GATR Journal of Finance and Banking Review

Published by Global Academy of Training and Research (GATR) Enterprise
Print ISSN: 2636-9176
Objective –This study aims to obtain empirical evidence of the effect of economic incentives, financial technology, and financial literacy on financial planning. Methodology –The data used in this study came from a questionnaire with 113 millennial respondents who live throughout Indonesia. Questionnaires were distributed in 2020 to understand millennial financial planning and the factors influencing it during the Covid-19 pandemic. Findings – This research found that economic incentives did not affect financial planning, while financial literacy and financial planning had a positive and significant effect on financial planning. Novelty – This study is among the first to learn the effect of the Covid-19 pandemic on millennials' finance. Type of Paper: Empirical JEL Classification: D01, D14. Keywords: economic incentive, financial literacy, financial planning, financial technology, millennials Reference to this paper should be made as follows: Harjanto, K; Osesoga, M.S; Tjhoa, E. (2022). The Effect of Economic Incentives, Financial Technology, and Financial Literacy on Millennials' Financial Planning during Covid-19, J. Fin. Bank. Review, 7(2), 98 – 106.
Objective - This research examines the implementation of options contracts on gold prices using GARCH and Black Scholes models accompanied by a long strangle strategy. Methodology – This research used 36 years of secondary data for daily gold prices from obtained from the year 1985 to 2020. The implementation of options contracts on gold prices using GARCH and Black Scholes models with long strangle strategy through three types of maturity dates (1-month, 2-months, and 3-months). These results were tested by comparing the average percentage value of the actual options premium price and the options calculated using the AMSE (Average Mean Square Error) methodology, where the smallest percentage value is a more precise reflection of the model. Findings – The research indicates that the results of the error percentage for 1-month, 2-months, and 3-months maturities increased linearly along with the size of the maturity period of the option contract also profit percentage of long strangle strategy for gold price option contract in average 17-27% or below 30%. Novelty – Based on the research result, the long strangle strategy is not the best strategy regarding the gold price option contract, and this study can contribute to current practices for the investor. Also, this research is unique because no research used gold price data for 36 years (daily basis) for the options contracts. Type of Paper - Empirical Keywords: Gold Price; Options Contract; Black Scholes; GARCH; Long Strangle; AMSE JEL Classification: G11, G13. Reference to this paper should be made as follows: Hendrawan, R; Maharsasi, D.E. (2022). Testing Black Scholes and Garch Model Options on Gold Price Index With Long Strangle Strategy Using 1985-2020 Data, J. Fin. Bank. Review, 7(3), 160 – 174.
Objective –This study aims to look at the use of contract options through Black Scholes and GARCH modeling on the Kompas100 Index with a long straddle strategy both in crisis and non-crisis. Methodology – The data used for the observation period are the closing price of the Kompas100 Index from 2008 to 2021. The testing lasts one month (from February 2008 to December 2021), and three months (from April 2008 to December 2021). To get the results, the average mean square errors (AMSE) of the two models were compared by implementing the long straddle strategy, meaning that the model is better if the percentage number is lower. Findings – Over a one-month period during the crisis, GARCH modeling performed better than Black Scholes modeling, with an error rate of 2.5539% for call options. Meanwhile, Black Scholes’s modeling was better on put options with an error rate of 1.9725%. In the 3-month period, GARCH modeling was better, with error rates for call and put options of 10.3882% and 7.4282%, respectively. In non-crisis years, GARCH modeling beat Black Scholes modeling during a one-month period with an error rate of 0.2689%, while Black Scholes modeling was better on put options with an error rate of 0.2943%. In addition, over a 3-month period, Black Scholes modeling performs better, with error rates on call and put options of 0.8821% and 1.0337%, respectively. Novelty – The longer the agreement term, the greater the error rate in both option models. The study results revealed that the error rate for the 3-month period was higher than the 1-month period. Type of Paper: Empirical/ Review JEL Classification: G11, G13. Keywords: Option; Black Scholes; GARCH; AMSE; Long Straddle Reference to this paper should be made as follows: Hendrawan, R; Hasibuan, M.D.A. (2023). Comparison of Black-Scholes and Garch Option Models on The Kompas100 Index With a Long Straddle Strategy During 2008-2021, J. Fin. Bank. Review, 7(4), 01 – 15.
Objective – This study aims to examine and prove the effect of education, experience and audit fee on audit quality. Methodology – The data used are primary data in the form of questionnaires distributed to auditors, both senior and junior auditors at Public Accounting Firms located in Sulawesi. The questionnaires distributed to respondents were 46 auditors and 42 questionnaires were returned and able to processed. Findings – This research used a quantitative approach by measuring the objective data through scientific calculations, derived from samples of certain objects to answer a number of questions. The sampling technique used in this study is purposive sampling by using certain criteria and the model used is multiple linear regression analysis. The results of this study indicate that education, experience and audit fee have an effect on audit quality. Novelty – Audit quality is a representation of the auditor's performance as an audit service provider and also the auditee as an audit service user. As a liaison between the interests of financial statement users and the company, auditors are required to improve the quality of their services which in turn will have an impact on quality of the audit results. Auditors with adequate education and experience and appropriate audit fee in performing audit services will have an effect on the quality of the resulting audit. Type of Paper: Empirical JEL Classification: M40, M49. Keywords: Audit, Education; Experience; Fee; Quality
Objective – The purpose of this research article is to assess how the integrated reporting is implemented into a regional investment information system (RIIS). Within build insight into regional investment management in line with sustainable development goals (SDGs). Methodology –This research was conducted on local governments in Indonesia that have implemented RIIS. Using data from 115 respondents, consisting of elements of local government, academics, business entities, NGOs, social organizations, and care for the environment. The measurement uses a nominal scale with a chi-square test for goodness of fit. Findings – The measurement results showed the frequency of observation (OF) has a value of 52.5504 with the chi-square table showing a value of 37.65. Based on this result showed OF > EF, it is evidence for being of corresponding between integrated thinking that fits with . The level of relationship towards SDGs information communication has a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.2894, as a low relationship. Novelty – This research article contributes practical implications where regional government entities to be effective implementers of practices for communication for regional investment management. As an insight in the viewing the growing debate on the merits of as a voluntary reporting initiative including for the local government sector, which has been adopted by other organizations as a mandatory initiative. The results of this research provide a fundamental way for a regional investment strategy that facilitates communication of the achievement of the SDGs in a global context. Type of Paper: Empirical JEL Classification: M40, M9. Keywords: integrated thinking, integrated reporting, regional investment information system, sustainable development goals Reference to this paper should be made as follows: Hifni, S; Sayudi, A; Wijaya, R. (2022). Integrated Reporting For Regional Investment and Achievement of Sustainable Development Goals, J. Fin. Bank. Review, 7(1), 71 – 85.
Objective – This study aims to examine the influence of Investment Opportunity Set and Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure through Profitability on Earnings Management. The companies examined are banking companies listed on the LQ45 Index of the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX). Methodology – This study used data sourced from annual financial reports of banking companies on the LQ45 Index of the Indonesia Stock Exchange for the 2016-2020 periods. This study used descriptive and verification analysis methods with path analysis and hypothesis testing. Investment Opportunity Set is measured by Market Value to Book Value of Assets, Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure is measured by Global Reporting Initiative G4 indicators, Profitability is measured by Return on Assets, and Earnings Management is measured by Discretionary Accruals. Findings – The results indicate that Investment Opportunity Set and Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure and Profitability have no effect on Earnings Management. This implies that Earnings Management actions in companies are more likely to be influenced by other variables which closely related to agency theory and hard to predict the determinants by using only several variables. Novelty - Based on the results of this study, Profitability as an intervening variable does not mediate the effect of Investment Opportunity Set and Corporate Social Responsibility on Earnings Management. This might happens because profitability is quite common for investors and users of financial statements in assessing the company's financial performance so that it is easier for users of financial statements to know the Earnings Management actions done by the company. Type of Paper: Empirical JEL Classification: G11, G20. Keywords: Bank; Investment Opportunity Set; Corporate Social Responsibility; Profitability; Earnings Management. Reference to this paper should be made as follows: Suryani, Arna. Ariayani. (2022). Determinants of Earnings Management Actions in Indonesian Banking Companies, J. Fin. Bank. Review, 7(1), 39 – 50.
