Frontiers in Education

Published by Frontiers Media SA
Online ISSN: 2504-284X
Publications
| Description of the resources. Block IV.2. of the questionnaire.
Items in Block IV.3 on teaching methods.
At present, an understanding of the teaching practices at university and the opinion of students about these practices is limited, at least in certain knowledge areas. Given this diagnosis and in the context of Social Sciences Didactics, we consider it important to analyze teaching practices and how they impact future teachers. Consequently, concerned about the quality of training offered to students, this study aims to know their opinion about which teaching practices they consider most appropriate to train in Social Sciences Didactics, once they finish the subjects related to this area. To this end, a non-experimental quantitative design has been used, involving collecting information through a questionnaire completed by 875 students from seven Spanish universities studying for the Degree in Primary Education. The data was analyzed from a triple perspective, an analysis of the descriptive statistics of the items contemplated in this research, the existing correlations between them, and a statistical analysis based on the gender variable. The results show that the treatment of controversial issues and the didactic outings outside the university classroom are the strategies most valued by the students in teaching specific content of the subject Social Sciences Didactics. The results also show significant differences in the responses to each item depending on the gender variable. We conclude that students widely value university teaching practices related to implementing active methodologies, analyzing current social and environmental issues, and collaborative work dynamics. Likewise, it is observed that women have, on the whole, a better opinion than men regarding these types of methodologies and strategies.
 
Introduction: The AAOS International Scholars Program was launched in 2002 with the goal of enhancing the knowledge and skills of orthopaedic surgeons in underserved regions. The goals of this study were to 1) characterize the professional and practice profile of scholarship recipients, 2) assess the perceived impact of this short term educational experience on their clinical practice, 3) if/how the knowledge and skills have been disseminated to students and/or colleagues, and 4) assess career development in a subset of scholarship recipients. Method: The AAOS international scholar database was accessed to review the scholarship applications and all available follow-up questionnaires for 103 scholarship recipients. Results: Respondents generally practiced in an academic institution, incorporated the knowledge and skills learned during the short term educational experience in their practices, and introduced the information acquired to medical students, residents, and colleagues alike. In general, the recipients demonstrated a substantial progress in their career development. Conclusions: Our impression is that this short term educational experience was successful in imparting new knowledge and skills to the scholarship recipients who then shared these experiences with their peers and trainees. Further study will be required to understand the impact of this program on the long-term professional development of the recipients and enhanced health care of the region.
 
Descriptive data on self-efficacy and stress index when imagining how to teach inclusive PE for each group before (pre) and after (post) intervention.
Research has indicated the importance of preservice teacher education programs that focus on fostering positive psychological aspects relevant to teaching in inclusive settings, such as attitudes or self-efficacy. Previous research lacks theoretical underpinning and is limited because of methodological characteristics of the studies (e.g., no control group). Thus, in a quasi-experimental design the current study aimed to investigate the effects of theoretically derived interventions (IG1: information-based cognitive intervention group; IG2: information-based and practical field experience intervention group) in comparison to a control group (CG) on changes in preservice teachers’ perspective on teaching inclusively, i.e. explicit and implicit attitudes, self-efficacy, and stress perception, all relevant to teach in inclusive settings. Results of four separated repeated-measure analysis of variances, with time of assessment (before vs. after) as a within-subject factor and group (CG, IG1, and IG2) as a between-subject factor, showed no differences in the development (pre- to post-intervention) between CG and IG1 as well as CG and IG2 in any of the dependent variables. However, significant differences in changes in explicit attitudes and stress perception were found between IG1 and IG2 in favor of IG2. Results will be discussed considering confounding variables that future research should further investigate.
 
This paper considers the engagement by teachers and school leaders in England in educational practices that are both ‘research-informed’ and supportive of inclusive education. We do so by seeking to understand the benefits, costs, and signifying factors these educators associate with research-use. In undertaking the study, we first worked to develop and refine a survey instrument (the ‘Research-Use BCS survey’) that could be used to uniquely and simultaneously measure these concepts. Our survey development involved a comprehensive process that comprised: (1) a review of recent literature; (2) item pre-testing; and (3) cognitive interviews. We then administered this questionnaire to a representative sample of English educators. Although response rates were somewhat impacted by the recent COVID-19 pandemic, we achieved a sufficient number of responses (147 in total) to allow us to engage in descriptive analyses, as well as the production of classification trees. Our analysis resulted in several key findings, including that: (1) if respondents see the benefits of research, they are likely to use it (with the converse also true); (2) if educators have the needed support of their colleagues, they are more likely to use research; and (3) perceiving research-use as an activity that successful teachers and schools engage in is also associated with individual-level research use. We conclude the paper by pointing to potential interventions and strategies that might serve (at least, in the English context) to enhance research-use, so increasing the likelihood of the development and use of effective inclusive practices in schools.
 
| PRISMA flow diagram.
Study synthesis indicators.
Success in adult life is associated with end of school academic attainment, but educational inequality is a major issue in the UK. Contextual background factors and personal attributes associated with student academic attainment have been identified in cross-sectional research. However, there has not been a systematic synthesis of these factors from longitudinal studies particularly with a focus on factors from middle childhood. The aim of this systematic review was to identify factors from middle childhood (6–12 years) that are associated with academic attainment at 15–17 years. Ninety UK studies met the inclusion criteria. Factors identified related to the student, socioeconomic, academic attainment, and the school. The quality of studies was generally rated as poor, and evidence for most factors was sparse, suggesting caution in interpretation. The middle childhood factors with the strongest evidence of association with later attainment were: prior attainment at the student level, student mental health, and gender. Generally, the results supported UK Government guidance on narrowing the education inequality gap although there was a lack of high-quality studies. The findings could be potentially useful for policymakers and schools in making decisions on effective interventions, policy choices, and funding allocations, particularly in the context of a socioecological framework. However, further research is needed in this area. Systematic Review Registration https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/display_record.php?RecordID=136747 , identifer: 136747.
 
Cognitive training is emerging as a viable intervention for remediating cognitive skill deficits and associated academic struggles. This study investigated whether trainer-delivered cognitive training reduced parent-reported academic difficulties and oppositional behavior for school-age children with learning struggles compared with a no-contact control group. Three groups were surveyed using a standardized rating scale: parents of clients ages 5–18 who had completed the 60-h ThinkRx cognitive training program (n = 67), parents of clients ages 5–18 who had completed the 120-h ReadRx cognitive training with reading program (n = 53), and parents of clients ages 5–18 who completed initial testing but did not enroll in a training program (n = 58). Results indicated there were statistically significant differences overall between the intervention groups and the control group on all measures of academic difficulties. Both intervention groups saw a reduction in academic difficulty ratings following training while the control group saw an increase in academic difficulty during a comparable time interval. Differences between groups on ratings of oppositional behavior were not significant. Both intervention groups achieved statistically significant changes on objective cognitive test measures as well. Although the study is limited by lack of randomization in the sampling, the results and transfer effects are encouraging for evaluating the use of one-on-one cognitive training to enhance academic skills and behavior.
 
