Published by World Scientific Publishing
Print ISSN: 0218-348X
We present evidence supporting the idea that the DNA sequence in genes containing noncoding regions is correlated, and that the correlation is remarkably long range--indeed, base pairs thousands of base pairs distant are correlated. We do not find such a long-range correlation in the coding regions of the gene. We resolve the problem of the "non-stationary" feature of the sequence of base pairs by applying a new algorithm called Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA). We address the claim of Voss that there is no difference in the statistical properties of coding and noncoding regions of DNA by systematically applying the DFA algorithm, as well as standard FFT analysis, to all eukaryotic DNA sequences (33 301 coding and 29 453 noncoding) in the entire GenBank database. We describe a simple model to account for the presence of long-range power-law correlations which is based upon a generalization of the classic Levy walk. Finally, we describe briefly some recent work showing that the noncoding sequences have certain statistical features in common with natural languages. Specifically, we adapt to DNA the Zipf approach to analyzing linguistic texts, and the Shannon approach to quantifying the "redundancy" of a linguistic text in terms of a measurable entropy function. We suggest that noncoding regions in plants and invertebrates may display a smaller entropy and larger redundancy than coding regions, further supporting the possibility that noncoding regions of DNA may carry biological information.
Fractal Dimensions (FD) are popular metrics for characterizing signals. They are used as complexity measures in signal analysis applications in various fields. However, proper interpretation of such analyses has not been thoroughly addressed. In this paper, we study the effect of various signal properties on FD and interpret results in terms of classical signal processing concepts such as amplitude, frequency, number of harmonics, noise power and signal bandwidth. We have used Higuchipsilas method for estimating FDs. This study helps in gaining a better understanding of the FD complexity measure for various signal parameters. Our results indicate that FD is a useful metric in estimating various signal properties. As an application of the FD measure in real world scenario, the FD is used as a feature in discriminating seizures from seizure free intervals in intracranial EEG data recordings and the FD feature has given good discrimination performance.
The paper deals with the theory of qth-order fractal dimensions and its application to texture analysis. In particular, the state-of-the-art regarding the fractal dimension estimation for characterizing textures is presented. Afterwards, the insufficiency of the single fractal dimension is proven and the qth order fractal dimensions are introduced to overcome this drawback. The multifractality spectrum function D(q) is described, a novel algorithm for estimating such dimensions is then proposed, and its use in digital-image processing is addressed. Results on real SAR image textures are reported and discussed.
An Abelian sandpile model is considered on the Husimi lattice of triangles with an arbitrary coordination number q. Exact expressions for the distribution of height probabilities in the Self-Organized Critical state are derived.
The interaction between the Earth's magnetic field and the solar wind plasma results in a natural plasma confinement system which stores energy. Dissipation of this energy through Joule heating in the ionosphere can be studied via the Auroral Electrojet (AE) index. The apparent broken power law form of the frequency spectrum of this index has motivated investigation of whether it can be described as fractal coloured noise. One frequently-applied test for self-affinity is to demonstrate linear scaling of the logarithm of the structure function of a time series with the logarithm of the dilation factor $\lambda$. We point out that, while this is conclusive when applied to signals that are self-affine over many decades in $\lambda$, such as Brownian motion, the slope deviates from exact linearity and the conclusions become ambiguous when the test is used over shorter ranges of $\lambda$. We demonstrate that non self-affine time series made up of random pulses can show near-linear scaling over a finite dynamic range such that they could be misinterpreted as being self-affine. In particular we show that pulses with functional forms such as those identified by Weimer within the $AL$ index, from which $AE$ is partly derived, will exhibit nearly linear scaling over ranges similar to those previously shown for $AE$ and $AL$. The value of the slope, related to the Hurst exponent for a self-affine fractal, seems to be a more robust discriminator for fractality, if other information is available. Comment: 14 pages, 6 figures. 3rd version has minor revisions added at the proof stage, and updated reference list
We constructed an analog circuit generating fluctuations of which a probability density function has power law tails. In the circuit fluctuations with an arbitrary exponent of the power law can be obtained by tuning the resistance. A theory of a differential equation with both multiplicative and additive noises which describes the circuit is introduced. The circuit is composed of a noise generator, an analog multiplier and an integral circuit. Sequential outputs of the circuit are observed and their probability density function and autocorrelation coefficients are shown. It is found that correlation time of the autocorrelation coefficient is dependent on the power law exponent.
The diffusion entropy as a function of time. The numerical method is applied to the artificial sequence of Sec. 2, with µ = 2.5, studied according to the SVM prescription. According to the theoretical arguments of the text, the scaling parameter δ is the slope of the straight line fitting the numerical results at large times, which yields in this case δ = 2/3 = 1/(µ − 1) (T = 10). 
Coarse-grained waiting time distribution ψ(t) for Ltdb15814. The straight line is an inverse power-law curve of the form C/t µ. According to the theory of Sec. 3, µ = 1+1/δ. 