Objective – Even though the country has done a fantastic job of eradicating poverty, some significant challenges and concerns come as a result of globalisation. The following are important concerns that must be solved as the country enters a new category of poverty. Methodology – Malaysia is an impendence country which variety population segmentation based on ethnicity as well as religion. In actuality, it has the potential to aggravate social issues, particularly in Malaysia. Indeed, Malaysia has adopted many social programmes including economic and social investment. Findings– However, poor people in rural and urban areas since poverty has long been seen to be a rural issue with more than half of all family units falling into this category in Malaysia. Besides, there is a lack of awareness of the causes and sources of poverty as well as a strategy for dealing with the issue. In addition, there is currently a scarcity of research on the influence of anti-poverty initiatives on community welfare in the Malaysian context. Novelty – Hence, low-income people's goals regarding the Malaysian government's incentive or programme to improve their income are conceptualised in this paper by concern the Theory of Planned Behaviour with four variables namely attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control, and entrepreneurial competencies. Type of Paper: Review JEL Classification: D10, D14, D19. Keywords: Attitude, Entrepreneurial Competencies, Entrepreneurial Intention, Perceived Behavioural Control, Subjective Norms
Objective - In the current dynamic and competitive business environment, in the age of Industry 4.0, implementation of the overall quality management enables enterprises to expand their markets and at the same time to adjust to new conditions of global trade. The objective of the paper submitted is to determine the impact of qualitative processes in the manufacturing environment on the process added value and added value for customers. Methodology – In the research, the method of Value Stream Map (VSM) was used, and the extended method of Quality Value Stream Map (QVSM). The research was focused on manufacturing operations, where the emphasis is put on the parameter of quality in a model enterprise environment in the sector of mass production. Findings – The main output of the research was to determine the parameters which significantly affect the corporate manufacturing process in terms of its quality. The research also aimed to create a current Value Stream Map identifying the key manufacturing operations, in which quality contributes most to the creation of value-added. Novelty – Empirical results indicate that there is a difference between the analysis of the process added value and the analysis of added value for customers. It has been confirmed that at the time of Industry 4.0, SMEs still underestimate the importance of quality-related activities compared to large enterprises. It has been found that quality-related operations as such participate indirectly in the generation of added value in the manufacturing process but optimization and innovation of quality-related activities within the manufacturing process may indirectly add value to the main (value-generating) processes. Type of Paper - Empirical Keywords: Quality Value Stream Map, Value Stream Map, Quality Management, Added Value For The Customer, Production Process. JEL Classification: M2, O3, R1.
Objective - The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of capital on bankruptcy banks. The hypothesis of this research is that capital has an effect on the bankruptcy of a bank. Methodology/Technique - This research examines financial reports between 2005-2014. An econometric model with a logistical regression analysis technique is used. In this study, capital is measured by CAR, taking into account credit risk; CAR by taking into account market risk; Ratio of Obligation to Provide Minimum Capital for Credit Risk and Operational Risk; Ratio of Minimum Capital Adequacy Ratio for Credit Risk, Operational Risk and Market Risk; Capital Adequacy Requirements (CAR). Findings - The results show that the capital adequacy ratio for market ratio and capital adequacy ratio for credit ratio and operational ratio support the research hypothesis and can form a logit model. The test results of CAR by taking into account credit risk, Minimum Capital Requirement Ratio for Credit Risk, Operational Risk and Market Risk and Minimum Capital Provision Obligations do not support the research hypothesis. Novelty – This paper contribute to bank bankruptcy prediction models based on time dimension and bank groups using financial ratios which are expected can influence bank in bankrupt condition. Type of Paper - Empirical. Keywords: Banking crisis, Cost of bankruptcy, Adequacy Ratio, Financial ratios, Prediction models JEL Classification: G32, G33, G39. DOI:
Objective – This study is aimed to investigate the interconnection between the average income level and the tendency of the Malaysian community toward the adoption of Islamic digital banking. Methodology – This study used a quantitative survey questionnaire with 100 valid respondents. The data were collected within 3 months and the SPSS software was applied in this study to analyse the data using descriptive analysis. Cronbach's alpha tests were used to determine the reliability of multiple questions based on the Likert scale questionnaires in this study. Findings – The general finding of this study shows that the group with lower income levels is more responsive to the adoption of Islamic digital banking compared to the higher income group. It indicates that this group believed that Islamic digital banking can be beneficial to the community socially and economically in terms of perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and transaction cost. Novelty – The emergence of this study is to contribute the literature and reference related to Islamic digital banking for the interest of researchers, practitioners, and consumers in developing further research and the adoption of this platform in the future. Type of Paper: Empirical JEL Classification: G21, G24. Keywords: Digital Banking, Islamic Digital Banking, Income, Interconnection. Reference to this paper should be made as follows: Aziz, M.R.A; Mustafar, M.Z.I. (2022). The Interconnection between Level of Income and Tendency of Malaysian Community towards Adoption of Islamic Digital Banking, J. Fin. Bank. Review, 7(1), 51 – 58.
Objective - The purpose of this research is to analyze the effect of growth, leverage, fixed asset turnover, profitability, firm size, firm age, industry, audit quality, and auditor independence toward earnings management. Methodology/Technique - The population of this research consist of various sectors of non-financial companies that were listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange (IDX) between 2013 and 2015. The research uses three recent years of data and tests variables that have not been used by prior research. The sample was chosen by using a purposive sampling method. The hypothesis is tested using multiple regression with an SPSS program to investigate the influence of each independent variable to earnings management. Findings - The research results show that return on assets influences earnings management and growth, leverage, fixed asset turnover, profitability, firm size, firm age, industry, audit quality, and auditor independence do not influence earnings management. Novelty - The study supports that the manager in a company will engage in earnings management to receive a bonus from investors because they have received a higher profit. Type of Paper: Empirical Keywords: Earnings Management; Growth; Leverage; Fixed Asset Turnover; Profitability; Firm Size; Firm Age; Audit Quality; Auditor Independence; Industry JEL Classification: L25, M12, M41.
Objective - Since Islam, Waqf, known as the Islamic endowment, has played a significant role in reforming and developing the economy. Like zakat (compulsory charity) and sadaqah (optional charity), Waqf has also been considered an essential means of poverty alleviation and upliftment. In Malaysia, each state's jurisdiction, called the State Islamic Religious Council (SIRCs), supervises waqf properties' governance. However, recently, it has been reported that the SIRC responsible for managing waqf properties has been unable to manage and operate effectively. To devise a well-designed strategy that can strengthen governance within the waqf institutions. Moreover, restoring Waqf as a mechanism for socio-economic development may be necessary for waqf institutions to develop their formal governance framework. Therefore, this paper aims to conduct a qualitative study of current Shariah governance practices in Waqf institutions at Majlis Agama Islam Melaka (MAIM). Methodology – The qualitative research method was used for this investigation. The interviewees are chosen using a selection process that is a hybrid of convenience sampling and purposeful sampling. Both content and descriptive analysis were utilized in analyzing the outcomes of the interviews. To obtain information on waqf governance in MAIM, an interview was conducted with various officers from the organization. A total of six experts in the field of Waqf from MAIM participated in this study and were interviewed for this research. Findings – The current practices of Shari'ah Governance in Waqf Institution in Majlis Agama Islam Melaka (MAIM) have been examined through interviews and brochures from interviewees. Several gaps were found in the organization's structure; Board of Directors, Shariah Committee, Shariah Audit, Shariah Review, and Shariah Risk Management. Based on findings extracted from the analysis, researchers provide several recommendations. Novelty – This study is unique because there was no study conducted on the current practices of Shari'ah Governance in Waqf Institution in Majlis Agama Islam Melaka (MAIM). The officers and board of directors will benefit significantly from this research in both an educational and a guiding capacity. Type of Paper - Empirical Keywords: Waqf; Shari'ah governance; Majlis Agama Islam Melaka; and Malaysia JEL Classification: A12; Z12; Z19; 053
Objective - The main concern of this article is to see if the implementation of the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) can lead to enterprise performance. Methodology/Technique - A case study, this paper aims to compare the economic, social and environmental performance of one of the biggest cement producing enterprises in Algeria, before and after the implementation of the CSR strategy. Findings - Results indicate thatthe SCAEK Company managers who had embarked on the strategy of reducing all kinds of pollutions emitted did not stop when they had achieved their objective. Instead, they continued with their movement by setting up new measures to reduce the quantities of some inputs used and to improve the working conditions of all the employees. Novelty - This paper highlights the fact that the right implementation of the CSR, even if it does require some additional costs, can result in a "win-win" situation. Type of Paper: Empirical Keywords: CSR, Enterprise Performance, Cement Production, Algeria.