| An ecological systems model of higher education, livelihood and lifestyle experiences. Note: Based on Voydanoff (2007) adaption of Bronfenbrenner (1979) ecological systems model.
| A socio-ecological systems (SEC) model highlighting the multifaceted influences and interactions of Higher Education experiences, livelihood, and lifestyle on an individual's health and wellbeing during a global pandemic phenomenon. Note: Based on Pocock et al. (2012) SEC model of work, home and community.
The phenomenon of the Covid-19 lockdown in New Zealand during 2020 enabled two Higher Education (HE) lecturers to reflect on grappling with new technologies, changes in lifestyle and livelihoods, and the impact that social isolation had on Bachelor of Sport and Recreation (BSR) students as they shifted to emergency “remote” teaching and learning. This paper presents personal narratives, authored collaboratively by lecturers Anna and Hana (pseudonyms), engaging with a socio-ecological systems framework. The systems framework presents a layered, multi-faceted approach to reveal the complexity of the impacts of Covid-19 on HE teaching and learning. In-depth analysis of the microsystems, mesosystems, and macrosystems making up their systems framework, serve to highlight specifically how Anna and Hana interpreted their own and their university students’ responses to the unprecedented measures imposed on their lifestyle (home), livelihood (employment), and HE experience (online learning). By applying an autoethnographic methodology, this paper acknowledges and celebrates the lecturers’ subjectivity, emotionality, and influence on the presented research. As educators, their critical self-reflections are authentic and timely, expressing key concerns and considerations, while searching for optimal solutions to deliver equal and equitable learning opportunities for all students. A unique characteristic of this phenomenon was the inability (due to COVID-19 restrictions) of students who learn through practical contexts, to enact kinesthetically in a meaningful manner, and the subsequent implications on their learning. This paper presents a snippet of the lecturers’ reflective practice, co-constructed from recollections, memories, and anecdotal evidence, against a backdrop of current Covid-19 research on the effects of the pandemic, on teaching and learning globally. Whilst this paper sheds light on the experiences of two HE lecturers during the COVID-19 lockdown, a collection and analysis of “student” voice, is recommended. This paper concludes that a collaborative autoethnographic approach during exceptional circumstances, such as natural disasters, pandemics, and other disruptive situations, provides an opportunity for professional self-observation and self-reflective practice that is mutually beneficial, and empowering. These insights provide shared critical knowledge to sustain achievement while averting negative impacts, for students and lecturers alike.
 
| Diagram of a Diffractive Reading of COVID-19 Policies and Communication Impact on URM STEM Students.
| Updated Diagram Reflecting the Potential Role of LSAMP as Organizational Buffers During Focusing Events.
IL-LSAMP institution characteristics.
Overview of data sources and representative examples.
The COVID-19 pandemic has continued to impact every industry and test problem-solving capabilities and innovation across the board; education is no exception. As institutions continue to adapt to the impacts of the current public health crisis, colleges and universities are also navigating federal policy prompted by the pandemic. Literature has shown the positive influence of organizations, such as the Louis Stokes Alliances for Minority Participation (LSAMP), and, we argue that they can take a more active intermediary approach, that of an Organizational Buffer, to best support their students during times of uncertainty. Current research highlights the disconnect between STEM education and policy, as well as how the pandemic is disproportionately impacting communities of color. The pervasiveness of whiteness within educational policy and the negative impacts of unequal distribution of resources on students of color in STEM highlight the need to center race in a theoretical framework and policy. The purpose of this study was to understand the policy and communication responses to the pandemic as they pertained to supporting student success in STEM. Using the Theory of Racialized Organizations, which is a qualitative case study approach that leverages diffractive readings, was implemented to understand whether educational policy and communication responses during this time have or perpetuated inequitable systems. Guided by the research question, in what ways do pandemic policies and communications bolster the success of underrepresented minoritized students (URM) majoring in STEM, our study found four versions of policymaking (i.e., Performative, Picking Winners and Losers, Stay in your Lane, and Time Burden) that emerged and did not support URM STEM students equitably and consistently. Based on these findings, we present implications for institutional responses, LSAMP-alliance support, and future research.
 
Documents retrieved by source.
The COVID-19 pandemic has prompted a variety of responses by organizational leaders throughout the United States and internationally. This paper explores the responses of five rural school superintendents who work in a conservative Midwestern state. Using an exploratory qualitative research design, the study analyzes interviews and documents collected remotely to adhere to current public health guidelines. The study adopted a crisis leadership perspective to explore how rural school superintendents were responding to the COVID-19 pandemic and managing the politics associated with it. Findings suggest that superintendents were acutely aware of their community’s current political stance toward the COVID-19 pandemic and were especially responsive to the individual political philosophies of their elected school board members. The superintendents did not uniformly adopt crisis leadership behaviors to respond to the circumstances created by the pandemic. Rather, superintendents responded in ways that managed the political perspectives held by their elected board members and sought to reconcile differences in the board members’ political perspectives that precluded action. As part of this reconciliation, the superintendents leveraged public health information to shape and at times change elected school board members’ perspectives. This information helped the superintendents overcome political perspectives that led some of the most conservative board members to resist widely accepted public health guidance. Implications for the field of educational leadership, research on rural superintendents, and potential revisions to superintendent preparation are discussed.
 
For the Fall 2020 semester, the University of New Haven (UNewHaven) joined over a third of colleges and universities across the country in offering in-person courses and reopening its campus. Allowing the campus community to safely return was a challenging endeavor, particularly for those at the University’s School of Health Sciences, which offers both non-clinical and clinical courses. In order to create learning environments that adhered to continuously-changing guidelines, our team at the School of Health Sciences was forced to develop and implement innovative strategies. In this article, we share our experiences in fulfilling our roles as faculty, staff, and students at a School of Health Sciences offering in-person, non-clinical and clinical courses during the COVID-19 pandemic. We reflect upon our challenges and share the lessons learned, which we hope will serve as guidance for our collective community in higher education, including those working within schools of public health and health sciences. Our lessons learned are presented in following three themes: 1) preparation for in-person classes; 2) the emotional state of faculty, staff, and students; and 3) innovative practices. Should colleges and universities ever find themselves in similar, yet unprecedented times, our lessons and recommendations may serve as a starting point to assist them in navigating through such tumultuous moments.
 
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused, and continues to cause, unprecedented disruption in England. The impact of the pandemic on the English education system has been significant, especially for children and young people with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND). While it was encouraging that the educational rights of children and young people with SEND were highlighted during the COVID-19 pandemic, Government decision-making appeared to be centered around the needs of pupils in mainstream schools. In this article, co-authored by an academic researcher and senior leaders from the Pan London Autism Schools Network (PLASN; a collective of special schools in London and the South East of England, catering for pupils on the autistic spectrum), we reflect on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on special schools in England. We document and discuss a range of challenges experienced by PLASN schools, including the educational inequalities that were exposed and perpetuated by the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as the manner in which the needs and realities of special schools were overlooked by the Government. We also detail the creative and innovative solutions implemented by PLASN schools to overcome barriers that they encountered. These solutions centered on facilitating holistic approaches to support, ensuring clear and regular communication with families, providing effective support for home learning, and promoting collaborative ways of working; all of which align with good practice principles in autism education more generally, and are essential elements of practice to maintain post-pandemic. We additionally reflect on how the COVID-19 pandemic could be a catalyst for much-needed change to the SEND system: leading to better educational provision, and therefore better outcomes, for pupils with SEND.
 
The Covid-19 pandemic has caused a great change in the world. One aspect of the pandemic is its effect on Educational systems. Educators have had to shift to a pure online based system. This shift has been sudden and without any prior warning. Despite this the Educational system has survived and exhibited resilience. The resilience of a system can be determined if the system continues to operate or function as effectively as before a change. Resilience in a system implies the ability to work and develop when the forces in the environment are unexpected, abrupt and sudden as well. The environment may change or evolve but the underlying system must keep functioning, developing and responding. Resilience is a trait in a system. It is a set of characteristics in the system that enables it to sustain itself in the face of change. A resilient system can cope and prosper in the face of change. For the domain of education, the Covid-19 pandemic served as a phenomenal change event and a wakeup call to the education fraternity. As a social system, resilience meant that the people in the educational environment continued to function albeit differently. The environment, meaning the processes, hierarchy and the intricate social ties in the system contributed to the resiliency of the system. Thus the measure of resilience in education has three major facets—people, the technology which facilitates the process and the process environment. This work aims to understand the resilience of the teachers due to the Covid-19 pandemic, especially how learning continued and what contributed to this continuity. Resilience research and understanding is as important as the pedagogical and technological aspects in an Educational system as it is a trait that encompasses the people, the socio-economic system and their relationships. In this work, we analyzed resilience as trait, its relevance in an Educational system, factors that make up resilience in an Educational system and finally the relevant research about resilience in Education during Covid-19. Based on the results of our literature review we formed a model for Educators. A survey was conducted among educators of three countries namely Malaysia, Fiji, and India to determine the essential elements of resilience that were relevant to the continuity of an educational system from the point of view of teachers. We arrived at a set of factors that are relevant to the teachers in the educational systems which can be an impetus for policy makers to focus on and develop. The major results from the study are the need for Educational systems to focus on three facets—internal, interpersonal and external aspects of teachers and strengthen factors such as support for teachers, strong academic leadership, trust of teachers, increase self-motivation, enhance communication with stakeholders and emphasize systems that enhance student-teacher communication. The future areas of research are also discussed in the work.
 
| Teacher perceptions of effectiveness of remote instruction in spring 2020.
| Teacher-reported school insctructional models.
Following the closure of schools in the spring 2020 semester due to the COVID-19 pandemic, we developed two surveys to understand how the pandemic affected elementary education in the U.S. First, we distributed a survey at the end of the spring 2020 semester to understand how school closures impacted delivery of instruction. Second, we conducted a follow up survey in November 2020 to determine the nature of instruction provided to students when schools did or did not re-open in Fall 2020 and understand teachers’ perceptions of student learning and achievement during the pandemic. Each survey was sent to a sample of over 9,000 teachers who were randomly selected to be representative of the population of the U.S. Results indicated that many students did not receive direct instruction in academic skills during the spring 2020 semester. Although by late fall 2020 teachers reported broad use of some form of in-person instructional model, teachers indicated that many of their students were not ready to transition to the next grade level and that achievement gaps were larger in fall 2020 than in typical years. These findings have important implications for practices during potential school closures in the future.
 
