Free Radical Research

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Online ISSN: 1029-2470
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Article
In the present study we investigated the specificity and sensitivity of the chemiluminescence (CL) dye and luminol analogue 8-amino-5-chloro-7-phenylpyrido[3,4-d]pyridazine-1,4-(2H,3H) dione (L-012) to detect reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide, peroxynitrite and hydrogen peroxide in cell free systems as well as in isolated mitochondria. The results obtained by L-012 were compared with other CL substances such as luminol, lucigenin, coelenterazine and the fluorescence dye dihydroethidine. The results indicate that the L-012-derived chemiluminescence induced by superoxide from hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase (HX/XO) or by 3-morpholino sydnonimine (SIN-1)-derived peroxynitrite largely depends on the incubation time. Irrespective of the experimental conditions, L-012-derived CL in response to HX/XO and SIN-1 was 10-100 fold higher than with other CL dyes tested. In a cell-free system, authentic peroxynitrite yielded a higher L-012-enhanced CL signal than authentic superoxide and the superoxide-induced signal in cell-free as well as isolated mitochondria increased in the presence of equimolar concentrations of nitrogen monoxide (NO). The superoxide signal/background ratio detected by L-012-enhanced CL in isolated mitochondria with blocked respiration was 7 fold higher than that obtained by the superoxide sensitive fluorescence dye dihydroethidine. We conclude that L-012-derived CL may provide a sensitive and reliable tool to detect superoxide and peroxynitrite formation in mitochondrial suspensions.
 
Article
Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 )-induced hepatotoxicity is likely the result of a CCl4 -induced free radical production which causes membrane lipid peroxidation and activation of transcription factors regulating both the TNF-alpha gene and the early-immediate genes involved in tissue regeneration. IRFI 042 is a novel vitamin E-like compound having a masked sulphydryl group in the aliphatic side chain. We studied the effect of IRFI 042 on CCl4 -induced liver injury. Liver damage was induced in male rats by an intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 (1 ml/kg in vegetal oil). Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity, liver malondialdehyde (MAL), hydroxyl radical formation (OH*), calculated indirectly by a trapping agent, hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration, plasma TNF-alpha, liver histology and hepatic mRNA levels for TNF-alpha were evaluated 48 h after CCl4 administration. Hepatic vitamin E (VE) levels were evaluated, in a separate group of animals, 2 h after CCl4 injection. A control group with vitamin E (100 mg/kg) was also treated in order to evaluate the differences versus the analogue treated groups. Intraperitoneal injection of carbon tetrachloride produced a marked increase in serum ALT activity (CCl4 = 404.61 +/- 10.33 U/L; Controls= 28.54 +/- 4.25 U/L), liver MAL (CCl4 = 0.67 +/- 0.16 nmol/mg protein; Controls= 0.13 +/- 0.06 nmol/mg protein), OH(7) levels assayed as 2,3-DHBA (CCl4 = 8.73 +/- 1.46 microM; Controls= 0.45 +/- 0.15 microM) and 2,5-DHBA (CCl4 = 24.61 +/- 3.32 microM; Controls= 2.75 +/- 0.93 microM), induced a severe depletion of GSH (CCl4 = 3.26 +/- 1.85 micromol/g protein; Controls= 17.82 +/- 3.13 micromol/g protein) and a marked decrease in VE levels (CCl4 = 5.67 +/- 1.22 nmol/g tissue; Controls= 13.47 +/- 3.21 nmol/g tissue), caused liver necrosis, increased plasma TNF-alpha levels (CCl4 = 57.36 +/- 13.24 IU/ml; Controls= 7.26 +/- 2.31 IU/ml) and enhanced hepatic mRNA for TNF-alpha (CCl4 = 19.22 +/- 4.38 a.u.; Controls= 0.76 +/- 0.36 a.u.). IRFI 042 (100 mg/kg, 30 min after CCl4 injection) blunted liver MAL (0.32 +/- 0.17 nmol/mg protein), decreased the serum levels of ALT (128.71 +/- 13.23 U/L), and restored the hepatic concentrations of VE (9.52 +/- 3.21 nmol/g tissue), inhibited OH* production (2,3-DHBA= 3.54 +/- 1.31 microM; 2,5-DHBA= 7.37 +/- 2.46 microM), restored the endogenous antioxidant GSH (12.77 +/- 3.73 mmol/g protein) and improved histology. Furthermore IRFI 042 treatment suppressed plasma TNF-alpha concentrations (31.47 +/- 18.25 IU/ml) and hepatic TNF-alpha mRNA levels (11.65 +/- 3.21 a.u.). The acute treatment with vitamin E failed to exert any protective effect against CCl4 -induced hepatotoxicity. These investigations suggest that IRFI 042 treatment may be of benefit during free radical-mediated liver injury.
 
Article
The spin trapping ability of the nitrones 2,4-disulphophenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrone (NXY-059), 2-sulphophenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrone (S-PBN) and alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN) for both hydroxyl and methanol radicals was investigated using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The radicals of interest were generated in situ in the spectrometer under constant flow conditions in the presence of each nitrone. The spin adducts formed were detected by EPR spectroscopy. This approach allowed for quantitative comparison of the EPR spectra of the spin adducts of each nitrone. The results obtained showed that NXY-059 trapped a greater number of hydroxyl and methanol radicals than the other two nitrones, under the conditions studied.
 
Article
The nitrones alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN), sodium 2-sulfophenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrone (S-PBN) and disodium 2,4-disulfophenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrone (NXY-059) are neuroprotective in a variety of rodent models. The objective of the current studies was to compare the ability of PBN, S-PBN, and NXY-059 to form radical adducts and to prevent salicylate oxidation in an aqueous system. For the electron spin resonance (ESR) studies, hydroxyl radicals were generated with ultraviolet (UV) light and hydrogen peroxide. Secondary radicals were then produced by the addition of methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, dimethylsulfoxide, tetrahydrofuran or 1,4-dioxane. In addition, competition spin trapping studies were performed using PBN-alpha-(13) C and either S-PBN or NXY-059. In the salicylate studies, PBN, S-PBN and NXY-059 were compared to a variety of other antioxidants and reference compounds (cysteine, glutathione, ascorbate, uric acid, Tempo, Trolox, and Tirilizad) for their ability to prevent 2,3- and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid formation induced by hydroxyl radical generating systems. All 3 nitrones trapped carbon- and oxygen-centered radicals to produce ESR-detectable radical adducts. Each nitrone also prevented salicylate oxidation, with PBN being the most effective. The ability of these 3 nitrones to prevent salicylate oxidation resembled that of most of the other compounds tested.
 
Article
We investigated the antioxidative property of T-0970, a newly synthesized ureidophenol derivative. The inhibitory effect of T-0970 on spontaneous lipid peroxidation in rat brain was 10 times greater than those of well-known antioxidants such as butylhydroxytoluene (BHT), probucol and alpha-tocopherol. T-0970 also showed dose-dependent free radical scavenging activities in vitro for both superoxide anions and hydroxyl radicals. The radical-scavenging potencies of T-0970 were about 10-30 times stronger than those of BHT. We evaluated the in vivo antioxidative ability of T-0970 in the animal model of acute oxidative tissue injury in rats. Intraperitoneal injection of ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe/NTA) caused an acute and remarkable increase in the level of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) in both plasma and the liver, and also resulted in a considerable elevation of the plasma levels of GOT and GPT indicative of hepatic injury. Both oral and intravenous administration of T-0970 dose-dependently depressed these diagnostic parameters. These results indicate that T-0970 may have a therapeutic potential in various diseases associated with oxidative tissue injury.
 