We study time series concerning rare events. The occurrence of a rare event is depicted as a jump of constant intensity always occurring in the same direction, thereby generating an asymmetric diffusion process. We consider the case where the waiting time distribution is an inverse power law with index $\mu$. We focus our attention on $\mu<3$, and we evaluate the scaling $\delta$ of the resulting diffusion process. We prove that $\delta$ gets its maximum value, $\delta=1$, corresponding to the ballistic motion, at $\mu=2$. We study the resulting diffusion process by means of joint use of the continuous time random walk and of the generalized central limit theorem, as well as adopting numerical treatment. We show that rendering asymmetric the diffusion process yelds the significant benefit of enhancing the value of the scaling parameter $\delta$. Furthermore, this scaling parameter becomes sensitive to the power index $\mu$ in the whole region $1<\mu<3$. Finally, we show our method in action on real data concerning human heartbeat sequences.
This short communication advances the hypothesis that the observed fractal structure of large-scale distribution of galaxies is due to a geometrical effect, which arises when observational quantities relevant for the characterization of a cosmological fractal structure are calculated along the past light cone. If this hypothesis proves, even partially, correct, most, if not all, objections raised against fractals in cosmology may be solved. For instance, under this view the standard cosmology has zero average density, as predicted by an infinite fractal structure, with, at the same time, the cosmological principle remaining valid. The theoretical results which suggest this conjecture are reviewed, as well as possible ways of checking its validity.
The framework of a new scale invariant analysis on a Cantor set $C\subset $ $% I=[0,1] $, presented originally in {\it S. Raut and D. P. Datta, Fractals, 17, 45-52, (2009)}, is clarified and extended further. For an arbitrarily small $\varepsilon >0$, elements $\tilde{x}$ in $I\backslash C$ satisfying $0<\tilde{x}<\varepsilon <x, x\in C $ together with an inversion rule are called relative infinitesimals relative to the scale $\varepsilon$. A non-archimedean absolute value $v(% \tilde{x})=\log_{\varepsilon ^{-1}}\frac{\varepsilon}{\tilde{x}}, \varepsilon \to 0$ is assigned to each such infinitesimal which is then shown to induce a non-archimedean structure in the full Cantor set $C$. A valued measure constructed using the new absolute value is shown to give rise to the finite Hausdorff measure of the set. The definition of differentiability on $% C$ in the non-archimedean sense is introduced. The associated Cantor function is shown to relate to the valuation on $C$ which is then reinterpreated as a locally constant function in the extended non-archimedean space. The definitions and the constructions are verified explicitly on a Cantor set which is defined recursively from $I$ deleting $q$ number of open intervals each of length $\frac{1}{r}$ leaving out $p$ numbers of closed intervals so that $p+q=r.$ Comment: AMS_latex 2e, 13 pages, no figures, to appear in Fractals (2010)
Arnold tongues with winding numbers w = 1/2 and w = 2/4 for Potts model for Q = 1.2, J = −1, γ = 3 (the insert shows details in the area H > 0). Point C describes the upper bound of the temperature (T c = 5.260340).
Arnold tongues with winding numbers w = 1/2 and w = 2/4 for Potts model for Q = 0.8, J = −1, γ = 3.
The plot of M (magnetization) versus temperature T for Q = 1.2, J = −1, γ = 3 (a) H = 1.3; (b) H = 0.2.
The Plot of f (3) (x) [third iteration of the Potts-Bethe mapping in Eq. (5)] for Q = 1.1, J = −1, γ = 3 at one point of the saddle-node bifurcation line defined by Eq. (28): T = 1.5915, H = −1.
Arnold tongue with winding number w = 1/3 for Potts model for Q = 1.1, J = −1, γ = 3 (the insert shows details in the area H > 0).
We considered Q-state Potts model on Bethe lattice in presence of external magnetic field for Q<2 by means of recursion relation technique. This allows to study the phase transition mechanism in terms of the obtained one dimensional rational mapping. The convergence of Feigenabaum $\alpha$ and $\delta$ exponents for the aforementioned mapping is investigated for the period doubling and three cyclic window. We regarded the Lyapunov exponent as an order parameter for the characterization of the model and discussed its dependence on temperature and magnetic field. Arnold tongues analogs with winding numbers w=1/2, w=2/4 and w=1/3 (in the three cyclic window) are constructed for Q<2. The critical temperatures of the model are discussed and their dependence on Q is investigated. We also proposed an approximate method for constructing Arnold tongues via Feigenbaum $\delta$ exponent.
A typical orbit and boundary of the transformed potential for the diamagnetic Kepler problem at = 0.
A image (a) and preimage (b) of strips 1 and 2 of the fundamental domain (s ∈ [−1, 7), v ∈ [−1, 1]) in the lifted space.