Objective - Stock is one securities among other securities, as a high risk instrument. Stock classified as high risk due to reflection in the uncertainty of the rate of return to be received by investors in the future. The purpose of this research is to examine of financial distress as measured by the Altman Z-Score, systematic risk as measured by beta stocks and macroeconomic measured by inflation on stock returns Manufacturing Company listed on the Stock Exchange 2008-2012 period Methodology/Technique - From 133 companies listed, 75 companies are taken as sample by using purposive sampling technique. Panel data regression analysis shows that the overall effect of variables is equal to 28.7%. Findings - Partially, the variables that affect the stock returns are financial distress with Altman Z-Score, beta stocks and inflation. Novelty - Financial distress with the measurement using the Altman Z-Score. Type of Paper: Empirical Keywords: Stock return; Financial distress; Altman Z-Score; Systematic risk; Beta stocks and Inflation JEL Classification: E44, F14, G01.
Objective – The purpose of this study is the development of integrated information systems and models, developing and developing information systems of zakat, infaq, and shadaqoh (ZIS) which are integrated in the Amil Zakat District / City Institution in West Java, Indonesia. Indonesia's West Java Province has the potential for zakat collection, but it is still not effective. Methodology – This research program was conducted to measure the effect of ZIS information systems on the quality of accounting information as measured by the quality of financial statements, in order to establish a strategy for obtaining muzakki satisfaction in West Java Province. This study will identify the relationship model between them. The research program was conducted in 27 cities/regencies in West Java Province of Indonesia Findings – The research used a series of different research approaches such as structured review and qualitative work with interviews or focus group discussions to develop key factors for the success of information systems and Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling as an analysis method. Novelty – The results of this study indicate that an integrated ZIS information system has an impact on the quality of accounting information measured by the quality of financial statements. Type of Paper: Empirical Keywords: information systems, zakat, infaq, shodaqoh, information. Reference to this paper should be made as follows: Anggadini, S.D; Wahab, D.A; Yunanto, R. 2020. Development of Integrated Zakat, Infaq and Shadaqoh Information System: Evidence in Amil Zakat Institutions, J. Fin. Bank. Review, 5 (1): pp. 23 – 31 JEL Classification: E6, H2, H3.
Pairwise Comparison Matrix of E1
Normalized Matrix, Average Weights and Rank of E1
Outcomes Score and Strategy Rank
Objective – The disruption has been occurring in financial services. Thus, rethinking a new strategy for banking is needed to make a sustainable innovation in organizations. Studies mentioned that formulating strategy is a very costly, time-consuming, and comprehensive analysis. The purpose of this study is to present an integrated intelligence algorithm for estimating the bank’s strategy in Indonesia. Methodology – This study used the integration model between two modules. The algorithm has two basic modules, called Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). AHP is capable of handling a multi-level decision-making structure with the use of five expert judgments in the pairwise comparison process. Meanwhile, ANN is utilized as an inductive algorithm in discovering the predictive strategy of the bank and used to explain the strategic factors which improved in forward. Findings and Novelty – The empirical results indicate that ANN and AHP integration was proved to predict the business strategy of the bank in five scenarios. Strategy 5 was the best choice for the bank and Innovate Like Fintechs (ILF) is the most factor consideration. The strategy choice was appropriate for the condition of the bank’s factors. This framework can be implemented to help bankers to decide on bank operations. Type of Paper: Empirical JEL Classification: M15, O32. Keywords: Bank’s strategy, ANN, AHP, BSC, Indonesia. Reference to this paper should be made as follows: Ristyawan, M.R. (2021). Artificial Neural Network and Analytical Hierarchy Process Integration: A Tool to Estimate Business Strategy of Bank, Journal of Finance and Banking Review, 5(4): 01 – 09.
Objective – One of the bank's main goals is to obtain profit mainly from the intermediation process. The implementation of the Indonesian banking intermediary function in the year 2017 is not optimal, as indicated by credit growth in the year 2017 which only reached 8,35%. This phenomenon also occurs in the 10 largest banks in Indonesia. In 2017 the intermediation function has decreased but profits have increased. The aim of this study is to analyze the influence of banking intermediation on profit growth and whether credit quality and operational efficiency affect profit growth. An indicator of banking intermediation is a loan to deposits ratio (LDR), credit quality with non-performing loans (NPLs), the operating efficiency with the ratio of operating expense to operating income (OEOI) and profit growth is measured by the amount of profit. Methodology – Descriptive and verification methods will be used in this study, with data from the 10 largest banks financial statements in Indonesia for the period 2016-2017 while data analysis uses multiple linear regression. Findings – The findings of this study show that partially LDR has a positive effect although the effect is not significant on Profit; NPLs have a negative effect on Profit and the effect is significant; OEOI has a negative effect even though the effect is not significant on Profit; Simultaneously, the variable LDR, NPLs, OEOI have a significant effect on profit. Novelty – Compared to previous studies, bank profit growth is not only influenced by banking intermediation, but if banks can maintain credit quality and improve operational efficiency, bank profits will grow Type of Paper: Empirical Keywords: loan to deposit ratio, non-performing loans, the ratio of operating expenses to operating income, profit growth. Reference to this paper should be made as follows: Buchory; H.A. 2020. Anomalies of Banking Intermediation and Profit Growth (Study on the 10 Largest Banks in Indonesia), J. Fin. Bank. Review, 5 (1): pp. 14 – 22 JEL Classification: G21, G32.
Objective - This study proposes to investigate an auditor's works by usingthe model on the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), with the inducement of intervention by a supervisor, that influences an auditor's aattitudes. The study uses the TRA proposed by Fishben and Ajzen (1975) to predict and explain the behaviors of Indonesian auditors. The results reveal those factors influencing an auditor's intention to provide qualified and reliable audit reports. Methodology/Technique - The study focuses on audit implementation in the public sector, specifically the auditing of financial statements in regional administrations. The study examined a total of 53 governmental auditors from the Audit Board of the Indonesian Republic (BPK-RI). A Structural Equation Model (SEM) was used for the analysis. Findings - The results of the study show that perceived audit risk, moral norms, and incentives have a positive and statistically significant impact on an auditor's attitude when performing an audit. Meanwhile, intervention by a supervisor has a negative impact, and is not statistically significant towards the auditor's attitude and behavior. This means that the auditor's attitude and behavior implies that there is no intervention from their supervisor when performing an audit. Furthermore, an auditor's attitude influences their intention to perform qualified and credible audits. Novelty - This study infers that The Indonesian Republic Decree No. 188 of the Year 2014 regarding Personel Performance Benefit in the Audit Boards of Indonesia Republic (BPK-RI) is achieving its intended purpose. Type of Paper - Empirical Keywords: Auditor; Attitude; Risk Perception; Audit Reports. JEL Classification: M40, M42.