Article
Approaching living systems, aqueous solutions are appropriate to characterize antioxidants, whereas the frequently used standard 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) is insoluble in water. Therefore, mixed water-ethanol solvents were investigated using the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Two forms of DPPH were identified: at higher ethanol ratios a quintet spectrum characteristic of solutions, and at lower ratios, a singlet spectrum typical for solid DPPH, were found. Mixed solvents with 0-50% (v/v) water reproduced the same antioxidant equivalent points well and the reaction rate between DPPH and the antioxidant may increase considerably with increasing water ratios, as demonstrated using vitamin E as an antioxidant. But at still higher water ratios (70-90% (v/v)) the antioxidant activities dropped, since a part of the DPPH in the aggregated form does not react sufficiently with the antioxidants. Characteristics of the most common antioxidants were determined in ethanol or its 50% (v/v) aqueous solution.
 
Article
The capacity of non-illuminated nephrotoxin orellanine ([2,2'-bipyridine]-3,3',4,4'-tetrol-1,1'-dioxide) to induce DNA damage in the presence of ferrous iron and dioxygen has been evaluated. Maximal single-strand breaks in plasmid DNA were obtained with a metal to ligand ratio 1:3. Instantaneous oxidation of Fe2+ in presence of orellanine under air was responsible for oxy-radical production concomitant to a stable ferric complex Fe(III)Or3 formation, leading to oxidative DNA breakage at physiological pH. DNA damage was lowered in the presence of SOD and catalase or DMSO, indicating a set of reactions that leads to oxy-radical generation. Iron chelators such as DTPA and EDTA had no protecting effect, Desferal slightly protected. GSH acted as an oxy-radical scavenger, whereas cysteine induced stronger damage. Closely related bipyridine compounds were also studied in presence of Fe2+ and O2 using a combination of spin-trapping and DNA-nicking experiments, none of which were able to chelate iron and induce damage at pH 7. Both catecholic moieties and aminoxide groups are required for observing breakage at physiological pH.
 
Detection of malondialdehyde (MDA) DNA adducts after mass tagging by MALDI-TOFMS in MDA-treated, NaBH 4-reduced calf thymus DNA. The exact masses are as follows: M 1 dG (581.166); M 1 dA (583.182); M 2 dG (653.187); M 3 dC (667.192); M 3 dA (693.219). 
Article
Diet has been shown to modulate M(1)dG adduct, a biomarker of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. Thus, we analysed the association between diet and M(1)dG in 120 controls and 67 Map Ta Phut industrial estate workers in Rayong, Thailand, to evaluate the influence of fruit and vegetables, and fried and charcoal-grilled/barbecued food consumption on M(1)dG. M(1)dG was decreased in controls reporting to consume 14-17 servings/week of fruit and vegetables (mean ratio [MR]= 0.35, CI 0.18-0.69, p< 0.05). Conversely, a non-statistically significant M(1)dG increment was detected in controls consuming 9-18 servings/week of fried food (MR = 1.33, CI 0.88-2.00, p = 0.168). No effect of charcoal-grilled/barbecued food was found. No effect of diet was observed in workers. An association with smoking was observed in controls (MR = 1.88, CI 1.14-3.10, p < 0.05), but not in workers. M(1)dG can induce mutations and/or methylation changes within the promoter regions of cancer-related genes, thus promotion of healthy eating practices should be recommended.
 
Article
This study was undertaken to investigate the inducibility of glutathione (GSH), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) by 3H-1,2-dithiole-3-thione (D3T) in beta-cells, and the resultant cytoprotection against oxidant injury. Incubation of the insulin-secreting RINm5F cells with D3T led to significant induction of GSH, GR and GPx. D3T-mediated induction of GSH was abolished by buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), suggesting a critical involvement of gamma-glutamylcysteine ligase (gammaGCL). Consistently, incubation of RINm5F cells with D3T resulted in increased expression of gammaGCL protein and mRNA. Pretreatment of RINm5F cells with D3T provided remarkable protection against oxidant-elicited cytotoxicity. On the other hand, depletion of cellular GSH by BSO sensitized RINm5F cells to oxidant injury. Furthermore, cotreatment of RINm5F cells with BSO to reverse D3T-mediated GSH induction abolished the cytoprotective effects of D3T on oxidant injury. Taken together, this study demonstrates that upregulation of glutathione system by D3T is effective for protecting against oxidative beta-cell injury.
 
Article
Monoamine oxidase (MAO) B is a mitochondrial enzyme selectively involved in the oxidative activation of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) neurotoxin to toxic pyridinium cations producing Parkinsonism in animal models. Various synthesized 5-nitroindazoles, 6-nitroindazole and the neuroprotectant 7-nitroindazole were examined as inhibitors of MAO and as antioxidants and radical scavengers. The oxidation of MPTP by human MAO-B and mitochondria was assessed by HPLC. Simple nitroindazoles inhibited MPTP oxidation to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-2,3-dihydropyridinium (MPDP(+)) and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) in a competitive and reversible manner. 5-Nitroindazole (IC(50)=0.99 microM, K(i)=0.102 microM) and 6-nitroindazole (IC(50)=2.5 microM) were better inhibitors of human MAO-B than 7-nitroindazole (IC(50)=27.8 microM). 6-Nitroindazole also inhibited MAO-A. Nitroindazole isomers were good hydroxyl radical (OH(*)) scavengers, with 5-nitro-, 6-nitro- and 7-nitroindazole showing similar activity (k approximately 10(10) M(-1) s(-1)). Neuroprotective actions of nitroindazoles (7-nitroindazole) could be linked to their MAO-inhibitory and antiradical properties besides inhibition on nitric oxide synthase (NOS). 5-Nitro- and 6-nitroindazole, previously reported as weak NOS inhibitors, were better inhibitors of human MAO-B and more active against MPTP neurotoxin oxidation (lower MPDP(+) and MPP(+) levels) than 7-nitroindazole and acted as good radical scavengers and could be potential neuroprotective agents in addition to MAO-B inhibitors.
 
Article
The one-electron reduction potential of 3-amino-1,2,4-benzotriazine 1,4-dioxide, tirapazamine (SR 4233) in aqueous solution has been determined by pulse radiolysis. Reversible electron transfer was achieved between radiolytically-generated one-electron reduced radicals of tirapazamine (T), and quinones or benzyl viologen as redox standards. The reduction potential Em7(T/T-) was -0.45 +/- 0.01 V vs. NHE at pH 7 From the pH dependence of the reduction potential, pKa = 5.6 +/- 0.2 was estimated for the tirapazamine radical, a value similar to the pKa determined by other methods.
 
Article
Cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent drug metabolism decreases in vivo and in cultured hepatocytes under various immunostimulatory conditions. Nitric oxide (NO) released during inflammation is presumed to be involved in this phenomenon. CYP3A4, which is abundant in the liver and small intestine and participates in the metabolism of various drugs, is known to be induced by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) in the colon carcinoma cell line Caco-2. In this study we examined whether NO affected CYP3A4 gene expression induced by 1,25(OH)2D3 in Caco-2 cells. Induction of CYP3A4 mRNA by 1,25(OH)2D3 was suppressed in a dose-dependent manner by treatment with the NO donors NOR-4 (15-500 microM) or S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (30 microM-1 mM), which spontaneously release NO. These results indicated that NO has an inhibitory effect on the induction of CYP3A4 mRNA by 1,25(OH)2D3 in Caco-2 cells. Treatment with the guanylate cyclase inhibitor ODQ failed to prevent the inhibition of induction of CYP3A4 mRNA by 1,25(OH)2D3. 8-Bromo cGMP had no effect on 1,25(OH)2D3-induced CYP3A4 gene expression. Therefore, the suppression of CYP3A4 mRNA by NO might be mediated through a guanylate cyclase-independent pathway.
 
Article
5-(2,2-dimethyl-1,3-propoxy cyclophosphoryl)-5-methyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (CYPMPO), a new cyclic DEPMPO-type nitrone was evaluated for spin-trapping capabilities toward hydroxyl and superoxide radicals. CYPMPO is colorless crystalline and freely soluble in water. Both the solid and diluted aqueous solution did not develop electron spin resonance (ESR) signal for at least 1 month at ambient conditions. CYPMPO can spin-trap superoxide and hydroxyl radicals in both chemical and biological systems, and the ESR spectra are readily assignable. Half life for the superoxide adduct of CYPMPO produced in UV-illuminated hydrogen peroxide solution was approximately 15 min, and in biological systems such as hypoxanthine (HX)/xanthine oxidase (XOD) the half-life of the superoxide adduct was approximately 50 min. In UV-illuminated hydrogen peroxide solution, there was no conversion from the superoxide adduct to the hydroxyl adduct. Although overall spin-trapping capabilities of CYPMPO are similar to DEPMPO, its high melting point, low hygroscopic property, and the long shelf-life would be highly advantageous for the practical use.
 