(Continued )
Periodic points encoded by (a) R 2 0 R 1 R 2 2 R 1 , (b) L 0 R 2 0 R 1 L 2 R 2 2 R 1 , (c) L 0 R 1 R 2 R 2 1 L 2 R 1 R 0 R 2 1 , and (d) L 0 R 2 1 R 2 0 in the five-letter encoding and their stable and unstable invariant manifolds.
Stable and unstable manifolds with partition lines in the reduced domain.
In this paper, a method to construct topological template in terms of symbolic dynamics for the diamagnetic Kepler problem is proposed. To confirm the topological template, rotation numbers of invariant manifolds around unstable periodic orbits in a phase space are taken as an object of comparison. The rotation numbers are determined from the definition and connected with symbolic sequences encoding the periodic orbits in a reduced Poincar\'e section. Only symbolic codes with inverse ordering in the forward mapping can contribute to the rotation of invariant manifolds around the periodic orbits. By using symbolic ordering, the reduced Poincar\'e section is constricted along stable manifolds and a topological template, which preserves the ordering of forward sequences and can be used to extract the rotation numbers, is established. The rotation numbers computed from the topological template are the same as those computed from their original definition.
A typical example of a main branch of Asparagus plumosus.  
An atypical main branch of Asparagus plumosus, note the differences in shape with respect to the usual branches in Figs. 1 and 3  
Medium-and small-size branches lying on a square grid with side-length of 20 pixels.  
Analogue of Fig. 5 for medium-size branches.
Analogue of Fig. 5 for small-size branches.
We measure the fractal dimension of an African plant that is widely cultivated as ornamental, the Asparagus plumosus. This plant presents self-similarity, remarkable in at least two different scalings. In the following, we present the results obtained by analyzing this plant via the box counting method for three different scalings. We show in a quantitatively way that this species is a fractal.
To model a given time series $F(t)$ with fractal Brownian motions (fBms), it is necessary to have appropriate error assessment for related quantities. Usually the fractal dimension $D$ is derived from the Hurst exponent $H$ via the relation $D=2-H$, and the Hurst exponent can be evaluated by analyzing the dependence of the rescaled range $\langle|F(t+\tau)-F(t)|\rangle$ on the time span $\tau$. For fBms, the error of the rescaled range not only depends on data sampling but also varies with $H$ due to the presence of long term memory. This error for a given time series then can not be assessed without knowing the fractal dimension. We carry out extensive numerical simulations to explore the error of rescaled range of fBms and find that for $0<H<0.5$, $|F(t+\tau)-F(t)|$ can be treated as independent for time spans without overlap; for $0.5<H<1$, the long term memory makes $|F(t+\tau)-F(t)|$ correlated and an approximate method is given to evaluate the error of $\langle|F(t+\tau)-F(t)|\rangle$. The error and fractal dimension can then be determined self-consistently in the modeling of a time series with fBms.
We present here an overview of the history, applications and important properties of a function which we refer to as the Levy integral. For certain values of its characteristic parameter the Levy integral defines the symmetric Levy stable probability density function. As we discuss however the Levy integral has applications to a number of other fields besides probability, including random matrix theory, number theory and asymptotics beyond all orders. We exhibit a direct relationship between the Levy integral and a number theoretic series which we refer to as the generalised Euler-Jacobi series. The complete asymptotic expansions for all natural values of its parameter are presented, and in particular it is pointed out that the intricate exponentially small series become dominant for certain parameter values.
A relativistic charged particle moving in a uniform magnetic field and kicked by an electric field is considered. Under the assumption of small magnetic field, an iterative map is developed. We consider both the case in which no radiation is assumed and the radiative case, using the Lorentz-Dirac equation to describe the motion. Comparison between the non-radiative case and the radiative case shows that in both cases one can observe a stochastic web structure for weak magnetic fields, and, although there are global differences in the result of the map, that both cases are qualitatively similar in their small scale behavior. We also develop an iterative map for strong magnetic fields. In that case the web structure no longer exists; it is replaced by a rich chaotic behavior. It is shown that the particle does not diffuse to infinite energy; it is limited by the boundaries of an attractor (the boundaries are generally much smaller than light velocity). Bifurcation occurs, converging rapidly to Feigenbaum's universal constant. The chaotic behavior appears to be robust. For intermediate magnetic fields, it is more difficult to observe the web structure, and the influence of the unstable fixed point is weaker.
RR interval vs. (heart)beat number for a healthy subject.
We demonstrate that it is possible to distinguish with a complete certainty between healthy subjects and patients with various dysfunctions of the cardiac nervous system by way of multiresolutional wavelet transform of RR intervals. We repeated the study of Thurner et al on different ensemble of subjects. We show that reconstructed series using a filter which discards wavelet coefficients related with higher scales enables one to classify individuals for which the method otherwise is inconclusive. We suggest a delimiting diagnostic value of the standard deviation of the filtered, reconstructed RR interval time series in the range of $\sim 0.035$ (for the above mentioned filter), below which individuals are at risk. Comment: 5 latex pages (including 6 figures). Accepted in Fractals
Histograms for the daily variation of the standard deviation (segment length and scale m as in Fig. 4) shown for the three groups: Healthy subjects (circles), Diabetics (squares) and Heart patients (rhombohedra).