Name of the programs undertaken by the governments of Latin America.
Educational policies in the face of the pandemic caused by the COVID-19 virus took an unexpected turn in Latin America. Virtuality constituted a key opportunity for the continuity of basic fundamental services in the citizen’s right to education. The objective of this research was to analyze the educational public policies adopted by governments in Latin America in the face of the pandemic. The methodology was an integrative documentary review of the main international organizations whose documents provided relevant information on the actions to be implemented in fourteen Latin American countries. The results obtained show that the priority was to reestablish the continuity of educational services using mass communication resources, such as radio, television, digital platforms, making visible the inequity in the access to the Internet at home. It was also identified a deficiency in the competencies and digital resources of the educational community, dis-crimination and inclusion of people with some type of disability or different languages, especially in urban or rural areas because they do not have technological means. It was concluded that the educational policies in Latin America proposed during the COVID-19 period were designed with-out a real situational diagnosis in each country, to meet the demands of urban and rural areas in an equitable manner with the will of governments, providing budgets and resources that benefit the educational community, as an achievement of state policies.
 
Model goodness of fit test.
Correlation between variable aspects.
The COVID-19 has had a widespread impact on all aspects of life. The government has undertaken numerous restrictive attempts to sever the virus transmission chain. In the education sector, one of the attempts is to apply certain learning models. For instance, the online model has been used in place of the face-to-face one across all academic and non-academic services. Educators have faced several obstacles, including academic procrastination. Academic procrastination refers to intentionally putting off working on an assignment, which negatively influences academic achievement. This study aimed to examine the role of parental social support in academic procrastination with the mediation of the adversity quotient. The subjects consisted of 256 state Madrasah Aliyah students in Magelang aged 15–18 years ( M = 16.53, SD = 1.009). Data collection employed the academic procrastination scale, parental social support scale, and adversity quotient scale. Data analysis used descriptive statistics and structural equation modeling (SEM) with the aid of the IBM SPSS 23 and AMOS Graphics 26. The research results showed that all variables fell into the medium category. Parental social support had a negative role on academic procrastination and a positive one on adversity quotient. Meanwhile, the adversity quotient had a negative role in academic procrastination and a significant role as a mediator in the relationship between parental social support and academic procrastination. Therefore, parental social support is required to increase students’ adversity quotient in suppressing academic procrastination. Special attention from parents to students is thus critical during the COVID-19 pandemic, with the mediation of adversity quotient.
 
| Actual (A) and preferred (B) primary modes of learning.
Likert-scale questions.
Comparison of the number of synchronous methods on student perceptions. Effect size (f).
Comparison of combinations of asynchronous methods on student perceptions. Effect size (f).
Most prevalent themes for students based on their preferred mode of remote learning.
This spring, students across the globe transitioned from in-person classes to remote learning as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. This unprecedented change to undergraduate education saw institutions adopting multiple online teaching modalities and instructional platforms. We sought to understand students’ experiences with and perspectives on those methods of remote instruction in order to inform pedagogical decisions during the current pandemic and in future development of online courses and virtual learning experiences. Our survey gathered quantitative and qualitative data regarding students’ experiences with synchronous and asynchronous methods of remote learning and specific pedagogical techniques associated with each. A total of 4,789 undergraduate participants representing institutions across 95 countries were recruited via Instagram. We find that most students prefer synchronous online classes, and students whose primary mode of remote instruction has been synchronous report being more engaged and motivated. Our qualitative data show that students miss the social aspects of learning on campus, and it is possible that synchronous learning helps to mitigate some feelings of isolation. Students whose synchronous classes include active-learning techniques (which are inherently more social) report significantly higher levels of engagement, motivation, enjoyment, and satisfaction with instruction. Respondents’ recommendations for changes emphasize increased engagement, interaction, and student participation. We conclude that active-learning methods, which are known to increase motivation, engagement, and learning in traditional classrooms, also have a positive impact in the remote-learning environment. Integrating these elements into online courses will improve the student experience.
 
| Number of educational services used before and during COVID-19 lockdown, divided by refugee status.
At the global level, COVID-19 not only shut down many services that national governments provide to public, but it also severely limited the ability of international organizations to deliver services during humanitarian crisis. We suggest that the absence of governments and INGOs creates a vacuum for informal institutions to increase their reach. In this research note, we present novel phone survey data on education services in Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh with host communities and refugees. We show that the number of households without access to education decreased during lockdown, but that the impact was different for the refugee population and the host population. This is because the refugee community relied on their prior ties to informal education, whereas the host community did not have the same ties to multiple informal options. Overall, we show that informal institutions provide a substitute for governments and international organizations when they shut down.
 
| Perceived faculty competence in using the Moodle based learning management system.
| Top 10 novel words.
| Word cloud of most frequently used words across participants.
The purpose of this study was to explore the initial perceptions and experiences of faculty whose classes were moved to an online/distance delivery as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. Using mixed methods online survey methodology, the researchers sought to describe faculty perceptions relative to their response to moving all university courses online within the timeframe allotted by university leadership. Building upon this groups’ previous research, which focused on the relationships among care and rigor in the online teaching/learning environment, the researchers designed survey questions to further explore these concepts during a time of chaos. The survey addressed faculty perceptions and lived experiences related to supporting this transition, previous experiences with online teaching, the role of rigor and care in course design and implementation, and opportunities for demonstrating care toward colleagues. Information gleaned from the study will help to inform university leadership, instructional design support personnel, and faculty. As the long-term economic, social, and academic effects are realized across the world, the researchers anticipate significant changes in higher education.
 
Means and standard deviations of the dependent variables at t1.
Means and standard deviations of the dependent variables at t2 by sample.
Results of Model 1, Model 2, Model 3
Many assume that school shutdowns in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic have significantly impaired students’ achievement and self-determined motivation. Of greatest concern given the sudden shift to distance learning are students with inadequate access to digital media and insufficient experience organizing learning processes independently—for example, first and second graders. This study used a quasi-experiment with 206 elementary students to investigate differences in reading comprehension and self-determined reading motivation of students who attended grades one and two during or before the pandemic. Surprisingly, the results revealed no differences in reading comprehension and reading motivation between the groups, contradicting the assumption that the pandemic-driven shift to distance learning would inevitably impair young students’ achievements and self-determined motivation.
 