Article
This work reports the electrochemical oxidation of a series of three synthesized 4-substituted-1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives in different electrolytic media. Also, an EPR characterization of intermediates and the reactivity of derivatives towards ABAP-derived alkyl radicals are reported. Dynamic, differential pulse and cyclic voltammetry studies on a glassy carbon electrode showed an irreversible single-peak due to the oxidation of the 1,4-dihydropyridine (1,4-DHP) ring via 2-electrons to the corresponding pyridine derivative. Levich plots were linear in different media, indicating that the oxidation process is diffusion-controlled. Calculated diffusion coefficients did not exhibit significant differences between the derivatives in the same medium. The oxidation mechanism follows the general pathway (electron, H+, electron, H+) with formation of an unstable pyridinium radical. One-electron oxidation intermediate was confirmed with controlled potential electrolysis (CPE) and EPR experiments. On applying N-tert-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone (PBN) and 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) as the spin trap, these unstable radical intermediates from the oxidation of 1,4-DHP derivatives were intercepted. The final product of the CPE, i.e. pyridine derivative, was identified by GC-MS technique. Direct reactivity of the synthesized compounds towards alkyl radicals was demonstrated by UV-Vis. spectroscopy and GC-MS technique. Results indicate that these derivatives significantly react with the radicals, even compared with a well-known antioxidant drug such as nisoldipine.
 
Article
The present study investigated the role of D-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (DSL) in the spleen tissue of alloxan (ALX) induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in rats by injecting ALX (at a dose of 120 mg/kg body weight) intraperitoneally in sterile normal saline. Elevated levels of blood glucose, glycosylated Hb and TNFα decreased levels of plasma insulin and disturbed intra-cellular antioxidant machineries were detected in ALX exposed animals. Oral administration of DSL at a dose of 80 mg/kg body weight, however, restored these alterations in diabetic rats. Studies on the mechanism of ALX-induced diabetes showed that hyperglycemia caused disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential in the spleen, released cytochrome C in the cytosol, activated caspase 3 and ultimately led to apoptotic cell death. Results suggest that DSL possesses the ability of protecting the spleen tissue from ALX-induced hyperglycemia and thus could act as an anti-diabetic agent in lessening diabetes associated spleen dysfunction.
 
Article
In the present paper, a direct quenching of radical species by a number of synthesized nitrosoaryl 1,4-dihydropyridines and their parent nitroaryl 1,4-dihydropyridines was determined in aqueous media at pH 7.4. These two series of compounds were compared with the C-4 unsubstituted 1,4-dihydropyridines derivatives and the corresponding C-4 aryl substituted 1,4-dihydropyridines derivatives. Kinetic rate constants were assessed by UV-Vis spectroscopy. Nitrosoaryl derivatives were more reactive than the parent nitroaryl 1,4-dihydropyridines. Our results strongly support the assumption that the reactivity between the synthesized 1,4-dihydropyridines derivatives with alkylperoxyl radicals involves electron transfer reactions, which is documented by the presence of pyridine as final product of reaction and the complete oxidation of the nitroso group to give rise the nitro group in the case of the nitrosoaryl 1,4-dihydropyridines derivatives.
 
Article
Abstract α-Aminocarbonyl metabolites (e.g., 5-aminolevulinic acid and aminoacetone) and the wide spectrum microbicide 1,4-diamino-2-butanone (DAB) have been shown to exhibit pro-oxidant properties. In vitro, these compounds undergo phosphate-catalyzed enolization at physiological pH and subsequent superoxide radical-propagated aerobic oxidation, yielding a reactive α-oxoaldehyde and H2O2. DAB cytotoxicity to pathogenic microorganisms has been attributed to the inhibition of polyamine biosynthesis. However, the role played in cell death by reactive DAB oxidation products is still poorly understood. This work aims to clarify the mechanism of DAB-promoted pro-oxidant action on mammalian cells. DAB (0.05-10 mM) treatment of RKO cells derived from human colon carcinoma led to a decrease in cell viability (IC50 ca. 0.3 mM DAB, 24 h incubation). Pre-addition of either catalase (5 µM) or aminoguanidine (20 mM) was observed to partially inhibit the toxic effects of DAB to the cells, while N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC, 5 mM) or reduced glutathione (GSH, 5 mM) provided almost complete protection against DAB. Changes in redox balance and stress response pathways were indicated by the increased expression of HO-1, NQO1 and xCT. Moreover, the observation of caspase 3 and PARP cleavage products is consistent with DAB-triggered apoptosis in RKO cells, which was corroborated by the partial protection afforded by the pan caspase inhibitor z-VAD-FMK. Finally, DAB treatment disrupted the cell cycle in response to increased p53 and activation of ATM. Altogether, these data support the hypothesis that DAB exerts cytotoxicity via a mechanism involving not only polyamine biosynthesis but also by DAB oxidation products.
 
Article
Redox cycling is believed to be the most general molecular mechanism of quinone (Q) cytotoxicity. Along with redox cycling induced by a reductase, a similar process is known to occur via electron transfer from ascorbate (AscH-) to Q with formation of a semiquinone radical (Q.-): (1) Q + AscH- (k1)--> Q.- + Asc.- + H+ (2) Q.- + O2 --> Q + O2.-. The net effect of reactions (1) and (2) provides for the catalytic oxidation of AscH-, with Q serving as a catalyst. In this work, the kinetics of oxygen consumption accompanying this process were studied with several substituted 1,4-benzoquinones (BQ) at 37 degrees C in phosphate buffer, pH 7.40, using the Clark electrode technique. The value of k1 determined from the initial rate of oxygen consumption was typically found to increase when the one-electron reduction potential E(Q/Q.-) shifted to more positive values. With Q, for which E(Q/Q.-) is less than -100 mV, the rate of oxygen uptake (R(OX)) was found to be directly correlated with the [Q][AscH-] value independent of the concentration of individual reagents, remaining constant for a long period. With mono- and dialkyl-substituted 1,4-BQs, for which E(Q/Q.-) is higher than -100 mV, significant deviations from the above simple kinetic regularities were observed. In particular, R(OX) decreased dramatically with time and critical phenomena (the existence of certain concentrations of Q and/or AscH- above or below which the catalytic oxidation of AscH- ceased completely after a non-stationary period of short duration) were observed. These abnormalities can be explained on the basis of the kinetic scheme which contains, in addition to reactions (1) and (2), several side reactions including that between Q.- and AscH-. Implications of critical phenomena discovered in this study for the problems of Q toxicity and vitamin C avitaminosis are discussed.
 
Article
Semiquinone membrane/buffer partition coefficients have been determined for 1,2-naphthosemiquinone (ONQ.-), 1,4-naphthosemiquinone (NQ.-) and two of its hydroxylated derivatives, 5,8-dihydroxy-1,4-naphthosemiquinone (NZQ.-) and 5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthosemiquinone (JQ.-) as a function of membrane charge in multilamellar vesicles of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and equimolar mixtures of this lipid and phosphatidic acid (PC:PA) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (PC:CTAB) at physiological pH with the exception of values corresponding to PC:PA mixtures which were obtained at pH 9. These coefficients follow the order PC:PA < PC < PC:CTAB in agreement with the negative charge of the semiquinones. The disproportionation equilibria of the naphthosemiquinone derivatives are shifted to the semiquinone in the presence of neutral and positive membranes, being more pronounced in the latter. However, very low partition coefficients as well as small shifts in the semiquinone disproportionation equilibrium were observed for ONQ.- as compared to the other semiquinones. No partition of 1,4-benzosemiquinone (BQ.-) into the lipid phase was detected for either charged or neutral lipid membranes. The presence of lipid membranes decreases the BQ.- equilibrium concentration in the presence of all the types of membranes considered here.
 