(a) The group average of the standard deviation (parameters as in Fig. 4.) versus the time location for the data segment. Healthy subjects: circles, Diabetics: squares and Heart patients: rhombohedra. (b) Same as (a), but with the standard deviation across the group indicated by vertical bars.
Multiresolution Wavelet Transform and Detrended Fluctuation Analysis have been recently proven as excellent methods in the analysis of Heart Rate Variability, and in distinguishing between healthy subjects and patients with various dysfunctions of the cardiac nervous system. We argue that it is possible to obtain a distinction between healthy subjects/patients of at least similar quality by, first, detrending the time-series of RR-intervals by subtracting a running average based on a local window with a length of around 32 data points, and then, calculating the standard deviation of the detrended time-series. The results presented here indicate that the analysis can be based on very short time-series of RR-data (7-8 minutes), which is a considerable improvement relative to 24-hours Holter recordings.
We study the phenomenon of internal avalanching within the context of recently introduced lattice models of granular media. The avalanche is produced by pulling out a grain at the base of the packing and studying how many grains have to rearrange before the packing is once more stable. We find that the avalanches are long-ranged, decaying as a power-law. We study the distriution of avalanches as a function of the density of the packing and find that the avalanche distribution is a very sensitive structural probe of the system.
Ballistic particles interacting with irregular surfaces are representative of many physical problems in the Knudsen diffusion regime. In this paper, the collisions of ballistic particles interacting with an irregular surface modeled by a quadratic Koch curve, are studied numerically. The $q$ moments of the source spatial distribution of collision numbers $\mu(x)$ are characterized by a sequence of ``collision exponent'' $\tau(q)$. The measure $\mu(x)$ is found to be multifractal even when a random micro-roughness (or random re-emission) of the surface exists. The dimensions $f(\alpha)$, obtained by a Legendre transformation from $\tau(q)$, consist of two parabolas corresponding to a trinomial multifractal. This is demonstrated for a particular case by obtaining an exact $f(\alpha)$ for a multiplicative trinomial mass distribution. The trinomial nature of the multifractality is related to the type of surface macro-irregularity considered here and is independent of the micro-roughness of the surface which however influence the values of $\alpha_{min}$ and $\alpha_{max}$. The information dimension $D_I$ increases significantly with the micro-roughness of the surface. Interestingly, in contrast with this point of view, the surface seems to work uniformly. This correspond to an absence of screening effects in Knudsen diffusion.
The rank-size plot of the income distribution of Table 1 (dots) and the linear approximation (broken line) given by Eq.(1).
The rank-size plot of the income-tax listing (dots) and the function (2) obtained by the best-fit method (broken line).  
The rank-size plot of the income. The data in Table 1 is shown by dots as in Fig.1, whereas the data points induced from the income-tax listing by Eq.(3) are connected by the solid line-segments. The broken line shows the function (4) obtained by the best-fit method.  
The rank-size plot of the accumulated probability P (≥ d) of the debt (d) from 1997 to March, 2000. The broken line is the Zipf law (5) shown for visual reference.  
We analyze the distribution of income and income tax of individuals in Japan for the fiscal year 1998. From the rank-size plots we find that the accumulated probability distribution of both data obey a power law with a Pareto exponent very close to -2. We also present an analysis of the distribution of the debts owed by bankrupt companies from 1997 to March, 2000, which is consistent with a power law behavior with a Pareto exponent equal to -1. This power law is the same as that of the income distribution of companies. Possible implications of these findings for model building are discussed.
We investigate bond percolation on the iterated barycentric subdivision of a triangle, the hexacarpet, and the non-p.c.f. Sierpinski gasket. With the use of the diamond fractal, we are able to bound the critical probability of percolation on the non-p.c.f. gasket and the iterated barycentric subdivision of a triangle from above by 0.282. We then show how both the gasket and hexacarpet fractals are related via the iterated barycentric subdivisions of a triangle: the two spaces exhibit duality properties although they are not themselves dual graphs. Finally we show the existence of a non-trivial phase transition on all three graphs.
An example of a fast basin of an attractor of an IFS. The attractor of the IFS, a right-angle Sierpinski triangle, is shown in red.
Invariant properties
Attractor of the IFS (4.1) and the part of its fast basin within the viewing window. See text.  
Generations of the fast basin that is also shown in Figure 2. Black points take four (and no less) iterations to arrive on the attractor (red), green points take three (and no less) iterations, dark blue points take two (and no less) and light blue take one iteration.  
