# Fractals

Published by World Scientific Publishing

Print ISSN: 0218-348X

Published by World Scientific Publishing

Print ISSN: 0218-348X

Publications

We present evidence supporting the idea that the DNA sequence in genes containing noncoding regions is correlated, and that the correlation is remarkably long range--indeed, base pairs thousands of base pairs distant are correlated. We do not find such a long-range correlation in the coding regions of the gene. We resolve the problem of the "non-stationary" feature of the sequence of base pairs by applying a new algorithm called Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA). We address the claim of Voss that there is no difference in the statistical properties of coding and noncoding regions of DNA by systematically applying the DFA algorithm, as well as standard FFT analysis, to all eukaryotic DNA sequences (33 301 coding and 29 453 noncoding) in the entire GenBank database. We describe a simple model to account for the presence of long-range power-law correlations which is based upon a generalization of the classic Levy walk. Finally, we describe briefly some recent work showing that the noncoding sequences have certain statistical features in common with natural languages. Specifically, we adapt to DNA the Zipf approach to analyzing linguistic texts, and the Shannon approach to quantifying the "redundancy" of a linguistic text in terms of a measurable entropy function. We suggest that noncoding regions in plants and invertebrates may display a smaller entropy and larger redundancy than coding regions, further supporting the possibility that noncoding regions of DNA may carry biological information.

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- 92 Reads
- 38 Citations

Fractal Dimensions (FD) are popular metrics for characterizing signals. They are used as complexity measures in signal analysis applications in various fields. However, proper interpretation of such analyses has not been thoroughly addressed. In this paper, we study the effect of various signal properties on FD and interpret results in terms of classical signal processing concepts such as amplitude, frequency, number of harmonics, noise power and signal bandwidth. We have used Higuchipsilas method for estimating FDs. This study helps in gaining a better understanding of the FD complexity measure for various signal parameters. Our results indicate that FD is a useful metric in estimating various signal properties. As an application of the FD measure in real world scenario, the FD is used as a feature in discriminating seizures from seizure free intervals in intracranial EEG data recordings and the FD feature has given good discrimination performance.

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- 64 Reads
- 10 Citations

The paper deals with the theory of qth-order fractal dimensions and its application to texture analysis. In particular, the state-of-the-art regarding the fractal dimension estimation for characterizing textures is presented. Afterwards, the insufficiency of the single fractal dimension is proven and the qth order fractal dimensions are introduced to overcome this drawback. The multifractality spectrum function D(q) is described, a novel algorithm for estimating such dimensions is then proposed, and its use in digital-image processing is addressed. Results on real SAR image textures are reported and discussed.

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- 37 Reads
- 2 Citations

An Abelian sandpile model is considered on the Husimi lattice of triangles with an arbitrary coordination number q. Exact expressions for the distribution of height probabilities in the Self-Organized Critical state are derived.

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- 39 Reads
- 9 Citations

The interaction between the Earth's magnetic field and the solar wind plasma results in a natural plasma confinement system which stores energy. Dissipation of this energy through Joule heating in the ionosphere can be studied via the Auroral Electrojet (AE) index. The apparent broken power law form of the frequency spectrum of this index has motivated investigation of whether it can be described as fractal coloured noise. One frequently-applied test for self-affinity is to demonstrate linear scaling of the logarithm of the structure function of a time series with the logarithm of the dilation factor $\lambda$. We point out that, while this is conclusive when applied to signals that are self-affine over many decades in $\lambda$, such as Brownian motion, the slope deviates from exact linearity and the conclusions become ambiguous when the test is used over shorter ranges of $\lambda$. We demonstrate that non self-affine time series made up of random pulses can show near-linear scaling over a finite dynamic range such that they could be misinterpreted as being self-affine. In particular we show that pulses with functional forms such as those identified by Weimer within the $AL$ index, from which $AE$ is partly derived, will exhibit nearly linear scaling over ranges similar to those previously shown for $AE$ and $AL$. The value of the slope, related to the Hurst exponent for a self-affine fractal, seems to be a more robust discriminator for fractality, if other information is available. Comment: 14 pages, 6 figures. 3rd version has minor revisions added at the proof stage, and updated reference list

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- 32 Reads
- 10 Citations

We constructed an analog circuit generating fluctuations of which a probability density function has power law tails. In the circuit fluctuations with an arbitrary exponent of the power law can be obtained by tuning the resistance. A theory of a differential equation with both multiplicative and additive noises which describes the circuit is introduced. The circuit is composed of a noise generator, an analog multiplier and an integral circuit. Sequential outputs of the circuit are observed and their probability density function and autocorrelation coefficients are shown. It is found that correlation time of the autocorrelation coefficient is dependent on the power law exponent.