Article
1,4-Benzoquinone, coenzyme Q0 and Q10 were reacted with a series of hydrogen donors in the ESR cavity in the presence or absence of UVA irradiation. The signals of the radicals generated from the hydrogen donors or of those of the semiquinones were detected. The reaction mechanism was interpreted by a hydrogen atom transfer instead of the usual electron transfer mechanism on the basis of the redox potentials of the reactants and the Marcus theory. The hydrogen atom transfer is explained by the excited triplet state of quinones, which, on the basis of quantum mechanic calculations, may be reached even under visible light. In some cases, hydrogen atom transfer was also observed without irradiation, although to a lesser extent.
 
Article
The present study investigated whether combination of resveratrol and 4-amino 1,8 naphthalimide (4-ANI) is effective in the development of diabetic neuropathy (DN). After 6 weeks of diabetes induction, rats were treated for 2 weeks with resveratrol and 4-amino 1,8 naphthalimide (4-ANI) either alone or in combination. Experimental end points included functional, behavioural and biochemical parameters along with PAR immunohistochemistry and were performed at the end of treatment. Combination of resveratrol (10 mg/kg) and 4-ANI (3 mg/kg) attenuated conduction and nerve blood flow deficits and resulted in amelioration of diabetic neuropathic pain. Significant reversal of biochemical alterations (peroxynitrite, MDA and NAD levels) were also observed, as well as PAR accumulation in the sciatic nerve. This study suggests the beneficial effect of combining resveratrol and 4-ANI in experimental diabetic neuropathy.
 
Article
Ancient finds of organic matter are not only of the highest value for palaeochemists and palaeobiologists but can be used to determine basic chemical reactions, such as protein oxidation, over long time periods. We studied oxidation of human hair protein about one thousand years old of an Alaskan child buried in ice, ten hair samples of copts of comparable age buried in graves of hot dry sand and compared the results to ten recent hair samples. Protein oxidation parameters o-tyrosine and cysteic acid of the Alaskan child were comparable to recent samples whereas they were higher in the coptic specimen. N-epsilon-carboxymethyllysine, a parameter for glycoxidation, however, was as high in coptic specimen. We conclude that ice in contrast to soil prevented protein oxidation but failed to inhibit glycoxidation, a reaction initiated by autooxidation of glucose. This study therefore has implications for the interpretation of oxidation and glycoxidation as well as preservation mechanisms of proteins.
 
Article
The objective of this study was to determine whether administration of a catalytic antioxidant, Mn(III) tetrakis(N,N'-diethylimidazolium-2-yl) porphyrin, AEOL10150, reduces the severity of long-term lung injury induced by fractionated radiation (RT). Fisher 344 rats were randomized into five groups: RT+AEOL10150 (2.5 mg/kg BID), AEOL10150 (2.5 mg/kg BID) alone, RT+ AEOL10150 (5 mg/kg BID), AEOL10150 (5 mg/kg BID) alone and RT alone. Animals received five 8 Gy fractions of RT to the right hemithorax. AEOL10150 was administered 15 min before RT and 8 h later during the period of RT treatment (5 days), followed by subcutaneous injections for 30 days, twice daily. Lung histology at 26 weeks revealed a significant decrease in lung structural damage and collagen deposition in RT+AEOL10150 (5 mg/kg BID) group, in comparison to RT alone. Immunohistochemistry studies revealed a significant reduction in tissue hypoxia (HIF1alpha, CAIX), angiogenic response (VEGF, CD-31), inflammation (ED-1), oxidative stress (8-OHdG, 3-nitrotyrosine) and fibrosis pathway (TGFbeta1, Smad3, p-Smad2/3), in animals receiving RT+ AEOL10150 (5 mg/kg BID). Administration of AEOL10150 at 5 mg/kg BID during and after RT results in a significant protective effect from long-term RT-induced lung injury. Low dose (2.5 mg/kg BID) delivery of AEOL10150 has no beneficial radioprotective effects.
 
Article
Previous studies have shown that a variety of mammalian cell types, including macrophages, contain small amounts of redox-active iron in their lysosomes. Increases in the level of this iron pool predispose the cell to oxidative stress. Limiting the availability of intralysosomal redox-active iron could therefore represent potential cytoprotection for cells under oxidative stress. In the present study we have shown that an initial 6 h exposure of J774 macrophages to 30 microM iron, added to the culture medium as FeCl3, increased the lysosomal iron content and their sensitivity to H2O2-induced (0.25 mM for 30 min) oxidative stress. Over time (24-72 h), however, the cells were desensitized to the cytotoxic effects of H2O2; most likely as a consequence of both lysosomal iron exocytosis and of ferritin synthesis (demonstrated by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, autometallography, and immunohistochemistry). When the cells were exposed to a second dose of iron, their lysosomal content of iron increased again but the cells became no further sensitized to the cytotoxic effects of H2O2. Using the lysosomotropic weak base, acridine orange, we demonstrated that after the second exposure to iron and H2O2, lysosomes remained intact and were no different from control cells which were exposed to H2O2 but not iron. These data suggest that the initial induction of ferritin synthesis leads to enrichment of lysosomes with ferritin via autophagocytosis. This limits the redox-availability of intralysosomal iron and, in turn, decreases the cells' sensitivity to oxidative stress. These in vitro observations could also explain why cells under pathological conditions, such as haemochromatosis, are apparently able to withstand high iron concentrations for some time in vivo.
 
Increased in vivo protein oxidation in brain isolated from mice previously treated with adriamycin (20 mg/kg body weight) 72 h post i.p injection compared to brain isolated from saline injected mice. *P , 0. 001, n ¼ 5. (The mean value of 434 arbitrary units for control was taken as 100%).
Increased in vivo protein bound HNE in brain isolated from mice previously treated with adriamycin (20 mg/kg body weight) 72 h post i.p. injection, compared to brain isolated from saline injected mice. * P , 0.001, n ¼ 5. (The mean value of 526 arbitrary units for control was taken as 100%).
Increased in vivo 3-Nitrotyrosine levels in brain isolated from mice previously treated with adriamycin (20 mg/kg body weight) 72 h post i.p. injection, compared to brain isolated from saline injected mice. *P , 0. 001, n ¼ 5. (The mean value of 152 arbitrary units for control was taken as 100%).
(a) Representative western blot showing increased MRP1 expression in brain isolated from mice injected with adriamycin. (b) Plot showing significant increase in MRP1 levels in brain isolated from mice injected i.p with adriamycin compared to saline injected control mice. * P , 0.05, (The mean value of 272 arbitrary units for control was taken as 100%). 
Article
Adriamycin (ADR) is a chemotherapeutic agent useful in treating various cancers. ADR is a quinone-containing anthracycline chemotherapeutic and is known to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) in heart. Application of this drug can have serious side effects in various tissues, including brain, apart from the known cardiotoxic side effects, which limit the successful use of this drug in treatment of cancer. Neurons treated with ADR demonstrate significant protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation. Patients under treatment with this drug often complain of forgetfulness, lack of concentration, dizziness (collectively called somnolence or sometimes called chemobrain). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that ADR induces oxidative stress in brain. Accordingly, we examined the in vivo levels of brain protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation induced by i.p. injection of ADR. We also measured levels of the multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP1) in brain isolated from ADR- or saline-injected mice. MRP1 mediates ATP-dependent export of cytotoxic organic anions, glutathione S-conjugates and sulphates. The current results demonstrated a significant increase in levels of protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation and increased expression of MRP1 in brain isolated from mice, 72 h post i.p injection of ADR. These results are discussed with reference to potential use of this redox cycling chemotheraputic agent in the treatement of cancer and its chemobrain side effect in brain.
 