Illustration of part of the fast basin of the Kigami triangle. See text  
We define fractal continuations and the fast basin of the IFS and investigate which properties they inherit from the attractor. Some illustrated examples are provided.
c = (−0.123 + 0.745i 1 )e 1 + (−0.391 − 0.587i 1 )e 2  
In this article, we introduce the concept of normal families of bicomplex holomorphic functions to obtain a bicomplex Montel theorem. Moreover, we give a general definition of Fatou and Julia sets for bicomplex polynomials and we obtain a characterization of bicomplex Fatou and Julia sets in terms of Fatou set, Julia set and filled-in Julia set of one complex variable. Some 3D visual examples of bicomplex Julia sets are also given for the specific slice $\bold{j}=0$.
The non-extensive Tsallis entropy as a function of time t. The three curves are the numerical realization of Eq.(29) with q = 1 (solid line), q = 1.054 (symbol ×) and q = 1.205  
We argue that a process of social interest is a balance of order and randomness, thereby producing a departure from a stationary diffusion process. The strength of this effect vanishes if the order to randomness intensity ratio vanishes, and this property allows us to reveal, although in an indirect way, the existence of a finite order to randomness intensity ratio. We aim at detecting this effect. We introduce a method of statistical analysis alternative to the compression procedures, with which the limitations of the traditional Kolmogorov-Sinai approach are bypassed. We prove that this method makes it possible for us to build up a memory detector, which signals the presence of even very weak memory, provided that this is persistent over large time intervals. We apply the analysis to the study of the teen birth phenomenon and we find that the unmarried teen births are a manifestation of a social process with a memory more intense than that of the married teens. We attempt to give a social interpretation of this effect.
The binary image of the reservoir. 
The extracted boundary of the binary image. 
Log-log plot of the number of boxes needed to cover the boundary with a given size of the box. Best line fit with slope 1.60. 
Location of the lakes analyzed: Lakes surrounded by mountains ( L ), Lakes in the plane regions ( I ) and Lakes on the ridge ( G ). 
Even though many objects and phenomena of importance in geophysics have been shown to have fractal character, there are still many of them which show self-similar character and yet to be studied. The objective of the present work is to demonstrate that the fractal dimension of the boundary of a natural water body can be used to shed light on irregularity as well as other properties of a region. Owing to easy availability of satellite images and image processing softwares this turns out to be a handy tool. In this study, we have analyzed several lakes in India mostly around the Western Ghats region. We find that the fractal dimension of their boundaries for the length scales between around 40 meters to 2 kilometers, in general, has broad variation from 1.2 to 1.6. But when they are grouped into three categories, viz., lakes along the ridge of Western Ghats, lakes in the planes and lakes in the mountain region, we find the first two groups to have a narrower distribution of dimensions.
Let X \subset R be a bounded set; we introduce a formula that calculates the upper graph box dimension of X (i.e.the supremum of the upper box dimension of the graph over all uniformly continuous functions defined on X). We demonstrate the strength of the formula by calculating the upper graph box dimension for some sets and by giving an "one line" proof, alternative to the one given in [1], of the fact that if X has finitely many isolated points then its upper graph box dimension is equal to the upper box dimension plus one. Furthermore we construct a collection of sets X with infinitely many isolated points, having upper box dimension a taking values from zero to one while their graph box dimension takes any value in [max{2a,1},a + 1], answering this way, negatively to a conjecture posed in [1].
Multifractal analysis of stochastic processes deals with the fine scale properties of the sample paths and seeks for some global scaling property that would enable extracting the so-called spectrum of singularities. In this paper we establish bounds on the support of the spectrum of singularities. To do this, we prove a theorem that complements the famous Kolmogorov's continuity criterion. The nature of these bounds helps us identify the quantities truly responsible for the support of the spectrum. We then make several conclusions from this. First, specifying global scaling in terms of moments is incomplete due to possible infinite moments, both of positive and negative order. For the case of ergodic self-similar processes we show that negative order moments and their divergence do not affect the spectrum. On the other hand, infinite positive order moments make the spectrum nontrivial. In particular, we show that the self-similar stationary increments process with the nontrivial spectrum must be heavy-tailed. This shows that for determining the spectrum it is crucial to capture the divergence of moments. We show that the partition function is capable of doing this and also propose a robust variant of this method for negative order moments.
We consider a construction of recurrent fractal interpolation surfaces with function vertical scaling factors and estimation of their box-counting dimension. A recurrent fractal interpolation surface (RFIS) is an attractor of a recurrent iterated function system (RIFS) which is a graph of bivariate interpolation function. For any given data set on rectangular grids, we construct general recurrent iterated function systems with function vertical scaling factors and prove the existence of bivariate functions whose graph are attractors of the above constructed RIFSs. Finally, we estimate lower and upper bounds for the box-counting dimension of the constructed RFISs.
In this paper some critical aspects of the behaviour of breaking lattices subject to slow driving forces are briefly reviewed. In particular fluctuations in the response to the variation of external parameters are discussed.
A schematic representation of the DoA of the fixed point φ * H , and the closeness as measured by β. Fractionally differenced processes, shown as the central disk, in fact correspond to a subset of the innermost 'circle' β = 0.