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- 59 Reads
- 20 Citations

We study time series concerning rare events. The occurrence of a rare event is depicted as a jump of constant intensity always occurring in the same direction, thereby generating an asymmetric diffusion process. We consider the case where the waiting time distribution is an inverse power law with index $\mu$. We focus our attention on $\mu<3$, and we evaluate the scaling $\delta$ of the resulting diffusion process. We prove that $\delta$ gets its maximum value, $\delta=1$, corresponding to the ballistic motion, at $\mu=2$. We study the resulting diffusion process by means of joint use of the continuous time random walk and of the generalized central limit theorem, as well as adopting numerical treatment. We show that rendering asymmetric the diffusion process yelds the significant benefit of enhancing the value of the scaling parameter $\delta$. Furthermore, this scaling parameter becomes sensitive to the power index $\mu$ in the whole region $1<\mu<3$. Finally, we show our method in action on real data concerning human heartbeat sequences.

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- 143 Reads
- 127 Citations

This short communication advances the hypothesis that the observed fractal
structure of large-scale distribution of galaxies is due to a geometrical
effect, which arises when observational quantities relevant for the
characterization of a cosmological fractal structure are calculated along the
past light cone. If this hypothesis proves, even partially, correct, most, if
not all, objections raised against fractals in cosmology may be solved. For
instance, under this view the standard cosmology has zero average density, as
predicted by an infinite fractal structure, with, at the same time, the
cosmological principle remaining valid. The theoretical results which suggest
this conjecture are reviewed, as well as possible ways of checking its
validity.

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- 19 Reads
- 12 Citations

The framework of a new scale invariant analysis on a Cantor set $C\subset $ $% I=[0,1] $, presented originally in {\it S. Raut and D. P. Datta, Fractals, 17, 45-52, (2009)}, is clarified and extended further. For an arbitrarily small $\varepsilon >0$, elements $\tilde{x}$ in $I\backslash C$ satisfying $0<\tilde{x}<\varepsilon <x, x\in C $ together with an inversion rule are called relative infinitesimals relative to the scale $\varepsilon$. A non-archimedean absolute value $v(% \tilde{x})=\log_{\varepsilon ^{-1}}\frac{\varepsilon}{\tilde{x}}, \varepsilon \to 0$ is assigned to each such infinitesimal which is then shown to induce a non-archimedean structure in the full Cantor set $C$. A valued measure constructed using the new absolute value is shown to give rise to the finite Hausdorff measure of the set. The definition of differentiability on $% C$ in the non-archimedean sense is introduced. The associated Cantor function is shown to relate to the valuation on $C$ which is then reinterpreated as a locally constant function in the extended non-archimedean space. The definitions and the constructions are verified explicitly on a Cantor set which is defined recursively from $I$ deleting $q$ number of open intervals each of length $\frac{1}{r}$ leaving out $p$ numbers of closed intervals so that $p+q=r.$ Comment: AMS_latex 2e, 13 pages, no figures, to appear in Fractals (2010)

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- 98 Reads
- 20 Citations

We considered Q-state Potts model on Bethe lattice in presence of external
magnetic field for Q<2 by means of recursion relation technique. This allows to
study the phase transition mechanism in terms of the obtained one dimensional
rational mapping. The convergence of Feigenabaum $\alpha$ and $\delta$
exponents for the aforementioned mapping is investigated for the period
doubling and three cyclic window. We regarded the Lyapunov exponent as an order
parameter for the characterization of the model and discussed its dependence on
temperature and magnetic field. Arnold tongues analogs with winding numbers
w=1/2, w=2/4 and w=1/3 (in the three cyclic window) are constructed for Q<2.
The critical temperatures of the model are discussed and their dependence on Q
is investigated. We also proposed an approximate method for constructing Arnold
tongues via Feigenbaum $\delta$ exponent.

