 species, being the family Archaeodictyomitridae Pessagno, 1976 the most abundant and diverse. Original opaline skeletons are replaced by calcium carbonate and precise identifications are possible only for those specimens with sturdy skeletons, what strongly suggests a preservational bias. The studied radiolarian fauna was attributed to the Amphipyndax tylotus zone, due to the occurrence of that species. Besides, the fauna described herein presents a low to intermediate latitude paleobiogeographic affinity and falls within the designation of a typical lower bathyal to abyssal one. Finally, the data presented herein are compared to those reported from the closely related ODP Hole 1001B.
 
-Hystrix refossa Gervais, 1852 from Senèze, right upper incisor: A, buccal side; B, medial side; C, upper side. Scale bar: 1 cm. 
Article
Excavations carried out between 2001 and 2006 in the Early Pleistocene locality Senèze (Haute-Loire, France) yielded the fragment of a large upper incisor with anteriorly grooved enamel band, documenting a large-bodied rodent in Senèze for the first time. A thorough study of this incisor and particularly of its enamel microstructure led to its assignment to Hystrix refossa Gervais, 1852, despite the presence of longitudinal grooves which are usually considered as characteristic of the castorid genus Trogontherium Fischer von Waldheim, 1809 and which have not been noticed in Hystrix Linnaeus, 1758 so far. The presence of H. refossa is in accordance with the partly steppic environment previously documented in the Senèze locality. © Publications scientifiques du Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Paris.
 
Article
Middle Devonian (lower Givetian) Calceola sandalina (Linnaeus, 1771) from Čelechovice Limestone, Moravia, Czech Republic, displays sharply differing ontogenetic stages. Width of ventral side and size/volume of calice steadily increases in juvenile and adult stages but decreases in some specimens in final stages of life: we consider these reductive late stages to be gerontic characters. "Ventral" side of juvenile specimens is flat and straight while in adults this side becomes convex. We suggest that opening of operculum and shifting part of polyp body mass forward would shift centre of gravity so that calicinal part of adult coral could rock down to seabottom. Closing operculum would elevate calice above bottom. Rocking movements could help to free coral from sediment. Operculum positioning could move coral and keep it in optimum feeding position. Single specimen shows predation injury: almost half of the "ventral" side is missing between counter septum and corallite angle but has healed within calice. © Publications Scientifiques du Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris.
 
Article
RÉSUMÉ 1802 : le tout jeune Muséum devient éditeur scientifique et publie les premières Annales. 2018 : presque 220 ans plus tard, les périodiques du Muséum sont publiés en flux continu, disponibles en accès libre diamant et au format XML. Cette modernisation technologique opérée par l'équipe des Publications scientifiques s'est étalée sur 20 ans. En 1997, les Bulletins du Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle changent de forme et prennent les noms des périodiques que nous connaissons aujourd'hui. La Section A, Zoologie, biologie et écologie animales devient Zoosystema ; la Section B, Adansonia : Botanique, Phytochimie devient plus simplement Adansonia ; enfin, la Section C, Sciences de la Terre, paléontologie, géologie, minéralogie devient Geodiversitas. La revue Anthropozoologica, quant à elle, rejoint les rangs des journaux scientifiques du Muséum en 2004, pour ses vingt années d'existence. Elle est suivie par l'European Journal of Taxonomy (EJT), lancée en 2011, qui jouera un rôle d'incubateur pour la mise en place de nouvelles technologies pour les revues du Muséum. Dès 1997, celles-ci entrent de plain-pied dans l'ère des revues scientifiques internationales. Car au-delà d'un simple changement de format, c'est leur mode de fonctionnement dans son intégralité qui vit une véritable révolution : alors que les Bulletins étaient gérés par l'assemblée des professeurs du Muséum, le processus d'acceptation des nouveaux périodiques s'appuie désormais sur une évaluation par les pairs, et chaque revue, gérée par un rédacteur en chef, est cautionnée par un comité scientifique composé d'experts internationaux reconnus. Alors que les Bulletins héritaient d'une longue tradition académique, les nouveaux journaux se dotent de titres courts, favorisant la citabilité des articles d'une part, le bon référencement de la revue sur internet et par le Journal Citation Report d'autre part, ainsi que d'une maquette commune. La parution régulière des articles — les derniers vendredis de chaque trimestre — sur papier et sur internet à partir de 2000, et l'ouverture des revues aux articles en langue anglaise finissent de les professionnaliser aux yeux de la communauté scientifique internationale. L'indexation par le Journal Citation Report et l'obtention d'un facteur d'impact pour Geodiversitas, Adansonia et Zoosystema d'abord, puis pour Anthropozoologica et, enfin pour le tout jeune EJT, consacreront ces efforts. L'élargissement régulier de la distribution des revues du Muséum ces vingt dernières années, via les échanges de la Bibliothèque centrale au départ, puis via le site des Publications scientifiques (en 1999, 2004 et 2015 pour la version actuelle) et le portail BioOne (en 2009), s'est aussi révélé une stratégie gagnante. Les articles publiés dans les revues du Muséum sont désormais distribués dans plus de 2 500 universités, et accessibles en ligne, gratuitement et librement, sur le site internet des Publications scientifiques. Les revues scientifiques du Muséum doivent accroître encore leur rayonnement et maintenir leur haute qualité technique et scientifique. Le passage à un flux de publication continu répond à une demande accrue de réactivité de la part des chercheurs. La conversion des articles au format XML permet, à la fois, l'archivage pérenne des articles et le renseignement des grandes bases de données de la recherche. La distribution des articles, d'un côté via le site des Publications scientifiques et de l'autre, via BioOne, ainsi que l'intégration des anciens numéros dans la Biodiversity Heritage Library permettront aux résultats scientifiques originaux confiés aux revues du Muséum de perdurer encore pendant des décennies.
 
