Fungal Systematics and Evolution

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Symptoms of Phytophthora root rot of Acacia mangium seedlings in the nursery. Symptoms include: A-C. Root and collar root leading to patchy seedling death and D. Leaf discoloration.
Bayesian trees produced from concatenated A. ITS, hsp90 and b-tubulin, and B. cox1, cox2 and nadh1 genes regions using GTR + I model showing the phylogenetic position of Phytophthora acaciivora and related species. Maximum likelihood was conducted on the same dataset with RAxML and resulted in the same topology. Numbers above the branches reflect support obtained from the analysis of the same dataset (Bayesian posterior probabilities/Bootstrap values estimated by RAxML). Phytophthora botryosa was used as an outgroup taxon. The scale bar corresponds to substitutions per nucleotide site.
Colony morphology of (top to bottom) P. acaciivora (CBS 138638) and P. frigida (CMW 19427) after 7 d growth at 20 o C on different media: CA, V8A, MEA and half strength PDA (left to right).
Average growth rate (mm/d ± SE) of P. acaciivora compared to other species in clade 2d on V8A across the temperature range from 4-37.5 o C. Data for P. acacia from Alves et al. (2019).
Acacia mangium plantations account for more than 50 % of the exotic plantations in Vietnam. A new black butt symptom was discovered in 2012, followed by the wilting sign in Acacia seedlings in Tuyen Quang Province. Isolations recovered two Phytophthora species, the well-known Acacia pathogen P. cinnamomi , and an unknown species. The new species is described here as Phytophthora acaciivora sp. nov. Phylogenetically this species resides in clade 2d and is most closely related to P. frigida . Phytophthora acaciivora is a heterothallic species, oospores are aplerotic and antheridia are amphigynous. It produces predominantly elongated ovoid, semi papillate, persistent sporangia, no hyphal swellings and no chlamydospores. Optimum temperature for the growth is 25–30 °C and the maximum temperature is over 37.5 °C. Studies are underway to determine the impact of this new species on Acacia plantations in Vietnam.
 
The analysis of a combined dataset including 5.8S (ITS) rDNA, 18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, and rpb2 data from species of the Agaricineae (Agaricoid clade) supports a shared monophyletic origin of the monotypic genera Mythicomyces and Stagnicola. The new family Mythicomycetaceae, sister to Psathyrellaceae, is here proposed to name this clade, which is characterised, within the dark-spored agarics, by basidiomata with a mycenoid to phaeocollybioid habit, absence of veils, a cartilaginous-horny, often tapering stipe, which discolours dark brown towards the base, a greyish brown, pale hazel brown spore deposit, smooth or minutely punctate-verruculose spores without a germ pore, cheilocystidia always present, as metuloids (thick-walled inocybe-like elements) or as thin-walled elements, pleurocystidia, when present, as metuloids, pileipellis as a thin ixocutis without cystidioid elements, clamp-connections present everywhere, and growth on wood debris in wet habitats of boreal, subalpine to montane coniferous forests. Simocybe parvispora from Spain (two collections, including the holotype), which clusters with all the sequenced collections of Stagnicola perplexa from Canada, USA, France and Sweden, must be regarded as a later synonym of the latter
 
Three new fungal species in the Clavicipitaceae ( Hypocreales , Ascomycota ) associated with plants were collected in Thailand. Morphological characterisation and phylogenetic analyses based on multi-locus sequences of LSU, RPB1 and TEF1 showed that two species belong to Aciculosporium and Shimizuomyces . Morakotia occupies a unique clade and is proposed as a novel genus in Clavicipitaceae . Shimizuomyces cinereus and Morakotia fusca share the morphological characteristic of having cylindrical to clavate stromata arising from seeds. Aciculosporium siamense produces perithecial plates and occurs on a leaf sheath of an unknown panicoid grass.
 
The genus Dendrodacrys is a monophyletic group that belongs to Dacrymycetes ( Agaricomycotina , Basidiomycota ) and accommodates species distinguished by strongly branched hyphidia in combination with 3-septate basidiospores. While the original circumscription mainly treated European taxa, here we shift the focus to tropical and sub-tropical material and uncover wider variation in morphology within Dendrodacrys. Still united by hyphidia shape and basidiospore septation, the genus is expanded with 10 taxa having pustulate, cerebriform, or stipitate basidiocarps of yellow to dark brown colours, cylindrical to ovoid basidiospores, and hyphal septa with or without clamps. Monophyly of the amended Dendrodacrys is confirmed with a phylogeny based on six markers (SSU, ITS, LSU, TEF1-α , RPB1 , and RPB2 ). As a result, we describe two new species (De. laetum and De. rigoratum), transfer three existing species to Dendrodacrys (De. brasiliense, De. dendrocalami, and De. pezizoideum), and raise one variety to the species level ( De. kennedyae ≡ Dacrymyces enatus var. macrosporus ). In addition, we provide descriptions for the earlier combined De. paraphysatum and four new informal taxa. Lastly, we present illustrations, a character table, and an identification key that addresses all known dacrymycetes with branched hyphidia.
 
We studied a number of sub-Saharan collections of corticioid Xylodon and Lyomyces species, including several types. Morphological descriptions and molecular analyses based on the ribosomal DNA loci nuc rDNA ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 and when possible nuc 28S rDNA, allow us to introduce four new species: L. densiusculus , X. angustisporus , X. dissiliens , and X. laxiusculus . DNA barcodes for X. submucronatus and X. pruniaceus are published for the first time and X. pruniaceus is re-described.
 
We describe a novel sequestrate genus and species, Asperosporus subterraneus gen. et sp. nov. , found associated with nursery production of ferns in south Florida. This truffle species has a unique combination of morphological characters among described Agaricaceae in that it lacks a stipe or columella, has large, ornamented spores, the fresh sporocarps rapidly stain pink-red when cut or bruised, and they have a rancid smell. Although this fungus does not appear to be a direct plant pathogen, the hyphae of A. subterraneus produce a thick hydrophobic mycelial mat that binds the organic matter and therefore prevents water and fertilizer from being absorbed by plants, consequently causing wilting and chlorosis. Using morphological characteristics and phylogenetic reconstruction based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), partial large subunit nuclear ribosomal DNA (LSU), second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II ( rpb2 ) and translation elongation factor 1-alpha ( tef1 ) regions, we describe this taxon as a new genus and species in Agaricaceae .
 
Phylogenetic tree derived from Maximum Likelihood (PhyML) analysis based on nrITS1-5.8S-ITS2 data. ML bootstrap support (BS) values are shown at the nodes (BS > 80 %). Species treated in this study are marked with blue.
In anticipation of a phylogenetically revised monograph of Entoloma in Europe, six new species of subgenus Cyanula are described here. Entoloma cistocruentatum is associated with Cistus in Spain, E. dislocatum occurs in montane regions in Catalonia (Spain) and Tuscany (Italy), E. indikon is known from Denmark and three species are mainly distributed in the Nordic countries in Europe: E. calceus , E. perchalybeum and E. praecipuum . Entoloma incarnatofuscescens , from the /Rusticoides clade is neotypified. A fully amended description is given based on molecular evidence, which includes the recently described E. violaceoparkensis and E. klofacianum which became later synonyms.
 
Species of the genus Wynnea are collected in association with a subterranean mass generally referred to as a sclerotium. This is one of the few genera of the Sarcoscyphaceae not associated with plant material - wood or leaves. The sclerotium is composed of hyphae of both Armillaria species and Wynnea species. To verify the existence of Armillaria species in the sclerotia of those Wynnea species not previously examined and to fully understand the structure and nature of the sclerotium, molecular data and morphological characters were analyzed. Using nuclear ITS rDNA sequences the Armillaria species co-occurring with Wynnea species were identified from all examined material. These Armillaria symbionts fall into two main Armillaria groups - the A. gallica-nabsnona-calvescens group and the A. mellea group. Divergent time estimates of the Armillaria and Wynnea lineages support a co-evolutionary relationship between these two fungi.
 