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- 90 Reads
- 3 Citations

In this paper, a method to construct topological template in terms of symbolic dynamics for the diamagnetic Kepler problem is proposed. To confirm the topological template, rotation numbers of invariant manifolds around unstable periodic orbits in a phase space are taken as an object of comparison. The rotation numbers are determined from the definition and connected with symbolic sequences encoding the periodic orbits in a reduced Poincar\'e section. Only symbolic codes with inverse ordering in the forward mapping can contribute to the rotation of invariant manifolds around the periodic orbits. By using symbolic ordering, the reduced Poincar\'e section is constricted along stable manifolds and a topological template, which preserves the ordering of forward sequences and can be used to extract the rotation numbers, is established. The rotation numbers computed from the topological template are the same as those computed from their original definition.

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- 44 Reads

We measure the fractal dimension of an African plant that is widely cultivated as ornamental, the Asparagus plumosus. This plant presents self-similarity, remarkable in at least two different scalings. In the following, we present the results obtained by analyzing this plant via the box counting method for three different scalings. We show in a quantitatively way that this species is a fractal.

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- 200 Reads
- 8 Citations

To model a given time series $F(t)$ with fractal Brownian motions (fBms), it
is necessary to have appropriate error assessment for related quantities.
Usually the fractal dimension $D$ is derived from the Hurst exponent $H$ via
the relation $D=2-H$, and the Hurst exponent can be evaluated by analyzing the
dependence of the rescaled range $\langle|F(t+\tau)-F(t)|\rangle$ on the time
span $\tau$. For fBms, the error of the rescaled range not only depends on data
sampling but also varies with $H$ due to the presence of long term memory. This
error for a given time series then can not be assessed without knowing the
fractal dimension. We carry out extensive numerical simulations to explore the
error of rescaled range of fBms and find that for $0<H<0.5$, $|F(t+\tau)-F(t)|$
can be treated as independent for time spans without overlap; for $0.5<H<1$,
the long term memory makes $|F(t+\tau)-F(t)|$ correlated and an approximate
method is given to evaluate the error of $\langle|F(t+\tau)-F(t)|\rangle$. The
error and fractal dimension can then be determined self-consistently in the
modeling of a time series with fBms.

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- 31 Reads
- 7 Citations

We present here an overview of the history, applications and important
properties of a function which we refer to as the Levy integral. For certain
values of its characteristic parameter the Levy integral defines the symmetric
Levy stable probability density function. As we discuss however the Levy
integral has applications to a number of other fields besides probability,
including random matrix theory, number theory and asymptotics beyond all
orders. We exhibit a direct relationship between the Levy integral and a number
theoretic series which we refer to as the generalised Euler-Jacobi series. The
complete asymptotic expansions for all natural values of its parameter are
presented, and in particular it is pointed out that the intricate exponentially
small series become dominant for certain parameter values.

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- 17 Reads
- 4 Citations

A relativistic charged particle moving in a uniform magnetic field and kicked by an electric field is considered. Under the assumption of small magnetic field, an iterative map is developed. We consider both the case in which no radiation is assumed and the radiative case, using the Lorentz-Dirac equation to describe the motion. Comparison between the non-radiative case and the radiative case shows that in both cases one can observe a stochastic web structure for weak magnetic fields, and, although there are global differences in the result of the map, that both cases are qualitatively similar in their small scale behavior. We also develop an iterative map for strong magnetic fields. In that case the web structure no longer exists; it is replaced by a rich chaotic behavior. It is shown that the particle does not diffuse to infinite energy; it is limited by the boundaries of an attractor (the boundaries are generally much smaller than light velocity). Bifurcation occurs, converging rapidly to Feigenbaum's universal constant. The chaotic behavior appears to be robust. For intermediate magnetic fields, it is more difficult to observe the web structure, and the influence of the unstable fixed point is weaker.