Article
Haeme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is often viewed as a cytoprotective gene. Toxic heavy metals induce HO-1, but it is unclear whether particular metal micronutrients also induce HO-1. Hence, the ability of exogenously-added copper, iron and zinc to influence HO-1 expression in HCT-116 cells was evaluated. Under the chosen experimental conditions, only zinc noticeably increased the expression of HO-1 mRNA and protein. Concurrently, zinc decreased non-protein thiol levels to a certain extent, but zinc did not increase the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Moreover, ascorbate and Trolox did not inhibit zinc-induced HO-1 upregulation. In contrast, deferoxamine blunted the induction of HO-1 mRNA, protein, and enzymatic activity caused by zinc. Additionally, N-acetylcysteine and Tiron inhibited zinc-induced HO-1 upregulation and also nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Collectively, these findings suggest that zinc at above normal levels upregulates HO-1 expression in HCT-116 cells in a ROS-independent manner.
 
Article
Abstract Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a stress-responsive enzyme that has antioxidant and cytoprotective functions. However, HO-1 has an oncogenic functions in cancerous or transformed cells. In the present work, we investigated the effects of HO-1 on the expression of p53 induced by 15-deoxy-Δ(12,14)-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) in human breast cancer (MCF-7) cells. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with 15d-PGJ2 led to time-dependent increases in the expression of p53 as well as HO-1. Up-regulation of p53 expression by 15d-PGJ2 was abrogated by si-RNA knock-down of HO-1. In MCF-7 cells transfected with HO-1 si-RNA, 15d-PGJ2 failed to induce expression of p53 as well as HO-1. In addition, HO-1 inducers enhanced the p53 expression and carbon monoxide. We speculated that iron, a by-product of HO-1-catalyzed reactions, could mediated 15d-PGJ2-induced p53 expression. Up-regulation of p53 expression by 15d-PGJ2 was abrogated by the iron chelator desferrioxamine in MCF-7 cells. Iron released from heme by HO-1 activity is mostly in the Fe(2+) form. When MCF-7 cells were treated with the Fe(2+)-specific chelator phenanathroline, 15d-PGJ2-induced p53 expression was attenuated. In addition, levels of the Fe-sequestering protein H-ferritin were elevated in 15d-PGJ2-treated MCF-7 cells. In conclusion, up-regulation of p53 and p21 via HO-1 induction and subsequent release of iron with accumulation of H-ferritin may confer resistance to oxidative damage in cancer cells frequently challenged by redox-cycling anticancer drugs.
 
Article
Abstract The omega-6 fatty acid derivative 15-Deoxy-Δ(12,14)-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) is believed to play a role in cellular protection against oxidative stress in diverse cell systems. However, the cellular mechanisms by which protection is afforded by 15d-PGJ2 are not fully elucidated in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). In this study, we report the finding that 15d-PGJ2 elicited a time and concentration-dependent increase in aldose reductase (AR) expression. This induction was independent of the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) significantly suppressed the increase in expression and promoter activity of AR induced by 15d-PGJ2. Luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that 15d-PGJ2 targets the multiple stress response regions comprising the antioxidant response element in the promoter of the AR gene. 15d-PGJ2-mediated induction of AR promoter activity was potentiated in the presence of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), but not in cells expressing dominant negative Nrf2. Cells treated with 15d-PGJ2 were resistant to oxidant-induced apoptotic cell death by inhibiting production of reactive oxygen species. These effects were significantly attenuated in the presence of an AR inhibitor or small interfering RNA against AR, indicating that AR plays a protective role against oxidative injury. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that activation of PI3K by 15d-PGJ2 increases the expression of AR through Nrf2, and increased AR activity may function as an important cellular response against oxidative injury.
 
Differential fl uorescence intensity (FI) responses of DCFDA and DHR123 diluted in PBS, Plain (Phenol Red Free) DMEM (PM) or Complete (Phenol Red Free) DMEM (CM) resulting from increasing UVA exposure. Fluorescence intensity (FI) was measured using a fl uorimeter as described in Materials and methods. Data presented standard error of the mean, n 6. 
Article
During investigation of UVA-induced oxidative stress in HaCaT keratinocytes with dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR123) and 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCF-DA), exaggerated baseline values were observed within control samples, suggesting a mechanism of probe oxidation and subsequent change in fluorescence intensity (FI) independent of cellular ROS generation. The effects of diluent, UVA pre-treatment and loading protocols upon the FI of the probes have therefore been investigated. The study confirmed the capacity of Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM) to confer fluorescence intensity changes in both probes, most notably DCF-DA. In addition, UVA pre-treatment compromises the effectiveness of DHR123 and DCF-DA to detect ROS generated in a cell-free system. In vitro data shows a greater UVA-induced FI increase in HaCaT cells loaded with probe before rather than after UVA treatment. This study has important implications for future research, the understanding of previous studies and associated confounding effects using DHR123 and DCF-DA as ROS sensitive probes.
 
Article
Free radical production and lipid peroxidation are potentially important mediators in testicular physiology and toxicology. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are global environmental contaminants that cause disruption of the endocrine system in human and animals. The present study was conducted to elucidate the protective role of vitamin C and E against Aroclor 1254-induced changes in Leydig cell steroidogenesis and antioxidant system. Adult male rats were dosed for 30 days with daily intraperitoneal (ip) injection of 2 mg/kg Aroclor or vehicle (corn oil). One group of rats was treated with vitamin C (100 mg/kg bw/day) while the other group was treated with vitamin E (50 mg/kg bw/day) orally, simultaneously with Aroclor 1254 for 30 days. One day after the last treatment, animals were euthanized and blood was collected for the assay of serum hormones such as luteinizing hormone (LH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), prolactin (PRL), triiodothyronine (T(3)), thyroxine (T(4)), testosterone and estradiol. Testes were quickly removed and Leydig cells were isolated in aseptic condition. Purity of Leydig cells was determined by 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD) staining method. Purified Leydig cells were used for quantification of cell surface LH receptors and steroidogenic enzymes such as cytochrome P(450) side chain cleavage enzyme (P(450)scc), 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD) and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17beta- HSD). Leydig cellular enzymatic antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and non-enzymatic antioxidants such as vitamin C and E were assayed. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were also estimated in Leydig cells. Aroclor 1254 treatment significantly reduced the serum LH, TSH, PRL, T(3), T(4), testosterone and estradiol. In addition to this, Leydig cell surface LH receptors, activities of the steroidogenic enzymes such as cytochrome P(450)scc, 3beta-HSD, 17beta-HSD, antioxidant enzymes SOD, CAT, GPX, GR, gamma-GT, GST and non-enzymatic antioxidants such as vitamin C and E were significantly diminished whereas, LPO and ROS were markedly elevated. However, the simultaneous administration of vitamin C and E in Aroclor 1254 exposed rats resulted a significant restoration of all the above-mentioned parameters to the control level. These observations suggest that vitamin C and E have ameliorative role against adverse effects of PCB on Leydig cell steroidogenesis.
 
Article
A flavone glucoside, luteolin-7-O-glucoside (luteolin-7-G) inhibited the formation of pentyl and 7-carboxyheptyl radicals in the reaction of 13-hydroperoxy-9,11-octadecadienoic (13-HPODE) acid with iron(II) ions. The inhibitory effect of luteolin-7-G was diminished in the presence of EDTA. These results indicated that the inhibitory effects of luteolin-7-G occur partly through the chelation of iron ions. Measurement of visible spectra also showed that luteolin-7-G chelates iron ions. On the other hand, luteolin-7-G did not inhibit the reaction under anaerobic conditions, suggesting that oxygen molecules participate in the inhibition. Oxygen consumption measurements showed that the luteolin-7-G/iron ion complexes react with oxygen molecules in competition with 13-HPODE acid, and free iron ions exclusively react with 13-HPODE acid. The reaction of luteolin-7-G/iron ion complexes with oxygen molecules possibly diminishes the formation of pentyl and 7-carboxyheptyl radicals.
 