The American Psychological Association (APA) reports 81% of Gen Z teens (ages 13–17) have experienced more intense stress during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study uses a survey-based approach along with robust statistical analyses to identify key stressors from a set of students in a high school in Midwest United States. Our survey includes a broad range of stressors (15 explanatory variables) specific to high schoolers, controls (4 factors for pre-existing conditions), and mental health estimators (7 dependent variables) to identify changes in mental wellbeing during the pandemic. The results (n = 107) show good consistency in our estimators (Cronbach’s α = 0.78) and statistically significant (t = 0.636, p ≪ 0.001) degradation in the mental health. Correlation (r = 0.2, p = 0.034) and regression analysis showed that online learning (β1 = -0.96, p = 0.004) has the most influence on degradation in mental health, with some race-based differences. Exercise time helps reduce mental health degradation (β3 = -0.153, p = 0.037). Many other factors such as gender, homework time, school time, pre-existing mental health issues, and therapy did not have a significant influence on mental health degradation. Analysis of freeform feedback identified the following three recurring themes: increased stress due homework (13.2%), social isolation or lack of social interactions (8.5%), and lack of support for mental wellbeing (12.3%).
 
| The cumulative research process.
Most important factors to complete the Ph.D. project: frequency and percentage.
Overview of themes across the sources of data.
Overview of themes from a thematic analysis of the interview data.
Since January 2020 there have been over 97 million reported cases and 2 million deaths worldwide from COVID-19 and it is not over yet. In many ways, the COVID-19 pandemic is a slow-motion disaster and an ‘external intervention’ that suddenly began in early 2020 and has maintained its grip on the world. The pandemic has influenced the education sector strongly as well, and Ph.D. candidates enrolled in Ph.D. programs during COVID-19 (‘the Ph.D. corona generation’) at Western Norway Graduate School of Educational Research II (WNGER II) were examined in this case study. WNGER II is a research school consortium with seven universities and universities colleges, 97 Ph.D.-candidates, and 48 supervisors and was established in 2018 to complement the Ph.D.-programs and strengthen the Ph.D. education in Western Norway. A pilot phase (2016–2017) was used to identify and address specific challenges in Ph.D. education as experienced in the seven universities and university colleges in Western Norway. The pandemic has presented an urgent need for a better knowledge base to understand the professional, social, and existential conditions for doctoral fellows when society is shut down for an extended period. This explorative case study examined what the doctoral fellows experienced when home office, digital teaching, and digital supervision suddenly replaced physical presence in the workplace (more or less) from March 12, 2020 to November 30, 2021 as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. A mixed-methods research, formative dialog research, and case study design was applied to try to bridge the conceptual and contextual understanding of this phenomenon. The main data sources were a survey (N = 62, 85% women, 15% men, response rate 70%) and semi-structured interviews (with six Ph.D. fellows). Supplementary data collection was based on formative dialog research and comprised field dialog (13 seminars, eight Ph.D. courses, three Ph.D. supervision seminars, and two Ph.D. gatherings, N = 26), one focus group (n = 11), 21 online observations, and document analysis of Ph.D. policy documents and course evaluations (N = 15). The explorative case study found that the WNGER II Ph.D. fellows are satisfied with the educational quality concerning digital teaching and supervision (micro-level) but have experienced several research-related and psycho-social challenges during the pandemic (meso-level). These changed frame factors have impeded their feasibility and doctoral progression. Even if the WNGER II Ph.D. fellows experienced support during the pandemic, it seems like it entailed incremental measures that have not been sufficient. The Ph.D. regulations were created before the pandemic under normal conditions for normal conditions, but it appears that no substantial adjustments have been made for these extraordinary pandemic conditions in which frame factors attached to data collection, publication delays, childcare responsibilities, social distancing, etc. have changed the premises for their feasibility. This has been particularly critical for these Ph.D. fellows, who have been in this slow-motion disaster for up to 20 months (55% of their 3-year scholarship). Therefore, results from the case study indicate it is more important than ever to understand the gap between formulation, -transformation, and realization arena when it comes to the distinction between incremental, semi-structural changes and fundamental changes in Ph.D. regulations and guidelines caused by societal crises. Even if time compensation has been offered, it seems like the overall Ph.D. guidelines, regulations, and assessment norms have remained unchanged in the transformation arena (meso-level), which might have given some unforeseen implications for some Ph.D.-candidates, which calls for better crisis preparedness on a doctoral level in the years to come.
 
| Depiction of the study findings on the Cynefin framework.
Collaborative autoethnography research participants' demographics (n 11).
After the unprecedented changes experienced in higher education due to the Covid-19 pandemic, there is a need to integrate initial thoughts and reflective experience to decide on the way forward. This study aimed to reflect on, and make sense of the events related to South African higher education institutions HEIs at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic by using the Cynefin framework. Data from a rapid review of online media at the onset of the Covid-19 pandemic and a collaborative autoethnography session 1 year since lockdowns were implemented are used to present perspectives for the sense-making process. This offers insights to both ends of the spectrum as it highlights the evolution of processes taking place at multiple levels from government policies to institutional practices, as well as how this impacted on both staff and students. The Cynefin framework demonstrated sense-making efforts in the disordered, to the chaotic, to the complex, then to the complicated and eventually to the simple domain. Each domain ushered in its peculiarities and highlighted the issues ranging from vulnerabilities experienced in the higher education sector, to trying to reconfigure the academic year, to dealing with wicked problems, to eventually relying on expert assistance to navigate the virtual university space. Trying to establish causality in the simple domain proved challenging as the information available during the time was sparse. Despite these challenges, the lessons learnt include the importance of the sense-making process among all academic staff, the significance of collaboration and team efforts and the need to adapt leadership and self-leadership approaches to the changed ways of working in higher education institutions.
 
| Comparison of French-language study activity during a regular school year (18/19) and the school year affected by COVID-19 (19/20), stratified by year group (columns) and education track (rows). Activity is measured through the number of trials completed per week. The shaded area marks the school closure period in the 19/20 school year. The change in activity during this period is shown as a percentage in each plot.
| (A) Distribution of study trials over the week during the school closure period (16 March-2 June) in both school years. The colour of each square shows how many trials were recorded in a learning session starting within a particular hour on a particular weekday, as a proportion of the entire week. (B) Change in distribution of study trials from the 18/19 school year to the 19/20 school year.
| Comparison of study performance over time during a regular school year (18/19) and the school year affected by COVID-19 (19/20). (A) Mean response accuracy ( ± 1 SE). (B) Mean response time (± 1 SE) on correct answers.
The COVID-19 pandemic caused lockdowns and sudden school closures around the world in spring 2020, significantly impacting the education of students. Here, we investigate how the switch to distance learning affected study activity and performance in an online retrieval practice tool used for language learning in Dutch secondary education. We report insights from a rich data set consisting of over 115 million retrieval practice trials completed by more than 133 thousand students over the course of two consecutive school years. Our findings show that usage of the tool increased substantially at the start of lockdown, with the bulk of study activity occurring on weekday mornings. In general, students’ progress through the material was largely unaffected by lockdown, although students from the highest educational track were somewhat more likely to be on or ahead of schedule than students from lower tracks, compared to the previous year. Performance on individual study trials was generally stable, but accuracy and response time on open answer questions went up, perhaps as a result of students being more focused at home. These encouraging findings contribute to a growing literature on the educational ramifications of distance learning during lockdown.
 
| Hypotheses and constructs that relate to them.
Descriptive of parents' characteristics and perceptions.
Descriptive of child and school characteristics.
During the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown, face-to-face schooling could not be performed continuously, and alternative ways of learning had to be organized. Parents had to act as their children’s home schooling tutors while working from home, and schools had to deal with various alternatives to distance education. Since parents are by all means both important school users and partners, their perceptions of schools can be considered a central indicator for assessing school quality. In this respect, during school lockdown, parents’ school satisfaction may reflect schools’ ability to adjust and react to fast social changes with almost no time for preparation. To date, there is nearly no knowledge about school satisfaction or school support during this challenging situation. Using data from the COVID-19 survey of the German National Educational Panel Study, we identified central predictors of parents’ perceptions of school support during the national lockdown in Germany in spring 2020. All students ( N = 1,587; M age = 14.20; SD = 0.36; 53% girls) and their parents ( M age = 47.36; SD = 4.99; 91% women) have participated in the longitudinal survey for at least 8 years. The results of the structural equation model indicate that the perceived support and abilities of teachers have been especially relevant for parents’ school satisfaction during the time of the school lockdown. In contrast, factors relating to parents’ and children’s backgrounds seem to be less important.
 