Objective –The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of interest-free microfinance arrangements on the livelihood of women in India. Studies reveal that the existence of interest-free microfinance, as well as its outcome on the livelihood of weaker sections of society (particularly women), overall improved their well-being. Methodology –Exploratory and cross-section analysis is used to understand the satisfaction level among non- conventional microfinance arrangements. Survey of non-conventional microfinance beneficiaries exposes the status of women’s’ earnings, financial literacy, skills development, employment generation, household savings and poverty alleviation. Findings–Interest-free microfinance products like Zakat, Sadaqah, and KarzeHasna will successfully meet micro- financing core objectives of poverty alleviation, women empowerment, gender equality, prosperity, and employment. The analysis showed that the performance of interest-free microfinance consumers is better than conventional microfinance consumers. Novelty –This study is an original which is based on the demographic, sociocultural and regulatory framework of interest-free micro finance systems to identify the acceptability in the Indian financial system. The discussions in the study are mainly concerned with the empirical review of the impact and effect of interest-free microfinance on the lifestyle of female microfinance users after obtaining a loan i.e., their income, expenditure, saving, entrepreneurship, consumption, and women participation in earning income in India. Type of Paper: Empirical JEL Classification: G20, G21. Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Livelihood; Education Development; Living Standards; Women Empowerment
Objective - Health assessment on microfinance institutions was conducted through non-financial measurements consisted of assessment on general and risk managements. The assessment was commonly used to assess commercial banks. Microfinance institutions, however, are differed to commercial bank in terms of their closeness to the poor. The paper presented the development and analysis of non-financial performance measures using local culture basis that can be applied to properly assess microfinance institutions. Methodology/Technique - Qualitative study with ethnomethodology approach was applied to see cultural activities undertaken. Managers were considered as key informants. Results of qualitative study were analyzed using Fuzzy-Analytic Hierarchy Process method and Weighted Product Model was applied to weight the criteria and sub-criteria as well as the final assessment. Findings - Results showed that local culture activities that could be used to assess general management in microfinance institutions were providing assistance in establishing places of worship, supporting religious activities, supporting the development of facilities and infrastructures in the villages, relief activities of cultural festival, helping in funeral, wedding favors, educational assistance, medical assistance, forming arts groups, and business group. Novelty - This study suggests that non-financial performance measurements can use local culture and facilitate the management of microfinance institutions to perform performance measurement Type of Paper - Empirical Keywords: Non-Financial; Performance Measures; Local Culture; Microfinance Institutions. JEL Classification: G21, G31.
Objective – This paper aims to propose a framework for cultural values and perceived audit quality Methodology/Technique – The methodology used in this study is the content analysis of the published papers in relation to cultural values and perceived audit quality Findings – There is a strong relationship between cultural values and accounting values in the judgement process of auditing and they determine the quality of audit. Novelty – There is not much information published in the area of the roles of cultural values and perceived audit quality. Therefore, this paper offers a conceptual framework on cultural values and perceived audit quality. Type of Paper: Review Keywords: Culture; Cultural Values; Perception; Audit Quality Reference to this paper should be made as follows: Dunakhir, S; Idrus, M. (2020). Cultural Values and Perceived Audit Quality: A Conceptual Framework, J. Fin. Bank. Review, 5 (3): 78 – 83. JEL Classification: M4, M42.
Objective – The purpose of this study is to examine the effect between financial distress, corporate governance, auditor switching and audit delay. This research sample using data on a manufacturing company on the Indonesia Stock Exchange. Methodology – The analysis technique used is multiple linear regression analysis technique. Findings– The research finding show that financial distress and the size of the audit committee have a significant effect on audit delay, while the concentration of ownership, managerial ownership, change of directors, and auditor switching has no significant effect on audit delay. Second finding explain that consideration for companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange to pay attention to the timeliness of submitting financial reports and independent auditor reports so as not to get sanctions from the Financial Services Authority. Novelty – Our novelty research using the relationship of Financial Distress, Corporate Governance and Auditor Switching on new research model to Audit Delay. Type of Paper: Empirical JEL Classification: M41, M42 Keywords: Financial Distress, Corporate Governance, Auditor Switching, Audit Delay
Objective - The research aims to decode the model of Social Audit on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and develop a new model for CSR. Methodology/Technique - The study uses qualitative research using Derrida's deconstructive postmodernism paradigm. This study scrutinises all models of CSR, distinguishing between capitalism and socialism in audit practices, and creates a new CSR model that integrates the local wisdom of indigenous peoples. Findings - The study observes several unfair practices without ensuring social and distributive justice to the indigenous community where mining activities are conducted. Several concepts linked to sustainable development were evolved during the data collection phase. By deconstructing the two major concepts of CSR and Social Audit, the research develops a new model of sustainable corporate responsibility which enables stakeholders to empower the Luwu community by ensuring cultural integration and social development. Novelty – By exploring CSR activities in the Luwu area, this study verifies all existing CSR practices and Social Audit models to generate a sustainable corporate social responsibility model for corporations, government and allied stakeholders. This research may be used to support policy agreements between governments, industry players and the corporations, towards effective SCSR implementation. Type of Paper - Empirical. Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility; Social Audit; Sustainable Development; Capitalism; Local wisdom. JEL Classification: M40, M42, M49
Objective – The study aimed (1) to investigate the level and issue of key audit matters (KAMs) disclosure of listed companies in Thailand, Malaysia, and Singapore, (2) to test the different level of KAMs disclosure of listed companies between Thailand, Malaysia, and Singapore, and (3) to examine the relationship between KAMs disclosure and stock reaction. Methodology/Technique – Samples were 96 listed companies of Top-50 firms from Thailand, Malaysia, and Singapore. Content analysis by word counting and checklist was used to quantify KAMs disclosure in audit reports during 2016 to 2019, while the stock reaction was measured by the stock price of the sample’s common share. Descriptive analysis, independent sample t-test, correlation matrix, and multiple regression was used to analyze the data. Findings – As the results, the study found that the average word of KAMs the disclosure was 878.74 words with 2.38 average issues during 2016 to 2019. There was a significantly different level of KAMs disclosure of listed companies between Thailand and Malaysia, between Thailand and Singapore, and between Malaysia and Singapore. Moreover, the study found a positive significant relationship between KAMs disclosure (Word) and the stock price, while there was a negatively significant relationship between KAMs disclosure (Issue) and the stock price. Novelty – This study is the first cross-sectional study of KAMs disclosure in ASEAN region. Type of Paper: Empirical Keywords: Key Audit Matters Disclosure; Stock Reaction; Thailand; Malaysia; Singapore. Reference to this paper should be made as follows: Sawangjan, P; Suttipun, M. (2020). The relationship between key audit matters (KAMs) disclosure and stock reaction: Cross-sectional study of Thailand, Malaysia, and Singapore, J. Fin. Bank. Review, 5 (3): 70 – 77. JEL Classification: M40, M41, M42.
Objective – This paper investigates the possibility and feasibility of Malaysia's Islamic banking industry hiring external Shariah audit (ESA) services in the audit fraternity as one of the Shariah governance mechanisms. Some of the scholars argued that ESA is more independent and is able to strengthen the existing Shariah compliance in the industry. Methodology – This study employs a qualitative method by utilising semi-structured interviews with nine key industry players: Shariah auditors, Heads of Shariah audit, Shariah Committee (SC) Member, and Chief Shariah Officer. Data gathered from the interviews was transcribed and analysed using Atlas.ti software. Findings– A series of interviews reveal that given the current practices by the Islamic banking industry, it could be inferred that the Malaysian Islamic banking industry is not ready to exercise the ESA practices. This unreadiness is due to several factors, such as ESA costs outweighing its benefits, the fear of reputational risk, and anxiety of leaking confidential information to rivals. Novelty – The Shariah audit research especially relates to external Shariah audit is considered limited. Type of Paper: Empirical JEL Classification: E44, G10, G20. Keywords: External Shariah audit; Islamic Banks; qualitative method; Shariah governance; Malaysia
Objective - This study aims to examine the influence of auditor and auditee factors on auditor retention. Methodology/Technique - The analysis unit of this research is manufacturing firms that were listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange between 2010 and 2014. Using purposive sampling, 54 companies, or 270 observations, were obtained. This research uses a logistic regression; there are 12 outliers in the data that disturb the regression model, hence, the final research data set was 258. Findings - The result of the logistic regression analysis shows that auditee and auditor factors can simultaneously explain auditor retention by up to 4%. This partial effect shows that only audit quality affects auditor retention by 57.2%, at a level of significance of less than α = 5%. Meanwhile, firm size affects auditor retention by 14.8%, at a significance level of less than α = 10%. Novelty – This research is unique because auditor retention and proxy of audit quality has never been investigated in previous studies. Type of Paper - Empirical. Keywords: Auditee Factors; Auditor Factors; Auditor Retention, Indonesia. JEL Classification: M4, M42, M49.