Morphological details of Bulgaria agaves (Klotzschii Herbarium vivum mycologicum, Centurie XIII: n ° 1223) preserved in FH herbarium. A1. Macrophoto with specimen label. B1. Immature ascospores. B2-3. Mature ascospores. C1. Upper part of ascus with amyloid apical ring and four mature ascospores. C2. Ascus apex. C3. Immature ascospores inside the ascus. D1. Paraphyses. E1. Excipulum at margin and upper flank. E2-3. Ectal excipular cells. Scale bars: E1-E3 = 50 µm; B1-B3, C1-C3, D1 = 10 µm. Reagents: B1, C2, C3, E2-3 = KOH; B2, C1, D1 = IKI; B3, E1 = CR.
Hymenobolus agaves has been reported only in Europe and Africa on the American plant Agave americana ( Asparagaceae ). This fungus has never been found in the native range of its host, in arid ecosystems of northern and central Mexico and Texas, USA. It has been suggested to be a pathogen that can kill its host. The fungus grows on succulent leaf bases of the plant. The morphology – black apothecia with a hymenium that disintegrates when asci mature and dark ornamented ascospores – make this species very distinctive, but it has been collected and reported only a few times since its first description. Its systematic position has been unclear, and it has been treated as incertae sedis , that is of uncertain placement, in Leotiomycetes . With recent collections and additional data on the ecology of H. agaves , we use integrative taxonomy (DNA sequences, morphology, ecology) to show its relationships is with Cenangiaceae .
 
Maximum clade credibility tree of the Helvella corium species aggregate, along with outgroup taxa, resulting from the multilocus coalescent analyses in STACEY (Beast2). The analysis is based on partial sequences of the heat shock protein 90 (hsp), the nuclear ribosomal large subunit (LSU, including D1/D2 domains), the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (rpb2), the translation elongation factor 1-α (tef) and the complete 5.8S ribosomal RNA. RAxML maximum likelihood bootstrap values (added manually) > 60 % and Bayesian posterior probability (BPP) > 0.8 are shown above nodes. Selected morphological character states are mapped on the tree, as explained in detail in the results section. The scale bar reflects the number of substitutions per site. Drawings: S.B. Løken.
(Continued).
PCR and sequencing primers used to amplify the Helvella corium species aggregate and relevant outgroup taxa in the study.
Mycologists have always been curious about the elaborate morphotypes and shapes of species of the genus Helvella . The small, black, cupulate Helvella specimens have mostly been assigned to Helvella corium , a broadly defined morpho-species. Recent phylogenetic analyses, however, have revealed an aggregate of species hidden under this name. We performed a multispecies coalescent analysis to re-assess species limits and evolutionary relationships of the Helvella corium species aggregate in the Nordic countries. To achieve this, we used morphology and phylogenetic evidence from five loci – heat shock protein 90 ( hsp ), translation elongation factor 1-alpha ( tef ), RNA polymerase II ( rpb2 ), and the 5.8S and large subunit (LSU) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. All specimens under the name Helvella corium in the larger university fungaria of Norway, Sweden and Denmark were examined and barcoded, using partial hsp and/or rpb2 as the preferential secondary barcodes in Helvella . Additional fresh specimens were collected in three years (2015–2018) to obtain in vivo morphological data to aid in species discrimination. The H. corium species aggregate consists of seven phylogenetically distinct species, nested in three divergent lineages, i.e. H. corium , H. alpina and H. pseudoalpina sp. nov. in the /alpina-corium lineage, H. alpestris , H. macrosperma and H. nannfeldtii in the /alpestris-nannfeldtii lineage, and H. alpicola as a weakly supported sister to the /alpestris-nannfeldtii lineage. Among the seven species, the ribosomal loci expressed substantial variation in evolutionary rates, suggesting care in the use of these regions alone in delimitation of Helvella species. Altogether, 469 out of 496 available fungarium specimens were successfully barcoded.
 
DIC-light microscopy of Pontisma lagenidioides at different life cycle stages in Ceramium rubrum. A. Irregularly shaped, mature parasite thallus with multiple constrictions. B. Multiple mature tubular segments each with a developing single discharge tube. C. Segment containing undifferentiated zoospores. D. Multiple empty thallus segments and small individual thalli. E. Overview a mature parasite thallus growing on the internode of the host alga. Scale bar = 100 µm in A, B, and D, 50 µm in C, and 200 µm in E.
Olpidiopsis is a genus of obligate holocarpic endobiotic oomycetes. Most of the species classified in the genus are known only from their morphology and life cycle, and a few have been examined for their ultrastructure or molecular phylogeny. However, the taxonomic placement of all sequenced species is provisional, as no sequence data are available for the type species, O. saprolegniae, to consolidate the taxonomy of species currently placed in the genus. Thus, efforts were undertaken to isolate O. saprolegniae from its type host, Saprolegnia parasitica and to infer its phylogenetic placement based on 18S rDNA sequences. As most species of Olpidiopsis for which sequence data are available are from rhodophyte hosts, we have also isolated the type species of the rhodophyte-parasitic genus Pontisma, P. lagenidioides and obtained partial 18S rDNA sequences. Phylogenetic reconstructions in the current study revealed that O. saprolegniae from Saprolegnia parasitica forms a monophyletic group with a morphologically similar isolate from S. ferax, and a morphologically and phylogenetically more divergent species from S. terrestris. However, they were widely separated from a monophyletic, yet unsupported clade containing P. lagenidioides and red algal parasites previously classified in Olpidiopsis. Consequently, all holocarpic parasites in red algae should be considered to be members of the genus Pontisma as previously suggested by some researchers. In addition, a new species of Olpidiopsis, O. parthenogenetica is introduced to accommodate the pathogen of S. terrestris.
 
The appendaged coelomycete genus Seimatosporium (Sporocadaceae, Sordariomycetes) and some of its purported synonyms Allelochaeta,Diploceras and Vermisporium are re-evaluated. Based on DNA data for five loci (ITS, LSU, rpb2, tub2 and tef1), Seimatosporium is shown to be paraphyletic. The ex-type species of Allelochaeta, Discostromopsis and Vermisporium represent a distinct sister clade to which the oldest name Allelochaeta is applied. These genera were traditionally separated based on a combination of conidial pigmentation, septation, and the nature of their conidial appendages. Allelochaeta is revealed to include taxa with both branched or solitary appendages, that could be cellular or continuous, with conidia being (2-)3(-5)-septate, hyaline, or pigmented, concolourous or versicolourous. This suggests that these characters should be applied at species, and not at the generic level. Conidial pigmentation appears to have been lost or gained several times during the evolution of species within Allelochaeta. In total, 25 new species, 15 new combinations, and 10 new epitypifications are proposed.
 
The Sigatoka leaf spot complex on Musa spp. includes three major pathogens: Pseudocercospora , namely P. musae (Sigatoka leaf spot or yellow Sigatoka), P. eumusae (eumusae leaf spot disease), and P. fijiensis (black leaf streak disease or black Sigatoka). However, more than 30 species of Mycosphaerellaceae have been associated with Sigatoka leaf spots of banana, and previous reports of P. musae and P. eumusae need to be re-evaluated in light of recently described species. The aim of the present study was thus to investigate a global set of 228 isolates of P. musae , P. eumusae and close relatives on banana using multigene DNA sequence data [internal transcribed spacer regions with intervening 5.8S nrRNA gene (ITS), RNA polymerase II second largest subunit gene ( rpb2 ), translation elongation factor 1-alpha gene ( tef1 ), beta-tubulin gene ( tub2 ), and the actin gene (act)] to confirm if these isolates represent P. musae , or a closely allied species. Based on these data one new species is described, namely P. pseudomusae , which is associated with leaf spot symptoms resembling those of P. musae on Musa in Indonesia. Furthermore, P. eumusae , P. musae and P. fijiensis are shown to be well defined taxa, with some isolates also representing P. longispora . Other genera encountered in the dataset are species of Zasmidium (Taiwan leaf speckle), Metulocladosporiella (Cladosporium leaf speckle) and Scolecobasidium leaf speckle.
 