Means and frequencies of descriptive statistics in study sample.
Means and frequencies of sex differences in study sample.
Hierarchical regression coefficients: Depression.
Hierarchical regression coefficients: HRV.
Introduction The COVID-19 pandemic brought on higher-than-normal levels of anxiety and depression, especially among graduate students whose academic trajectory was disrupted. However, not all graduate students were affected and therefore, it is important to identify potential protective factors. Method We recruited 61 graduate students whose research was directly impacted by the pandemic and examined their change in academic stressors since the onset of the pandemic. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to evaluate how perceived academic stressors brought on by the COVID-19 pandemic impacted anxiety, depression, and heart rate variability (HRV), and whether physical activity and trait resiliency independently buffered against the effects of stress. Results Graduate students who reported greater changes in academic stressors since the onset for the pandemic were more anxious and depressed. Moderate-intensity physical activity explained significant variance in anxiety whereas resiliency explained significant variance in both anxiety and depression. HRV was higher in males than females, aligning with sex differences in vulnerability to stress and mental illness. Conclusion Overall, the results suggest that resiliency and physical activity may offer unique protection against symptoms of anxiety and depression in graduate students experiencing increased academic stress during COVID-19. Institutions of higher education should consider investing in programs that encourage physical activity and promote resiliency by teaching mindfulness, stress management, and cognitive behavioral approaches.
 
Minimum score of interpretation by scale.
The loading factor from the dimension to the y-variable is learning leadership.
Goodness-of-fit model.
effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable.
This research aimed to discover the implementation of e-leadership for school principals during the COVID-19 pandemic and its effect on school performance through changes in teacher behavior. Quantitative research was used where it involved 8 public high schools with 150 respondents. The results showed that: (1) the implementation of e-leadership for school principals during the COVID-19 pandemic was at a very high level for the dimensions of the vision of continuous learning and professional development of teachers, and at a high level for the dimensions of classroom supervision and teacher performance assessment; (2) none of the independent variables have a correlation with the dependent variable greater than >0.50. The correlation between the independent variable and the dependent variable is at a simple stage for teacher behavior and a low stage for teacher performance; (3) the result of measurement model test with Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) shows that the loading factor of each indicator is greater than 0.60, which means that the indicators are valid for measuring the variable; (4) the results of the structural model test show that the principal’s e-leadership variable, scientific competence (pedagogical knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge), personality competence and e-skills have a positive and significant effect on teacher behavior with a value of ***p = < 0.05. Teacher performance also has a positive and significant effect with a value of ***p = < 0.05 which makes H-1–H-9 accepted. Proportionally, e-leadership remains the main variable compared to other variables which gives the largest contribution to improving teacher performance through changes in teacher behavior by (0.280), scientific competence variables (pedagogical knowledge and content knowledge) and teacher personality, respectively, contribute to improved performance through changes in teacher behavior of (0.083) and (0.152). The e-skill competency variable of teachers contributes to increased performance through changes in teacher behavior of (0.177). The practical implication of this research is that principals need to change their roles and leadership styles from conventional to electronic-based learning leadership styles to realize effective online learning.
 
Concerns and challenges identified by students prior to and during the emergency remote teaching (ERT) period.
Students' perceived benefits of the emergency remote teaching (ERT) period.
Students' preferences and recommendations for emergency remote teaching (ERT).
  • Agata GuskaroskaAgata Guskaroska
  • Emily Dux SpeltzEmily Dux Speltz
  • Zoë ZawadzkiZoë Zawadzki
  • Şebnem KurtŞebnem Kurt
The COVID-19 pandemic forced most educational institutions in the US to quickly transfer to emergency remote teaching, finding many instructors and students unprepared. This study explored university students’ perspectives in a composition course during the emergency period and proposes guidance on designing a “student-friendly” online learning environment. This study examines the students’ concerns about and challenges with emergency remote teaching, the course’s benefits during the online learning period, and students’ recommendations for improvement. The research was conducted in seven sections of a multimodal composition course at a large, Midwestern university. Participants responded to a virtual discussion board at the beginning of online instruction and a survey after online instruction. Qualitative analysis of responses—guided by the Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework—showed that the participants expressed challenges with staying motivated, completing coursework, and feeling socially disconnected from instructors and classmates. Benefits expressed by the participants included increased flexibility in their schedules, improved time management skills, and increased virtual communication with instructors. This study highlights suggestions that can guide the design of composition courses and pedagogical practices for emergency remote teaching in the future.
 
| SWOC Analysis of Blended Learning as possible post-pandemic COVID-19 scenario.
After more than 2 years of the pandemic caused by COVID-19, a gradual return to face-to-face teaching has been taking place. Therefore, administrators need to establish procedures to facilitate and ensure the quality of teaching during this process. The purpose of this article is to describe the strengths and challenges of implementing Blended Learning (BL). The design used is consistent with a secondary investigation of a narrative review. As a result, several recommendations are presented for building institutional frameworks that enable the implementation of high-quality BL models in the context of a gradual return to face-to-face courses in higher education. From a theoretical and contextual perspective, considerations for transitioning to this model are discussed, based on lessons learned from emergency remote education. We conclude that the present post-pandemic scenario constitutes a pivotal moment for determining the way education is delivered in higher education.
 
| The conceptual framework.
| The result of structural equation model.
Demographics of participants in this study.
Summary of principal component analysis of the constructs.
Fit indices of the model.
The global pandemic of COVID-19 is a challenge for entrepreneurship education in universities and various organizations. Although positive responses to overcome the challenges of COVID-19 are being made, entrepreneurship strategies and policies might not meet students’ requirements. In order to enrich education management research, the main aim of this study is to provide a conceptual model and examine the relationship between perceptions, perceived positive attitudes on entrepreneurship education, and entrepreneurial intention (EI) during the COVID-19 crisis. The model is tested by using data from universities that are located in Shanghai, P.R. China. The study reveals that 1) perceived social norms and perceived self-efficacy positively influence perceived positive attitudes in entrepreneurship education; 2) there is no relationship between perceived entrepreneurial barriers and perceived positive attitudes in entrepreneurship education; 3) perceived positive attitudes in entrepreneurship education positively influence EI. The findings contribute to university and government policies on the development of entrepreneurial education. The framework of this study provides insight into the influential factors of entrepreneurship education that contribute to theoretical studies in the COVID-19 pandemic.
 
Correlates of Educational Changes due to COVID-19 pandemic.
Stepwise logistic regression model predicting challenges with online classes for children with ADHD.
The COVID-19 pandemic led to school closures and a rapid transition to online classes. However, little is known about the impact of online learning in Canadian children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). An online survey created on Qualtrics was distributed to families across Canada. Data collection was conducted over a total of five weeks in May and June 2020. We reviewed 587 surveys (4% margin of error using a 95% confidence interval) completed by caregivers/parents of children with ADHD (mean child age 10.14 years, SD = 3.06). Survey questions focused on hours of schoolwork completed and whether the learning needs of children with ADHD were met during school closures. Results indicated 90% of children with ADHD received web-based learning during the pandemic. Parents (41%) reported < 5 h of schoolwork per week, and 35% indicated between 5 to 10 h. Of the parents who said their child with ADHD had a modified curriculum (68%), 40% reported receiving educational materials that met their learning expectations during online classes. Parents (59%) reported that their child found it “very challenging” adjusting to online classes. The results indicated that children with ADHD faced significant challenges in adapting to online learning during the pandemic. Binary logistic regression indicated significant associations between depression severity, difficulties with starting and managing tasks and challenges adjusting to online learning. Long-term consequences of these challenges will need to be determined to ensure children with ADHD are able to meet their academic expectations.
 