Article
15-Deacetyl-13-glycine substituted hypocrellin B (GDHB) is a new type of hypocrellin derivative with enhanced red absorption longer than 600 nm and water solubility. When an anaerobic DMSO or DMSO-buffer (pH 7.4) solution of GDHB was illuminated with >470 nm light, a strong electron spin resonance (ESR) signal was formed. The ESR signal was assigned to the semiquinone anion radical of GDHB (GDHB*-) based on a series of experiments. GDHB*- was predominantly photoproducted via the self-electron transfer between the excited- and ground-state species. Decay of this species, both in the presence and absence of electron donor, was consistent with second-order kinetics. In aqueous solution, the TEMPO counter-spin experiment indicated the formation of GDHB*- that could not be detected by ESR method directly. The formation of GDHB*- and hydroquinone of GDHB (GDHBH*-) was also confirmed by spectrometric method. These findings suggested that GDHB was at least a favorable type I phototherapeutic agent.
 
Article
Pyruvate is a well-known scavenger of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In addition, it scavenges superoxide radical (O2.-). However, evidence on its intracellular antioxidant function is meager at present. Hence, we have examined the effectiveness of this metabolite and its ethyl ester against intracellular oxidative damage to the lens under organ culture. Menadione, a redoxcycling quinone, was used to generate the reactive oxygen species (ROS). It was found to inhibit lens metabolism as evidenced by a decrease of ATP. Additionally, tissue oxidation was apparent by loss of glutathione (GSH), and increase in the level of oxidized glutathione (GSSG), coupled with increase of the urea soluble proteins (water insoluble). The overall physiological damage was apparent by the inhibition of the Na+-K+-ATPase dependent cation pump, as evidenced by a decreased rubidium transport. These deleterious effects were attenuated by pyruvate and ethyl-pyruvate. The later was found to be more effective.
 
Immunoreactivity of 4-HNE staining in skin dermal layer. The averages of fl uorescence intensity for 4-HNE activity were measured and calculated using the Image J program. Fluorescence was averaged across skin samples from four mice/group. Each value represents mean SEM. There were no signifi cant diff erences between groups ( p 0.09).
Role of corticosterone in regulating physiological processes in response to stress. 
Fatty acid catabolism and ketogenesis involve 3-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA).
A model of biochemical relationship and associated glutathione metabolism and redox homeostasis. 
Article
Abstract There is evidence that space flight condition-induced biological damage is associated with increased oxidative stress and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. To explore possible mechanisms, changes in gene expression profiles implicated in oxidative stress and in ECM remodeling in mouse skin were examined after space flight. The metabolic effects of space flight in skin tissues were also characterized. STS-135 was launched at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) on a 13 day mission. Female C57BL/6 mice were flown in the Space Shuttle Atlantis (STS-135) using animal enclosure modules (AEMs). Within 3-5 hours after landing, the mice were euthanized and skin samples were harvested for gene array analysis and metabolic biochemical assays. Many genes responsible for regulating production and metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were significantly (p<0.05) altered in the flight group, with fold changes >1.5 compared to AEM control. For ECM profile, several genes encoding matrix and metalloproteinases involved in ECM remodeling were significantly up-/down-regulated following space flight. To characterize the metabolic effects of space flight, global biochemical profiles were evaluated. Of 332 named biochemicals, 19 differed significantly (p<0.05) between space flight skin samples and AEM ground controls, with 12 up-regulated and 7 down-regulated including altered amino acid, carbohydrate metabolism, cell signaling and transmethylation pathways. Collectively, the data demonstrated that space flight condition leads to a shift in biological and metabolic homeostasis as the consequence of increased regulation in cellular antioxidants, ROS production, and tissue remodeling. This indicates that astronauts may be at increased risk for pathophysiologic damage or carcinogenesis in cutaneous tissue.
 
Article
The breakdown of lycopene in the presence of reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species has been studied in order to identify key in vitro intermediates. These compounds may in turn be produced as metabolites in the body and may have significant physiological properties, such as increased antioxidant capacity. We have studied the in vitro degradation of lycopene in solvent, in plasma and in low density lipoprotein, when challenged with freshly generated gaseous cigarette smoke or free radicals generated in situ by S-morpholinosydonimine at 37°C. The emphasis has been to establish the major intermediates and to compare the data with previous studies using different reactants. We have found that (13Z)-lycopene is the major intermediate in both cigarette smoke and S-morpholinosydonimine reactions (representing ≥60% of the converted (all-E)-lycopene at ∼50% depletion). Additionally, (9Z)-lycopene and various (all-E) and (Z)-lycopene epoxides were predominant. Notably, (5Z)-lycopene appeared to be the most stable form of lycopene under the stated conditions. Previous theoretical studies of isomer thermodynamics and rotational energy barriers for carbon double bonds fully support the pattern of isomer production and stability. In contrast to β-carotene studies, nitro-derivatives of lycopene could not be detected. In conclusion, (Z)-lycopene production and (5Z)-lycopene stability may help explain elevated (Z)-lycopene in plasma over (Z)-lycopene content in lycopene-containing foods in the diet.
 
Article
Abstract Esterification by β-apo-14'-carotenoic acid was found to have opposite effects on antioxidant activity for quercetin (at B4', B3' hydroxyl) as for daidzein (at A7 hydroxyl) in phosphatidylcholine liposomes. The daidzein ester had increased activity, while quercetin had a significant decrease in activity. Quantum mechanical calculations within Density Function Theory (DFT) indicate a modest decrease in bond dissociation enthalpy, BDE, for (weakest) hydrogen-oxygen phenolic bond in daidzein from 368.4 kJ∙mol-1 to 367.7 kJ∙mol-1 compared to a significant increase for quercetin from 329.5 kJ∙mol-1 to 356.6 kJ∙mol-1 upon derivatization. These opposite changes in tendency for hydrogen atom transfer from phenolic groups to lipid radicals combined with an increase in A-to-B dihedral angle from 0.0° to 36.4° and in dipole moment from 0.40 D to 6.01 D for quercetin upon derivatization, while less significant for daidzein (36.4° to 36.7°, and 3.26 D to 7.87 D, respectively), together provide a rationale for the opposite effect of esterification on antioxidation.
 
Article
We evaluated the ability of alpha-phenyl-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN) to trap free radicals and to protect the rat myocardium during ischemia and reperfusion. Isolated bicarbonate buffer-perfused hearts (n = 8) were subjected to 20 min global ischemia (37 degrees C) followed by reperfusion with 0.4 to 4.0 mM PBN. Coronary effluent containing the PBN adduct was extracted in toluene. Electron spin resonance analysis of the toluene extract revealed a PBN-hydroxyl adduct. To verify this assignment, a Fenton system was used to generate an authentic PBN-hydroxyl adduct (n = 8), which yielded the same ESR spectra as the reperfusion-derived adduct. The structure of the adduct formed in the Fenton system was confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The ESR parameters of the PBN-hydroxyl adduct were exquisitely sensitive to solvent polarity during extraction of the adduct. Extraction of an authentic PBN-hydroxyl adduct into chloroform, chloroform:methanol, and toluene closely matched the ESR parameters obtained during reperfusion of ischemic myocardium in other animal models. To determine whether PBN could confer any protective effect during ischemia or reperfusion, hearts (n = 8/group) were subjected to 35 min global ischemia at 37 degrees C with the St. Thomas' II cardioplegic solution followed by 30 min reperfusion. Percent recovery (mean +/- SEM) of developed pressure, rate pressure product, and leakage of lactate dehydrogenase during reperfusion in control hearts were 58 +/- 3%, 48 +/- 4% and 3.2 +/- 0.5 IU/15 min/g wet wt. PBN at a concentration of 0.4 mM or 4.0 mM when present either during ischemia alone or reperfusion alone did not exert any effect upon recovery of developed pressure, rate pressure product or post-ischemic enzyme leakage. We conclude that PBN fails to improve contractile recovery and reduce enzyme leakage during reperfusion of myocardium subjected to global ischemia.
 