Amanita fulvoalba (Henkel 10395, type). Scale bar = 1 cm.
Amanita fulvoalba. A. Basidia and subhymenium. B. Basidiospores. C. Marginal tissue of lamellae. D. Slightly crushed tissue from volval limb. Scale bars = 10 µm.
New species of Amanita subgen. Lepidella are described from Guyana. Amanita cyanochlorinosma sp. nov., Amanita fulvoalba sp. nov., and Amanita guyanensis sp. nov. represent the latest additions to the growing body of newly described ectomycorrhizal fungi native to Dicymbe-dominated tropical rainforests. Macro- and micromorphological characters, habitat, and DNA sequence data for the ITS, nrLSU, rpb2, and ef1-α are provided for each taxon, and β-tubulin for most. Distinctive morphological features warrant the recognition of the three new species and a molecular phylogenetic analysis of taxa across Amanita subgen. Lepidella corroborates their infrageneric placements.
 
Fusarium oligoseptatum sp. nov. was isolated from the invasive Asian ambrosia beetle Euwallacea validis (Coleoptera, Scolytinae, Xyleborini) and from the galleries that females had constructed in dying Ailanthus altissima (tree-of-heaven) symptomatic for Verticillium wilt in south-central Pennsylvania, USA. This ambrosia fungus was cultivated by Euwallacea validis as the primary source of nutrition together with a second symbiont, Raffaelea subfusca . Female beetles transport their fungal symbionts within and from their natal galleries in paired pre-oral mycangia. Fusarium oligoseptatum was distinguished phenotypically from the 11 other known members of the Ambrosia Fusarium Clade (AFC) by uniquely producing mostly 1-2 septate clavate sporodochial conidia that were swollen apically. Phylogenetic analysis of multilocus DNA sequence data resolved F. oligoseptatum as a genealogically exclusive species-level lineage but evolutionary relationships with other members of the AFC were unresolved. Published studies have shown that F. oligoseptatum can be identified via phylogenetic analysis of multilocus DNA sequence data or a PCR multiplex assay employing species-specific oligonucleotide primers. In addition, to provide nomenclatural stability, an epitype was prepared from an authentic strain of F. ambrosium that was originally isolated from a gallery constructed in Chinese tea (Camellia sinensis ) by E. fornicatus in India, together with its lectotypification based on a published illustration.
 
Geodina salmonicolor is shown to be a synonym of G. guanacastensis , the type and only species of the genus. Comparisons of ITS rDNA sequences of a paratype and two recent collections of G. guanacastensis with published ITS sequences of G. salmonicolor , from the Dominican Republic, show that these are nearly identical. When G. salmonicolor was erected no sequences of the type species were available. Morphological comparisons supports the conspecificity. Details regarding the description of G. salmonicolor are pointed out. A four-gene phylogeny places Geodina and Wynnea as a supported sister group to the rest of the Sarcoscyphaceae . Species in these genera share morphological traits of cyanophobic spore markings, dark angular outer excipular cells that give rise to hairs and the origin of several apothecia from a common basal stalk. Their occurrence on soil rather than on wood or plant material distinguish them from other Sarcoscyphaceae . Based on morphology, phylogenic relationships and trophic interactions we erect a new family, Wynneaceae , for Geodina and Wynnea .
 
Balsamia, a hypogeous, sequestrate genus in the Helvellaceae, has been characterized variously as having three to eight species in North America, and these have been considered either different from or conspecific with European species. No available modern systematic treatment of Balsamia exists to allow for accurate identification at the species level. We sequenced DNA from recent western North American Balsamia collections, assessed relationships by sequence similarity, and identified molecular taxonomic units. From these data, we determined which matched descriptions and types of named species. ITS sequences supported 12 Balsamia species in western North America, five originally described by Harkness and Fischer and seven new species that we describe here. No sequences from Balsamia collections in western North America were nested among those of European species. We found no clear evidence for separation of Balsamia into multiple genera.
 
Hortiboletus coccyginus. A-C. Basidiomata in situ: A. (UCSC-F-1722) B. (NS110213) C. (CFS111711) D. Basidiospores (NS110511). Scale bar = 10 µm.
Understanding diversity in the genus Xerocomellus in western North America has been obscured by morphological variability, widespread use of species epithets typified by specimens from Europe and eastern North America, misunderstood phylogenetic relationships, and species complexes. We collected extensively and used genetic and morphological data to establish the occurrence of ten Xerocomellus species in western North America. We generated ITS sequences from five type collections and from vouchered representative collections to clarify our understanding of existing species concepts. We describe three new species ( Xerocomellus atropurpureus , X. diffractus , and X. salicicola ) and propose two new combinations ( X. amylosporus and X. mendocinensis ), transfer Boletus coccyginus to Hortiboletus , and provide a dichotomous key to species of Xerocomellus in western North America.
 
Symptoms of Ceratocystis canker of almond in California. A. Gummosis and canker associated with a large pruning wound on trunk. B. Scaffold canker. C. Transverse cut of a tree trunk infected with Ceratocystis canker and showing dead cambium and bark tissues as revealed by the brown discoloration extending into the primary and secondary xylem. D-E. Damaged bark and active Ceratocystis cankers developing on the trunk of young almond trees. F. Damaged bark and active Ceratocystis cankers developing on the trunk of a mature almond tree.
One of eight equally most parsimonious trees generated from maximum parsimony analysis of the six-gene (TEF1+TUB2+CP+60S+MCM7+LSU) combined dataset. Numbers in front and after the slash represent parsimony and likelihood bootstrap values from 1 000 pseudoreplicates, respectively. Values represented by an asterisk were less than 70 % for the bootstrap analyses. Bar indicates the number of nucleotide changes. Ex-type isolates are in bold.
Morphological characteristics of Ceratocystis betulina. A. 14-d-old PDA culture. B. Close-up of perithecia from 7-d-old culture. C. Globose unornamented ascomata base with elongated neck. D. Straight to flexuous ostiolar hyphae. E. Hat-shaped ascospores from top and side view. F. Cylindrical conidia. G. Short, barrel-shaped conidia. H. Thick-walled aleurioconidia. Scale bars: C = 100 µm; D = 20 µm; E = 5 µm; F-G = 20 µm; H = 10 µm.
The North American clade (NAC) of Ceratocystis includes pathogenic species that infect a wide range of woody hosts. Previous phylogenetic analyses have suggested that this clade includes cryptic species and a paraphyletic C. variospora. In this study, we used morphological data and phylogenetic analyses to characterize NAC taxa, including Ceratocystis isolates causing a serious disease of almond trees in California. Phylogenetic analyses based on six gene regions supported two new species of Ceratocystis. Ceratocystis destructans is introduced as the species causing severe damage to almond trees in California, and it has also been isolated from wounds on Populus and Quercus in Iowa. It is morphologically similar to C. tiliae, a pathogen on Tilia and the most recently characterized species in the NAC. Ceratocystis betulina collected from Betula platyphylla in Japan is also newly described and is the sister taxon to C. variospora. Our six-locus phylogenetic analyses and morphological characterization resolved several cryptic species in the NAC.
 