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- 36 Reads
- 4 Citations

We demonstrate that it is possible to distinguish with a complete certainty between healthy subjects and patients with various dysfunctions of the cardiac nervous system by way of multiresolutional wavelet transform of RR intervals. We repeated the study of Thurner et al on different ensemble of subjects. We show that reconstructed series using a filter which discards wavelet coefficients related with higher scales enables one to classify individuals for which the method otherwise is inconclusive. We suggest a delimiting diagnostic value of the standard deviation of the filtered, reconstructed RR interval time series in the range of $\sim 0.035$ (for the above mentioned filter), below which individuals are at risk. Comment: 5 latex pages (including 6 figures). Accepted in Fractals

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- 82 Reads
- 42 Citations

Multiresolution Wavelet Transform and Detrended Fluctuation Analysis have been recently proven as excellent methods in the analysis of Heart Rate Variability, and in distinguishing between healthy subjects and patients with various dysfunctions of the cardiac nervous system. We argue that it is possible to obtain a distinction between healthy subjects/patients of at least similar quality by, first, detrending the time-series of RR-intervals by subtracting a running average based on a local window with a length of around 32 data points, and then, calculating the standard deviation of the detrended time-series. The results presented here indicate that the analysis can be based on very short time-series of RR-data (7-8 minutes), which is a considerable improvement relative to 24-hours Holter recordings.

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- 69 Reads
- 33 Citations

We study the phenomenon of internal avalanching within the context of recently introduced lattice models of granular media. The avalanche is produced by pulling out a grain at the base of the packing and studying how many grains have to rearrange before the packing is once more stable. We find that the avalanches are long-ranged, decaying as a power-law. We study the distriution of avalanches as a function of the density of the packing and find that the avalanche distribution is a very sensitive structural probe of the system.

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- 31 Reads
- 4 Citations

Ballistic particles interacting with irregular surfaces are representative of many physical problems in the Knudsen diffusion regime. In this paper, the collisions of ballistic particles interacting with an irregular surface modeled by a quadratic Koch curve, are studied numerically. The $q$ moments of the source spatial distribution of collision numbers $\mu(x)$ are characterized by a sequence of ``collision exponent'' $\tau(q)$. The measure $\mu(x)$ is found to be multifractal even when a random micro-roughness (or random re-emission) of the surface exists. The dimensions $f(\alpha)$, obtained by a Legendre transformation from $\tau(q)$, consist of two parabolas corresponding to a trinomial multifractal. This is demonstrated for a particular case by obtaining an exact $f(\alpha)$ for a multiplicative trinomial mass distribution. The trinomial nature of the multifractality is related to the type of surface macro-irregularity considered here and is independent of the micro-roughness of the surface which however influence the values of $\alpha_{min}$ and $\alpha_{max}$. The information dimension $D_I$ increases significantly with the micro-roughness of the surface. Interestingly, in contrast with this point of view, the surface seems to work uniformly. This correspond to an absence of screening effects in Knudsen diffusion.

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- 46 Reads
- 1 Citation

We analyze the distribution of income and income tax of individuals in Japan for the fiscal year 1998. From the rank-size plots we find that the accumulated probability distribution of both data obey a power law with a Pareto exponent very close to -2. We also present an analysis of the distribution of the debts owed by bankrupt companies from 1997 to March, 2000, which is consistent with a power law behavior with a Pareto exponent equal to -1. This power law is the same as that of the income distribution of companies. Possible implications of these findings for model building are discussed.

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- 202 Reads
- 132 Citations

We investigate bond percolation on the iterated barycentric subdivision of a
triangle, the hexacarpet, and the non-p.c.f. Sierpinski gasket. With the use of
the diamond fractal, we are able to bound the critical probability of
percolation on the non-p.c.f. gasket and the iterated barycentric subdivision
of a triangle from above by 0.282. We then show how both the gasket and
hexacarpet fractals are related via the iterated barycentric subdivisions of a
triangle: the two spaces exhibit duality properties although they are not
themselves dual graphs. Finally we show the existence of a non-trivial phase
transition on all three graphs.

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- 26 Reads

We define fractal continuations and the fast basin of the IFS and investigate
which properties they inherit from the attractor. Some illustrated examples are
provided.

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- 196 Reads
- 7 Citations

In this article, we introduce the concept of normal families of bicomplex
holomorphic functions to obtain a bicomplex Montel theorem. Moreover, we give a
general definition of Fatou and Julia sets for bicomplex polynomials and we
obtain a characterization of bicomplex Fatou and Julia sets in terms of Fatou
set, Julia set and filled-in Julia set of one complex variable. Some 3D visual
examples of bicomplex Julia sets are also given for the specific slice
$\bold{j}=0$.