The FARIMA models, which have long-range-dependence (LRD), are widely used in many areas. Through deriving a precise characterisation of the spectrum, autocovariance function, and variance time function, we show that this family is very atypical among LRD processes, being extremely close to the fractional Gaussian noise in a precise sense. Furthermore, we show that this closeness property is not robust to additive noise. We argue that the use of FARIMA, and more generally fractionally differenced time series, should be reassessed in some contexts, in particular when convergence rate under rescaling is important and noise is expected.
In this paper I explore a nonstandard formulation of Hausdorff dimension. By considering an adapted form of the counting measure formulation of Lebesgue measure, I prove a nonstandard version of Frostman's lemma and show that Hausdorff dimension can be computed through a counting argument rather than by taking the infimum of a sum of certain covers. This formulation is then applied to obtain a simple proof of the doubling of the dimension of certain sets under a Brownian motion. Comment: 15 pages
Herein we develop a dynamical foundation for fractional Brownian Motion. A clear relation is established between the asymptotic behaviour of the correlation function and diffusion in a dynamical system. Then, assuming that scaling is applicable, we establish a connection between diffusion (either standard or anomalous) and the dynamical indicator known as the Hurst coefficient. We argue on the basis of numerical simulations that although we have been able to prove scaling only for "Gaussian" processes, our conclusions may well apply to a wider class of systems. On the other hand systems exist for which scaling might not hold, so we speculate on the possible consequence on the various relations derived in the paper on such systems.
The evolution of Γ(α + 1).σ α [F, P ] over the normalized number of iterations. The evolution is shown only up to N = 100, since the latter part (100 < N ≤ 2000) is almost flat and uninteresting.
The image (under w) of a numerically computed near-optimal subdivision P , for δ = 0.05, superimposed on the von-Koch curve.  
A new calculus on fractal curves, such as the von Koch curve, is formulated. We define a Riemann-like integral along a fractal curve F, called F α -integral, where α is the dimension of F. A derivative along the fractal curve called F α -derivative, is also defined. The mass function, a measure-like algorithmic quantity on the curves, plays a central role in the formulation. An appropriate algorithm to calculate the mass function is presented to emphasize its algorithmic aspect. Several aspects of this calculus retain much of the simplicity of ordinary calculus. We establish a conjugacy between this calculus and ordinary calculus on the real line. The F α -integral and F α -derivative are shown to be conjugate to the Riemann integral and ordinary derivative respectively. In fact, they can thus be evalutated using the corresponding operators in ordinary calculus and conjugacy. Sobolev Spaces are constructed on F, and F α -differentiability is generalized. Finally we touch upon an example of absorption along fractal paths, to illustrate the utility of the framework in model making.
A new calculus based on fractal subsets of the real line is formulated. In this calculus, an integral of order α, 0 < α ≤ 1, called F α -integral, is defined, which is suitable to integrate functions with fractal support F of dimension α. Further, a derivative of order α, 0 < α ≤ 1, called F α -derivative, is defined, which enables us to differentiate functions, like the Cantor staircase, "changing" only on a fractal set. The F α -derivative is local unlike the classical fractional derivative. The F α -calculus retains much of the simplicity of ordinary calculus. Several results including analogues of fundamental theorems of calculus are proved. The integral staircase function, which is a generalization of the functions like the Cantor staircase function, plays a key role in this formulation. Further, it gives rise to a new definition of dimension, the γ-dimension. Spaces of F α -differentiable and F α -integrable functions are analyzed. Analogues of Sobolev Spaces are constructed on F and F α -differentiability is generalized using Sobolev-like construction. F α -differential equations are equations involving F α -derivatives. They can be used to model sublinear dynamical systems and fractal time processes, since sublinear behaviors are associated with staircase-like functions which occur naturally as their solutions. As examples, we discuss a fractal-time diffusion equation, and one-dimensional motion of a particle undergoing friction in a fractal medium.
We establish a formula yielding the Hausdorff measure for a class of non-self-similar Cantor sets in terms of the canonical covers of the Cantor set.
Consider a family of bounded domains $\Omega_{t}$ in the plane (or more generally any Euclidean space) that depend analytically on the parameter $t$, and consider the ordinary Neumann Laplacian $\Delta_{t}$ on each of them. Then we can organize all the eigenfunctions into continuous families $u_{t}^{(j)}$ with eigenvalues $\lambda_{t}^{(j)}$ also varying continuously with $t$, although the relative sizes of the eigenvalues will change with $t$ at crossings where $\lambda_{t}^{(j)}=\lambda_{t}^{(k)}$. We call these families homotopies of eigenfunctions. We study two explicit examples. The first example has $\Omega_{0}$ equal to a square and $\Omega_{1}$ equal to a circle; in both cases the eigenfunctions are known explicitly, so our homotopies connect these two explicit families. In the second example we approximate the Sierpinski carpet starting with a square, and we continuously delete subsquares of varying sizes. (Data available in full at Comment: 54 pages, 37 figures, 2 tables, to appear, Fractals
Kusuoka and Zhou have defined the Laplacian on the Sierpinski carpet using average values of functions on small cells and the graph structure of cell adjacency. We have implemented an algorithm that uses their method to approximate solutions to boundary value problems. As a result we have a wealth of data concerning harmonic functions with prescribed boundary values, and eigenfunctions of the Laplacian with either Neumann or Dirichlet boundary conditions. We will present some of this data and discuss some ideas for defining normal derivatives on the boundary of the carpet.