Ophiocordyceps unilateralis, epitype (VIC 44303) on Camponotus sericeiventris. A. Golden carpenter ant biting into a leaf midrib, and the clava arising from the dorsal neck region with the unilateral ascostroma, arrow shows the sporodochium of the asexual morph (Bar = 3 mm); inset, showing details of the ascostroma (Bar = 0.8 mm). B. Section through the ascostroma, showing the crowded, partially erumpent ascomata (Bar = 200 µm). C. Asci en masse (Bar = 40 µm). D-E. Asci with the prominent apical cap and foot region (Bar = 10 µm). F. Ascospore (Bar = 8 µm). 
The type of Ophiocordyceps unilateralis (Ophiocordycipitaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota) is based on an immature specimen collected on an ant in Brazil. The host was identified initially as a leaf-cutting ant (Atta cephalotes, Attini, Myrmicinae). However, a critical examination of the original illustration reveals that the host is the golden carpenter ant, Camponotus sericeiventris (Camponotini, Formicinae). Because the holotype is no longer extant and the original diagnosis lacks critical taxonomic information - specifically, on ascus and ascospore morphology - a new type from Minas Gerais State of south-east Brazil is designated herein. A re-description of the fungus is provided and a new phylogenetic tree of the O. unilateralis clade is presented. It is predicted that many more species of zombie-ant fungi remain to be delimited within the O. unilateralis complex worldwide, on ants of the tribe Camponotini.
 
Study area on Barton and Weaver Peninsula, King George Island in Antarctica (marked by red arrow).
Candidate species-level OTUs inferred from Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD) analysis of the RPB2 dataset. OTUs are numbered from 1 to 34 and the numbers in parentheses represents isolates clustered in each OTU. Endolichenic fungi isolated from lichen thalli are indicated in black, and endophytic fungi isolated from bryophytes are marked in blue.
Figure S2. (Continued).
Fungal endophytes comprise one of the most ubiquitous groups of plant symbionts. They live asymptomatically within vascular plants, bryophytes and also in close association with algal photobionts inside lichen thalli. While endophytic diversity in land plants has been well studied, their diversity in lichens and bryophytes are poorly understood. Here, we compare the endolichenic and endophytic fungal communities isolated from lichens and bryophytes in the Barton Peninsula, King George Island, Antarctica. A total of 93 fungal isolates were collected from lichens and bryophytes. In order to determine their identities and evolutionary relationships, DNA sequences of the nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS), nuclear ribosomal small subunit (nuSSU), nuclear large subunit (nuLSU), and mitochondrial SSU (mtSSU) rDNA were obtained and protein coding markers of the two largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB1 and RPB2) were generated. Multilocus phylogenetic analyses revealed that most of the fungal isolates were distributed in the following six classes in the phylum Ascomycota: Dothideomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, Lecanoromycetes, Leotiomycetes, Pezizomycetes and Sordariomycetes. For the first time we report the presence of subphylum Mortierellomycotina that may belong to an undescribed order in endophytic fungi. Taken together, our results imply that lichens and bryophytes provide similar niches and harbour a selection of these fungi, indicating generalists within the framework of evolutionary adaptation.
 
In the present study six species of Arthrinium (including a new taxon, Ar. crenatum ) are described and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. The analysis of ITS and 28S rDNA, as well as sequences of tef1 and tub2 exons suggests that Arthrinium s. str. and Apiospora represent independent lineages within Apiosporaceae . Morphologically, Arthrinium and Apiospora do not seem to have clear diagnostic features, although species of Arthrinium often produce variously shaped conidia (navicular, fusoid, curved, polygonal, rounded), while most species of Apiospora have rounded (face view) / lenticular (side view) conidia. Ecologically, most sequenced collections of Arthrinium were found on Cyperaceae or Juncaceae in temperate, cold or alpine habitats, while those of Apiospora were collected mainly on Poaceae (but also many other plant host families) in a wide range of habitats, including tropical and subtropical regions. A lectotype for Sphaeria apiospora (syn.: Ap. montagnei , type species of Apiospora ) is selected among the original collections preserved at the PC fungarium, and the putative identity of this taxon, found on Poaceae in Mediterranean lowland habitats, is discussed. Fifty-five species of Arthrinium are combined to Apiospora , and a key to species of Arthrinium s. str. is provided.
 
A nectrioid fungus forming a pinkish colony with mainly solitary phialides producing ellipsoid, aseptate conidia in mucoid packets was isolated from Dirinaria applanata . Our taxonomic study based on morphology and phylogenetic analysis using ITS rDNA sequences revealed that the isolates represented a member of the genus Cylindromonium . Based on further morphological examination, nucleotide sequence comparison, and phylogenetic analysis based on LSU rDNA, tef1 , and rpb2 in addition to the phylogenetic analysis using the ITS rDNA sequences, the fungus from Dirinaria represents a new species, which is described here as Cylindromonium dirinariae sp. nov. Furthermore, inoculation experiments revealed that this species can also produce perithecia when inoculated on the host lichen in laboratory environments.
 
Bayesian inference of phylogenetic relationships resulting from the analysis of ITS, LSU and EF-1α sequences. Numbers on the branches are estimates for Posterior Probability from Bayesian inference. The tree was rooted using Melanotaenium euphorbiae.
Maximum likelihood of phylogenetic relationships resulting from the analysis of ITS, LSU and EF-1α sequences. Numbers on the branches are estimates of bootstrap support values. The tree was rooted using Melanotaenium euphorbiae.
Sori and teliospores of Langdonia walkerae sp. nov. on Aristida beyrichiana (A-C) and on Aristida stricta (D-F). A. Sori (WSU 74240). B. Teliospores viewed with transmitted light. C. Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of teliospores. D. Sori. E. Teliospores viewed with transmitted light. F. SEM of teliospores. Scale bars: A, D = 2 mm; B, E = 10 µm; C, F = 5 µm.
Smut samples on Aristida beyrichiana and A. stricta collected and examined for this study.
A smut fungus that hinders wiregrass restoration efforts in longleaf pine-grassland ecosystems was collected from Aristida stricta and A. beyrichiana ( Poaceae ) in three states in the southeastern USA. Morphological and phylogenetic characteristics of this fungus were examined. These data show that the specimens from both plant species were infected by the same fungus and represent a new species of Langdonia . The new species differs morphologically from other species of Langdonia by teliospores being solitary and not compacted into spore balls. Spore wall ornamentation and teliospore size also differ from other Langdonia species. Phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences of the ITS, LSU, and EF-1α supported separation of the species from A. stricta and A. beyrichiana from other Langdonia species. Based on these results, a new species, Langdonia walkerae , is proposed.
 
The present paper represents the fifth contribution in the Genera of Fungi series, linking type species of fungal genera to their morphology and DNA sequence data. This paper focuses on 11 genera of microfungi, for seven of which the type species are neo- or epitypified here: Arthrinium (Arthrinium caricicola; Apiosporaceae, Xylariales, Sordariomycetes), Ceratosphaeria (Ceratosphaeria lampadophora; Magnaporthaceae, Magnaporthales, Sordariomycetes), Dimerosporiopsis (Dimerosporiopsis engleriana; Venturiaceae, Venturiales, Dothideomycetes), Hormodochis (Hormodochis melanochlora; Stictidaceae, Ostropales, Ostropomycetidae, OSLEUM clade, Lecanoromycetes), Lecanostictopsis (Lecanostictopsis kamatii; Mycosphaerellaceae, Capnodiales, Dothideomycetes), Lembosina (Lembosina aulographoides; Lembosinaceae fam. nov., Lembosinales ord. nov., Dothideomycetes), Neomelanconium (Neomelanconium gelatosporum; Cenangiaceae, Helotiales, Leotiomycetes), Phragmotrichum (Phragmotrichum chailletii; Melanommataceae, Pleosporales, Pleosporomycetidae, Dothideomycetes), Pseudomelanconium gen. nov. (Pseudomelanconium spartii; incertae sedis, Pezizomycotina), Rutola (Rutola graminis; Torulaceae, Pleosporales, Pleosporomycetidae, Dothideomycetes), and Trullula (Trullula oreoselini; incertae sedis, Pezizomycotina).
 
The Genera of Fungi series, of which this is the sixth contribution, links type species of fungal genera to their morphology and DNA sequence data. Five genera of microfungi are treated in this study, with new species introduced in Arthrographis , Melnikomyces , and Verruconis . The genus Thysanorea is emended and two new species and nine combinations are proposed. Kramasamuha sibika , the type species of the genus, is provided with DNA sequence data for first time and shown to be a member of Helminthosphaeriaceae ( Sordariomycetes ). Aureoconidiella is introduced as a new genus representing a new lineage in the Dothideomycetes .
 