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- 272 Reads
- 30 Citations

We argue that a process of social interest is a balance of order and randomness, thereby producing a departure from a stationary diffusion process. The strength of this effect vanishes if the order to randomness intensity ratio vanishes, and this property allows us to reveal, although in an indirect way, the existence of a finite order to randomness intensity ratio. We aim at detecting this effect. We introduce a method of statistical analysis alternative to the compression procedures, with which the limitations of the traditional Kolmogorov-Sinai approach are bypassed. We prove that this method makes it possible for us to build up a memory detector, which signals the presence of even very weak memory, provided that this is persistent over large time intervals. We apply the analysis to the study of the teen birth phenomenon and we find that the unmarried teen births are a manifestation of a social process with a memory more intense than that of the married teens. We attempt to give a social interpretation of this effect.

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- 77 Reads
- 92 Citations

Even though many objects and phenomena of importance in geophysics have been
shown to have fractal character, there are still many of them which show
self-similar character and yet to be studied. The objective of the present work
is to demonstrate that the fractal dimension of the boundary of a natural water
body can be used to shed light on irregularity as well as other properties of a
region. Owing to easy availability of satellite images and image processing
softwares this turns out to be a handy tool. In this study, we have analyzed
several lakes in India mostly around the Western Ghats region. We find that the
fractal dimension of their boundaries for the length scales between around 40
meters to 2 kilometers, in general, has broad variation from 1.2 to 1.6. But
when they are grouped into three categories, viz., lakes along the ridge of
Western Ghats, lakes in the planes and lakes in the mountain region, we find
the first two groups to have a narrower distribution of dimensions.

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- 216 Reads
- 5 Citations

Let X \subset R be a bounded set; we introduce a formula that calculates the
upper graph box dimension of X (i.e.the supremum of the upper box dimension of
the graph over all uniformly continuous functions defined on X). We demonstrate
the strength of the formula by calculating the upper graph box dimension for
some sets and by giving an "one line" proof, alternative to the one given in
[1], of the fact that if X has finitely many isolated points then its upper
graph box dimension is equal to the upper box dimension plus one. Furthermore
we construct a collection of sets X with infinitely many isolated points,
having upper box dimension a taking values from zero to one while their graph
box dimension takes any value in [max{2a,1},a + 1], answering this way,
negatively to a conjecture posed in [1].

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- 50 Reads
- 2 Citations

Multifractal analysis of stochastic processes deals with the fine scale
properties of the sample paths and seeks for some global scaling property that
would enable extracting the so-called spectrum of singularities. In this paper
we establish bounds on the support of the spectrum of singularities. To do
this, we prove a theorem that complements the famous Kolmogorov's continuity
criterion. The nature of these bounds helps us identify the quantities truly
responsible for the support of the spectrum. We then make several conclusions
from this. First, specifying global scaling in terms of moments is incomplete
due to possible infinite moments, both of positive and negative order. For the
case of ergodic self-similar processes we show that negative order moments and
their divergence do not affect the spectrum. On the other hand, infinite
positive order moments make the spectrum nontrivial. In particular, we show
that the self-similar stationary increments process with the nontrivial
spectrum must be heavy-tailed. This shows that for determining the spectrum it
is crucial to capture the divergence of moments. We show that the partition
function is capable of doing this and also propose a robust variant of this
method for negative order moments.

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- 97 Reads
- 8 Citations

We consider a construction of recurrent fractal interpolation surfaces with
function vertical scaling factors and estimation of their box-counting
dimension. A recurrent fractal interpolation surface (RFIS) is an attractor of
a recurrent iterated function system (RIFS) which is a graph of bivariate
interpolation function. For any given data set on rectangular grids, we
construct general recurrent iterated function systems with function vertical
scaling factors and prove the existence of bivariate functions whose graph are
attractors of the above constructed RIFSs. Finally, we estimate lower and upper
bounds for the box-counting dimension of the constructed RFISs.

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- 29 Reads
- 15 Citations

In this paper some critical aspects of the behaviour of breaking lattices subject to slow driving forces are briefly reviewed. In particular fluctuations in the response to the variation of external parameters are discussed.