Article
A new spin trap, 2,2-dimethyl-d6-4-methyl-2H-imidazole-1-oxide-1-15N (lTMIO), was synthesized and characterized. Hyperfine splitting (HFS) constants of spin adduct ESR spectra of this compound with oxygen-centered, carbon-centered, thiyl and sulfite-derived radicals were determined and compared with the data of the unsubstituted compound. The increase in ESR spectral intensity and the accompanying decrease of the spectral linewidth result in resolution of the HFS due to interaction with alpha-protons of alkyl radicals trapped by lTMIO. Trapping of the formate radical in deoxygenated aqueous solution revealed a very low spectral linewidth (delta Bpp = 0.028 mT) of the corresponding adduct. A strong dependence of the ESR spectra on pH was observed when the autoxidation product of sulfite, SO3-, was trapped. The pKa was found to be 5.8 +/- 0.3. In comparison to other nitrones, application of this spin trap provides more detailed information on the structure of the species trapped, especially for carbon-centered radicals.
 
Article
Tryptophan and melatonin are nitrated by peroxynitrite; tryptophan residues in proteins are susceptible to attack by reactive nitrogen species. Nitrated tryptophan might therefore be used as a biomarker for the involvement of reactive species derived from nitrogen oxide in a variety of pathophysiological conditions. The radical character of the tryptophan (Trp) and N-acetyl-L-tryptophan (N-AcTrp) nitration with peroxynitrite is shown using (15)N-CIDNP. During the decay of peroxynitrite-(15)N in the presence of Trp at pH 5 in the probe of a (15)N-NMR spectrometer, the (15)N-NMR signals of various nitrated tryptophans ((15)NO(2)-Trp) show emission (E). The effects are built up in radical pairs [Trp( radical), 15NO2 ](F) formed by diffusive encounters of radicals 15NO2 and Trp( radical) generated during decay of peroxynitrite-(15)N in the presence of Trp. Similar (15)N-CIDNP effects are observed during reaction of Trp and/or N-AcTrp using the nitrating systems H(15)NO(3), H(15)NO(4) and H(2)O(2)/15NO2 /HRP, which are also built up in radical pairs [Trp, 15NO2 ](F). During nitration of melatonin (Mel) with peroxynitrite-(15)N and H(15)NO(4), the (15)N-NMR signal of 4-nitromelatonin (4-(15)NO(2)-Mel) shows emission arising from radical pairs [Mel, 15NO2 ](F) which are formed in an analogous manner.
 
Article
Abstract The reaction of hydroxyl radicals (˙OH) with Aβ1-16 peptide was carried out using pulse radiolysis to understand the effect of oxidation of peptide on its copper binding properties. This reaction produced oxidized, dimeric and trimeric Aβ1-16 peptide species. The formation of these products was established with the help of fluorescence spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The mass spectral data indicate that the major site of oxidation is at His6; while the site for dimerization is at Tyr10. Diethyl pyrocarbonate treated Aβ1-16 peptide did not produce any trimeric species upon oxidation with hydroxyl radicals. The quantitative chemical modification studies indicated that one of the three histidine residues is covalently modified during pulse radiolysis. The copper binding studies of the oxidized peptide revealed that it has similar copper binding properties as the unoxidized peptide. Further, the cytotoxicity studies point out that both oxidized and unoxidized Aβ1-16 peptide are equally efficient in producing free radicals in presence of copper and ascorbate that resulted in comparable cell death.
 
Article
Abstract Previous studies have demonstrated that Deuterohaemin-AlaHisThrValGluLys (DhHP-6), a novel porphyrin-peptide, increases lifespan and enhances stress resistance of Caenorhabditis elegans. To explore the possible mechanisms, in this study we investigated the roles of SIR-2.1 and DAF-16 in DhHP-6's function using wild type and various mutant strains of C. elegans. DhHP-6's effect was dependent upon DAF-16, and it did not extend the lifespan of the loss-of-function daf-16 mutant strain (daf-16(mu86) I). DhHP-6 enhanced DAF-16 translocation from cytoplasm to nuclei; and it increased DAF-16's transcriptional activity, likely by activating the SIR-2.1/DAF-16 complex. DhHP-6's effect was also dependent upon SIR-2.1, and it did not increase the lifespan of the worms with SIR-2.1 deacetylase activity inhibited by niacin amide (SIR-2.1 inhibitor) and SIR-2.1 RNA interference (RNAi). Niacin amide and RNAi increased DAF-16's nuclear localization; but they decreased DAF-16's transcriptional activity, likely by preventing the formation of the SIR-2.1/DAF-16 complex. These results suggest that DhHP-6 extends the lifespan of C. elegans via SIR 2.1 and DAF-16, and they provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of aging.
 
Article
The unique capabilities of EPR spin trapping of nitric oxide based on a ferrous-dithiocarbamate spin trap have been demonstrated in a study verifying the source of the nitrogen and oxygen atoms in nitric oxide produced from activated macrophages. Spin trapping experiments were performed during nitric oxide generation from activated mouse peritoneal macrophages using the ferrous complex of N-methyl D-glucamine dithiocarbamate as a spin trap. When 15N-substituted arginine was given to the activated macrophages in the presence of the spin trap, a characteristic EPR spectrum of the nitric oxide spin adduct was obtained, which indicates the presence of the 15N atom in the nitric oxide molecule. The hyperfine splitting (hfs) constant of the 15N nucleus was 17.6 gauss. When 17O-containing dioxygen (55%) was supplied to the medium, an EPR spectrum consistent with the 17O-substituted nitric oxide spin adduct was observed in the composite spectrum. The hfs of 17O was estimated to be 2.5 gauss. The 14NO spin adduct observed after prolonged incubation in the medium which contains [15N]L-arginine as the only extracellular source of arginine demonstrates that arginine is recycled through its metabolite in activated macrophages.
 
Article
Abstract This study aimed to evaluate whether natural or synthetic steroid hormones could directly modulate the activity of the different superoxide dismutase (SOD) isoforms found in human blood fractions without changing enzyme expression. Enzyme samples of human erythrocytes, the human platelet-rich plasma fraction (PRP) or isolated CuZnSOD, which was purified from human erythrocytes were pre-incubated with natural steroids (17β-estradiol 17-acetate and progesterone) and their synthetic derivatives (β-estradiol 3-benzoate and medroxyprogesterone 17-acetate). Then, CuZn and MnSOD activities were measured using the xanthine/xanthine oxidase/nitroblue tetrazolium method. Hormones had no effect on MnSOD activity from the PRP, but we show for the first time that natural and synthetic steroid hormones have a direct, bell-shaped effect on the activity of CuZnSOD from both male and female human erythrocytes. Low (physiological) hormone concentrations caused a dose-dependent increase in enzyme activity, which disappeared at higher hormone concentrations. In addition, the combination of synthetic and natural estrogens and progestins had a synergistic stimulatory effect on the activity of CuZnSOD from human erythrocytes. The molecular interaction between CuZnSOD and steroid hormones was preliminarily studied. Natural hormones did not change the electrophoretic mobility of SOD under denaturing conditions, but they did increase the absorption spectra of SOD in the 230-290 nm range. These data suggest that hormone-mediated modulation of CuZnSOD is related to subtle changes in protein conformation, possibly related to Trp and Phe residues. We propose that this effect may account for the physiological regulation of enzyme activity during conditions where steroid hormones undergo alterations as the ovulatory cycle.
 
Article
Peroxisomes were isolated from pea (Pisum sativum L.) leaves and the peroxisomal membranes were purified by treatment with Na2CO3. The production of superoxide radicals (O2) induced by NADH was investigated in peroxisomal membranes from intact organelles incubated with proteases (pronase E and proteinase K). Under isoosmotic conditions, in the presence of pronase E, the production of O2-. radicals was inhibited by 80%. SDS-PAGE of peroxisomal membranes after protease treatment demonstrated a decrease in the 18-kDa PMP. This suggests that this polypeptide has a small fragment exposed to the cytosolic side of the peroxisomal membrane which is essential for O2-. production. The 18-kDa PMP was purified by preparative SDS-PAGE and in the reconstituted protein the NADH-driven production of O2-. radicals was investigated. The isolated polypeptide showed a high generation rate of superoxide (about 300 nmol O2-. x mg-1 protein x min-1) which was completely inhibited by 50 mM pyridine. The 18-kDa PMP was recognized by a polyclonal antibody against Cyt b5 from human erythrocytes. The presence of b-type cytochrome in peroxisomal membranes was demonstrated by difference spectroscopy. Results obtained show that in the NADH-dependent O2-. radical generating system of peroxisomal membranes, the 18-kDa integral membrane polypeptide, which appears to be Cyt b5, is clearly involved in superoxide radical production.
 
Article
Methylglyoxal (MG), a physiological alpha-dicarbonyl compound is derived from glycolytic intermediates and produced during the Maillard reaction. The Maillard reaction, a non-enzymatic reaction of ketones and aldehydes with amino group of proteins, contributes to the aging of proteins and to complications associated with diabetes. In our previous studies (Che, et al. (1997) "Selective induction of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor by MG and 3-deoxyglucosone in rat aortic smooth muscle cells. The involvement of reactive oxygen species formation and a possible implication for atherogenesis in diabetes". J. Biol. Chem., 272, 18453-18459), we reported that MG elevates intracellular peroxide levels, but the mechanisms for this remain unclear. Here, we report that MG inactivates bovine glutathione peroxidase (GPx), a major antioxidant enzyme, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The use of BIAM labeling, it was showed that the selenocysteine residue in the active site was intact when GPx was incubated with MG. MALDI-TOF-MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry) and protein sequencing examined the possibility that MG modifies arginine residues in GPx. The results show that Arg 184 and Arg 185, located in the glutathione binding site of GPx was irreversively modified by treatment with MG. Reactive dicarbonyl compounds such as 3-deoxyglucosone, glyoxal and phenylglyoxal also inactivated GPx, although the rates for this inactivation varied widely. These data suggest that dicarbonyl compounds are able to directly inactivate GPx, resulting in an increase in intracellular peroxides which are responsible for oxidative cellular damage.
 
Article
MCI-186 (3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one) is a newly developed antioxidant which has been shown to reduce brain edema in cerebral ischemia through inhibition of the lipoxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid. However, its effect on myocardial reperfusion injury after prolonged ischemia has not yet been demonstrated. We compared the mode of the effect of MIC-186 and recombinant human CuZn superoxide dismutase (rh-SOD) in isolated perfused rat hearts subjected to 60-min ischemia followed by 60-min reperfusion. Left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), necrotic area and the release of creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and endogenous CuZn superoxide dismutase (endoge-SOD) were measured to evaluate myocardial damage. The decrease in left coronary flow (CBF) was measured as an index of the damage of left coronary circulation. MCI-186 (14.5 mg/L) was perfused for 10 min in the MCI group and rh-SOD (70 mg/L) was perfused during the reperfusion period in the SOD group starting 5 min prior to reperfusion. The release patterns of CPK and endoge-SOD were analyzed to elucidate the difference in the mode of protection of MCI-186 and rh-SOD. The LVDP remained higher in both MCI and SOD groups than that of control (76 +/- 1, 77 +/- 2 and 69 +/- 1% of preischemic value, respectively). The necrotic area was significantly attenuated in both MCI and SOD groups compared with that in the control group (16 +/- 1, 14 +/- 1 and 32 +/- 1%, respectively, p < 0.05). Total CPK release was lower in both MCI and SOD groups than in the control (78 +/- 7, 100 +/- 2 and 116 +/- 4 x 10(3) units/g myocardium respectively). The decrease in CPK release was more marked in the MCI group than that in the SOD group (p < 0.05). The reduction in CBF was significantly attenuated by the treatment with rh-SOD or MCI-186, but the effect was much higher in the SOD group than in the MCI group (69 +/- 5, 58 +/- 2, and 48 +/- 2% in SOD, MCI and control groups, respectively). The release pattern of endoge-SOD was identical to that of CPK and thus this did not distinguish the mode of effect of MCI-186 from that of rh-SOD. These results indicate that MCI-186 reduces reperfusion injury in isolated perfused hearts with prolonged ischemia and the effect is more closely related to the reduction of myocyte damage than the preservation of the coronary circulation.
 
Article
Creatine kinase is a sulfhydryl containing enzyme that is particularly susceptible to oxidative inactivation. This enzyme is potentially vulnerable to inactivation under conditions when it would be used as a diagnostic marker of tissue damage such as during cardiac ischemia/reperfusion or other oxidative tissue injury. Oxidative stress in tissues can induce the release of iron from its storage proteins, making it an available catalyst for free radical reactions. Although creatinine kinase inactivation in a heart reperfusion model has been documented, the mechanism has not been fully described, particularly with regard to the role of iron. We have investigated the inactivation of rabbit muscle creatine kinase by hydrogen peroxide and by xanthine oxidase generated superoxide or Adriamycin radicals in the presence of iron catalysts. As shown previously, creatine kinase was inactivated by hydrogen peroxide. Ferrous iron enhanced the inactivation. In addition, micromolar levels of iron and iron chelates that were reduced and recycled by superoxide or Adriamycin radicals were effective catalysts of creatinine kinase inactivation. Of the physiological iron chelates studied, Fe(ATP) was an especially effective catalyst of inactivation by what appeared to be a site-localized reaction. Fe(ICRF-198), a non-physiological chelate of interest because of its putative role in alleviating Adriamycin-induced cardiotoxicity, also catalyzed the inactivation. Scavenger studies implicated hydroxyl radical as the oxidant involved in iron-dependent creatine kinase inactivation. Loss of protein thiols accompanied loss of creatine kinase activity. Reduced glutathione (GSH) provided marked protection from oxidative inactivation, suggesting that enzyme inactivation under physiological conditions would occur only after GSH depletion.
 
Article
ICRF-187 (dexrazoxane) is currently in clinical trials as a cardioprotective agent for the prevention of doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. ICRF-187 likely acts through its strongly metal ion-binding rings-opened hydrolysis product ADR-925 by removing iron from its complex with doxorubicin or by chelating free iron. The ability of NADPH-cytochrome-P450 reductase to promote hydroxyl radical formation by iron complexes of ADR-925 and EDTA was compared by EPR spin trapping. The iron-EDTA complex produced hydroxyl radicals at six times the rate that the iron-ADR-925 complex did. The aerobic oxidation of ferrous complexes of ADR-925, its tetraacid analog, EDTA and DTPA was followed spectrophotometrically. The iron(II)-ADR-925 complex was aerobically oxidized 700 times slower than was the EDTA complex. It is concluded that even though ADR-925 does not completely eliminate iron-based hydroxyl radical production, it likely protects by preventing site-specific hydroxyl radical damage by the iron-doxorubicin complex.
 
Article
Remarkable progress has been achieved in the past 100 years in the field of free radical chemistry, biology and medicine since the discovery of free radicals in 1900. Free radical-mediated processes play a major role in the present industrial chemistry, but they also cause deleterious effects on rubber, plastics, oil products and foods. The importance of free radicals in vivo has been recognized increasingly from both positive and negative sides. Free radicals play an important role in phagocytosis, the production of some biologically essential compounds and possibly cell signaling. At the same time, they may cause oxidative modification of biological molecules, which leads to oxidative damage and eventually to various diseases, cancer and aging. The role and beneficial effects of antioxidants against such oxidative stress support this view. Furthermore, novel issues have been continuously found in this fascinating and yet controversial field of free radicals in biology. In this short article, the past work, present problems and future perspectives of free radicals in life science will be briefly discussed.
 
Top-cited authors
Peter Storz
  • Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research
Neven Žarković
  • Ruđer Bošković Institute
Ana Čipak Gašparović
  • Ruđer Bošković Institute
Werner Siems
  • Siems&Lehrke Medical Education Goslar, Germany
Giancarlo Aldini
  • University of Milan