Examples of Coreomyces sp. A. Thalli at the ventral side of the abdomen and at the inferior side of the left hemelytral margin of the corixid host. B. Detached thallus from the inferior margin of the left hemelytron. Scale bar = 100 µm.
Approximate positions of Coreomyces individuals on the host: LV= left ventral, RV= right ventral, CV= midventral, LW= left hemelytral margin, and RD= right dorsal. The colour of the positions corresponds to the colour of clades (Fig. 3) inhabiting these positions.
To study position specificity in the insect-parasitic fungal genus Coreomyces (Laboulbeniaceae, Laboulbeniales), we sampled corixid hosts (Corixidae, Heteroptera) in southern Scandinavia. We detected Coreomyces thalli in five different positions on the hosts. Thalli from the various positions grouped in four distinct clusters in the resulting gene trees, distinctly so in the ITS and LSU of the nuclear ribosomal DNA, less so in the SSU of the nuclear ribosomal DNA and the mitochondrial ribosomal DNA. Thalli from the left side of abdomen grouped in a single cluster, and so did thalli from the ventral right side. Thalli in the mid-ventral position turned out to be a mix of three clades, while thalli growing dorsally grouped with thalli from the left and right abdominal clades. The mid-ventral and dorsal positions were found in male hosts only. The position on the left hemelytron was shared by members from two sister clades. Statistical analyses demonstrate a significant positive correlation between clade and position on the host, but also a weak correlation between host sex and clade membership. These results indicate that sex-of-host specificity may be a non-existent extreme in a continuum, where instead weak pREFERENCES for one host sex may turn out to be frequent.
 
Light micrographs of Sarea difformis and S. resinae. A. Ascomata of S. difformis and B. S. resinae; C. Young ascoma of S. resinae arising on a fresh resin flow; D. Cross-section of S. resinae showing hyphal growth into the liquid resin; E. Ascus and paraphyses of S. difformis; F. Young ascus of S. difformis; G. Asci and paraphyses of S. resinae; H. Young ascus of S. resinae. Scale bars: 1 mm (A, B), 500 µm (C, D), 10 µm (E, G), 5 µm (F, H).
Phylogenetic relationship of Pezizomycotina based on four genes (ITS, nucSSU, nucLSU, rpb2) obtained from Bayesian, Maximum Likelihood and Maximum Parsimony (MP) analysis. Posterior Probabilities (PP), ML-and MP-Bootstraps are represented by the first, second and third numbers associated with internodes. Branches in bold indicate PP ≥ 95 %, and both ML and MP bootstrap values ≥ 70 %. Double lined branches indicate significant support obtained by two out of the three analyses. Scale = number of substitutions per site.
List of Sareomycetes examined in this study with information to their substrate, collection locality, voucher number and collection where the specimens are deposited.
Resinicolous fungi constitute a heterogeneous assemblage of fungi that live on fresh and solidified plant resins. The genus Sarea includes, according to current knowledge, two species, S. resinae and S. difformis . In contrast to other resinicolous discomycetes, which are placed in genera also including non-resinicolous species, Sarea species only ever fruit on resin. The taxonomic classification of Sarea has proven to be difficult and currently the genus, provisionally and based only on morphological features, has been assigned to the Trapeliales ( Lecanoromycetes ). In contrast, molecular studies have noted a possible affinity to the Leotiomycetes . Here we review the taxonomic placement of Sarea using sequence data from seven phylogenetically informative DNA regions including ribosomal (ITS, nucSSU, mtSSU, nucLSU) and protein-coding ( rpb1 , rpb2 , mcm7 ) regions. We combined available and new sequence data with sequences from major Pezizomycotina classes, especially Lecanoromycetes and Leotiomycetes , and assembled three different taxon samplings in order to place the genus Sarea within the Pezizomycotina . Based on our data, none of the applied phylogenetic approaches (Bayesian Inference, Maximum Likelihood and Maximum Parsimony) supported the placement of Sarea in the Trapeliales or any other order in the Lecanoromycetes . A placement of Sarea within the Leotiomycetes is similarly unsupported. Based on our data, Sarea forms an isolated and highly supported phylogenetic lineage within the " Leotiomyceta ". From the results of our multilocus phylogenetic analyses we propose here a new class, order, and family, Sareomycetes , Sareales and Sareaceae in the Ascomycota to accommodate the genus Sarea . The genetic variability within the newly proposed class suggests that it is a larger group that requires further infrageneric classification.
 
Phylogenetic analyses of 115 newly collected Helvella specimens from Spain using three genetic markers [heat shock protein 90 ( hsp ), RNA polymerase II second largest subunit ( rpb2 ) and the nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA (LSU)] confirm the assignment of the Spanish collections to one Dissingia and 30 Helvella species. The analyses were supplemented with an additional sample of 65 Spanish and extralimital Helvella specimens from the fungaria of Oslo (O), Trondheim (TRH), Copenhagen (C), Uppsala (UPS), Stockholm (S) and Venice (MCVE). Nine species are described as new, i.e. Helvella fuscolacunosa , H. hispanica , H. iberica , H. inexpectata , H. neopallescens , H. phlebophoroides , H. poculiformis , H. retinervis , and H. terricola . We present photographs of a selection of fresh specimens and provide descriptions of all species of this diverse South European Mediterranean element of the genera in Europe.
 
The North European species of Elaphomyces section Elaphomyces ( Eurotiales , Pezizomycotina ) are studied. Three new species, E. citrinopapillatus , E. pusillus , and E. roseoviolaceus are introduced and verified by morphology and sequence data from ITS, nuclear LSU, mitochondrial SSU, and β-tubulin. A lectotype for Elaphomyces granulatus is selected. Elaphomyces granulatus and E. muricatus are epitypified with sequenced material from the Femsjö region in South Sweden. Elaphomyces striatosporus is epitypified with sequenced material from the vicinity of the type locality in Norway. A key to all species of Elaphomyces occurring in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden is provided.
 
The Iodosphaeriaceae is represented by the single genus, Iodosphaeria , which is composed of nine species with superficial, black, globose ascomata covered with long, flexuous, brown hairs projecting from the ascomata in a stellate fashion, unitunicate asci with an amyloid apical ring or ring lacking and ellipsoidal, ellipsoidal-fusiform or allantoid, hyaline, aseptate ascospores. Members of Iodosphaeria are infrequently found worldwide as saprobes on various hosts and a wide range of substrates. Only three species have been sequenced and included in phylogenetic analyses, but the type species, I. phyllophila , lacks sequence data. In order to stabilize the placement of the genus and family, an epitype for the type species was designated after obtaining ITS sequence data and conducting maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses. Iodosphaeria foliicola occurring on overwintered Alnus sp. leaves is described as new. Five species in the genus form a well-supported monophyletic group, sister to the Pseudosporidesmiaceae in the Xylariales . Selenosporella-like and/or ceratosporium-like synasexual morphs were experimentally verified or found associated with ascomata of seven of the nine accepted species in the genus. Taxa included and excluded from Iodosphaeria are discussed.
 
Caliciopsis pleomorpha sp. nov. is described from a severe stem canker disease of cultivated Eucalyptus cladocalyx 'Nana' (dwarf sugar gum) in Australia. The fungus is a pleomorphic ascomycete (Coryneliales), with pycnidial (pleurophoma-like) and hyphomycetous (phaeoacremonium-like) morphs, and differs in these respects and in ITS sequences from other Caliciopsis spp. The fungus was also found associated with cankers on other Eucalyptus species growing in native habitats, and was successfully inoculated under glasshouse conditions into a wide range of Eucalyptus species on which it caused cankers of varying severity.
 