We shall show that, given $0\leq\alpha\leq\beta\leq\beta^*$, $\alpha+\beta\leq\lambda_1\leq\alpha+\beta^*$, and $\beta\leq\lambda_2\leq\alpha+\beta$, there exist compact sets $E_1$, $F_1$, $E_2$, $F_2$ such that $\dim_HE_1=\alpha$, $\dim_HF_1=\beta$, $\dim_PF_1=\beta^*$, $\dim_H(E_1\times F_1)=\lambda_1$; and $\dim_PE_2=\overline{\dim}_BE_2=\beta$, $\dim_PF_2=\overline{\dim}_BF_2=\alpha$, $\dim_P(E_2\times F_2)=\overline{\dim}_B(E_2\times F_2)=\lambda_2$. Actually, we prove a stronger conclusion in this paper.
1. Simultaneous interval and potential interval case, when n = 8 and x k+1 = 3
3. Interval case with x k+1 = 0
We consider some properties of the intersection of deleted digits Cantor sets with their translates. We investigate conditions on the set of digits such that, for any t between zero and the dimension of the deleted digits Cantor set itself, the set of translations such that the intersection has Hausdorff dimension equal to t is dense in the set F of translations such that the intersection is non-empty. We make some simple observations regarding properties of the set F, in particular, we characterize when F is an interval, in terms of conditions on the digit set.
presents two different relative wavelet energy (probability) distribution  
Evaluation of Hurst exponent for laser beam x-coordinate (left column)  
The propagation of a laser beam through turbulent media is modeled as a fractional Brownian motion (fBm). Time series corresponding to the center position of the laser spot (coordinates x and y) after traveling across air in turbulent motion, with different strength, are analyzed by the wavelet theory. Two quantifiers are calculated, the Hurst exponent, H, and the mean Normalized Total Wavelet Entropy, (S) over tilde (WT), It is verified that both quantifiers give complementary information about the turbulence.
The scaling exponent of a hierarchy of cities used to be regarded as a fractal parameter. The Pareto exponent was treated as the fractal dimension of size distribution of cities, while the Zipf exponent was treated as the reciprocal of the fractal dimension. However, this viewpoint is not exact. In this paper, I will present a new interpretation of the scaling exponent of rank-size distributions. The ideas from fractal measure relation and the principle of dimension consistency are employed to explore the essence of Pareto's and Zipf's scaling exponents. The Pareto exponent proved to be a ratio of the fractal dimension of a network of cities to the average dimension of city population. Accordingly, the Zipf exponent is the reciprocal of this dimension ratio. On a digital map, the Pareto exponent can be defined by the scaling relation between a map scale and the corresponding number of cities based on this scale. The cities of the United States of America in 1900, 1940, 1960, and 1980 and Indian cities in 1981, 1991, and 2001 are utilized to illustrate the geographical spatial meaning of Pareto's exponent. The results suggest that the Pareto exponent of city-size distribution is not a fractal dimension, but a ratio of the urban network dimension to the city population dimension. This conclusion is revealing for scientists to understand Zipf's law and fractal structure of hierarchy of cities.
The augmented tree  
5 kinds of Totally disconnected fractal squares in F 3,5
In \cite{LaLuRa13}, Lau, Rao and one of the authors completely classified the topological structure of self-similar sets $F$ defined by $F=(F+{\mathcal D})/n$, where ${\mathcal D}\subset\{0,1,\dots,n-1\}^2, n\ge 2$. They call the $F$ {\it fractal squares}. In this paper, we further provide several simple criteria for the $F$ to be totally disconnected, as this kind of Cantor-type sets plays an important role in the theory. Moreover, we mainly discuss the Lipschitz classification of fractal squares in the case of $n=3$ by using a technique of Gromov hyperbolic graph.
Detrended fluctuation analysis is used to investigate correlations between the monthly average of the maximum daily temperatures for different locations in the continental US and the different climates these locations have. When we plot the scaling exponents obtained from the detrended fluctuation analysis versus the standard deviation of the temperature fluctuations we observe crowding of data points belonging to the same climates. Thus, we conclude that by observing the long-time trends in the fluctuations of temperature it would be possible to distinguish between different climates.
Renormalization group and Coulomb gas mappings are used to derive theoretical predictions for the corrections to the exactly known asymptotic fractal masses of the hull, external perimeter, singly connected bonds and total mass of the Fortuin-Kasteleyn clusters for two-dimensional $q$-state Potts models at criticality. For q=4 these include exact logarithmic (as well as loglog) corrections.