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- 44 Reads

The FARIMA models, which have long-range-dependence (LRD), are widely used in
many areas. Through deriving a precise characterisation of the spectrum,
autocovariance function, and variance time function, we show that this family
is very atypical among LRD processes, being extremely close to the fractional
Gaussian noise in a precise sense. Furthermore, we show that this closeness
property is not robust to additive noise. We argue that the use of FARIMA, and
more generally fractionally differenced time series, should be reassessed in
some contexts, in particular when convergence rate under rescaling is important
and noise is expected.

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- 52 Reads
- 7 Citations

In this paper I explore a nonstandard formulation of Hausdorff dimension. By considering an adapted form of the counting measure formulation of Lebesgue measure, I prove a nonstandard version of Frostman's lemma and show that Hausdorff dimension can be computed through a counting argument rather than by taking the infimum of a sum of certain covers. This formulation is then applied to obtain a simple proof of the doubling of the dimension of certain sets under a Brownian motion. Comment: 15 pages

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- 92 Reads
- 7 Citations

Herein we develop a dynamical foundation for fractional Brownian Motion. A clear relation is established between the asymptotic behaviour of the correlation function and diffusion in a dynamical system. Then, assuming that scaling is applicable, we establish a connection between diffusion (either standard or anomalous) and the dynamical indicator known as the Hurst coefficient. We argue on the basis of numerical simulations that although we have been able to prove scaling only for "Gaussian" processes, our conclusions may well apply to a wider class of systems. On the other hand systems exist for which scaling might not hold, so we speculate on the possible consequence on the various relations derived in the paper on such systems.

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- 35 Reads
- 41 Citations

A new calculus on fractal curves, such as the von Koch curve, is formulated. We define a Riemann-like integral along a fractal curve F, called F α -integral, where α is the dimension of F. A derivative along the fractal curve called F α -derivative, is also defined. The mass function, a measure-like algorithmic quantity on the curves, plays a central role in the formulation. An appropriate algorithm to calculate the mass function is presented to emphasize its algorithmic aspect.
Several aspects of this calculus retain much of the simplicity of ordinary calculus. We establish a conjugacy between this calculus and ordinary calculus on the real line. The F α -integral and F α -derivative are shown to be conjugate to the Riemann integral and ordinary derivative respectively. In fact, they can thus be evalutated using the corresponding operators in ordinary calculus and conjugacy. Sobolev Spaces are constructed on F, and F α -differentiability is generalized. Finally we touch upon an example of absorption along fractal paths, to illustrate the utility of the framework in model making.

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- 256 Reads
- 55 Citations

A new calculus based on fractal subsets of the real line is formulated. In this calculus, an integral of order α, 0 < α ≤ 1, called F α -integral, is defined, which is suitable to integrate functions with fractal support F of dimension α. Further, a derivative of order α, 0 < α ≤ 1, called F α -derivative, is defined, which enables us to differentiate functions, like the Cantor staircase, "changing" only on a fractal set. The F α -derivative is local unlike the classical fractional derivative. The F α -calculus retains much of the simplicity of ordinary calculus. Several results including analogues of fundamental theorems of calculus are proved.
The integral staircase function, which is a generalization of the functions like the Cantor staircase function, plays a key role in this formulation. Further, it gives rise to a new definition of dimension, the γ-dimension.
Spaces of F α -differentiable and F α -integrable functions are analyzed. Analogues of Sobolev Spaces are constructed on F and F α -differentiability is generalized using Sobolev-like construction.
F α -differential equations are equations involving F α -derivatives. They can be used to model sublinear dynamical systems and fractal time processes, since sublinear behaviors are associated with staircase-like functions which occur naturally as their solutions. As examples, we discuss a fractal-time diffusion equation, and one-dimensional motion of a particle undergoing friction in a fractal medium.

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- 147 Reads
- 154 Citations

We establish a formula yielding the Hausdorff measure for a class of
non-self-similar Cantor sets in terms of the canonical covers of the Cantor
set.