Coprophilous fungi are saprotrophic organisms that show great diversity, mainly on herbivore dung. The physico-chemical characteristics of this peculiar substrate combined with the high level of fungal adaptation to different environmental conditions offer the perfect setting for discovering new taxa. This study focused on the species diversity of penicillium-like fungi isolated mainly from herbivore dung collected at different Spanish locations. From 130 samples, a total of 104 isolates were obtained, and 48 species were identified. Preliminary identifications were based on morphology and partial β-tubulin ( tub2 ) gene sequences. Putative new taxa were characterized by a multi-gene sequencing analysis testing the tub2 , the internal transcribed spacer rDNA (ITS), calmodulin ( cmdA ), and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit ( rpb2 ) genes, and a detailed phenotypic study. Using this polyphasic approach and following the genealogical concordance phylogenetic species recognition (GCPSR) method, we propose the new genera Penicillago (for Penicillium nodositatum ) and Pseudopenicillium (for Penicillium megasporum and P. giganteum ) in the family Aspergillaceae, and 11 new species, including seven Penicillium , three Talaromyces and one Pseudopenicillium . A lectotype and epitype are designed for Penicillium nodositatum . Our results show that the species diversity of penicillium-like fungi on herbivore dung has not been widely studied and that this substrate seems to be a good reservoir of interesting Eurotialean fungi.
 
A fungal survey of the Gcwihaba Cave from Botswana found Aspergillus to be one of the more common fungal genera isolated. The 81 Aspergillus strains were identified using CaM sequences and comparing these to a curated reference dataset. Nineteen species were identified representing eight sections (sections Candidi , Circumdati , Flavi , Flavipedes , Nidulantes , Nigri , Terrei and Usti ). One strain could not be identified. Morphological characterisation and multigene phylogenetic analyses confirmed it as a new species in section Flavipedes and we introduce it below as A. okavangoensis . The new species is most similar to A. iizukae , both producing conidiophores with vesicles typically wider than 20 µm. The new species, however, does not produce Hülle cells and its colonies grow slower than those of A. iizukae on CYA at 37 °C (14–15 vs 18–21 mm) and CREA (15–16 vs 23–41mm).
 
Consensus phylogram (50 % majority rule) resulting from a Bayesian analysis of the combined LSU and rpb2 sequence data of Mycosphaerellaceae (reference sequences based on Videira et al. 2017). Bayesian Posterior probability (PP) values > 0.79, maximum likelihood branch support values (ML-BS) > 79 % and parsimony bootstrap support values (MP-BS) > 79 % are given at the nodes and thickened branches are fully supported (PP = 1.00 / ML-BS = 100 % / MP-BS = 100 %). The tree is rooted to Cylindroseptoria ceratoniae CBS 477.69. The tree is drawn to scale, with branch lengths measured in the expected changes per site. The family is indicated with a large coloured block and the two shades of blue represent the taxonomic novelty described here and the originally reported genus, respectively.
Pedrocrousiella pongamiae (AMH 10302 -epitype). A, B. Scanning Electron Micrograph of sporodochia on abaxial surface of leaves. C. Section through sporodochia showing conidiophores. D. Young ovoid detached conidium with truncate base. E, F. Mature obclavate conidia. Scale bars: A, B = 20 µm, C = 10 µm, D-F = 1 µm.
Pedrocrousiella pongamiae (AMH 10302 -epitype). A, B. Sporodochia. C, D. Conidiophores with cicatrised conidiogenous cells and attached conidia. E. Densely fasciculate conidiophores. F. Young broad, ellipsoid, aseptate conidium. G, H. Mature, obclavate, 1-2-septate conidia. I-K. Conidial variation. Scale bars = 10 µm.
Pedrocrousiella pongamiae (Syd., Fungi Exot. Exs. 441 -M). A. Section through a sporodochium. B. Fasciculate conidiophores. C. Apical part of conidiophores. D. Conidia. Scale bar = 10 µm. U. Braun del.
The leaf spot disease of Pongamia pinnata caused by an asperisporium-like asexual morph, which is usually referred to as Asperisporium pongamiae , is quite common during monsoon seasons in India. Phylogenetic analyses, based on LSU and rpb2 sequence data, and blast searches using ITS sequence data, revealed that this ascomycete forms a lineage within Mycosphaerellaceae distant from all other generic lineages. Pedrocrousiella gen. nov. , with P. pongamiae comb. nov. , based on Fusicladium pongamiae (≡ A. pongamiae ), as type species is introduced for this lineage. This species has been considered the asexual morph of Mycosphaerella pongamiae (≡ Stigmatea pongamiae ). However, this connection is unproven and was just based on the occasional association of the two taxa in some collections. Several attempts to induce the formation of a sexual morph in culture failed, therefore the putative connection between these morphs could not be confirmed. Asperisporium pongamiae-pinnatae is reduced to synonymy with P. pongamiae . Asperisporium pongamiae-pinnatae was introduced because of the wrong assumption that F. pongamiae had been described on another host, Pongamia globosa . But Fusicladium pongamiae was actually described in India on Pongamia glabra , which is a synonym of P. pinnata , and hence on the same host as Asperisporium pongamiae-pinnatae . Pedrocrousiella pongamiae clusters in a clade containing Distocercospora , Clypeosphaerella , and “ Pseudocercospora ” nephrolepidicola , a species which is not congeneric with Pseudocercospora . Phylogenetically, Pedrocrousiella is distant from the Asperisporium s. str. clade (type species A. caricae ), which is more closely related to Amycosphaerella , Pseudocercosporella , Distomycovellosiella and Nothopassalora .
 
Covering 70 % of Earth, oceans are at the same time the most common and the environment least studied by microbiologists. Considering the large gaps in our knowledge on the presence of marine fungi in the oceans, the aim of this research was to isolate and identify the culturable fungal community within three species of sponges, namely Dysidea fragilis, Pachymatisma johnstonia and Sycon ciliatum, collected in the Atlantic Ocean and never studied for their associated mycobiota. Applying different isolation methods, incubation temperatures and media, and attempting to mimic the marine and sponge environments, were fundamental to increase the number of cultivable taxa. Fungi were identified using a polyphasic approach, by means of morpho-physiological, molecular and phylogenetic techniques. The sponges revealed an astonishing fungal diversity represented by 87 fungal taxa. Each sponge hosted a specific fungal community with more than half of the associated fungi being exclusive of each invertebrate. Several species isolated and identified in this work, already known in terrestrial environment, were first reported in marine ecosystems (21 species) and in association with sponges (49 species), including the two new species Thelebolus balaustiformis and Thelebolus spongiae, demonstrating that oceans are an untapped source of biodiversity.
 
Three Australian species with sequestrate basidiome forms are recorded for the first time in the genus Lactifluus based on nuclear ITS-LSU and morphological data. These species represent three rare independent evolutionary events resulting in sequestrate basidiomes arising from agaricoid species in three different sections in two subgenera. All three species have highly reduced basidiome forms, and no species with intermediate forms have been found. Lactifluus dendriticus is unique in the genus in having highly branched, dendritic terminal elements in the pileipellis. We provide full descriptions of two species: Zelleromyces dendriticus (= Lactifluus dendriticus comb. nov. ) in Lactifluus subg. Lactifluus sect. Gerardii , and Lactifluus geoprofluens sp. nov. in Lf . subg. Lactifluus sect. Lactifluus . A reduced description is provided for the third, Lactifluus sp. prov. KV181 in Lf . subg. Pseudogymnocarpi sect. Pseudogymnocarpi , as it is currently known from a single sequence.
 
Wood-inhabiting fungi (WIF), such as polypores, are extremely species-rich and play vital roles in the functioning of forest ecosystems as decomposers. Despite the importance of polypores, our knowledge of the diversity and distribution of these fungi is still poor in general and especially for West Africa. To advance our knowledge we here summarise results from field collections between 2017 and 2021 and present (i) a taxonomic overview, (ii) phylogenetic placements and (iii) an illustrated catalogue of wood-inhabiting polypore fungi with colour pictures. During the field sampling campaigns, we collected 647 specimens. Based on morphological characteristics and molecular barcode data, 76 polypore species belonging to six orders, 15 families and 39 genera were identified. Of the 76 species, 30 are new to the West Africa, 69 new to Benin, and two new combinations Fuscoporia beninensis and Megasporia minuta are proposed. With this summary, we provide new data for further research.
 