Objective – This study aims to undertake an empirical study of the influence of ownership structure, cash holding, and tax avoidance on income smoothing. Methodology/Technique – Ownership structure in this research is measured by public ownership and managerial ownership. The population of this research are manufacturing companies listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange (IDX) between 2015-2017 and there are 50 companies that meet the criteria and serve as the research sample. The sample selection in this study uses purposive sampling and the hypotheses were tested using binary logistics. Findings – The results of this study show that managerial ownership and public ownership, cash holding by companies and tax avoidance do not have influence on income smoothing. These results show that managerial ownership and public ownership do not affect income smoothing because there are same interest, to improve their wealth. Similarly, neither how much cash is held by a company nor tax avoidance behavior effect income smoothing. Type of Paper: Empirical Keywords: Income Smoothing; Ownership Structure; Cash Holding; Tax Avoidance. Reference to this paper should be made as follows: Nico Alexander. 2019. The Effect of Ownership Structure, Cash Holding and Tax Avoidance on Income Smoothing, J. Fin. Bank. Review, 4 (3): 128 – 134 JEL Classification: G23; G28.
Objective - Although corporate tax avoidance is a widely discussed topic in the literature, conflicts do emerge when it is analyzed through the context of primary corporate duty. Should companies, in managing their taxes, solely honor their obligation to increase shareholders' wealth or should they cater to the interests of all their stakeholders? Such conflicts are especially evident in the inconsistent empirical observations on how corporate tax avoidance relate to corporate social responsibility (CSR), which makes the dearth of theoretical analysis on this issue even more conspicuous. Taking into account the socio-political nature and human elements in corporate tax avoidance, theoretical analyses from social sciences' perspectives are becoming markedly crucial. Methodology/Technique – This paper critically reviews the extant literature for discussions on how corporate tax avoidance is influenced by the dissenting approaches towards primary corporate duty. Findings – By allowing an insight into how people act and the world they live in, these analyses form a constructive tool to rationalize and foretell managerial actions towards shareholders and stakeholders alike. Novelty – It focuses particularly on the theories that are widely used to lend supports for such approaches. These theories are the agency theory, stakeholder theory, and legitimacy theory. Type of Paper - Review. Keywords: Corporate Tax Avoidance; Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR); Theoretical Analysis; Shareholder Approach; Stakeholder Approach; Agency Theory; Stakeholder Theory; Legitimacy Theory. JEL Classification: G30, G32, G39. Available at SSRN:
Objective - This study aims to determine the effect of earning management and corporate governance mechanisms on corporate tax avoidance. Methodology/Technique - Corporate governance mechanisms use institutional ownership, the size of the board of commissioners, the percentage of independent commissioners, auditing committees, and audit quality as proxies. Meanwhile, earnings management uses the modified Jones model. The sample of this study include non-financial companies that are listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange (IDX) between 2014 and 2016. Findings - Corporate tax avoidance can be detected by using the effective tax rate (ETR), which is the ratio of income to tax expenses. This sample was chosen using a purposive sampling method, resulting in 871 firms. The results suggest that earnings management has a significant impact on ETR. Novelty - This study identifies that only independent commissioners and audit quality have a significant influence on ETR. Type of Paper - Empirical Keywords: Tax Avoidance; Earnings Management; Corporate Governance; Effective Tax Rate; Audit Quality. JEL Classification: G3, G39, G39.
Objective –Failure to prearrange one’s funeral may lead to financial hardship on one’s family members. Despite the importance of a funeral plan, little is known regarding the awareness level among Muslims regarding the Islamic Pre-need Funeral Plan (IPFP). Because of the dearth of academic research on the awareness among Muslims regarding IPFP, this paper aims to assess the awareness level of Muslims regarding IPFP and to develop an awareness model that frames factors affecting IPFP awareness level. Methodology/Technique – To achieve this, a questionnaire was used to collect the data and PLS-SEM was used to analyse the data. Results show that the level of awareness regarding IPFP is low and is similar to the result found in the USA Findings – The results further show that marketing communication efforts and social influence are significant factors affecting awareness of IPFP. These results have practical implications for IPFP providers and should help them better market their products and mitigate the potential for financial hardship funeral costs may have on families. Novelty – The scarcity of land for burial plots, soaring funeral costs and an increasingly aging population rate necessitates funeral prearrangements by subscribing to a pre-need funeral plan. This prearrangement is an advanced financial provision that covers funeral and burial expenses by enabling subscribers to make funeral arrangements while they are still alive. Type of Paper: Empirical. Reference to this paper should be made as follows: Katan, M.; Nasrijal, N. M. H.; Noor, A. H. M.; Man, N. C. 2019. An Awareness Model for an Islamic Pre-Need Funeral Plan, J. Fin. Bank. Review 4 (2): 47 – 57 Keywords: Awareness; Islamic Pre-need Funeral Plan; Marketing Communication Efforts; PLS-SEM, Social Influence. JEL Classification: I22, I30, I39.
Objective – This paper uses a sample of annual observations of European banks to examine whether the liquidity risk affects a bank’s risk-taking behavior and its future loan growth. Methodology – A sample of European banks (27 member countries of the European Union plus U.K.) over the period of 2005 to 2019 are used in this study. Liquidity risk is measured by the ratio of liquid assets to total assets. Given the longitudinal nature of the data, the authors use panel regression with bank fixed effects to control for unobserved characteristics that might affect the dependent variable. Findings – The authors find that banks holding more liquid assets take less risk and show a higher subsequent loan growth rate. These results hold for both small and large banks. Novelty – To the authors’ best knowledge, this is one of the earliest studies to carefully examine the effects of liquidity risk on risk-taking behavior and loan growth rate for European banks. Our research suggests that the current Basel III requirement on liquidity ratio can decrease bank’s risking-taking behavior while not necessarily impact their future loan growth. Type of Paper: Empirical JEL Classification: G21, G01, G18. Keywords: Bank Liquidity Risk; Risk-taking Behavior; Loan Growth; Basel III
Descriptive Statistics
Objective - Loan loss provision is an accrual for the banking industry, and therefore has a significant effect on bank accounting earnings and capital requirements. Previous studies showed inconsistent results for the relationship between earnings management, signaling, and loan loss provision. The difference in the results is thought to be caused by bank capitalization. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the role of bank capitalization on the effect of earnings management and signaling on loan loss provision. Methodology – The sample consists of 86 conventional banks in Indonesia for the period of 2015-2019. Furthermore, this study used panel data analysis of multiple regression. Findings – The results showed earnings management has no effect on loan loss provision. In contrast, signaling has a positive and significant effect. Although bank capitalization is not proven to weaken the effect of earnings management on loan loss provision, it strengthens the positive effect of signaling on loan loss provision. Novelty – This study proves that bank capitalization has an important role in moderating signaling impact on loan loss provision but not for the effect of earnings management. This is due to the potential for earnings management in banks is relatively low because banks are highly regulated entities and with regulated governance mechanisms limit the managers' discretionary accounting decisions. Type of Paper - Empirical Keywords: Bank Capitalization, Earnings Management, Signaling JEL Classification: G23, G32. URI: DOI: Pages 43 – 50
Objective - The objective of the study is to analyze the application of Islamic Corporate Governance (ICG) on Sustainable Business, focusing on Islamic Financial Performance as a mediating variable in Islamic Banks in Indonesia. Methodology/Technique - The population and sample in the study consists of 9 Islamic Banks. The study uses partial least square (PLS), and the data is collected from public reports for the period between 2010 and 2015. The variables of the study are: Islamic Corporate Governance as an independent variable, Sustainable Business as the dependent variable and Financial Performance as a mediating variable. Findings - The study shows that Islamic Corporate Governance (ICG) has a positive significant effect on Islamic Financial Performance, Islamic Corporate Governance (ICG) has no effect on Sustainable Business, and Islamic Financial Performance has a positive effect on Sustainable Business. The findings also show that Islamic Financial Performance can have an indirect impact to mediating the effect of Islamic Corporate Governance on Sustainable Business Islamic Bank. Novelty - Using Murabahah ratio to measure Islamic Financial Performance. Type of Paper: Empirical Keywords: Islamic Corporate Governance; Islamic Financial Performance; Sustainable Business. JEL Classification: G21, L22, M41.