Higher education teaching practices experience in Mexico changed from face-to-face teaching to the emergency remote teaching derived from the health contingency by COVID-19. The change from face-to-face to an online modality in the Mexican education system represented a great challenge for teachers of all educational levels. In Mexico, the federal government declared on Tuesday March 24, 2020, Phase 2 of the plan to address the country’s Covid 19 pandemic. Governments in at least ten states decided to suspend their activities and services as of March 17, including the education system. On April 13, the Mexican education system began activities in the online modality exclusively; however, derived from the country’s technical adequacy and digital connectivity conditions, a large proportion of the educational campuses, academic programs, and the teaching staff were not prepared for this situation. This cross-sectional study was carried out to analyze the faculty members experiences about the change from face-to-face to an online modality in the health emergency context due to the COVID-19 outbreak. We designed a study to gather information on practice in the new online learning scenario. For this purpose, we collected data on the previous experience in the conduct of online courses, the technological tools used, the barriers faced while driving online courses, the current conditions of use of educational and technological tools, the vision for the future, and some indicators of physical and mental health.In a sample of 341 faculty members, those working in public institutions were on less favorable terms than their peers attached to private universities. In contrast, lecturers recorded better conditions for dealing with modality change than full-time teachers. Likewise, lecturers more often mentioned having their infrastructure to teach courses from their homes than full-time teachers, which indeed responds to less access to the universities facilities in which they teach. Another important aspect to highlight is the increased proportion of teachers in public institutions and lecturers who have other jobs, so their workload can be more intense than those of their peers.
 
| The UNESCO ICT competency framework for teachers (Fallis 2013).
| SLR phases, as suggested by Brereton et al. (2007).
| The review phase.
The COVID-19 pandemic suddenly brought great challenges to the continuation of education. Institutions had to elect between pre-maturely ending their current school cycles or shifting to an online, flexible environment that had to deal with the digital divide in internet access. As part of its Sustainable Development Agenda, UNESCO developed the “Information and Communications Technology Competency Framework for Teachers” in 2018 to help institutions achieve digital literacy and reduce the digital divide. A systematic literature review (SLR) was conducted, identifying 23 studies on the use of ICT tools during COVID-19 educational disruptions in the database ProQuest Central and Google Scholar from August 2019 to August 2020. The results of this SLR showed that frameworks such as that of UNESCO could guide institutions to fast-track the development of educational strategies for post-crisis, COVID-19 implementation. Also, findings suggest an increase in the use of ICTs in learning environments, which will encourage organizations like UNESCO to develop plans and projects, such as the ICT framework further. Coping with the challenges of today’s learning environments is urgent; it is already time to “Rock the boat!” Introduction.
 
| Probability density function of the percentage of assimilated information with respect to attitude toward remote learning. The vertical lines indicate group means.
| GAM components (partial prediction), plots with 95% confidence intervals. Interpersonal communicative skills model.
| GAM components (partial prediction), plots with 95% confidence intervals. Thinking and learning styles model.
Descriptive statistics.
Generalized additive models.
Background During the COVID-19 pandemic, universities all over the world have had to reorganize their work for remote education to ensure continuity of learning. This situation has forced both teachers and students into an atypical, very specific situation, in which they need to cope with a number of psychological factors. Meanwhile, there is a research gap in academic knowledge of the social and psychological factors that determine attitudes toward forced remote learning.Objective To analyze the psychological traits of students in relation to their attitudes toward forced remote learning.Methods The study assessed self-regulation and communication skills, as well thinking and learning styles of 280 students in the situation of forced remote learning. We used the methods of surveying and psychological testing for data collection. The data were analyzed in R statistical software using the regression modeling methods.ResultsWe found that the number of students with positive (46%) and negative (54%) attitudes toward forced remote learning during the COVID-19 pandemic was approximately equal. Using regression analysis, we identified several statistically significant associations between the interpersonal communicative skills of students (self-regulation, shyness, alienation, manipulative and cooperative communication styles) and their thinking styles (right-hemispheric and integrated), on the one hand, and their attitude to remote learning, on the other. It was also illustrated that depending on the attitude to the forced remote learning, students differ by the percentage of assimilated learning materials while studying under the lockdown.Conclusion The results identify that success of remote learning in many ways depends on the extent to which it accommodates psychological traits of students who are forced to acquire new knowledge without traditional classroom instruction.
 
| Regression estimates of effect on course grade. Results are shown from the final model (Model 3) after model selection. Full model specifications, including reference categories for categorical variables, are provided in Table 2. All predictors shown are statistically significant. Error bars are ± 2SE.
Summary of in-person instructor survey responses about the changes they made to their course after the transition to remote learning in Spring 2020.
Institutions across the world transitioned abruptly to remote learning in 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic. This rapid transition to remote learning has generally been predicted to negatively affect students, particularly those marginalized due to their race, socioeconomic class, or gender identity. In this study, we examined the impact of this transition in the Spring 2020 semester on the grades of students enrolled in the in-person biology program at a large university in Southwestern United States as compared to the grades earned by students in the fully online biology program at the same institution. We also surveyed in-person instructors to understand changes in assessment practices as a result of the transition to remote learning during the pandemic. Finally, we surveyed students in the in-person program to learn about their perceptions of the impacts of this transition. We found that both online and in-person students received a similar small increase in grades in Spring 2020 compared to Spring 2018 and 2019. We also found no evidence of disproportionately negative impacts on grades received by students marginalized due to their race, socioeconomic class, or gender in either modality. Focusing on in-person courses, we documented that instructors made changes to their courses when they transitioned to remote learning, which may have offset some of the potential negative impacts on course grades. However, despite receiving higher grades, in-person students reported negative impacts on their learning, interactions with peers and instructors, feeling part of the campus community, and career preparation. Women reported a more negative impact on their learning and career preparation compared to men. This work provides insights into students’ perceptions of how they were disadvantaged as a result of the transition to remote instruction and illuminates potential actions that instructors can take to create more inclusive education moving forward.
 
Transition from face-to-face to remote courses in Mexico represented a challenge for teachers, students, and parents from all education levels. The Mexican federal government declared phase two of the plan to reduce COVID-19 spread on March 24, 2020. In some states, mobility restriction measures started by March 17 included the education system. On April 13, educational activities began in the remote mode exclusively, and this situation could be extended until the end of the 2020–2021 cycle, if health conditions do not improve. Universities, teachers, and students were not ready to implement the emergency remote teaching (ERT) strategy because of the limited conditions of technological adaptation and digital connectivity in the country. The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to investigate the experiences of graduate and undergraduate students concerning the change from face-to-face to the ERT modality in the health emergency context due to the COVID-19 outbreak. We collected data from 660 students from 38 universities and 22 states across the country. The study investigated students' previous experience with online courses, technological tool use, barriers faced during the new teaching–studying modality, current use of educational and specialized tools, and some physical and mental health indicators. As a result, we found problems related to time management of their work activities, the balance of time between home and school activities, and perception about studying days, which they felt strenuous. More than half of all students reported Internet connection problems. Students from private universities declared a higher use of technological tools. Students from public universities expressed more significant difficulties following teachers' instructions, perceived less attention from teachers, considered the change to remote courses was difficult, and felt overwhelmed by the required technological skills. Students in the first two years of university reported a higher proportion having deemed the most strenuous study days and having had difficulties following the teachers' instructions and considered that the distance modality change was hard. Finally, all the students declared that the expenses increased in their home in the highest proportion were electricity, mobile phone data, and Internet service. Future research should focus on measuring the impact of ERT on students’ learning outcomes.
 
After the outbreak of novel coronavirus (COVID-19) in late December 2019, in an attempt to mitigate its development, the decision to close institutions around the world was made. To continue imparting education and delivering the learning material to their students, many institutions adopted for digital or E-learning. To support those institutions attempting to digitize their learning during this pandemic, the main aim of this study is to examine the students’ accessibility to and success of E-learning portals. Using the DeLone and McLean (D&M) Model, the study explains the differences between female and male students’ accessibility to E-learning portals. This study compares female and male student groups regarding the usage of the E-learning portal in the higher education context. Using an online google survey, the data were collected from 254 students, including males and females. The study utilized PLS-SEM to perform a multi-group analysis examining female and male student groups. The study found a significant and direct relationship of e-service quality with system use and user satisfaction for females and male student groups. System quality also supported the relationship with user satisfaction. The study further revealed a significant and positive relationship between system use and user satisfaction with E-learning portal success for females and male student groups. This study also concluded that insignificant difference exists in using the E-learning portal between female and male student in higher education institutions.
 