Phylogenetic tree for species of Cantharellales including species of Tulasnella for the 28S gene, based on Bayesian inference analysis using MrBayes. The values above the branches are Bayesian posterior probabilities/maximum likelihood bootstrap values. Bootstrap values of ≥ 70 % and Bayesian posterior probabilities of ≥ 0.70 are shown with bootstrap values of 100 % and Bayesian posterior probability of 1.00 replaced by an asterisk (*). T indicates type specimens.
ITS sequences retrieved from GenBank or newly generated during this study.
(Continued).
The taxonomy of the genus Hormomyces , typified by Hormomyces aurantiacus, which based on circumstantial evidence was long assumed to be the hyphomycetous asexual morph of Tremella mesenterica ( Tremellales , Tremellomycetes ) or occasionally Dacrymyces ( Dacrymycetales , Dacrymycetes ), is revised. Phylogenies based on the three nuc rDNA markers [internal transcribed spacers (ITS), 28S large ribosomal subunit nrDNA (28S) and 18S small ribosomal subunit nrDNA (18S)], based on cultures from Canada and the United States, suggest that the genus is synonymous with Tulasnella ( Cantharellales , Agaricomycetes ) rather than Tremella or Dacrymyces . Morphological studies of 38 fungarium specimens of Hormomyces , including the type specimens of H. callorioides , H. fragiformis , H. paridiphilus and H. peniophorae and examination of the protologues of H. abieticola , H. aurantiacus and H. pezizoideus suggest that H. callorioides and H. fragiformis are conspecific with H. aurantiacus while the remaining species are unlikely to be related to Tulasnella . The conidial chains produced by H. aurantiacus are similar to monilioid cells of asexual morphs of Tulasnella species formerly referred to the genus Epulorhiza . The new combination Tulasnella aurantiaca is proposed and the species is redescribed, illustrated and compared with similar fungi. The ecological niche of T. aurantiaca and its possible relationship to orchid root endophytes is discussed. A key to asexual genera with similar conidium ontogeny to T. aurantiaca is provided.
 
This article re-evaluates the taxonomy of Hyphoderma macaronesicum based on various strategies, including the cohesion species recognition method through haplotype networks, multilocus genetic analyses using the genealogical concordance phylogenetic concept, as well as species tree reconstruction. The following loci were examined: the internal transcribed spacers of nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS nrDNA), the intergenic spacers of nuclear ribosomal DNA (IGS nrDNA), two fragments of the protein-coding RNA polymerase II subunit 2 (RPB2), and two fragments of the translation elongation factor 1-α (EF1-α). Our results indicate that the name H. macaronesicum includes at least two separate species, one of which is newly described as Hyphoderma paramacaronesicum. The two species are readily distinguished based on the various loci analysed, namely ITS, IGS, RPB2 and EF1-α.
 
Four new Hydnellum species are described. Hydnellum roseoviolaceum sp. nov. grows in dry pine heaths on acidic, sandy soil. It is close to H. fuligineoviolaceum , another pine-associated species, but differs by smaller spores, an initially rose-coloured instead of violet flesh in fresh basidiomata and a mild taste. Hydnellum scabrosellum sp. nov. grows in coniferous forests on calcareous soil. It shares a general morphology with H. scabrosum , which also is its closest relative. It differs by having smaller and slenderer basidiomata and by the yellowish ochraceous colour of flesh and spines in dried specimens compared to the whitish or reddish brown colour seen in H. scabrosum . Hydnellum fagiscabrosum sp. nov. is another species with morphological and phylogenetic affinities to H. scabrosum . However, it is associated with trees from Fagales whereas H. scabrosum is associated with Pinaceae . Hydnellum nemorosum sp. nov. is yet another species that associates with broadleaved trees. It seems to be a rare species, morphologically reminiscent of H. fuligineoviolaceum , H. ioeides and H. scabrosum , but it is phylogenetically close to H. fennicum . Sequences from the type specimens of H. glaucopus , H. lepidum , H. scabrosum , Sarcodon illudens and S. regalis are included in the analyses. Specimens given the provisional name “ Sarcodon pseudoglaucopus ” in Sweden are now shown to be referable to S. illudens . The analyses further showed that S. illudens is close to H. lepidum . The new combination Hydnellum illudens is proposed. Sarcodon regalis and H. lepidum are shown to be conspecific and, although their basionyms were simultaneously published, the name S. regalis was only validated in a later publication. Hydnellum lepidum therefore takes priority and S. regalis becomes a synonym.
 
A. A dead Leucaena leucocephala tree observed on Réunion. B. Staining of wood associated with insect tunnelling. C. Sap stain in the outer growth rings.
Three distinct colony morphologies in Raffaelea borbonica isolates. Cultures were grown at 25 °C for 12 d in the dark. A. CMW 51553. B. CMW 51724. C. CMW 51555. Scale bars: A-C = 1 cm.
Lesions associated with inoculation on Leucaena leucocephala and discoloration of the vascular plant tissue. A. Control using clean agar. B. Isolate CMW 51553. C. Isolate CMW 51724 (arrows in A, B and C indicate limits of lesions originating from the agar plug). D, F. Inoculated with isolate CMW 51724. E, G. A control inoculation.
Bar graph showing mean lesion lengths on inoculated Leucaena leucocephala trees. Based on the results of the ANOVA, both inoculated treatments (CMW 51553 and CMW 51724) were significantly different from the control as denoted by a and b. Inoculated treatments were not significantly different from one another as denoted by a. Protruding lines indicate standard deviation.
Morphological characteristics of Raffaelea borbonica (ex-type, CMW 51553 = PPRI 27953). A. Culture grown at 25 °C in the dark for 12 d and 120 d. B. Mycelial cluster formed in older culture. C-E. Conidiophores (arrows). F. Conidiogenous cells showing percurrent growth (arrows). G. Conidia. H, I. Early stage of budding conidium. J, K. Later stage of budding conidium. Scale bars: B = 100 µm, C, G = 10 µm, D, E = 5 µm, F, H-K = 2.5 µm.
Species of Raffaelea ( Ophiostomatales : Ascomycota ) are obligate symbionts of ambrosia beetles, some of which pose a substantial threat to forest trees. Leucaena leucocephala is a small mimosoid tree species that is considered as an invasive weed in most of its introduced range globally. During a field expedition on the French island of Réunion, dying L. leucocephala trees were observed. Samples were taken from these trees and isolations made from symptomatic wood tissues that included beetle tunnels, but in the absence of the beetles themselves. Multiple isolates of a fungus resembling a Raffaelea species were obtained from the discoloured wood associated with the beetle tunnels. To determine their identity, microscopic examination was performed and DNA sequences for three gene regions (ITS, LSU, TUB ) were obtained. Phylogenetic analyses based on these gene regions revealed that the isolates represent a new species of Raffaelea , described here as R. borbonica sp. nov. A pathogenicity test was conducted with the fungus, which was shown to cause lesions on the inoculated seedlings, but with a low level of aggressiveness.
 