-Body plan of Thalassina as exemplified on extant T. anomala (Herbst, 1804): A, lateral view; B, dorsal view; C, closer view on pereiopod 1. Photo: A. De Angeli). Scale bar: 10 mm.
-Thalassina sp. from the lower Oligocene of Salcedo, Italy, MCZ.4516-I.G.367044: A, flattened, almost complete specimen in natural light; B, interpretative drawing. Scale bar: 5 mm.
-Thalassina sp. from the lower Oligocene of Salcedo, Italy, MSNM i13569: A, articulated cheliped consisting of merus, carpus, propodus and dactylus; B, interpretive drawing of the cheliped; C, detailed view on the chela showing a faint carina (indicated with arrows); D, detailed view on the chela showing two rows of tubercles (indicated with arrows). Scale bars: 5 mm.
-Disputed fossil occurrences of Thalassina Latreille, 1806 (see the text for more details): A, Thalassina grandidactylus Robineau-Desvoidy, 1849 from the 'Neocomian' of France (refigured from Robineau-Desvoidy 1849: pl. 5, fig. 16); B, Thalassina sp. from the Pliocene of Italy (refigured from Ristori 1891: pl. 1, fig. 16); C, Thalassina sp. from the Pliocene of Italy (refigured from Ristori 1891: pl. 1, fig. 17).
Article
Two specimens of Thalassina sp. are reported from the lower Oligocene sediments cropping out at Salcedo, Italy. Although the material is not sufficiently preserved to be identified below the genus level, it represents an important addition to the known fossil record of the genus. Thalassina sp. from Salcedo is considered the oldest and the only fossil occurrence of the genus from Europe; indeed, the previous reports on Thalassina grandidactylus Robineau Desvoidy, 1849 from the Cretaceous of France and Thalassina sp. from the Pliocene of Italy are disputed herein. Thalassina is today known only from the Indo-West Pacific region; however, unequivocal evidence of Thalassina in the Oligocene strata of Europe suggests the origin of the genus in the west Tethyan (modern circum-Mediterranean area). Alternatively, the geographic distribution of the genus might be wider in the Oligocene than it is today. The Italian material presented herein comes from marine settings with strong fluvial influence, suggesting that the environmental preferences of Thalassina have not changed since the Oligocene.
 