| Patterns of teachers' occupational well-being in four profile groups.
Fit indices for the series of latent profile analyses (LPAs).
Differences in teachers' occupational well-being between the profile groups.
This study examined profiles of teachers’ occupational well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic. The data were collected from 279 Finnish primary school teachers during the spring of 2020. Four groups of teachers were identified by using Latent Profile Analysis: 1) teachers with mediocre stress and work engagement (34.4%); 2) teachers with mediocre stress and lowest work engagement (11.5%); 3) teachers with highest stress and work engagement (26.5%); and 4) teachers with lowest stress and highest work engagement (27.6%). The findings indicated that teachers’ occupational well-being was individually constructed, and there was a diversity with ways how negative and positive aspects of occupational well-being were drawn into patterns. The profile groups were further analyzed with respect to teachers’ experiences of emotional exhaustion, recovery from work, and interactional styles of teaching. The results revealed that during the first few months of the COVID-19 pandemic many teachers experienced occupational stress as well as some increase in stress due to the pandemic. In addition, the findings provided new insights concerning how teachers’ work engagement was perhaps not severely affected during the first few months of the pandemic, and on how different teaching styles were associated specifically with different aspects of occupational well-being.
 
| Four R's professional inquiry model.
Seven weeks into our Spring 2020 semester, the Covid-19 pandemic was wreaking havoc on the world. The pandemic caused immediate shutdowns to schools and universities fundamentally changing how we plan for, teach, guide, and work with students. This paper explores how two first-year Assistant Professors navigated the challenges we faced and the learning opportunities we embraced while continuing our work as teacher educators amid a pandemic-induced shutdown. We employed collective self-study to examine our experiences while transitioning to remote learning with pre-service teachers using Moore’s (2012, 1993, 1989) transactional distance theory as an analytical framework to review our work as teachers in an online setting. We found that educators need to be open to continuous enhancements of instructional practices, there is a need to develop ways to equalize positions between the instructor and students, and we need to be conscious of opportunities students have to demonstrate creativity in their work. As part of this review, we developed and used a Four R’s Professional Inquiry Model (Recognition, Reflection, Reaction, Results) based on Moore’s work to help make meaning of our findings and recommendations for other practitioners.
 
| Trends in students' situational interest, challenge, and frustration over a semester across five time points. The solid line represents the development of situational interest; the dotted line represents the development of situational challenge; and the dashed line represents the development of situational frustration. During Spring 2020, the use of the term "Spring Break" was synonymous with "beginning of COVID-caused course transitions to online instruction." For the solid line of situational interest, for the students who had completed surveys at Times 2, 3, 5, and 6 (n = 22), the ANOVA showed significant differences across these four time points [F (3, 63) = 16.24, p < 0.001, η 2 = 0.44]; pairwise comparisons suggested that situational interest after the online transition were lower than before the online transition; no significant difference in situational interest between Times 2 and 3 or between Times 5 and 6.
In response to the outbreak of COVID-19 the national landscape of higher education changed quickly and dramatically to move “online” in the Spring semester of 2020. While distressing to both faculty and students, it presents a unique opportunity to explore how students responded to this unexpected and challenging learning situation. In four undergraduate STEM courses that incorporated course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs)—which are often focused on discovery learning and laboratory research—we had an existing study in progress to track students' interest development at five time points over the Spring 2020 semester. Via this ongoing study we were able to investigate how students stay engaged in their college science courses when facing unexpected challenges and obstacles to their learning. Longitudinal survey data from 41 students in these CURE courses demonstrated that students' situational interest dropped significantly when their CURE courses unexpectedly shifted from hands-on, discovery-based, and laboratory-based instruction to online instruction. Although we observed a dramatic decline in student interest in general after the CURE courses moved fully online, the decline rates varied across students. Students who were able to make meaningful connections between the learning activities and their personal or career goals were more likely to maintain a higher level of interest in the course. Implications for practice are discussed.
 
| Causal Loop Diagram. Note: B indicates that it is a balance loop. For the purposes of this diagram, positive relationships have no loadings on the connectors.
| Drop-out behaviour by academic period for SIM-1. Note: (A) presents technical training programmes, (B) technology training and (C) professional training. SEM: Total number of dropouts per academic period.
| Behaviour of the economic effects of drop-out for SIM-1. Note: (A) presents technical training programmes, (B) technological training and (C) professional training. C IES: Total cost for the training programmes under study per t. THC: Stranded cost for the family per t. CET: Total cost for the State per t.
| Behaviour of the economic effects of drop-out for SIM-2. Note: (A) presents technical training programmes, (B) technological training and (C) professional training. C IES: Total cost for the training programmes under study per t. THC: Stranded cost for the family per t. CET: Total cost for the State per t.
| Behaviour of the economic effects of drop-out for SIM-3. Note: (A) presents technical training programmes, (B) technological training and (C) professional training. C IES: Total cost for the training programmes under study per t. THC: Stranded cost for the family per t. CET: Total cost for the State per t.
Higher education is one of the ways to overcome social inequalities in rural areas in developing countries. This has led states to develop public policies aimed at access, retention and timely graduation of students in those sectors, yet the high drop-out rates among the rural student population, which were catalysed by COVID-19, prevent the intrinsic and extrinsic benefits of obtaining a higher education degree from materialising. Thus, the study of the phenomenon of dropout before and after the pandemic has not sufficiently addressed the economic issues raised by this phenomenon for the different actors at the educational level. The purpose of this paper is to model the economic effects of rural student dropout at the higher education level for students and families, Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) and the State, based on public policies for access to higher education, in the pandemic and post-pandemic scenario. In order to delimit the operationalisation of the proposed model, a set of undergraduate training programmes in Colombia was taken as a reference. System dynamics was used as the main modelling technique. The model was based on data from the 20 training programmes with the highest number of students enrolled in rural areas for the year 2019, by running three computational simulations. The results showed the description of the dynamic model and the financial effects of dropout for the actors of the educational level with the current policies of access to higher education, the scenario in which COVID-19 would not have occurred and the consolidation of the public policy of tuition fee exemption in public HEIs as a result of the pandemic. It was concluded that the model developed is very useful for the valuation of these economic effects and for decision-making on policies to be implemented, given that the costs of dropout are characterised by high costs for students and their families as well as for HEIs, and where it was determined that current policies are inefficient in preventing and mitigating dropout.
 
Common online platforms and teaching experiences.
The challenges of online teaching and learning during the COVID-19 pandemic.
The advantages of online teaching and learning during the COVID-19 pandemic.
COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted teaching in a vriety of institutions. It has tested the readiness of academic institutions to deal with such abrupt crisis. Online learning has become the main method of instruction during the pandemic in Jordan. After 4 months of online education, two online surveys were distributed to investigate faculty’s and Students’ perception of the learning process that took place over that period of time with no face to face education. In this regard, the study aimed to identify both faculty’s and students’ perceptions of online learning, utilizing two surveys one distributed to 50 faculty members and another 280 students were selected randomly to explore the effectiveness, challenges, and advantages of online education in Jordan. The analysis showed that the common online platforms in Jordan were Zoom, Microsoft Teams offering online interactive classes, and WhatsApp in communication with students outside the class. The study found that both faculty and students agreed that online education is useful during the current pandemic. At the same time, its efficacy is less effective than face-to-face learning and teaching. Faculty and students indicated that online learning challenges lie in adapting to online education, especially for deaf and hard of hearing students, lack of interaction and motivation, technical and Internet issues, data privacy, and security. They also agreed on the advantages of online learning. The benefits were mainly self-learning, low costs, convenience, and flexibility. Even though online learning works as a temporary alternative due to COVID-19, it could not substitute face-to-face learning. The study recommends that blended learning would help in providing a rigorous learning environment.
 
| Use of paper and technology (Edify Education Task Force, 2020).
Types of educational support by geographic area.
Educational supports provided.
In early 2020, the rapid spread of the COVID-19 pandemic was an unprecedented shock to the global education system, resulting in most educational institutions closing their doors and turning to various forms of remote learning to ensure continuous education for their communities. Since the world has not experienced this scale of school closure before, the goal of this study was to explore what, if anything, non-state schools (NNSs) were doing to support remote learning that may help them to prepare for future events that curtail education. In May 2020, Edify, an international non-governmental organization (INGO) operating in eleven nations in Latin America (LATAM), Sub-Saharan Africa and India conducted a telephone survey with a stratified random sample of 388 school leaders. Since the extent learning had continued across contexts was relatively unknown, the survey aimed to inform the organization's current and future responses to the COVID-19 pandemic and potential future educational interruptions. In addition to identifying the various uses of technology and possible innovations as to how non-state schools can respond when a crisis impacts their operating status, this paper describes three areas of concern expressed by the school leaders: (1) the health and safety of children and adults in their schools; (2) the various challenges of maintaining financial sustainability; and (3) the learning loss of students from the lack of preparedness for such a massive interruption in their school's normal operations.
 