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- 123 Reads
- 9 Citations

Consider a family of bounded domains $\Omega_{t}$ in the plane (or more generally any Euclidean space) that depend analytically on the parameter $t$, and consider the ordinary Neumann Laplacian $\Delta_{t}$ on each of them. Then we can organize all the eigenfunctions into continuous families $u_{t}^{(j)}$ with eigenvalues $\lambda_{t}^{(j)}$ also varying continuously with $t$, although the relative sizes of the eigenvalues will change with $t$ at crossings where $\lambda_{t}^{(j)}=\lambda_{t}^{(k)}$. We call these families homotopies of eigenfunctions. We study two explicit examples. The first example has $\Omega_{0}$ equal to a square and $\Omega_{1}$ equal to a circle; in both cases the eigenfunctions are known explicitly, so our homotopies connect these two explicit families. In the second example we approximate the Sierpinski carpet starting with a square, and we continuously delete subsquares of varying sizes. (Data available in full at www.math.cornell.edu/~smh82) Comment: 54 pages, 37 figures, 2 tables, to appear, Fractals

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- 28 Reads
- 4 Citations

Kusuoka and Zhou have defined the Laplacian on the Sierpinski carpet using
average values of functions on small cells and the graph structure of cell
adjacency. We have implemented an algorithm that uses their method to
approximate solutions to boundary value problems. As a result we have a wealth
of data concerning harmonic functions with prescribed boundary values, and
eigenfunctions of the Laplacian with either Neumann or Dirichlet boundary
conditions. We will present some of this data and discuss some ideas for
defining normal derivatives on the boundary of the carpet.

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- 98 Reads
- 19 Citations

We shall show that, given $0\leq\alpha\leq\beta\leq\beta^*$,
$\alpha+\beta\leq\lambda_1\leq\alpha+\beta^*$, and
$\beta\leq\lambda_2\leq\alpha+\beta$, there exist compact sets $E_1$, $F_1$,
$E_2$, $F_2$ such that $\dim_HE_1=\alpha$, $\dim_HF_1=\beta$,
$\dim_PF_1=\beta^*$, $\dim_H(E_1\times F_1)=\lambda_1$; and
$\dim_PE_2=\overline{\dim}_BE_2=\beta$,
$\dim_PF_2=\overline{\dim}_BF_2=\alpha$, $\dim_P(E_2\times
F_2)=\overline{\dim}_B(E_2\times F_2)=\lambda_2$. Actually, we prove a stronger
conclusion in this paper.

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- 61 Reads
- 15 Citations

We consider some properties of the intersection of deleted digits Cantor sets
with their translates. We investigate conditions on the set of digits such
that, for any t between zero and the dimension of the deleted digits Cantor set
itself, the set of translations such that the intersection has Hausdorff
dimension equal to t is dense in the set F of translations such that the
intersection is non-empty. We make some simple observations regarding
properties of the set F, in particular, we characterize when F is an interval,
in terms of conditions on the digit set.

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- 46 Reads
- 3 Citations

The propagation of a laser beam through turbulent media is modeled as a fractional Brownian motion (fBm). Time series corresponding to the center position of the laser spot (coordinates x and y) after traveling across air in turbulent motion, with different strength, are analyzed by the wavelet theory. Two quantifiers are calculated, the Hurst exponent, H, and the mean Normalized Total Wavelet Entropy, (S) over tilde (WT), It is verified that both quantifiers give complementary information about the turbulence.

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- 47 Reads
- 21 Citations

The scaling exponent of a hierarchy of cities used to be regarded as a
fractal parameter. The Pareto exponent was treated as the fractal dimension of
size distribution of cities, while the Zipf exponent was treated as the
reciprocal of the fractal dimension. However, this viewpoint is not exact. In
this paper, I will present a new interpretation of the scaling exponent of
rank-size distributions. The ideas from fractal measure relation and the
principle of dimension consistency are employed to explore the essence of
Pareto's and Zipf's scaling exponents. The Pareto exponent proved to be a ratio
of the fractal dimension of a network of cities to the average dimension of
city population. Accordingly, the Zipf exponent is the reciprocal of this
dimension ratio. On a digital map, the Pareto exponent can be defined by the
scaling relation between a map scale and the corresponding number of cities
based on this scale. The cities of the United States of America in 1900, 1940,
1960, and 1980 and Indian cities in 1981, 1991, and 2001 are utilized to
illustrate the geographical spatial meaning of Pareto's exponent. The results
suggest that the Pareto exponent of city-size distribution is not a fractal
dimension, but a ratio of the urban network dimension to the city population
dimension. This conclusion is revealing for scientists to understand Zipf's law
and fractal structure of hierarchy of cities.