Article
The dental anatomy of Gomphotherium angustidens (Cuvier, 1817), the commonest proboscidean in the faunal lists of the Middle Miocene of Europe, is detailed on the basis of the numerous fossils found at En Péjouan in the vicinity of Simorre (Gers, France), a locality of Astaracian age (mammal zone MN7 or MN7/8). The examination of the morphologic and biometric variation of tusks, premolars and molars, based on an unprecedented number of specimens of one species in one locality, yields several results. The first is a better understanding of the evolutionary level of G. angustidens during the Astaracian. A second is a better knowledge of dental characters and their variation. The presence or absence of both upper and lower incisors (tusks), due to sexual dimorphism, is documented. In females, when they exist, upper tusks are much reduced. The relation between shape and growth stages of evergrowing tusks is illustrated in relation to a dental-age scale based on crania and mandibles with different premolars and/or molars and different wear stages. Variation of the orientation of the enamel band of upper tusks and of the piriform transverse sections of lower tusks is directly observed based on numerous specimens. The upper tusks are slightly curved outwards; they are not much curved ventrally although they display a twist even on rather straight tusks: in lateral view they are slightly concave dorsally at the premaxilla, then rather straight, and finally ventrally curved at the tip. The fabrication of enamel is stopped on male upper tusks at the dental ages XVII-XVIII (that is, with worn M2/m2 and first loph [id] of M3/m3 worn). No lower tusk shows circular or flat transverse sections, even if the longitudinal sulcus (on both dorsal and ventral sides) is more or less marked; the dorsal wear facet is strong but short. The bunolophodont pattern of decidual premolars, premolars and molars is extremely variable. The range of this variation is understood in details through several parameters: 1) the subdivision of lophs(ids); 2) the shape of central conules and the resulting trefoiled wear figure; 3) the degree of subdivision of the central conules; 4) the posttrite conules; 5) the labial cristae of upper molars; 6) the development of the cingulum; 7) the degree of development of the fourth loph of M3s and of the fifth lophid of m3; and 8) the amount of cement. It appears that: 1) the binary subdivision of lophs(ids) is the rule, posttrite half lophs with three cusps are rare and variable on right and left sides; on upper molars, the mesoconelet is often fused with the anterior central conule; 2) the pretrite trefoiled wear figure of upper molars shows an enlargement of the posterior central conule compared to the anterior, and this asymetry is seen even on worn teeth – this trait seems to be significant at the Astaracian, especially for M2 and M3; 3) pretrite central conules are subdivided (“serridentine” pattern), or not, and variation can be seen of right and left molars of same individuals; 4) posttrite conules are weak or absent; 5) the labial cristae of upper molars (mainly postparacrista and premetacrista) have the shape of smooth ridges and are never strongly developed; 6) the cingulum is mostly weak on the pretrite side, the development of the postingulum is extremely variable, as that of the last loph(id); 7) all M3s are tetralophodont, even the teeth which bear weak fourth loph and only one postcingulum cusp show an entoflexus between third and fourth lophs; m3s have four or five lophids ; and 8) the cement is usually present in the interlophs (ids) and around the cusps. The biometric variation of molars, especially M3s and m3s, is compatible with the explanation of sexual dimorphism. As a consequence, the variation of the dental traits described at En Péjouan brings a rationale for understanding any interspecific variation among the Elephantida. The study of wear facets of associated upper and lower premolars and molars lead to the description of the mode of occlusion in respect to horizontal tooth displacement and anatomical characters of the skull (cranium and mandible). The occlusion depicted for G. angustidens is probably valid for any species that belongs to the trilophodont grade of Elephantida and even, based on comparisons with the mammutid Zygolophodon turicensis (Schinz, 1824), of Elephantimorpha. Occlusal movements are mainly due to an upward component, as for deinotheres, with a secondary component, transversal (inward). The latter component is illustrated by the angle made by the longitudinal axis of occluding molars (= shear angle of elephantine molars). Yet, the extension of the pendulous movement (both vertical and postero-anterior) of the mandible toward the maxilla is limited in G. angustidens compared to elephants due to the different orientation of temporalis, digastricus and masseter muscles. The odontology of the “population” of G. angustidens at En Péjouan, and comparisons with Miocene European taxa, bring some reliable taxonomic statements. No subtapiroid or annectens-like morphotypes (rather frequent in MN4-MN5 zones) is seen at En Péjouan. Molar and incisor characteristics of the contemporaneous species G. steinheimense are also absent in the variation described at En Péjouan. From the viewpoint of dental morphology, G. angustidens is closer to Archaeobelodon filholi (Frick, 1933). Yet, an association of characters seen only in G. angustidens is made of the double twist of upper tusks and enamel band, the piriform transverse section of lower tusks, the enlargement of the posterior central conules with resulting asymmetrical trefoil and reduced posttrite conules of upper molars, the alternate pattern of the lophs(ids) of dP3/dp3. As a consequence, derived traits seen on the dentition of Gomphotherium angustidens in Astaracian localities lead to the conclusion that most molars of bunolophodont trilophodont grade of Orleanian localities rather belong to Gomphotherium subtapiroideum (Schlesinger, 1917). Identification of isolated teeth, especially lower molars, remains sometimes tentative if not hazardous. © Publications Scientifiques du Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Paris.
 