The downy mildew species parasitic to Mentheae are of particular interest, as this tribe of Lamiaceae contains a variety of important medicinal plants and culinary herbs. Over the past two decades, two pathogens, Peronospora belbahrii and Pe. salviae-officinalis have spread globally, impacting basil and common sage production, respectively. In the original circumscription of Pe. belbahrii , the downy mildew of coleus ( Plectranthus scutellarioides ) was ascribed to this species in the broader sense, but subtle differences in morphological and molecular phylogenetic analyses using two genes suggested that this pathogen would potentially need to be assigned to a species of its own. In the present study, Peronospora species causing downy mildew on members of the Mentheae , including clary sage ( Salvia sclarea ), meadow sage ( S. pratensis ), basil ( Ocimum basilicum ), ground ivy ( Glechoma hederacea ) and coleus ( Plectranthus scutellarioides ) were studied using light microscopy and molecular phylogenetic analyses based on six loci (ITS rDNA, cox1 , cox2 , ef1a , hsp90 and β-tubulin ) to clarify the species boundaries in the Pe. belbahrii species complex. The downy mildew on Salvia pratensis is shown to be distinct from Pe. salviae-officinalis and closely related to Pe. glechomae , and is herein described as a new species, Pe. salviae-pratensis . The downy mildew on S. sclarea was found to be caused by Pe. salviae-officinalis . This is of phytopathological importance, because meadow sage thus does not play a role as inoculum source for common sage in the natural habitat of the former in Europe and Asia, while clary sage probably does. The multi-gene phylogeny revealed that the causal agent of downy mildew on coleus is distinct from Pe. belbahrii on basil, and is herein described as a new taxon, Pe. choii .
 
Blastacervulus metrosideri. A. Immature and mature spots on Metrosideros excelsa leaf. B. Detail of one of the mature spots, with several individual erumpent acervuli. C. Acervulus in vertical section. D. Leaf in vertical section with incipient acervulus, apart from the dark-walled cells of the acervulus, fungal tissue restricted to a single layer of hyaline cells beneath the cuticle. E. Conidiogenous cells. F. Conidiogenous cell and released conidia. A, B, E, F -PDD 116628; C, D -PDD 108694. Scale bars: A = 5 mm; B = 1 mm; C = 100 µm; D = 20 µm; E, F = 10 µm.
A leaf-spotting fungal pathogen common on Metrosideros excelsa in New Zealand is described here as Blastacervulus metrosideri sp. nov. It has previously been identified in the New Zealand literature as Leptomelanconium sp. and as Staninwardia breviuscula. The choice of genus for this new species is supported by a phylogeny based on ITS and LSU sequences. It is phylogenetically close to several morphologically similar Eucalyptus leaf spotting pathogens.
 
Maximum likelihood phylogram of the class Dacrymycetes, with bootstrap (bs) and posterior probabilities (pp) values indicated at species level or above. Thickened branches are considered well-supported (bs ≥ 75 % and pp ≥ 0.95), asterisks (*) denote full support (bs = 100 %, pp = 1.00), and other values are included only when bs ≥ 60 % and pp ≥ 0.9. Notation D1-D8 in Dacrymycetaceae follows Zamora & Ekman (2020) for convenience, and the new genus Dendrodacrys is highlighted. Samples with newly generated data are indicated in bold.
DNA sequences generated in this study, with GenBank accession numbers and voucher information.
A new genus named Dendrodacrys is proposed for a monophyletic group in Dacrymycetaceae , containing species with pulvinate to depressed basidiocarps, distinctly branched hymenial hyphidia, and up to 3-septate mature basidiospores. Four taxa in this group, occurring in Europe, are proposed as new species, viz. De. ciprense , De. concrescens , De. ellipsosporum , and De. oblongisporum , based both on morphological and DNA data (nrDNA, RPB1 , RPB2 , TEF-1α , 12S). These new species are all described in detail, illustrated, and compared with other published taxa that with which they can be confounded. The new combination De. paraphysatum is proposed after revising the type material of Dacrymyces paraphysatus , but other combinations or potentially new non-European species descriptions are postponed pending further studies of additional specimens.
 
Black foot disease is a common and destructive root disease of grapevine caused by a multitude of cylindrocarponlike fungi in many viticultural areas of the world. This study identified 12 cylindrocarpon-like fungal species across five genera associated with black foot disease of grapevine and other diverse root diseases of fruit and nut crops in the Central Valley Region of California. Morphological observations paired with multi-locus sequence typing of four loci, internal transcribed spacer region of nuclear rDNA ITS1–5.8S–ITS2 (ITS), beta-tubulin (TUB2), translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF1), and histone (HIS), revealed 10 previously described species; Campylocarpon fasciculare, Dactylonectria alcacerensis, D. ecuadoriensis, D. macrodidyma, D. novozelandica, D. torresensis, D. valentina, Ilyonectria capensis, I. liriodendri, I. robusta, and two new species, Neonectria californica sp. nov., and Thelonectria aurea sp. nov. Phylogenetic analyses of the ITS+TUB2+TEF1 combined dataset, a commonly employed dataset used to identify filamentous ascomycete fungi, was unable to assign some species, with significant support, in the genus Dactylonectria, while all other species in other genera were confidently identified. The HIS marker was essential either singly or in conjunction with the aforementioned genes for accurate identification of most Dactylonectria species. Results from isolations of diseased plant tissues revealed potential new host associations for almost all fungi recovered in this study. This work is the basis for future studies on the epidemiology and biology of these important and destructive plant pathogens.
 
During our investigation of Camellia sinensis diseases (2013-2018), a new leaf spot disease was found in seven provinces of China (Anhui, Fujian, Guangxi, Guizhou, Jiangxi, Tibet and Yunnan), occurring on both arboreal and terraced tea plants. The leaf spots were round to irregular, brown to dark brown, with grey or tangerine margins. Multi-locus (LSU, ITS, gapdh, tef-1α, tub2) phylogenetic analyses combined with morphological observations revealed four new species belonging to the genus Setophoma, i.e.S. antiqua, S. longinqua, S. yingyisheniae and S. yunnanensis. Of these four species, S. yingyisheniae was found to be present on diseased terraced tea plants in six of the seven sampled provinces (excluding Yunnan). The other three species only occurred on arboreal tea plants in Yunnan Province. In addition to the four species isolated from diseased leaves, S. endophytica sp. nov. was isolated from healthy leaves of terraced tea plants.
 
Six species of Entoloma ( Entolomataceae , Agaricales , Basidiomycota ) are described from recent Cameroonian collections: E. bisterigmatum , E. brunneoloaurantiacum , E. djaense , E. intricatum , E. versiforme , and E. parvistellatum . These species occur in tropical rainforests dominated by ectomycorrhizal trees in the genera Gilbertiodendron and Uapaca . Data on macromorphology, micromorphology, DNA sequences, habitat and comparisons with similar taxa are provided for each. This is the first contemporary taxonomic work on the Entolomataceae from Cameroon.
 
Paraphoma garibaldii (CBS 148459). A. Pycnidia with setae forming on PNA. B-D. Brown setae arising from outer pycnidial wall. E, F. Conidiogenous cells giving rise to conidia. G. Aseptate, guttulate conidia. Scale bars: A = 300 µm; All others = 10 µm.
Consensus phylogram of 1352 trees resulting from BI of the combined ITS, tub2 and tef1 datasets. Bayesian posterior probability values and bootstrap support values are indicated at the nodes. The tree was rooted with Setophoma terestris (CBS 335.29).
Leaf and stem spots are among the most important diseases compromising ornamental plants worldwide. In this study, Paraphoma garibaldii sp. nov. is described from leaf lesions on Campanula rapunculoides in Piedmont, Northern Italy. The new species was characterised using a polyphasic approach including morphological characterisation and a multilocus molecular phylogenetic analysis based on partial nucleotide sequences of the translation elongation factor 1-α ( tef1 ), the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) region and the β-tubulin ( tub2 ) markers. Pathogenicity tests and the fulfilment of Koch’s postulates confirm P. garibaldii as a novel foliar pathogen of Campanula rapunculoides . Presently, the fungal infection due to Paraphoma garibaldii is known from a single location in Italy, and further surveys are required to determine its distribution and relative importance.
 
Top-cited authors
Pedro W Crous
  • Westerdijk Fungal Biodiversity Institute
Angus Carnegie
  • New South Wales Department of Primary Industries
Alexander Akulov
  • V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University
Margarita Hernández-Restrepo
  • Westerdijk Fungal Biodiversity Institute
Uwe Braun
  • Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg