Understanding participant demographic characteristics that inform the optimal design of obesity RCTs have been examined in few studies. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of individual participant characteristics and dropout rates (DORs) in obesity randomized controlled trials (RCT) by pooling data from several publicly available datasets for analyses. We comprehensively characterize DORs and patterns in obesity RCTs at the individual study level, and describe how such rates and patterns vary as a function of individual-level characteristics.
We obtained and analyzed nine publicly-available, obesity RCT datasets that examined weight loss or weight gain prevention as a primary or secondary endpoint. Four risk factors for dropout were examined by Cox proportional hazards including sex, age, baseline BMI, and race/ethnicity. The individual study data were pooled in the final analyses with a random effect for study, and HR and 95% CIs were computed.
Results of the multivariate analysis indicated that the risk of dropout was significantly higher for females compared to males (HR= 1.24, 95% CI = 1.05, 1.46). Hispanics and Non-Hispanic blacks had a significantly higher dropout rate compared to non-Hispanic whites (HR= 1.62, 95% CI = 1.37, 1.91; HR= 1.22, 95% CI = 1.11, 1.35, respectively). There was a significantly increased risk of dropout associated with advancing age (HR= 1.02, 95% CI = 1.01, 1.02) and increasing BMI (HR= 1.03, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.04).
As more studies may focus on special populations, researchers designing obesity RCTs may wish to oversample in certain demographic groups if attempting to match comparison groups based on generalized estimates of expected dropout rates, or otherwise adjust a priori power estimates. Understanding true reasons for dropout may require additional methods of data gathering not generally employed in obesity RCTs, e.g. time on treatment.
This paper details the design, evaluation, and implementation of a framework for detecting and modeling nonlinearity between a binary outcome and a continuous predictor variable adjusted for covariates in complex samples. The framework provides familiar-looking parameterizations of output in terms of linear slope coefficients and odds ratios. Estimation methods focus on maximum likelihood optimization of piecewise linear free-knot splines formulated as B-splines. Correctly specifying the optimal number and positions of the knots improves the model, but is marked by computational intensity and numerical instability. Our inference methods utilize both parametric and nonparametric bootstrapping. Unlike other nonlinear modeling packages, this framework is designed to incorporate multistage survey sample designs common to nationally representative datasets. We illustrate the approach and evaluate its performance in specifying the correct number of knots under various conditions with an example using body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)) and the complex multi-stage sampling design from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to simulate binary mortality outcomes data having realistic nonlinear sample-weighted risk associations with BMI. BMI and mortality data provide a particularly apt example and area of application since BMI is commonly recorded in large health surveys with complex designs, often categorized for modeling, and nonlinearly related to mortality. When complex sample design considerations were ignored, our method was generally similar to or more accurate than two common model selection procedures, Schwarz's Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) and Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC), in terms of correctly selecting the correct number of knots. Our approach provided accurate knot selections when complex sampling weights were incorporated, while AIC and BIC were not effective under these conditions.
Increasing numbers of researchers are investigating the benefits of probiotics in enhancing exercise performance and verifying the role of the gut–muscle axis. In our previous study, Lactobacillus plantarum PL-02 improved exercise performance and muscle mass. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether supplementation with PL-02 combined with resistance training has a synergistic effect on exercise performance and muscle mass. All the animals were assigned into four groups (n = 8/group): a sedentary control with normal distilled water group (vehicle, n = 8); PL-02 supplementation group (PL-02, 2.05 × 109 CFU, n = 8); resistance training group (RT, n = 8); PL-02 supplementation combined with resistance training group (PL-02 + RT, 2.05 × 109 CFU, n = 8). Supplementation with PL-02 for four consecutive weeks combined with resistance exercise training significantly improved the grip strength and the maximum number of crawls; increased the time of exhaustive exercise; significantly reduced the time required for a single climb; and reduced the lactate, blood ammonia, creatine kinase, and blood urea nitrogen produced after exercise (p < 0.05). In addition, it produced substantial benefits for increasing muscle mass without causing any physical damage. In summary, our findings confirmed that PL-02 or RT supplementation alone is effective in improving muscle mass and exercise performance and in reducing exercise fatigue, but the combination of the two can achieve increased benefits.
Pb poisoning affects infant growth and development. However, dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) as the current therapy for Pb poisoning exerts relatively significant toxic side effects in infants. Therefore, identifying a non-toxic treatment in this regard is particularly important. In this study, we aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of an infant feces-derived probiotic strain, Lactobacillus casei SYF-08 (SYF-08), on Pb poisoning in young mice. The Pb levels in the organisms were detected via inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, while the therapeutic effect of SYF-08 on Pb-induced neural system damage was explored via the Morris water maze test, hematoxylin-eosin staining, and immunohistochemistry. Additionally, the molecular mechanisms underlying the protective effects of SYF-08 against Pb-induced intestinal damage were also explored via histological staining, 16S rRNA sequencing, untargeted metabolomics, qRT-PCR, and western blotting. In vivo experiments revealed that SYF-08 reduced blood and bone Pb levels and increased urinary Pb excretion. Additionally, SYF-08 alleviated Pb-induced pathological damage to the brain and ultimately improved the learning and cognitive abilities of the young mice. This treatment also restored intestinal microflora dysbiosis, regulated bile acid metabolism, and inhibited the FXR-NLRP3 signaling pathway. It also resulted in fewer adverse events than the DMSA treatment. In conclusion, our results provided valuable insights into the therapeutic role of SYF-08 in Pb poisoning and also suggested that its administration can significantly alleviate the Pb-induced damage.
This focused ethnographic study used qualitative, ethnographic, and participatory methods to explore determinants of maternal, infant, and young child nutrition (MIYCN) during the first 1,000 days of life as part of efforts to address the double burden of malnutrition in Solomon Islands.
An iterative study design was used to first explore and then confirm findings related to food and nutrition security and social and behavioral determinants of MIYCN in urban and rural settings. The first phase included in-depth interviews, household observations, free lists, and seasonal food availability calendar workshops while the second phase included focus group discussions, pile sorts, participatory community workshops, and repeated household observations.
Results and discussion
We found that MIYCN is shaped by a complex interaction of factors at the macro- and micro-levels. At the macro-level, globalization of the food system, a shifting economy, and climate change are driving a shift toward a delocalized food system based on imported processed foods. This shift has contributed to a food environment that leaves Solomon Islanders vulnerable to food and nutrition insecurity, which we found to be the primary determinant of MIYCN in this context. At the micro-level, this food environment leads to household- and individual-level food decisions that often do not support adequate MIYCN. Multi-sectoral interventions that address the macro- and micro-level factors shaping this nutrition situation may help to improve MIYCN in Solomon Islands.
Colon cancer (CC) is a multistage disease and one of the most common cancers worldwide. Establishing an effective treatment strategies of early colon cancer is of great significance for preventing its development and reducing mortality. The occurrence of colon cancer is closely related to changes in the intestinal flora structure. Therefore, remodelling the intestinal flora structure through prebiotics is a powerful approach for preventing and treating the occurrence and development of colon cancer. Isomaltooligosaccharides (IMOs) are often found in fermented foods and can directly reach the gut for use by microorganisms. In this study, a rat model of early colon cancer (DMH) was established by subcutaneous injection of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, and the model rats were fed IMOs as a dietary intervention (DI). The untargeted faecal metabolomics, gut metabolome and intestinal function of the model rats were investigated. The results showed that DMH, DI and IMOs alone (IMOs) groups exhibited gut microbial community changes. In the DI group, there was an increased abundance of probiotics (Lactobacillus) and decreased abundance of CC marker bacteria (Fusobacterium). The key variations in the faecal metabolites of the DI group included decreased levels of glucose, bile acids (including deoxycholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid) and amino acids (including L-glutamic acid and L-alanine). In addition, dietary intake of IMOs attenuated the intestinal inflammatory response, improved the intestinal microecological environment, and slowed the development of DMH-induced early CC in rats. This work provides a theoretical basis and technical support for the clinical prevention or treatment of CC with prebiotics.
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) enrich beneficial bifidobacteria in the infant gut microbiome which produce molecules that impact development and physiology. 2′fucosyllactose (2′FL) is a highly abundant fucosylated HMO which is utilized by Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis, despite limited scientific understanding of the underlying mechanism. Moreover, there is not a current consensus on whether free fucose could be metabolized when not incorporated in a larger oligosaccharide structure. Based on metabolic and genomic analyses, we hypothesize that B. infantis catabolizes both free fucose and fucosyl oligosaccharide residues to produce 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PD). Accordingly, systems-level approaches including transcriptomics and proteomics support this metabolic path. Co-fermentation of fucose and limiting lactose or glucose was found to promote significantly higher biomass and 1,2-PD concentrations than individual substrates, suggesting a synergistic effect. In addition, and during growth on 2′FL, B. infantis achieves significantly higher biomass corresponding to increased 1,2-PD. These findings support a singular fucose catabolic pathway in B. infantis that is active on both free and HMO-derived fucose and intimately linked with central metabolism. The impact of fucose and 2′FL metabolism on B. infantis physiology provides insight into the role of fucosylated HMOs in influencing host- and microbe-microbe interactions within the infant gut microbiome.
In this contribution we investigate the thermal degradation of dietary-relevant pentapeptides. Most unsaturated lipids degrade by the well-known peroxidation mechanism. Here we show a degradation mechanism of peptides analogous to lipid peroxidation, forming a series of novel degradation products with possible toxicological relevance. At elevated temperatures above 180°C, pentapeptides with an N-terminal phenylalanine moiety react via a debenzylation to form 1,2-dicabonyl compounds, replacing the N-terminal primary amine. We propose a radical-based reaction mechanism that leads via a common peroxoaminal intermediate to two distinct types of reaction products with a terminal α-1,2 diamide or an α-amide-aldehyde functionality.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and diabetes mellitus (DM) are two major diseases threatening human health. The susceptibility of DM patients to COVID-19 and their worse outcomes have forced us to explore efficient routes to combat COVID-19/DM. As the most active form of Vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH) 2 D) has been shown a beneficial effect in the treatment of COVID-19/DM. However, the anti-COVID-19/DM mechanisms of 1,25(OH) 2 D remain unclear. In this study, an approach combining network pharmacology and molecular docking was performed to reveal the potential hub target genes and underlying mechanisms of 1,25(OH) 2 D in the treatment of COVID-19/DM. The hub targets and interaction pathways related to 1,25(OH) 2 D were identified by integrating the key 1,25(OH) 2 D-target-signaling pathway-COVID-19/DM networks. Fifteen hub targets of 1,25(OH) 2 D against COVID-19DM were determined, including EGFR, PIK3R1, PIK3CA, STAT3, MAPK1, ESR1, HSP90AA1, LCK, MTOR, IGF1, AR, NFKB1, PIK3CB, PTPN1, and MAPK14. An enrichment analysis of the hub targets further revealed that the effect of 1,25(OH) 2 D against COVID-19/DM involved multiple biological processes, cellular components, molecular functions and biological signaling pathways. Molecular docking disclosed that 1,25(OH) 2 D docked nicely with the hub target proteins, including EGFR, PIK3R1, and PIK3CA. These findings suggested that the potential mechanisms of 1,25(OH) 2 D against COVID-19/DM may be related to multiple biological targets and biological signaling pathways.
Proteins and minerals in infant formula not only serve as nutrients, but also have important effects on the physical and chemical stability of emulsions. In this study, calcium carbonate (0 or 9.08 mM) and potassium chloride (0 or 15.96 mM), as representatives of divalent and monovalent minerals, were added to 1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoylglycerol (OPO) emulsions in different ratios (10:0, 9:1, 6:4, 5:5, and 0:10) of whey protein isolate (WPI) and sodium caseinate (CN). The influence of proteins and minerals on emulsion stability was investigated by analyzing particle size, zeta potential, creaming index, rheological properties, storage stability, and lipid oxidation. 1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoylglycerol (OPO) emulsions could be destabilized by adding Ca2+, as shown by the increase in particle size index, creaming index, and the decrease in zeta potential magnitude. Divalent ions could affect the electrostatic interactions between lipid droplets and the interactive effects of ion surface adsorption. In addition, the effect of different protein ratios on the physical stability of emulsions was not significant under the same ion-type conditions. In terms of chemical stability, higher oxidized values were found in emulsions stabilized with only CN than in those containing WPI. Our study showed that protein ratios and minerals played an important role in the stability of OPO emulsions, which might provide a reference for the development and utilization of liquid infant formula.
Hand grip strength (HGS) is a fast, useful, and inexpensive outcome predictor of nutritional status and muscular function assessment. Numerous demographic and anthropometric factors were reported to be associated with HGS, while which one or several factors produce greater variations in HGS has not been discussed in detail. This is important for answering how should HGS be normalized for eliminating the influence of individual differences in clinical practice.AimsTo compare the contribution of age, sex, height, weight, and forearm circumference (FCF) to variations in HGS based on a large-scale sample.Methods
We enrolled 1,511 healthy undergraduate students aged 18–23 years. Age, weight, height, and sex were obtained. HGS was measured using a digital hand dynamometer, and FCF was measured at the point of greatest circumference using a soft ruler in both hands. Pearson’s or Spearman’s correlation coefficients were calculated with data of women and men separated and mixed for comparison. Partial correlation analysis and multivariate linear regression were used to compare the effect of variables on HGS.ResultsAnalysis results confirmed the correlates of higher HGS include higher height, heavier weight, being men and dominant hand, and larger FCF. The correlation between HGS and FCF was the highest, and the bivariate correlation coefficient between weight and HGS was largerata of women and men were mixed, than that between height and HGS. When data of women and men were mixed, there were moderate correlations between HGS and height and weight (r = 0.633∼0.682). However, when data were separated, there were weak correlations (r = 0.246∼0.391). Notably, partial correlation analysis revealed no significant correlation between height and HGS after eliminating the weight effect, while the correlation between weight and HGS was still significant after eliminating the height effect. Multivariate linear regression analyses revealed sex was the most significant contributor to the variation in HGS (Beta = –0.541 and –0.527), followed by weight (Beta = 0.243 and 0.261) and height (Beta = 0.102 and 0.103).ConclusionHGS and FCF reference values of healthy college students were provided. Weight was more correlate with hand grip strength, at least among the healthy undergraduates.Clinical trial registrationhttp://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=165914, identifier ChiCTR2200058586.
Lychee pulp phenolics (LPP) is mainly catabolized in the host colon, increasing the abundances of Bacteroides and Lactobacillus. Herein, five selected gut microbial strains (Bacteroides uniformis, B. thetaiotaomicron, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, L. plantarum, and L. acidophilus) were separately incubated with LPP to ascertain the specific strains participating in phenolic metabolism and the corresponding metabolites. The results indicated that B. uniformis, L. rhamnosus, and L. plantarum were involved in LPP utilization, contributing to 52.37, 28.33, and 45.11% of LPP degradation after 48 h fermentation, respectively. Unprecedentedly, the metabolic pathway of the major phenolic compound quercetin-3-O-rutinose-7-O-α-L-rhamnoside by L. plantarum, appeared to be the direct fission of C-ring at C2–O1 and C3–C4 bonds, which was proved from the occurrence of two substances with the deprotonated molecule [M–H]− ion at m/z 299 and 459, respectively. Meanwhile, it was fully confirmed that B. uniformis participated in the catabolism of isorhamnetin glycoside and procyanidin B2. In the B. uniformis culture, kaempferol was synthesized through dehydroxylation of quercetin which could be catabolized into alphitonin by L. rhamnosus. Furthermore, LPP metabolites exerted higher antioxidant activity than their precursors and gave clues to understand the interindividual differences for phenolic metabolism by gut microbiota.
In March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) published clinical guidance for the care of newborns of mothers with COVID-19. Weighing the available evidence on SARS-CoV-2 infection against the well-established harms of maternal-infant separation, the WHO recommended maternal-infant proximity and breastfeeding even in the presence of maternal infection. Since then, the WHO’s approach has been validated by further research. However, early in the pandemic there was poor global alignment with the WHO recommendations.
We assessed guidance documents collected in November and December 2020 from 101 countries and two regional agencies on the care of newborns of mothers with COVID-19 for alignment with the WHO recommendations. Recommendations considered were: (1) skin-to-skin contact; (2) early initiation of breastfeeding; (3) rooming-in; (4) direct breastfeeding; (5) provision of expressed breastmilk; (6) provision of donor human milk; (7) wet nursing; (8) provision of breastmilk substitutes; (9) relactation; (10) psychological support for separated mothers; and (11) psychological support for separated infants.
In less than one-quarter of country guidance were the three key breastfeeding facilitation practices of skin-to-skin contact, rooming-in, and direct breastfeeding recommended. Donor human milk was recommended in under one-quarter of guidance. Psychological support for mothers separated from their infants was recommended in 38%. Few countries recommended relactation, wet nursing, or psychological support for infants separated from mothers. In three-quarters of country guidance, expressed breastmilk for infants unable to directly breastfeed was recommended. The WHO and the United Kingdom’s Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists were each cited by half of country guidance documents with the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention directly or indirectly cited by 40%.
Despite the WHO recommendations, many COVID-19 maternal and newborn care guidelines failed to recommend skin-to-skin contact, rooming-in, and breastfeeding as the standard of care. Irregular guidance updates and the discordant, but influential, guidance from the United States Centers for Disease Control may have been contributory. It appeared that once recommendations were made for separation or against breastfeeding they were difficult to reverse. In the absence of quality evidence on necessity, recommendations against breastfeeding should not be made in disease epidemics.
Adherence to the diabetes risk reduction diet (DRRD) may potentially reduce the risk of developing head and neck cancer (HNC) as the diet includes fruits and limits red and processed meats, known risk factors for HNC. However, there is currently no epidemiological research to investigate this potential association.