Objective - This article presents a functional diagram for implementing the investment program of the Development Bank of Kazakhstan and builds an outline of the pre-investment evaluation process. Methodology/Technique - A stepwise algorithm is created to conduct a preliminary appraisal of business proposals, and the criteria for assessing the borrower's condition are identified. Key criteria used in the investment performance analysis are discussed. The article develops a computer simulation approach to analysis and decision-making with respect to investment programs, with consideration of analytically non-formalisable stochastic distributions of parameters and processes. The paper also proposes a new method for optimizing the allocation of funds, given various priorities and risks, taking into account the instability and possible ill-conditioning of the optimization problem. Findings - The article formalizes the main stages of Development Bank's pre-investment activities in support of the government's innovative industrial development policy in the country's economy Novelty - Presented models and algorithms of the functional tasks for implementation of investment activities are sufficiently general to be relevant, not only for implementing the government's strategy in this direction, but also for the business interests of any bank or investment entity. Type of Paper: Review Keywords: Investment Selection Process; Development Bank of Kazakhstan; Investment Activities; Business Proposals; Optimizing.
Objective – Islamic Banks have a distinct advantage that is not only conduct a commercial operation, but to also conduct social operations. Therefore, Islamic Banks plays an important role in developing the Indonesian economy. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of internal and external factors that affect the profitability of Islamic Banks in Indonesia. Methodology/Technique – The methodology of this research is multiple regression. The object of this research is the Islamic banking industry in Indonesia. Internal factors include size, liquidity, asset quality, management, and efficiency ratio. External factors include interest rate and inflation. Return on Assets is used to measure profitability. The monthly data is collected from the financial reports of Islamic Banks between 2011 to 2016. Findings – The findings show that size, liquidity, assets quality, management ratio, interest rate and inflation lead to a greater Return on Assets (profitability) in Islamic Banks in Indonesia. Efficiency however does not have a significant effect on profitability of Islamic Banks in Indonesia. Novelty – Based on the results of this research, it can be concluded that the Islamic banking industry can use those variables to improve the profitability of Islamic banks in the future. In addition, there are two variables that affect the profitability of Islamic banking industry. For the Islamic banking industry should anticipate the movement of inflation and interest to improve the profitability of Islamic banks. Type of Paper: Empirical paper. Keywords: Islamic Banks; Profitability; Internal Factors; External Factors; Indonesia. Reference to this paper should be made as follows: Sukmaningrum, P.S; Pirzada, K; Rusmita, S.A; Hasib, F.F; Widiastuti, T; Hendratmi, A. 2020. Determinants of Islamic Bank Profitability: Evidence from Indonesia, J. Fin. Bank. Review, 5 (1): pp. 01 – 13 JEL Classification: G21, G24.
Objective – Financial distress is an undesirable condition for any company. To avoid financial distress, and improve the overall financial status of a company, an understanding of the factors affecting financial distress is necessary. This research aims to identify the determinants of banking financial distress. Methodology/Technique – In this study, 41 banks comprised the sample, selected using purposive sampling. The survival cox proportional hazard analysis method to identify the determinant factors of survival of Indonesian Banks. Findings –The results show that that macro indicators (inflation and economic growth) have a significant effect on the banks’ financial distress. This implies that the government as a regulator must maintain the level of growth and inflation that stabilizes the economy so that banks can avoid financial distress. As for the banks’ management, they have an obligation to support government policies in maintaining growth and inflation. Novelty – The study uses the cox proportional hazard model. Type of Paper: Empirical. JEL Classification: G2O, G33. Keywords: Bank; Cox Model; Financial Distress; Survival Analysis. Reference to this paper should be made as follows: Kristanti, F.T. 2020. Survival analysis of Indonesian banking companies, J. Fin. Bank. Review, 5 (2): 39 – 47
Objective – Customer changes in behaviour during the COVID-19 pandemic prompted banks to swiftly adopt digital transformation systems. Banks work towards a digitalisation of the industry by employing information technology in the financial sector. Methodology – The digital transformation brings opportunities as well as challenges. This study aims to enrich the study of DX, specifically in banking, by profiling future banking from the viewpoint of digital transformation. This study used the review method by consulting 21 articles that were complied with inclusion criteria. Findings – The findings showed that digital transformation has affected banking in some aspects, including the development of facility and equipment, application design, services and products, security and privacy protection, big data, policy and regulations, innovations, consumer satisfaction, as well as stock returns. Novelty – Based on this literature research, a future agenda can be prepared, including the drivers for future banking, the workforce profile for future banking, as well as the organization design for future banking. Type of Paper: Review JEL Classification: F65, G15, G21 Keywords: Future Banking; Digital Transformation; Open Banking; Banking Transformation Reference to this paper should be made as follows: Lydiana, Y.F; Gustomo, A; Bangun, Y.R. (2022). Future Banking In Digital Transformation (DX) Dimension: A Literature Review, J. Fin. Bank. Review, 7(1), 59 – 70.
Objective - This research aims to analyse the efficiency of Islamic banking in Indonesia and Malaysia based on the maqashid shariah approach. Methodology/Technique - This research uses individual education, creation of justice, and achievement of welfare to measure the efficiency variable. The research period covers the period from 2011 to 2015, using data envelope analysis (DEA). Findings - The result show that there are three (3) Islamic banks that achieve maximum efficiency in Malaysia. These are: Affin Islamic Bank Berhad, which achieved maximum efficiency in terms of distribution and profitability output, CIMB Islamic Bank, which achieved maximum efficiency in terms of distribution output, and RHB Islamic Bank Berhad, which achieved maximum efficiency in terms of distribution output. Meanwhile, two (2) Islamic banks which were considered to be efficient, although not at the maximum level. Novelty - This study shows that Bank Panin Syariah achieves maximum efficiency with respect to distribution output, and that Bank Mega Syariah is considered efficient with respect to profitability output and personal revenue output. Type of Paper - Empirical Keywords: Islamic Banks; Efficiency; Maqashid Shariah; DEA; Indonesia; Malaysia. JEL Classification: G20, G21.
Objective - The higher the difference between the loan interest and the deposit interest is, the better it is for a bank. This reflects a higher margin/profitability. However, it also shows less efficiency of the intermediation mechanism. Using literature research, this study aims to understand how the mechanism of Profit and Loss Sharing System (Islamic Banking System) can become the solution for the trade-off. Methodology/Technique - This study uses literature search and review as the method to gain an understanding of the fundamental concept as well as to offer critique by noting the trade-offs associated with the micro and macro objectives of banking. Findings - In the profit and loss sharing system made accessible through partnership, the returns that will be earned by one part depends on the other part. This requires each part to behave professionally and responsibly. Depositors' returns depend on banks' returns and banks' returns depend on mudharib's return. Therefore, there is no difference between banking profitability and efficiency of the intermediation. Novelty - With the same implications noted between the micro objective of banks (advantage as a business entity) and the efficiency of intermediation as well as the implications for the affordability and social justice, there is no trade-off between profitability and economic efficiency of intermediation. In addition, the profit and loss sharing system can also be a solution for the trade-off itself. Type of Paper: Review Keywords: Profit and Loss Sharing System, Micro-macro Trade-off, Banking Profitability, and the Economic Efficiency of Intermediation
Objective - In recent years, the market share of Indonesian Islamic banks has declined. The purpose of this study is to assess the financial distress being experienced by Islamic banks in Indonesia by using the Bankometer's score. This study will also uncover any differences between listed and non-listed Islamic banks using the Bankometer model. The Bankometer model is a model developed by the IMF (2000) to measure the financial soundness of banks. Methodology/Technique - The study uses data obtained between 2011 and 2015 using a purposive sampling model. The sample consists of 11 Islamic Banks in Indonesia. Findings - The results show that all Islamic banks are categorized as very healthy throughout the period of the research. Using and independent t-test, it is shown that there are differences between non-performing loans from listed and non-listed Islamic banks. However, there are no significant differences between Variable Capital Asset, Equity Asset, Cost to Income and Loan to Asset. Novelty - The study uses Bankometer's score to evaluate financial distress. Type of Paper - Empirical Keywords: Bankometer Model; Financial Distress; Islamic Banks. JEL Classification: E44, F14, G01.