Construction of the expanded von Koch curve.
Generatrix p 1 with b = 1/4, a = 1/2 and the yielding fractal curve F .  
Diagram of an (α(Ω), f (α(Ω))) spectrum with its significant values (d min > D 1 in this case). The MF spectrum covers the arc connecting dim M F (Γ a 1 ) (blue point) to dim M F (Γ a N ) (red point).
Diagram of inverted of shrunk spectrum (α * , f * (α * )) of the one in Fig. 6. Here q * can be interpreted as the slopes of tangents to the curve (q * = f * (α * )).
This paper presents a comparative study of two families of curves in R(n). The first ones comprise self-similar bounded fractals obtained by contractive processes, and have a non-integer Hausdorff dimension. The second ones are unbounded, locally rectifiable, locally smooth, obtained by expansive processes, and characterized by a fractional dimension defined by M. Mendes France. We present a way to relate the two types of curves and their respective non-integer dimensions. Thus, to one fractal bounded curve we associate, at first, a finite range of Mendes France dimensions, identifying the minimal and the maximal ones. Later, we show that this discrete spectrum can be made continuous, allowing it to be compared with some other multifractal spectra encountered in the literature. We discuss the corresponding physical interpretations.
The object under study is a particular closed curve on the square lattice $\Z^2$ related with the Fibonacci sequence $F_n$. It belongs to a class of curves whose length is $4F_{3n+1}$, and whose interiors by translation tile the plane. The limit object, when conveniently normalized, is a fractal line for which we compute first the fractal dimension, and then give a complexity measure.
Black and white image of a transversal cut of a Nautilus pompilius shell (see text).
Equiangular spiral (open circles) superimposed on the image of the Nautilus shell.
The complexity of the Nautilus pompilius shell is analyzed in terms of its fractal dimension and its equiangular spiral form. Our findings assert that the shell is fractal from its birth and that its growth is dictated by a self-similar criterion (we obtain the fractal dimension of the shell as a function of time). The variables that have been used for the analysis show an exponential dependence on the number of chambers/age of the cephalopod, a property inherited from its form.
Detrended fluctuation analysis of the representative instantaneous heart rate time series before and during meditation.
Multiscale entropy analysis of the representative instantaneous heart rate time series before and during meditation.
Recurrence plots of the representative instantaneous heart rate time series (a) before and (b) during meditation.
The heart beat data recorded from samples before and during meditation are analyzed using two different scaling analysis methods. These analyses revealed that mediation severely affects the long range correlation of heart beat of a normal heart. Moreover, it is found that meditation induces periodic behavior in the heart beat. The complexity of the heart rate variability is quantified using multiscale entropy analysis and recurrence analysis. The complexity of the heart beat during mediation is found to be more.
1-variable, 4-variable, 16-variable, 64-variable, 256-variable and 1024-variable approximations of our 512 × 512 grayscale test image. We can store an 4 n variable approximation, with 1 ≤ n ≤ 8, using (8 − n )4 n +1 
Basic block decomposition and mapping a large block to a smaller block. 
Results of standard Fractal block compression with two choices of the size of the "small" blocks," 16 × 16 for the first image and 8 × 8 for the second.
Comparing the approximations generated by our V-variable fractal method and images using different block sizes in the standard fractal method. The top two images are the reconstructions using V = 256 and V = 1024, respectively. The bottom two images are obtained from the standard Fractal block method using “small” block sizes of 16 × 16 and 8 × 8, respectively. The PSNR values for the four images are 27.72, 31.61, 25.84, 29.76, respectively. 
A comparison between JPEG (upper image), our V-variable method (middle image), and the standard fractal block method (lower image). All images are parts of images generated as approximations to a given 512 × 512 grayscale textimage. By using our method we can avoid the “halos” appearant in the JPEG image. The standard fractal method is not competitive here. Lossless compression, like e.g. PNG, requires larger file sizes. 
V-variable fractals, where $V$ is a positive integer, are intuitively fractals with at most $V$ different "forms" or "shapes" at all levels of magnification. In this paper we describe how V-variable fractals can be used for the purpose of image compression.
Hubble diagram for SNe1a 18 
We present a fractal dust model of the Universe based on Mandelbrot's proposal to replace the standard Cosmological Principle by his Conditional Cosmological Principle within the framework of General Theory of Relativity. This model turns out to be free from the de-Vaucouleurs paradox and is consistent with the SNe1a observations. The expected galaxy count as a function of red-shift is obtained for this model. An interesting variation is a steady state version, which can account for an accelerating scale factor without any cosmological constant in the model.
Top-cited authors
Boming Yu
  • Huazhong University of Science and Technology
Hamidreza Namazi
  • The University of Calgary
Ji-Huan He
  • Soochow University (PRC)
Yuming Chu
  • Huzhou University
Jianchao Cai
  • China University of Petroleum - Beijing