Article
L'anatomie dentaire de Gomphotherium angustidens (Cuvier, 1817), le probos-cidien le plus fréquemment cité dans les listes fauniques du Miocène moyen continental d'Europe est détaillée à partir des fossiles du gisement d'En Péjouan à Simorre (Gers), gisement de l'Astaracien (zone mammalienne MN7 ou MN7/8). L'examen de la variation morphologique et dimensionnelle des défenses et des dents jugales appartenant à une seule espèce d'un seul gisement donne une base relativement objective, plutôt fiable vu le nombre de spécimens, pour non seulement définir G. angustidens mais aussi pour interpréter les variations inter-spécifique parmi les Elephantida. On insiste également sur l'occlusion dont les modalités en liaison avec le mode d'éruption dentaire sont valables pour toute espèce d'Elephantida de grade trilophodonte.
 
Article
Pecten solarium Lamarck, 1819 was often confused with different species of large Neogene pectinids. The two main species confused with it are Pecten gigas (Schlotheim, 1813) and P. ligerianus Dollfus & Dautzenberg, 1906.They both belong to the genus Gigantopecten Rovereto, 1899 whilst P. solarium is a Flabellipecten Sacco, 1897. The three species here studied are morphologically different. The geographic and chronostratigraphic distributions of G. gigas and F. solarium are also different but F. solarium and G. ligerianus are sympatric in the west of France. The systematic revision of the species Pecten solarium is based on a specimen housed in the Lamarck collection of theMuséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris. This specimen bears the name "P. solarium" written by Lamarck himself. It is herein designated the lectotype of Pecten solarium Lamarck, 1819. The chronostratigraphic and palaeogeographic distributions of this species are updated. © Publications Scientifiques du Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris.
 
Article
Anchitherium aurelianense (Mammalia, Equidae) (Cuvier, 1825) from the Orleanian (Miocene) of France. The characters of the horse Anchitherium Meyer, 1844 are very conservative. While its dental morphology is quite constant, its postcranial morphology is more variable. Fossil remains from the Orleanian (early to middle Miocene, MN3-MN5) localities of Baigneaux-en-Beauce, Pontlevoy and Thenay, Faluns d'Anjou, Chevilly, Neuville-aux-Bois, Chilleurs-aux-Bois, Chitenay, and Montabuzard (Loire basin) and La Romieu (Aquitaine basin) were studied. Based on their tooth and limb morphology, these fossil remains were assigned to Anchitherium aurelianense aurelianense (Cuvier, 1825). The type specimen of the subspecies comes from Montabuzard. We also studied new fossil remains from the following localities within the Sables de l'Orléanais region (France): Tavers-les-Pavés, and Bois de Maigreville (= Graviers de l'Orléanais). Dental material from Tavers-les-Pavés was attributed to A. a. hippoides Lartet, 1851. Remains from the other localities were characterized by mid- to small-sized skeletons and smallish teeth (smaller than the A. a. hippoides teeth from the more recent localities of Sansan and Simorre [France]). Thematerial from the Buñol (Spain) horse was very similar to that of horses of Baigneauxen-Beauce and other French localities, and was therefore assigned to A. a. aurelianense. This study showed a strong correlation between tooth and postcranial morphologies and size among all the remains. We consider that all the remains from the Sables de l'Orléanais belong to the same species. From a palaeoecological point of view, the characters of A. a. aurelianense suggest a more closed environment than do those of the more recent subspecies from the middle Miocene. © Publications Scientifiques du Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris.
 