The present study utilized data on demographics, lifestyles, medications, and diets of participants from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial to explore the potential association between adherence to DRRD and the risk of HNC. We used a DRRD score to evaluate adherence to the dietary pattern and employed Cox regression analysis to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for HNC risk. Several subgroup analyses were carried out to identify potential effect modifiers, and multiple sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate the stability of the correlation. The nine components of the DRRD was assessed separately for its association with the risk of HNC.
During a mean follow up of 8.84 years, 279 cases of HNC were observed. DDRD score was found to be inversely associated with the risk of HNC (HR Q4 vs. Q1: 0.582; 95% CI: 0.396, 0.856; p = 0.005 for trend) in a linear dose–response manner (p = 0.211 for non-linearity). Subgroup analysis indicated this inverse correlation was more pronounced among participants who had never smoked (HRQ4 vs. Q1: 0.193; 95% CI: 0.073, 0.511; p < 0.001 for trend) compared to current or former smokers (p = 0.044 for interaction). The primary association of DDRD and HNC risk remained robust after several sensitivity analyses. Regarding the individual components of DRRD, an inverse association was also observed between the risk of HNC and increased intake of cereal fiber and whole fruit (all p < 0.05 for trend).
Our findings provide evidence that following the DRRD pattern may reduce the risk of NHC, especially for non-smokers.
A multi-residue method has been developed for the identification and quantification of 103 common veterinary drug residues in milk and dairy Products. This method was based on QuEChERS with dispersive solid-phase where C18 sorbent and anhydrous sodium sulfate were used to sample purification. After evaporation and reconstitution, the samples were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The mean recovery results were all higher than 60% except ampicillin, pipemidic acid, enoxacin, and estriol, and the relative standard deviation was <20.0%. The limit of quantification ranged between 0.1 and 5 μg/kg for milk and between 0.5 and 25 μg/kg for milk powder. It was successfully used to detect residues of veterinary drug in real samples. This study proposes a simple and fast analytical method for monitoring multi-class veterinary drug residues to ensure food safety.
The effect of the novel IQP-AE-103 (proprietary combination of dehydrated okra powder and inulin) on body weight reduction and the association with changes in microbiota composition were investigated in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. A total of seventy-two overweight or moderately obese subjects with a body mass index of ≥25 and <35 kg/m2 were randomly allocated to receive IQP-AE-103 or placebo; each group received two IQP-AE-103 or placebo capsules three times daily, respectively. Body weight, body fat, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured, and fecal samples were collected at baseline and after 12 weeks of intervention. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing on the fecal samples, the microbiota dissimilarity, diversity, and differences in relative abundance between or within groups were analyzed. At the end of the study, body weight was significantly reduced in the IQP-AE-103 group compared with the placebo group, 5.16 ± 2.39 kg vs. 0.97 ± 2.09 kg (p < 0.001). Subjects from the IQP-AE-103 group who achieved a reduction of ≥5% of total body weight from baseline (hereafter referred to as 5% responders or IQP5) had a mean body weight reduction of 6.74 ± 1.94 kg, significantly greater than the placebo group (p < 0.001). Using Lefse and statistical analysis, subjects in the IQP-AE-103 group had a significantly lower relative abundance of Firmicutes than the placebo group (p < 0.05) after 12 weeks of intervention. The 5% responders from the IQP-AE-103 group had a remarkable 4.6-fold higher relative abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila than the placebo group (p < 0.05). As the significant differences between groups were only observed post-intervention, the overall differences in microbiota profile suggest that the weight loss in overweight and moderately obese subjects who consumed IQP-AE-103 for 12 weeks is accompanied by a positive change in microbiota composition. These changes might be linked to the beneficial effects of microbiome modulations in alleviating obesity and metabolic syndrome. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to report over-the-counter (OTC) supplementation that results in both significant changes in weight and favorable shifts on the subject microbiota profile. The trial is registered under ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier no. NCT03058367.
Malnutrition is a complex clinical syndrome, the exact mechanism of which is yet not fully understood. Studies have found that malnutrition is associated with anorexia and inadequate intake, tumor depletion, leptin, tumor-induced metabolic abnormalities in the body, and catabolic factors produced by the tumor in the circulation and cytokines produced by the host immune system. Among these, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are present in the gene encoding the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α.
The objective of this study was to investigate TNF-α -1,031 T/C gene polymorphism as an unfavorable predictor of malnutrition in patients with gastric cancer.