The COVID-19 pandemic has fundamentally altered the pre-clerkship, clerkship, and research experiences for medical students. Although these changes impact all specialties, we highlight the unique challenges faced by neurology education and discuss methods by which our institution is adapting to these changes at the epicenter of the pandemic in the U.S. We include a few examples of how some neurology departments around the country have altered their teaching methods in the COVID-19 era and capitalize on lessons learned by proposing new strategies for moving neurology education forward.
 
| Educational policy development.
| Clark's triangle of forces within higher education.
| Johari Window of self-awareness.
| Shark diagram of Crisis Management.
This paper takes a retrospective view of the year 2020, with a focus on how Higher Education policy development was undertaken on a Transnational Education (TNE) program between the University of Glasgow (UofG) and the University of Electronics, Science and Technology in Chengdu (UESTC), China in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. It explores the approach to policy development under normal circumstances, contrasting this with the approach taken during the emergence of the epidemic and how the unfolding situation impacted on those policies. It demonstrates how the application of management tools for scenario planning and crisis management can be used effectively to develop a clear and prescriptive policy for staff. It also demonstrates how the use of such tools, combined with careful analysis and planning, can minimize disruption to student learning, teaching, and assessment. The paper then goes on to explain the creation and implementation of policies addressing three main areas: learning and teaching, Final Year Projects, and assessment. Finally, it reflects on the student and staff perspectives on the policies, considering how this information might be used to enhance the policy development process in future.
 
| Change in children's screen use.
| Change in children's sleep duration.
| Change in children's physical activity.
Between-group differences in caregivers' perception of change in children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms before and during the lockdown.
The implementation of social distancing measures (e.g., school closures) by governments worldwide to prevent the spread of COVID-19 has affected millions of children and their families. However, the consequences of such measures on the wellbeing of children with special educational needs (SEN) and their caregivers are not fully understood. The present study examined the socioemotional wellbeing and daily habits of children between 5 and 12 years old with SEN during the first national COVID-19 lockdown in the United Kingdom. Participants were 995 caregivers between 18 and 61 years old living in the United Kingdom who completed a 20 -min electronic survey on child and family wellbeing distributed via social networks between July and August 2020. The findings showed that children with SEN were more likely to experience more emotional and behavioral difficulties during the lockdown than children without SEN. Children with SEN but without mental health difficulties did not have more behavior difficulties during the lockdown than children without SEN. There was a significant increase in screen time and decrease in sleep time for children with and without SEN during the lockdown, but children with SEN were using screens more often than children without SEN both before and during the lockdown. Finally, caregivers with children with SEN reported more difficulty with the confinement than caregivers with children without SEN, but caregiver and child poor mental health were likely to explain the difference. The findings show that the wellbeing of children with SEN was more likely to be negatively affected by the lockdown than the wellbeing of children without SEN. Caregiver and child mental health were likely to explain the differences.
 
The era of COVID-19 compelled universities to design and deliver courses online. However, the successful design and delivery of online courses should embrace community. This study correlates the actual use of text interaction in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) virtual classes (VC) and its impact on the sense of virtual community (SOVC). To achieve the study’s goal, three groups of preparatory year (PY) students at Najran University studying online through Blackboard in the era of COVID-19 represent the participants. The study used data sources of the analysis of nine archival data of Reading course, Listening and Speaking course, and Writing course VC using Schullo model and the SOVC questionnaire adopted from Koh and Kim and an individual interview of nine instructors to get thorough interpretations of text interaction during VC. The study provided detailed information about what type(s) of text interaction participants used in EFL virtual classrooms. It also explored the impact of VC text interaction on EFL students’ SOVC. The study found that text interaction in EFL VC enhanced students’ SOVC. The findings supported that text interaction had both academic and social values. The study contributed to the theory of SOVC and brought recommendations on how educators can take advantage of VC text interaction in the EFL context.
 
Descriptive results for participants' satisfaction of AEL VPD coordination.
Descriptive statistics to explore satisfaction of the technological tools used in the AEL VPD.
COVID-19 pandemic was and continues to be a shock and a challenge to the entire world. This health and safety challenge found its way into the world of higher education, even in programs that were already delivered in online environments. In this study, we examined the perceptions of 79 developing principals enrolled in a Master of Education Degree program in Educational Administration at Texas A&M University in the United States as they processed the efficacy of a virtual professional development (VPD) leadership for a state certificate in Advancing Educational Leadership (AEL). The state agency has required AEL as a 3-day state-mandated face-to-face training which is a basic requirement for school leaders who evaluate teachers. In fact, per state policy, AEL was delivered in a face-to-face format since it began in 2015, but was transformed to a VPD format in 2020, for the first time, as a response to safety concerns resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic. The Texas Education Agency indicated that the training would go back to a face-to-face format after Fall 2021; however, recently the Agency determined that virtual training could continue, along with face-to-face. Initially, this study was conducted to add information to the policy consideration as to whether to leave the option open for university principal preparation programs to offer the AEL virtually or face-to-face; however, with the alteration of the policy and with the findings of the study, we now provide empirical support, based on a a concurrent triangulation mixed methods design, for the Agency’s policy action. This study might be the first published in support of this AEL training policy.
 
Research methods courses are a critical component of teaching the applications of evidence based practice in the health professions. With the shift to online learning during the Covid-19 pandemic, new possibilities for teaching research methods have emerged. This case study compares two 5-week asynchronous online graduate level research methods courses in the field of Communication Sciences and Disorders. One online section of the course used traditional methods (TDL) common in face-to-face courses with recorded slide-based lectures, written discussion forums, and a final presentation. The other online section of the course used project-based learning (PBL), which consisted of weekly projects that forced students to engage with the literature and work both collaboratively and autonomously. We measured students’ research self-efficacy and course satisfaction before and after their courses. Overall, research self-efficacy was higher for the TDL class at both time points. However, the PBL class showed a higher percent increase in research self-efficacy, specifically for more difficult and unfamiliar tasks like statistical analysis. Students in both courses were equally satisfied with their course and instructor; however, students in the PBL class reported a greater workload and level of difficulty. We interpret the results as showing benefits of PBL in facilitating greater engagement with the research literature and course content; while TDL had advantages in students’ confidence with the course, likely due to familiarity with the instructional format.
 
| Theoretical model.
Confirmatory factor analysis.
Descriptive statistics and correlation analysis.
The COVID-19 epidemic has wreaked havoc on the economics of several countries. Downsizing, job shortages, and unemployment are among the significant effects. The markets are supported by the need to train and educate our youth to be job producers rather than job seekers. This study sought to investigate the role of universities in the formation of students’ attitudes toward entrepreneurship by analyzing the influence of locus of control, extracurricular activities, and curriculum on entrepreneurial intention among Pakistani university students. This study collected data from 536 students across 15 universities in Pakistan through a weblink questionnaire. SPSS and AMOS were used to test the theoretical model. Results confirmed that locus of control positively affects entrepreneurial intentions and is the strongest predictor among the other two variables. Extracurricular activities positively affect entrepreneurial intentions, and curriculum is also positively affecting entrepreneurial intentions. This study concluded that entrepreneurial education and acquaintance are essential in bringing entrepreneurial intentions among students. Locus of control is found to be the most substantial element in developing entrepreneurial intentions among students. Educational institutions can play a critical role by proactively contributing through their efficient and proficient curricula, professional and experienced teachers, and locus of control by combining curricular and co-curricular activities.
 
Top-cited authors
Jason M Lodge
  • The University of Queensland
Chantal Roddy
  • Monash University (Australia)
Walter Herzog
  • Universität Bern
Elena Makarova
  • University of Basel
Belinda Aeschlimann
  • Swiss Federal University for Vocational Education and Training