Article
Revision of the Cancellariidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda) described by Grateloup (1827-1847)from the Miocene of Landes (SW France). Grateloup (1827, 1832, 1847) described and illustrated numerous species of Cancellariidae from the Miocene of Landes (SW Aquitaine, France). A complete revision of his collection of Cancellariidae is presented here; about 80 registered specimens belonging to this familly are discussed. Geographic localities and stratigraphy of each species are discussed. An attempt of generic assignment is made for each taxon. We confirm the validity of the genus Gulia Jousseaume, 1887 and we complete its diagnosis; its differences from Ventrilia Jousseaume, 1887 are specified. Out of 32 figures published in 1847, only three (perhaps four) specimens seem to be missing. As a whole, one holotype by monotypy is present and we have found 16 specimens designated (here or previously) as lectotypes of 20 available taxa of the species-group (e.g., "varieties" with subspecific rank), created by the author or by subsequent authors; all are illustrated here. Twenty-two paralectotypes are also listed. The following species described by Grateloup are considered valid: Gulia deshayesana, Aneurystoma dufourii, Coptostoma (s.l.) laurensii, Bivetiella stromboides, Scalptia (s.l.) spinosa (senior synonym of S. (s.l.) spinifera), whereas "Cancellaria westziana" is considered a morph of Gulia acutangula. Moreover, two taxa are considered nomina dubia ("Cancellaria papyracea", "Cancellaria varicosa var. subumbilicata"). The type specimens of some other valid species, created by posterior authors, are present in the Grateloup collection and are illustrated in this revision, e.g., Bivetiella subcancellata, Calcarata subhirta, ?Genus subsuturale, Sveltia salbriacensis. On the other hand, few other taxa created also from specimens illustrated by Grateloup are not considered valid, such as "Cancellaria subvaricosa" (nomen dubium), "C. gratteloupi" (synonymous with Gulia acutangula), C. battersbyi (synonymous with Calcarata subhirta). Finally, one species described by Grateloup from the Rupelian ("Fusus thorei") may belong to the genus Loxotaphrus. © Publications Scientifiques du Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris.
 
Article
The late Miocene locality Hadjidimovo in Southwestern Bulgaria has yielded a huge collection of mammalian fossils, including a complete skull of MachairodusKaup, 1833, first described (in Bulgarian) by Kovachev (2002). We re-describe it here, compare it with other Machairodus, and review the evolution of the genus. We conclude that the transition from M. aphanistus (Kaup, 1832) to M. giganteus (Wagner, 1848) is gradual and mosaic, that assigning these species to different genera fails to reflect this relationship, and that the Hadjidimovo skull represents a rather late evolutionary stage of this lineage.
 
Article
This paper presents, for the first time ever, a complete list of Cenozoic Polycystinea reported between 1834 and 2020. It records 6898 names of taxa originally described as new species or subspecies, assigned to the Class of Polycystinea, the most important group in the infraphylum Radiolaria. This list only attempts to provide an objective record of available and unavailable names, the latter including nomina oblita, nomina nuda, homonyms, invalid nomenclatorial acts, species wrongly described as Polycystinea and nomina dubia species with inexistent name-bearing specimens.
 
? Reproduction of a part of plate 20 of Deslongchamps (1825), showing conulariids referred to as " Conulaire ondul?e (var.) " (figs 6a-c; 7a, b) and " Conulaire acutangle " (fig. 8). The former is the large conulariid characteristic of the Ordovician Grand May Formation of May-sur-Orne, here revised as Metaconularia? pyramidata (Bronn, 1837).  
? Locations of Budleigh Salterton (Devon) and May-sur-Orne (Normandy), with the approximate position of the Rheic Suture between the palaeocontinents of Avalonia and Gondwana. Both localities yield Metaconularia? pyramidata (Bronn, 1837): indigenous examples occur in the Upper Ordovician Gr?s de May of May-sur-Orne, while reworked fossils occur in the Triassic Budleigh Salterton Pebble Beds Formation of Budleigh Salterton.  
? Outcrop (stippled) and subcrop (hatched) of the Sherwood Sandstone Group, including the Budleigh Salterton Pebble Bed Formation, in southern England, with sedimentary column of the BSPBF at its type locality (after Smith & Edwards 1991).  
? Metaconularia? pyramidata (Bronn, 1837) from the Upper Ordovician Gr?s de May of May-sur-Orne, Normandy: Harvard, Bronn collection: A-D, lectotype, MCZ16028; E-H, plaster cast, MCZ16029; I, J, plaster cast MCZ (no number). Scale bars: 10 mm.  
FIGgle in Metaconularia? pyramidata (Bronn, 1837) specimens from the Grès de May of Normandy and reworked conulariids from
Article
A conulariid originally figured by Deslongchamps (1825) from the Grès de May (Caradoc) of Normandy as "Conulaire ondulée (var.)" is revised. It is one of the first conulariids to have been figured in the literature. This large species, preserved as sandstone steinkerns, has usually been referred to as Conularia pyramidata Hoeninghaus, 1830. However, Hoeninghaus' publication does not satisfy criteria of availability and the species should instead be attributed to Bronn, as Metaconularia? pyramidata (Bronn, 1837). A lectotype is chosen from the Bronn Collection. Metaconularia? pyramidata is recorded for the first time reworked into the Triassic Budleigh Salterton Pebble Beds Formation of Devon, England. © Publications Scientifiques du Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris.
 
Article
D'Orbigny, in 1846, received a collection of material made by Chevalier von Hauer from the Tertiary of the Vienna Basin with the request that he studies the foraminifera. D'Orbigny studied this material in Paris, kept a part of it, and returned the rest to von Hauer, who may have further sorted it into vials of his choosing. Some of the material was also redistributed to other museums and topotypes were also newly collected. Thus the status of four collections of foraminifera from the Vienna Basin are confused. These collections are located in the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris, the Geologische Bundesanstalt, Vienna, the Roemer Museum, Hildesheim (Germany), and in the Cushman Collection of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. The research undertaken for the present work shows that the only collection containing valid syntypes of d'Orbigny's material is in Paris; the remainder are topotype collections. In the revision of the Austrian collection by Papp & Schmid (1985), the specimens referred to Dentalina spinosa d'Orbigny, 1846 and Nonionina boueana d'Orbigny, 1846, were misidentified. A close examination of the syntypes housed in the French collection allows clarification of their taxonomical assignment and to designate lectotypes of these two species. Moreover, a comparative study led to reexamine the specimens of Dentalina elegantissima d'Orbigny, 1846, for which a lectotype is also designated, as well as specimens of Nonion commune (d'Orbigny, 1846) held in the same collection, and topotypes of Nonion fabum (Fichtel & Moll, 1798). © Publications Scientifiques du Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris.
 
Article
Part of the problem of interpreting fossil suids has been the misplacement or loss of material described during the 19th Century, which makes comparisons difficult because usually only occlusal views of teeth were illustrated and the illustrations, although labelled as “natural size” often differ from the real dimensions, sometimes by as much as 10%. Some of the fossils attributed by Blainville (1847) and Gervais (1850, 1859) to Sus provincialis Blainville, 1847 are preserved at the University of Montpellier II (some are mislabelled due to the fact that several of the illustrations are reversed) and one original specimen and a set of casts is preserved at the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris. Fossils found after Gervais’ publications reveal that the deposits in the neighbourhood of Montpellier contain four species of suid, Dasychoerus arvernensis (Croizet & Jobert, 1828), Dasychoerus sp. from Kvabebi, “Sus” provincialis Blainville, 1847 and Dasychoerus strozzii (Meneghini, 1862) and that ever since Blainville's (1847) publication, as well as those of Gervais (1850, 1859) and above all the monograph of Stehlin (1899–1900) the concept of the species “Sus” provincialis has been based on a chimera of two taxa (“Sus” provincialis and Dasychoerus strozzii). In order to ensure stability of nomenclature, it is necessary to avoid nominating a lectotype that might belong either to Dasychoerus arvernensis or to Dasychoerus strozzii. For this to succeed a detailed revision of the Montpellier suids is necessary.
 
Article
The complete list of nomenclatural and taxinonomic novations of Paleocene and Eocene invertebrates introduced in 1850 and 1852 by Alcide d'Orbigny in the Prodrome is published for the first time. This novelties are reviewed critically. The list consists of 261 taxa: 3 new genus, 149 new species and including 42 new species, erroneously identified as other species. New names are proposed for 108 species where primary and secondary homonymy was occuring and 187 species are still valid. Lectorypes are designated for the following taxa: Rissoa submarginata, Cerithium subquadrisulcatus, C. vapicense, Natica athleta, Rostellaria athleta, Cerithium subclavus, Fusus subscalarinus, Tiphis parisiensis, Fusus subficulneus, Valuta auvertiana, V. pseudolyra, Mitra terebelloides, Terebra nereis, Helix rillysensis, Nucula levesquei, Limopsis subgranulatus, Avicula levesquei, Crassatella subsulcata, C. subtumida, Lucina subdivaricata, Corbis subpectunculus, Solen subvaginoides, Donax levesquei, Arcopagia lamottemis, A. levesquei, Tellina cuisensis, T. oceani, Pholas orbignyana, Trochocyathus rouyanus. A neotype is designated for Cerithium spinosum Deshayes, 1833. Melanatria guanensis n. sp. of Ypresian (Early Eocene) from Gan (Pyrénées-Atlantiques) and Melanatria mapeulensis n. sp. of Maastrichtian (Cretaceous) from Kouh Mapeul (Iran) are introduced, Cardium suzannae n. nom. and Paratrochocyathus chaixi n. nom. are respectively proposed as replacement names for Cardium nicense Bellardi, 1852 non Cardium niciense d'Orbigny, 1850 and Trochocyathus alpinus d'Orbigny, 1850 non Michelin, 1847, the subgenus Pseudocepatia Magne & Vergneau-Saubade, 1973 is synonymised with Cepatia Gray, 1842. © Publications Scientifiques du Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle.
 
Article
Amphicyonidae Trouessart, 1885 are among the oldest known carnivoran groups, with the oldest representatives in Europe belonging to the genus CynodictisBravard & Pomel, 1850. This genus, discovered in the middle of the 19th century, presents a particularly confusing taxonomic history. Early on it was subject to taxonomic inflation, but now its diversity is reduced to six species. It is therefore interesting to question the relevance of dental characteristics, knowing that these structures have, very often, been the only anatomical elements used for the description of extinct mammalian taxa. Thanks to the several deposits of the Quercy Phosphorites, many crania of Cynodictis are available, allowing us to address this issue. In this comparative study, several skulls belonging to this genus are compared. Finally, we describe a new species, Cynodictis peignei n. sp., and discuss the relevance of cranial characters in comparison with dental characters and the ecological information from these structures.
 
Article
The revision of the types and "topotypes" of Hadrophyllum orbignyi MilneEdwards & Haime, 1850 brings new data on this species and on the genus Hadrophyllum. The type species, H. orbignyi, is known from the Eifelian (costatus costatus-kockelianus conodonts zones) of Eastern Americas Realm. A lectotype is selected in the original material. A detailed study of the morphology shows important variations concerning the shape of the corallum, the length of the cardinal septum, the structure of the counter-counter lateral area; two new structures are defined, the interseptal ridges and the fossuloïds. The septal apparatus consists of costosepta, it is why the "epitheca" is lacking. The corallum is massive, no dissepiments nor tabulae, and the wall is septothecal. The fibrous nature of the septa is pointed out. The polyp enclosed widely the corallum; H. orbignyi was capable of automobility. The synonymy of the genus is reviewed; only two species can be referred to it, the type species and H. asturicum. The systematics of the "Hadrophyllidae" is revised, especially the Weyer's one (1975) and two new sub-families, the Hadrophyllinae n. status and the Microcyclinae n. subfam., are erected. © Publications Scientifiques du Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle.
 
Article
A systematic revision of the fossil beaked whales (Cetacea, Odontoceti, Ziphiidae) Ziphirostrum du Bus, 1868 and Choneziphius Duvernoy, 1851 from the Neogene of Antwerp (Belgium, southern margin of the North Sea Basin) is undertaken. It is based on several rostra and partial skulls from the collection of the Institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique. From the previous conclusions about those taxa, dating from the beginning of the 20th century and suggesting only one species in each genus, Mioziphius (Ziphirostrum) belgicus and Choneziphius planirostris, the following modifications are proposed. The genus Ziphirostrum includes three species: Z. marginatum, Z. turniense, and Z. recurvus n. comb. Basicranial fragments and teeth of Z. marginatum are described for the first time. Besides the most common species Choneziphius planirostris, the species C. macrops is identified from Antwerp and the east coast of North America. A new genus and species Beneziphius brevirostris n. gen., n. sp. is described on the basis of two specimens characterized by a short and pointed rostrum. Two partial skulls are placed in Ziphiidae aff. Eboroziphius, a genus known from the east coast of North America. The genus name Aporotus is restored, with a large species A. recurvirostris, and a smaller species A. dicyrtus. A parsimony analysis including fossil and extant ziphiid taxa shows a sister-group relationship between Choneziphius + (Tusciziphius + Ziphius) and Ziphirostrum + Beneziphius n. gen. The poorly known Aporotus seems more closely related to Choneziphius + (Tusciziphius + Ziphius), but additional morphological information is needed. © Publications Scientifiques du Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle,.
 
Article
Jean Miquel is one of the most important amateur naturalists who contributed, across the transition of the 19 th and 20 th centuries, to the improvement of the first Cambro-Ordovician stratigraphical charts on the southern Montagne Noire (Languedoc). A detailed knowledge of the regional geology on the area surrounding the locality where he was born (Barroubio) permitted him to subdivide properly these outcrops according to lithological and pale-ontological features, mainly the Lower-Middle Cambrian and the Arenigian (Lower Ordovician). He defined five Cambrian trilobite species and one echinoderm species. This paper offers a panorama of the evolution of historic concepts developed in the paleontology and stratigraphy of the Languedocian Lower Paleozoic during Miquel's life. This allows a better understanding of the influence in Languedoc of the first paleontological findings that took place in other regions, such as Wales, North America, Bohemia and the Armorican Massif. © Publications Scientifiques du Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris.
 
Article
The Neogene sediments of the North American midcontinent, undisturbed by tectonism, have long been the source of abundant well-preserved mammalian faunas critical to the definition of the North American Land Mammal ages (NALMA). In western Nebraska the early Miocene interval (c. 23 to 16 Ma) is exceptional for its succession of Arikareean and Hemingfordian mammals that establish a biostratigraphic standard for the region. Fluvial sands, silts, and gravels of the paleovalleys and floodplains of the Runningwater Formation (c. 18 Ma) have yielded a rich carnivore assemblage of more than 24 species, many of these representing Old World lineages that migrated into North America via the Bering corridor. Amphicyonid carnivores, among the largest of the Runningwater predators, often surpass their Old World equivalents in completeness and condition, and include species of the immigrant genus Cynelos Jourdan, 1862. Here is described the only intact skull and jaws of Cynelos known from the New World. It is assigned to a new species, Cynelos stenos n. sp., that in its size, the association of a cranium with articulated mandibles, and in its dentition (occlusal detail of P4-M3, m1-3) differs from all others of this genus previously reported from both North America and Europe.
 
Top-cited authors
Michel Laurin
  • French National Centre for Scientific Research
David Marjanović
  • Museum für Naturkunde - Leibniz Institute for Research on Evolution and Biodiversity
Olivier Lambert
  • Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences
Christian de Muizon
  • Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle
Robert W Boessenecker
  • College of Charleston