The study group consisted of 220 gastric cancer patients treated at Affiliated Jinhua Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine. Malnutrition was mainly assessed by the Global Consensus on Malnutrition Diagnostic Criteria (GLIM). DNA was extracted from peripheral leukocytes of whole blood samples using an animal DNA extraction kit. DNA was amplified using a 1.1× T3 Super PCR mixture and genotyped using SNP1 software.
There are three major genetic polymorphisms in TNF-α. Among the 220 patients with gastric cancer, there were 7 patients with the CC genotype, 61 with the CT genotype and 152 with the TT genotype. Compared to patients with the TT genotype, patients with the C allele had an approximately 2.5-fold higher risk of developing malnutrition ( p = 0.003; OR = 0.406). On the basis of multivariate analysis, patients with the CC genotype had an approximately 20.1-fold higher risk of developing malnutrition ( p = 0.013; OR = 20.114), while those with the CT genotype had an almost 3.7-fold higher risk of malnutrition ( p = 0.002; OR = 3.218).
SNP (−1,031 T/C) of the TNF-α may be a useful marker in the assessment of the risk of nutritional deficiencies in gastric cancer patients. Patients with gastric cancer carrying the C allele should be supported by early nutritional intervention, but more research is still needed to explore confirmation.
Insects are a potential alternative protein source to solve the food shortage crisis. Previous studies have illustrated that probiotics can improve the substrate conversion efficiency of insects and increase insect protein content. However, the effects of probiotics on insect physiology and nutrient metabolism are still not well understood. Here, the black soldier fly larvae (BSFL), Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), was used as a study subject to deeply investigate the specific interaction among a novel probiotic, Bacillus velezensis EEAM 10B (10B), intestinal microbiota, and the host. In this study, the effects of 10B on the survival and physiology of BSFL were first analyzed. It shows that 10B significantly elevated the substrate conversion rate, average dry weight, and protein content of BSFL by 5%, 0.13 g/pc, and 8%, respectively. Then, we assessed the effect of 10B on the microbial community composition in the gut and frass of BSFL using Illumina Miseq sequencing. It shows that 10B significantly altered the microbial composition of the gut, but not that of the frass. Pearson’s correlation analysis further showed that the Bacillus, unclassified_of_Caloramatoraceae, and Gracilibacillus were positively correlated with the survival rate, crude protein content, and substrate conversion rate of BSFL. To further investigate the effect of 10B on host metabolism, metabolic analyses on germ-free BSFL, monobacterial intestinal BSFL, and natural BSFL were also performed. The results proved that 10B (i) played a vital role in the survival of BSFL; and (ii) regulated the amino acid synthetic and metabolic process of BSFL, thus leading to the rise of the protein content of BSFL. In addition, vitamin backfill assays verified that the BSFL survival rate was significantly improved by supplying the germ-free BSFL with riboflavin, which further suggests that 10B determines the survival of BSFL via delivering riboflavin. Overall, this study provides a reference for understanding the comprehensive contribution of a specific probiotic to its host.
Vegetable oils rich in unsaturated fatty acids are assumed to be safe and even healthy for consumers though lipid compositions of foods vary naturally and are complex considering the wealth of minor compounds down to the trace level.
The developed comprehensive high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC×HPTLC) method including the on-surface metabolization (nanoGIT) and bioassay detection combined all steps on the same planar surface. The pancreatic lipolysis (intestinal phase) experiment and the subsequent analysis of the fatty acid composition including its effect-directed detection using a planar bioassay was performed without elaborate sample preparation or fractionation to ensure sample integrity. Thus, no sample part was lost, and the whole sample was studied on a single surface regarding all aspects. This made the methodology as well as technology miniaturized, lean, all-in-one, and very sustainable.
Results and discussion
To prioritize important active compounds including their metabolism products in the complex oil samples, the nanoGIT method was used to examine the pancreatic lipolysis of nine different vegetable oils commonly used in the kitchen and food industry, e.g., canola oil, flaxseed oil, hemp oil, walnut oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil, olive oil, coconut oil, and palm oil. The digested oils revealed antibacterial and genotoxic effects, which were assigned to fatty acids and oxidized species via high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (HRMS/MS). This finding reinforces the importance of adding powerful techniques to current analytical tools. The 10D hyphenated nanoGIT-HPTLC×HPTLC-Vis/FLD-bioassay-heart cut-RP-HPLC-DAD-HESI-HRMS/MS has the potential to detect any potential hazard due to digestion/metabolism, improving food safety and understanding on the impact of complex samples.