Objective – The aim of the study is to examine the relationship between ownership structure (state ownership, foreign ownership, institutional ownership, and management ownership) and nonperforming loans in the Iraqi banking industry. Methodology – Based on quantitative research, the study adopted an archival research strategy using documents (annual reports) as a source of data. In addition, 31 banks working in Iraq were selected based on panel data with a time frame specified for 2011-2020, with 310 observations. Findings – The study found that three types of ownership foreign, institutional, and managerial, are associated with NPLs negatively, but government ownership is linked to NPLs positively because government-owned banks might have a hard time resisting government interference, which leads to higher risk-taking. Novelty – research conducted on the relationship between ownership structure and non-performing loans mainly has focused on developed nations, and there has been little research on the subject in developing countries. There is a need for research centering on developing nations since studies on this topic in developed economies do not adequately explain the relationship between ownership structure and non-performing loans in these countries. As a result, the present research focuses primarily on Iraq, where a significant credit risk characterizes the banking system compared to other Middle Eastern developing nations. Furthermore, the material on ownership structure is not found in Iraq. Type of Paper: Review JEL Classification: C21, G32, H81, Z33. Keywords: Corporate governance, Ownership structure, Non-performing loans, Iraqi banking industry Reference to this paper should be made as follows: Sadaa, A.M; Ganesan, Y; Yet, C.E. (2022). The Effect of Ownership Structure on the Nonperforming Loans in Iraqi Banks, J. Fin. Bank. Review, 7(1), 86 – 97.
Objective – The objective of this study is to determine the process that takes place in the employment of financial technology in the financial services industry. It is of utmost important that FinTech firms and commercial banks understand the predictors that can influence their consumers’ decision to adopt FinTech services and to increase loyalty toward their services. Methodology/Technique – An online survey was used in the present research to explore factors that can influence commercial bank users’ intention to use FinTech services in Malaysia. The data for the current study was gathered from bank users who aged at least 18 years old and resided in Malacca, Malaysia who accessed FinTech services via smartphone. This research also employed the convenient sampling in distributing online questionnaires to 400 respondents who had successfully completed and returned the questionnaires. Findings – The empirical findings illustrate that trust, social influence, cyber-security risks and privacy risks are the most influential determinants that affect bank customers’ behavioural intention to use FinTech services in Malaysia. Novelty – This research contributes to the theory of TAM, UTAUT and TPB by proposing a direct effect of trust, social influence, cyber-security risks and privacy risks on the adoption of FinTech services. The findings of the current study will be beneficial to policymakers, specifically financial institutions and FinTech firms as they will be informed on workable means to increase the quality of FinTech applications/websites. This can yield greater intentions to adopt FinTech. Stakeholders should play their important role in noticing and considering the influential factors that can impact the consumers’ behavioural intention for using technologies in their policies to fulfil the users’ needs. Type of Paper: Empirical JEL Classification: G02, G21 Keywords: Trust; Social Influence; Cyber-Security Risks; Privacy Risks; Behavioural Intention to Use Reference to this paper should be made as follows: Peong, K.K; Peong, K.P; Tan K.Y. (2021). Behavioural Intention of Commercial Banks’ Customers towards Financial Technology Services, Journal of Finance and Banking Review, 5(4): 10 – 27.
Objective – Corporate governance is a focus of bank managers and stakeholders, especially after the financial crisis. Contributing to firm and bank difficulties is weakness in managing internally and externally, making governance critical; even more so for banks which play a central role in the economy, allocating capital, lowering risk for businesses and individuals, and ensuring stability and sustainability. Bank failures in the crisis (2008-2016) highlighted governance and risk in developed nations and in developing ones, such as Vietnam. This paper studies governance in bank performance and risk, using theoretical frameworks and empirical study. Methodology – Fundamental governance is reviewed, for banks in particular, in two widely used frameworks. Prior research relates bank performance (share return and return on assets, ROA), risk (capital adequacy ratio, CAR) and governance (board size, BS; number of committees, NC; independent directors to total, NID). Findings – As our models show, NC and NID relate positively to bank performance. CAR has a positive link to governance. Novelty – Our recommendation is that banks in Vietnam must have effective boards to boost performance. Type of Paper: Empirical. Keywords: governance; banking; crises; Vietnam; performance Reference to this paper should be made as follows: E. Bace. 2019. Vietnamese Commercial Banks and Corporate Governance, J. Fin. Bank. Review 4 (2): 73–81 JEL Classification: M14; D21; G21; G34
Objective – This research aims to determine and analyze related party transactions to increase firm value through opportunistic behaviour management by conducting earnings management on manufacturing companies listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange between 2015 and 2018. Methodology/Technique – There are 34 companies that fulfill the requirements to become the sample of this study. The method applied in analyzing the data is verification using path analysis. Findings – The results of the research show that related party transactions do not have any significant effect on firm value however it indicates a positive impact. Moreover, related party transactions do not have any significant impact on earning management yet it gives a negative impact on earning management. Novelty – The influence of earnings management shows a positive impact on firm value while it shows no signs of positive impact on firm value. The analysis shows that the value of the indirect impact of related party transactions through earnings management towards firm value is negative being 0.022 smaller than the direct impact of related party transaction toward firm value which is 0.053. This indicates that related party transactions through earnings management have no significant impact on firm value. Type of Paper: Empirical. Keywords: Related Party Transactions; Earnings Management; Firm Value. Reference to this paper should be made as follows: Suryani, A., Atikah; Putri, H. T. 2019. The Effect of Related Party Transactions through Opportunistic Behaviour Management to Increase Firm Value, J. Fin. Bank. Review 4 (2): 64 – 72 JEL Classification: G02, G30, G32, G39.
Objective: In an enhanced climate of risk complexities, the firm's stakeholders desire a risk management framework that promises the benefits of efficiencies, transparencies, and solutions for interrelated risks. Enterprise risk management (ERM) is widely seen as a suitable instrument to address these issues. However, not all are convinced of ERM's benefits. This necessitates a review of extant literature and collating it to generate interrelated insights. This paper reviews articles on ERM from the management and finance domain and catalogs the benefits of ERM. Methodology/Technique: This paper reviews 129 articles addressing ERM benefits. It examines the academic disciplines of journals publishing ERM studies by looking into their H Indices, SJR scores, and ABDC rankings to assess ERM's impact and acceptability among scholars. The research articles are analyzed for their subject domains, geographic scope, and methodology used in exploring the relationship between ERM adoption and its benefits to the firm. Collating and reviewing these articles enables the mitigation of data gaps. These studies were primarily from accounting, finance, management, corporate governance, and strategy domains. Findings: Improved cost-effectiveness, earnings stability, increased profitability, improved decision making, better risk communication, competitive advantage, better resource allocation, enhanced firm value, and performance are the key benefits of ERM adoption identified in this study. A knowledge gap is presented around assessing ERM benefits and extending ERM research scope to developing countries like India. Novelty: The study catalogs the benefits of ERM and makes a strong case for ERM adoption among firms. Type of Paper: Review JEL Classification: M10, M14, G30, G32 Keywords: Enterprise risk management (ERM); firm value; firm performance; ERM benefits; Covid19 Reference to this paper should be made as follows: Naik, S; Prasad, Ch.V.V.S.N.V. (2021). Benefits of Enterprise Risk Management: A Systematic Review of Literature, Journal of Finance and Banking Review, 5 (4): 28 – 35.
Objective - A previous study conducted by the same authors found that the conditions of market overreaction occurred in Indonesia and the market factor in CAPM, or a single beta, is able to explain the portfolio returns. As a continuation of that study, we now use the concept of conditional CAPM, or a dual beta, to test whether the performance of the dual beta can outperform the single beta. Methodology/Technique - The research uses the stocks of non-financial sector company on the Indonesian Stock Exchange during the period between July 2005 and December 2015, which have been divided into two portfolios; the winner and the loser. The conditional CAPM is applied by separating the market into upstream markets and downstream markets, so the dual beta model can be formulated. Findings - The results are consistent with the findings of Pettengill et al. (1995). The results of a single beta test do not comply with the conditions required in the CAPM model and this can be corrected through conditional beta testing that includes the testing on the up beta, down beta, and the dual beta. Novelty - The dual beta model can explain the returns of the portfolio in accordance with the expected results in CAPM testing. The explanation by using the dual beta model is more accurate and more successful than the single beta model. Type of Paper - Empirical Keywords: Conditional CAPM, Dual Beta, Loser Portfolio, Winner Portfolio. JEL Classification: J11, G31.
Objective –The revival of the Islamic economy in Indonesia was marked by the establishment of the Jakarta Islamic Index (JII) on July 3, 2000. From 2000 to 2020, two economic crises hit Indonesia in 2008 and 2020. These crises also had an impact on the high price fluctuations of JII. Assets can be protected from significant losses by hedging. One of the hedging strategies was option contracts with a collar strategy. Methodology – The data analysed in this research were the JII closing price data from 2000 to 2020 using the Black Scholes model and the GARCH model with the Collar strategy. Findings – Option with the Collar strategy provided more benefits in crises than without Option. In crisis conditions, the Option with the GARCH method and the collar strategy provided a higher average profit of 3.07% on the one-month Option and 7.01% on the three-month Option than without using the Option with the collar strategy. In non-crisis conditions, the Option using the GARCH method, and the collar strategy provided a 0.16% higher average profit at one-month maturity than without the Option. Meanwhile, the average profit decreased by 1.45% at the three-month maturity. The collar strategy resulted in less volatility. Without a collar strategy, JII volatility was 103%. The collar strategy produced maximum volatility of 12.71%, 15.18%, and 17.14%. The findings also revealed that the GARCH model was better than the Black Scholes based on the AMSE value obtained in crisis conditions with a maturity of one month and three months and in non-crisis conditions with a maturity of one month. Meanwhile, the Black Scholes model showed better results in non-crisis conditions with a maturity of three months. Novelty – Based on the research result, the Option with a collar strategy is effective for hedging in crisis conditions. This research assesses the collar strategy with several different maturity values to get the most effective value. Type of Paper: Empirical JEL Classification: G11, G13. Keywords: Black Scholes; Collar Strategy; GARCH; Jakarta Islamic Index; Option Contracts. Reference to this paper should be made as follows: Hendrawan, R; Arifin, Z. (2023). Comparison of Black-Scholes and GARCH Option Models on The Jakarta Islamic Index with Collar Strategy, J. Fin. Bank. Review, 7(4), 16 – 27.
Objective - The crude oil, also known as black gold, is an essential commodity for the sustainability of various industries in the world. Oil prices play an important role in world economy because it causes repercussions. For example, world oil prices plummeted at the end of 2013 and its impact created fluctuations in prices which had affected world economy badly. The aim of this research is to locate a good model that can help to predict oil price fluctuations so that industries can avoid potential negative impacts. Methodology/Technique - Data of world oil prices from 1987 to 2016 were extracted from West Texas Intermediate (WTI) and Brent Oil sources. A comparative analysis using Empirical Decomposition and Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) was applied toidentify differences and data were then analysed through SPSS 23. For this research, a set of models based on the smallest MAPE (Mean Absolute Percentage Error) was proposed. Findings - Results indicate that the Empirical Decomposition was a more appropriate method for predicting oil prices due to the non-linearity of oil price data. In addition, the MAPE also produced a lower error rate than the ARIMA. Novelty - In this research, world oil price volatility fromWest Texas Intermediate (WTI) and Brent Oil Price data were examined to predict oil price movement for future anticipations. Type of Paper: Empirical Keywords: Forecasting, Oil Prices, Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average, ARIMA, Empirical Decomposition, West Texas Intermediate, Brent Oil Price.
Objective – The highly concentrated ownership structure, lack of quality information, and weak regulatory environments caused imbalances in the movement of cash flows and thereby put the liquidity levels of Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) banks on a downward trend. This prompted policymakers in the GCC region to modify their Corporate Governance (C.G.) codes to boost the financial position of the GCC banking industry as liquidity providers and minimize systemic risk. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to conceptually investigate the relationship between board governance attributes and liquidity creation in the GCC banking sector. Methodology – The methodology employed in this study is a review of prior research on bank governance mechanisms and liquidity creation to gather perspective and establish a prediction about the association between board attributes and liquidity creation in the GCC banking industry. Findings – The study concludes that there is a positive correlation between the analyzed board governance features and the creation of liquidity based on several theories gleaned from a review of prior research. Novelty – The study evaluates bank liquidity creation and how board attributes influence it. Type of Paper: Review JEL Classification: M41, M49. Keywords: Liquidity Creation, Corporate Governance, Agency Theory, Board Attributes, GCC. Reference to this paper should be made as follows: Mousa, A.K.A; Hassan, N.L; Pirzada, K. (2022). Board Governance Mechanisms and Liquidity Creation: A Theoretical Framework, J. Fin. Bank. Review, 7(2), 122 – 134. _______________________________________________________________________________________
Objective – This study aims to critically evaluate capital budgeting factors in Oman’s manufacturing sector using the structural equation modelling (SEM) approach. Methodology – One hundred and twelve managers participated in the pilot survey conducted in different parts of Muscat, Oman, from September 2020 to January 2021. The managers responded to questions set on a 5-Likert scale bordering on aspects of managerial and organisational attributes, the rationale for selecting specific capital budgeting techniques, the impediments to the use of advanced capital budgeting techniques (ACBTs), and the traction of non-financial, environmental, social, and governmental (ESG) factors. IBM SPSS v.23 and analysis of moment structure (AMOS) v.20, descriptive analysis, correlation, and multiple regressions were used. SEM was applied to determine the strength of the relationship between the latent capital budgeting variables tested in the model. Findings – The results show that the model has an acceptable fit that meets the recommended values. Specifically, the use of advanced capital budgeting methods (ACBMs) relative to financial and non-financial factors in the capital investment decision model is the most influencing path in this SEM model; The rest of the observed relationships are insignificant at a 5% significance level. Novelty – Using relatively more advanced capital budgeting approaches such as real options could significantly impact financial and non-financial factors, thereby opening the prospects for more integrated project appraisal approaches. Cash flow, net present value (NPV), environmental, social, and governance (ESG) considerations, top management role, and clarity of business policy are among the determinants of sustainable capital budgeting. This is perhaps the first study that has applied the SEM approach to generating more insights into capital budgeting factors than previous studies emphasizing the Omani non-oil sector. Type of Paper: Empirical JEL Classification: G11, G31 Keywords: Advanced capital budgeting methods (ACBMs); Confirmatory factor analysis; Exploratory factor analysis; Investment decisions; Oman, Real options; Structural equation modelling. Reference to this paper should be made as follows: Gordon, S.A. (2022). Structural Equation Modelling Approach to Evaluating Capital Budgeting Factors in Oman, J. Fin. Bank. Review, 7(2), 107 – 121.
Top-cited authors
Siti Aisjah
  • Brawijaya University
Indra Siswanti
  • Universitas Mercu Buana
Yulius Kurnia Susanto
  • Trisakti School of Management
Arya Pradipta
  • Trisakti School of Management
K.P. Peong