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- 88 Reads
- 28 Citations

In \cite{LaLuRa13}, Lau, Rao and one of the authors completely classified the
topological structure of self-similar sets $F$ defined by $F=(F+{\mathcal
D})/n$, where ${\mathcal D}\subset\{0,1,\dots,n-1\}^2, n\ge 2$. They call the
$F$ {\it fractal squares}. In this paper, we further provide several simple
criteria for the $F$ to be totally disconnected, as this kind of Cantor-type
sets plays an important role in the theory. Moreover, we mainly discuss the
Lipschitz classification of fractal squares in the case of $n=3$ by using a
technique of Gromov hyperbolic graph.

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- 171 Reads
- 19 Citations

Detrended fluctuation analysis is used to investigate correlations between the monthly average of the maximum daily temperatures for different locations in the continental US and the different climates these locations have. When we plot the scaling exponents obtained from the detrended fluctuation analysis versus the standard deviation of the temperature fluctuations we observe crowding of data points belonging to the same climates. Thus, we conclude that by observing the long-time trends in the fluctuations of temperature it would be possible to distinguish between different climates.

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- 182 Reads
- 56 Citations

Renormalization group and Coulomb gas mappings are used to derive theoretical predictions for the corrections to the exactly known asymptotic fractal masses of the hull, external perimeter, singly connected bonds and total mass of the Fortuin-Kasteleyn clusters for two-dimensional $q$-state Potts models at criticality. For q=4 these include exact logarithmic (as well as loglog) corrections.

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- 53 Reads
- 15 Citations

This paper presents a comparative study of two families of curves in R(n). The first ones comprise self-similar bounded fractals obtained by contractive processes, and have a non-integer Hausdorff dimension. The second ones are unbounded, locally rectifiable, locally smooth, obtained by expansive processes, and characterized by a fractional dimension defined by M. Mendes France. We present a way to relate the two types of curves and their respective non-integer dimensions. Thus, to one fractal bounded curve we associate, at first, a finite range of Mendes France dimensions, identifying the minimal and the maximal ones. Later, we show that this discrete spectrum can be made continuous, allowing it to be compared with some other multifractal spectra encountered in the literature. We discuss the corresponding physical interpretations.

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- 36 Reads

The object under study is a particular closed curve on the square lattice
$\Z^2$ related with the Fibonacci sequence $F_n$. It belongs to a class of
curves whose length is $4F_{3n+1}$, and whose interiors by translation tile the
plane. The limit object, when conveniently normalized, is a fractal line for
which we compute first the fractal dimension, and then give a complexity
measure.

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- 225 Reads
- 6 Citations

The complexity of the Nautilus pompilius shell is analyzed in terms of its fractal dimension and its equiangular spiral form. Our findings assert that the shell is fractal from its birth and that its growth is dictated by a self-similar criterion (we obtain the fractal dimension of the shell as a function of time). The variables that have been used for the analysis show an exponential dependence on the number of chambers/age of the cephalopod, a property inherited from its form.

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- 425 Reads
- 3 Citations

The heart beat data recorded from samples before and during meditation are analyzed using two different scaling analysis methods. These analyses revealed that mediation severely affects the long range correlation of heart beat of a normal heart. Moreover, it is found that meditation induces periodic behavior in the heart beat. The complexity of the heart rate variability is quantified using multiscale entropy analysis and recurrence analysis. The complexity of the heart beat during mediation is found to be more.

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- 173 Reads
- 31 Citations

V-variable fractals, where $V$ is a positive integer, are intuitively
fractals with at most $V$ different "forms" or "shapes" at all levels of
magnification. In this paper we describe how V-variable fractals can be used
for the purpose of image compression.

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- 157 Reads
- 3 Citations

We present a fractal dust model of the Universe based on Mandelbrot's proposal to replace the standard Cosmological Principle by his Conditional Cosmological Principle within the framework of General Theory of Relativity. This model turns out to be free from the de-Vaucouleurs paradox and is consistent with the SNe1a observations. The expected galaxy count as a function of red-shift is obtained for this model. An interesting variation is a steady state version, which can account for an accelerating scale factor without any cosmological constant in the model.

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- 115 Reads
- 3 Citations

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