The interchangeable use of different herbs to prepare the same formulation is a common practice in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). However, this practice would require the component herbs to share similar compositions, at least in terms of the bioactive agents, to ensure they can replace each other in drug preparation. In this study, we developed an effective and comprehensive high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method for simultaneous analysis of 11 phenolic compounds in the methanol extracts of Dendrobium huoshanense, Dendrobium nobile (D. nobile), Dendrobium chrysotoxum (D. chrysotoxum), and Dendrobium fimbriatum (D. fimbriatum), which have been identified as interchangeable ingredients for the same TCM preparation “Shihu” in the Chinese pharmacopeia (ChP). The consistency of the four Dendrobium species was evaluated on the basis of the presence of the 11 investigated compounds and the HPLC fingerprints of the methanol extracts of the plants. When gradient elution was performed with a solvent system of acetonitrile and water on a Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C18 (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) with monitoring at 220 nm, all 11 investigated compounds were isolated at the baseline. The established HPLC method showed excellent linearity (all analytical curves showed relative coefficients [R2] > 0.999), sensitivity, precision (relative standard deviation [RSD] < 2%), and accuracy (recovery, 90.65–99.17%). These findings confirmed that the method we constructed was reliable. Quantification analysis showed significant differences in the contents of the investigated polyphenols in the four Dendrobium species. Evaluations of consistency revealed that the similarities among the four species were 0.299–0.906 in assessments based on the 11 polyphenols and 0.685–0.968 in assessments based on HPLC fingerprints. Thus, the components of the four Dendrobium species may be significantly different, and more experiments are required to determine whether they can be used interchangeably in the same amounts for preparing the formulation according to ChP.
This study aimed to evaluate maternal serum levels of folate, vitamin B12, and their ratio on admission for labor and determine whether an imbalance between folate and vitamin B12, represented by a higher or lower serum folate to vitamin B12 ratio (SFVB12R), was associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes.
A retrospective cohort study of 11,549 pregnant women attending a district specialized hospital and who had serum folate (SF) and serum vitamin B12 (SVB12) levels measured at delivery was performed. The levels of SF, SVB12, and SFVB12R were defined as high (>95th percentile), normal (5–95th percentile), and low (<5th percentile). Information on pregnancy outcomes was retrieved from medical records. Linear regression was performed to examine the association of abnormal SF, SVB12, and SFVB12R levels with fetal growth indicators. Logistic regression was applied to estimate the association between abnormal SF, SVB12, and SFVB12R levels and pregnancy outcomes.
Lower SF levels were associated with higher risks of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP, OR 1.58; 95% CI 1.15–2.17), pre-eclampsia (PE, OR 1.89; 95% CI 1.28–2.81), and a lower risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, OR 0.40; 95% CI 0.23–0.70), whereas higher SVB12 levels were associated with a higher risk of ICP (OR 2.22; 95% CI 1.67–2.96), PE (OR 1.69; 95% CI 1.04-2.74), and GDM (OR 1.62; 95% CI 1.24–2.11). A higher SFVB12R increased birthweight (β 60.99; 95% CI 29.52–92.45) and was associated with a higher risk of large-for-gestational-age (LGA) newborns (OR 3.08; 95% CI 1.63–5.83); a lower SFVB12R decreased birthweight (β −43.81; 95% CI −75.62, −12.00) and was associated with a lower risk of LGA newborns (OR 0.75; 95% CI 0.56–1.00), and with higher risks of ICP (OR 2.03; 95% CI 1.54–2.67) and pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH, OR 1.81; 95% CI 1.09–3.00).
An imbalance between folate and vitamin B12, represented by a higher or lower SFVB12R before delivery, was significantly associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes (ICP/PIH/LGA).
Carbohydrate-restricted diets are one of the most effective dietary interventions for weight loss. However, the optimum carbohydrate intake for implementing the most effective weight-loss interventions is still being discussed. We aimed to determine the optimum carbohydrate intake for short- and long-term weight loss in adults with overweight and obesity.
We searched PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and CENTRAL from inception to May 2021 for randomized controlled trials examining the effect of a carbohydrate-restricted diet (≤45% of energy intake) as compared to a control diet (carbohydrate intake >45% of energy intake) on body weight in adults with overweight/obesity. A random-effects dose–response meta-analysis was conducted to calculate the mean difference for each 10% decrease in carbohydrate intake at the 6-month follow-up (1 to 6 months), 12-month follow-up (6 to 12 months), and follow-up longer than 12 months. The shape of the dose-dependent effects was also evaluated. The certainty of the evidence was rated using the GRADE approach. The minimal clinically important difference (MCID) threshold was defined as 5% weight loss (equal to 4.39 kg).
A total of 110 trials were selected for the present meta-analysis. In the linear dose–response meta-analysis, each 10% decrease in carbohydrate intake reduced body weight by 0.64 kg (95% CI: −0.79 to −0.49; n = 101 trials with 4,135 participants, high-certainty evidence) at the 6-month follow-up and by 1.15 kg (95% CI: −1.61 to −0.69; 42 trials with 2,657 participants, moderate-certainty evidence) at the 12-month follow-up. Non-linear dose–response meta-analyses indicated a monotonic reduction in body weight with the decrease in carbohydrate intake, with the greatest reduction at 5% at the 6-month follow-up (mean difference 5%: −3.96 kg, 95% CI: −4.92 to −3.00) and 10% at the 12-month follow-up (mean difference 10%: −6.26 kg, 95% CI: −10.42 to −2.10). At follow-up longer than 12 months, dose–response analyses suggested a non-linear effect, wherein carbohydrate intakes higher than 40% and lower than 30% were not effective for weight loss.
Carbohydrate restriction is an effective dietary strategy for important weight loss in adults with overweight and obesity. At 6-month and 12-month follow-ups, body weight decreased proportionally, more than the MCID threshold, along with the decrease in carbohydrate intake. At follow-up longer than 12 months, there was a non-linear effect, with the greatest reduction at 30% carbohydrate intake.
Systematic review registration
https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/ , identifier CRD42022315042.
Hyperuricemia is the main cause of gout and involved in the occurrence of multiple diseases, such as hypertension, metabolic disorders and chronic kidney disease. Emerging evidence suggests that lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have shown the beneficial effects on the prevention or treatment of hyperuricemia. In this study, the urate-lowering effect of two LAB strains, Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus 1155 (LR1155) and Limosilactobacillus fermentum 2644 (LF2644) on hyperuricemic rats were investigated. A hyperuricemic rat model was induced by the intragastric treatment of potassium oxonate, combined with a high purine diet. The oral administration of LR1155, LF2644, or a combination of LR1155 and LF2644 for 4 weeks significantly prevented the rise of the serum uric acid (UA) induced by hyperuricemia. LR1155 and LF2644 significantly elevated the fecal UA levels, increased the UA content and up-regulated gene expression of UA transporter, ATP-binding cassette subfamily G-2 (ABCG2), in colon and jejunum tissues, suggesting the accelerated UA excretion from the intestine. Besides, LR1155 significantly inhibited the activity of xanthine oxidase (XOD) in liver and serum, benefited the reduce of UA production. In addition, LF2644 strengthened the gut barrier functions through an up-regulation of the gene expressions for occluding and mucin2, accompanied with the reduced inflammatory indicators of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in hyperuricemic rat. Moreover, using 16s rDNA high-throughput sequencing of feces, LR1155 was shown to improve the hyperuricemia induced gut microbial dysbiosis. The genera Roseburia, Butyricicoccus, Prevotella, Oscillibacter, and Bifidobacterium may associate with the effect of LR1155 on microbiota in hyperuricemic rats. Collectively, the results indicated that LR1155 and LF2644 exhibit urate-lowering effects and could be used alone or in combination as a new adjuvant treatment for hyperuricemia.
Selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) have gained extensive attention for their excellent biological activity and low toxicity. However, SeNPs are extremely liable to aggregate into non-bioactive or gray elemental selenium, which limits their application in the biomedicine field. This study aimed to prepare stable SeNPs by using lentinan (LNT) as a template and evaluate its anti-colon cancer activity. The average particle diameter of obtained lentinan-selenium nanoparticles (LNT-SeNPs) was approximately 59 nm and presented zero-valent, amorphous, and spherical structures. The monodisperse SeNPs were stabilized by LNT through hydrogen bonding interactions. LNT-SeNPs solution remained highly stable at 4°C for at least 8 weeks. The stability of LNT-SeNPs solution sharply decreased under high temperature and strong acidic conditions. LNT-SeNPs showed no obvious cytotoxic effect on normal cells (IEC-6) but significantly inhibited the proliferation of five colon cancer cells (HCT-116, HT-29, Caco-2, SW620, and CT26). Among them, LNT-SeNPs exhibited the highest sensitivity toward HCT-116 cells with an IC50 value of 7.65 μM. Also, LNT-SeNPs displayed better cancer cell selectivity than sodium selenite and selenomethionine. Moreover, LNT-SeNPs promoted apoptosis of HCT-116 cells through activating mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway. Meanwhile, LNT-SeNPs induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase in HCT-116 cells via modulation of cell cycle regulatory proteins. The results of this study indicated that LNT-SeNPs possessed strong potential application in the treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC).