Foundations and Trends® in Marketing

Published by Now Publishers
Online ISSN: 1555-0761
Print ISSN: 1555-0753
1 Linear utility contours and budget constraint. Contours (indifference curves) further from the origin are associated with higher levels of utility. Changes in expenditure results in translations of the budget constraint, but not in the good associated with utility maximization. 
2 Non-homothetic linear utility contours and budget constraint. Contours (indifference curves) further from the origin are associated with higher levels of utility. Higher levels of expenditure are associated with preference for good 2 (vertical axis). 
This monograph provides a review of choice models in marketing from the perspective of a utility maximizing consumer subject to budgetary restrictions. Marketing models of choice have undergone many transformations over the last 20 years, and the advent to hierarchical Bayes models indicate that simple, theoretically grounded models work well when applied to understanding individual choices. Thus, we use economic theory to provide the foundation from which future trends are discussed. We begin our discussion with descriptive models of choice that raises a number of debatable issues for model improvement. We then look to economic theory as a basis for guiding model development, and conclude with a discussion of promising areas for future work.
Internet auctions are common in nearly all consumer categories. Hence, it is not surprising that a great deal of research has emerged on the topic in recent years. New design and format considerations and a wealth of available data from various platforms provide new questions and promising research opportunities for marketing researchers. This monograph begins with the introduction of the basic settings, concepts, and processes that are the building blocks of auction research. It then focuses on the transition from pre-Internet auction research to more recent topics. Special attention is given to research opportunities as well as to experimental methods that can provide both laboratory and field data to answer important questions. The survey reviews recent empirical and theoretical works on Internet auctions with a focus on Internet auction design, formats, and features that are currently debated in the marketing literature. Some of these issues are extensions of general auction topics, but the findings can be quite different in Internet environments. We touch on new design features that are particularly relevant to Internet auctions such as feedback ratings, buy-it-now options, and different closing rules. We also look at strategic and behavioral models that are shaping marketing research on Internet auctions. Particular emphasis is given to behaviors that are relevant in offline environments but take on new meanings and forms in Internet auction environments.
Sponsored Search Advertising Example 
The Relationship among Customers, Advertisers and Search Engines 
A Search Engine with the Easy Comparison Tool 
We systematically overview the literature in key word search and propose several promising research directions. The paper is organized by each agent in the search process: searchers, advertisers and the search engine, and reviews the key research issues for each. For each group, we outline the decision process involved in keyword search. For searchers, this involves what to search, where to search, which results to click, and when to exit search. For advertisers, this involves where to bid and which word or words to bid on, how much to bid and how searchers and auction mechanisms moderate these behaviors. The search engine faces choices on mechanism design, website design, and how much information to share with its advertisers and searchers. These choices have implications for customer lifetime value and the nature of competition between advertisers. Overall, we list a number of potential areas of future research arising from the decision processes of these various agents.
Loyalty programs (LPs) have increased in popularity, and have been studied extensively in the academic literature with mixed findings. Therefore, we offer an overview of extant research on LPs. We derive generalizations on the effectiveness and best design of LPs, discuss conditions that mediate and moderate the effects of LPs on customer behavior and attitudes, and highlight avenues for further research. Overall, we conclude that LPs are effective in increasing consumer purchase behaviors over time, but their impact differs across consumer segments and markets. Numerous practical examples illustrate the points discussed. Overall, this monograph provides insights to researchers and practitioners through a comprehensive, research-based synthesis of current knowledge. As a consequence, LP managers may better understand the implications of LP adoption, and ultimately improve the effectiveness of their LPs.
1. Summary of event studies of the effects of advertising agency changes on value of client firms.
What restrictions should be placed on advertising agencies with respect to serving accounts or clients who are competitors of one another in order to avoid conflicts of interest? In recent decades, the advertising and marketing services industry has undergone a number of structural changes that forced an ongoing re-examination and modification of traditional norms and policies emphasizing exclusivity in agency- client relationships. A typology of conflicts that have arisen in the U.S. shows the variety and complexity of contemporary conflicts. Cases of conflicts reported in the trade literature are used to illustrate policy issues as well as the spillover effects and resolution of disputes. To cope with these developments, two significant changes in conflict policies evident in current U.S. practice are identified. First, safeguards to preserve proprietary information that function as organizational, location, and personnel mobility barriers among quasi-autonomous units within a mega agency or holding company have become an essential component of conflict policies. Subject to the protection against security breaches afforded by safeguards, rival clients may be served by separate organizational units that are under common control and/or ownership. Second, a family of hybrid conflict polices has evolved that feature elements of the split account system long practiced in Japan, augmented by safeguards that serve as partial substitutes for the umbrella prohibition on serving rivals imposed by exclusivity. By relying on safeguards and splitting account assignments in a variety of ways among different organizational units within a given mega-agency or holding company that may also serve rivals (or across different mega agencies or holding companies), clients exert a measure of control over the access of those agencies to confidential information while also offering them incentives to avoid conflicts of interest. Findings from the existing body of conceptual and empirical research bearing on the sources and consequences of conflicts are reviewed and directions for further research are discussed.
The two components of the advertising industry - the creative sector that develops and produces messages, and the communications sector that transmits messages via various media - have each been greatly affected by advances in creative design and communications technologies. As the media composition of advertising has changed in the last century for both local and national advertising - from newspapers, outdoor and radio advertising to network and cable television, and most recently to internet and digital media - so too has been transformed the very concept of advertising, its functionality and its measurement.
Note:the following full text is the accepted manuscript. For the published version, please see This article presents an overview of and draws conclusions from extant studies related to multichannel retailing. Academic interest in this topic has increased dramatically, with a large number of new articles being published on this topic as retailers have adopted additional new channels and new channel technologies with unique characteristics, which has further increased the complexity of multichannel retailing. Thus, an updated understanding of how retailers and consumers influence and interact with each other in multichannel retail contexts is required. The authors focus on the following questions: (1) What factors influence channel choices of retailers and customers? (2) How do retailers employ multichannel marketing strategies, and how do customers use different channels to search and purchase during their purchase journey? And (3) How do multichannel strategies and channel selection behavior affect customer outcomes and retailer performance? After presenting the definitions of key terms used in multichannel retailing, the authors introduce their framework. Next, they synthesize existing research and specify the three research questions with six subtopics by considering the perspectives of both customers and retailers. At the end of each subtopic, the authors discuss future research directions derived from research gaps, unresolved issues in practice, and environment changes. The monograph concludes with thoughts about the future of retailing.
For the behavioral marketing scholar, experimentation and the analysis of variance are among the most important and frequently relied upon tools of the trade, and many useful texts exist to guide researchers on these topics. This monograph is intended to be a supplemental resource and a helpful guide for conducting three essential analytical techniques that are also frequently useful to the behavioral researcher: (1) we discuss the practice of conducting a median split on a continuous variable to facilitate communication clarity. (2) We demonstrate the practice of centering variables about their means prior to creating product terms to reflect interaction effects in a moderated multiple regression model. (3) We discuss the practice of a mediation analysis to test for the relative impact of direct and indirect effects of predictors on dependent variables. © 2015 D. Iacobucci, D. L. Popovich, G. A. Bakamitsos, S. S. Posavac, and F. R. Kardes.
The rise of the Internet and smartphones in the 21st century has created and developed social media as an extremely effective means of communication in society. In life, business, sports, and politics, social media facilitates the democratization of ideas like never before. Social media content gives consumers different information sources that they must decipher to discern its trustworthiness and influence in their own opinions. Marketers must be savvy about using social media in their attempts to persuade consumers and build brand equity. As social media has permeated our everyday lives, scholars in various disciplines are actively conducting research into this aspect regarding our way of life. In this scholarly endeavor, marketing has taken a leading role in this research endeavor as a discipline involving human communications and idea persuasion. Thus, rather than considering social media broadly across multiple disciplines, in this monograph, we concentrate on social media analytics in marketing. This monograph comprises the following four sections: • First, we provide an overview of social media and social media analytics (SMA). While much has already been said about social media generally, relatively less has been said about social media analytics. Thus, much of our focus is on SMA in terms of contributing to the current understanding of SMA in the field. • Second, we concentrate on social media analytics in marketing. We discuss practical industry perspectives and examples, as well as recent marketing research by academics. Notably, we show how analytics may be used to address concerns about social media privacy and help detect fake reviews. • Third, we summarize common tools for social media analytics in marketing. These methods can be complex, but they must be mastered for sound SMA practice. They encompass big data, artificial intelligence, machine learning, deep learning, text analytics, and visual analytics. • Fourth, we discuss trends and a future research agenda. We also discuss how SMA might be better integrated into higher education.
Shopping is an integral part of our everyday lives. Common wisdom suggests that many consumers engage in shopping and buying as a means to repair their negative feelings - a notion commonly referred to as retail therapy. However, does retail therapy really work? The present monograph seeks to address this question by proposing a tripartite approach, reviewing and organizing relevant research in marketing and consumer psychology based on this tripartite framework: (1) motivational (the goals and motives that consumers have for shopping); (2) behavioral (the activities in which consumers engage during the shopping process); and (3) emotional (the feelings that consumers experience while shopping). Although accumulating evidence suggests that retail therapy does work to a certain extent, simultaneously considering the three perspectives in future empirical investigation helps to further improve our understanding of the antecedents, underlying mechanisms, and consequences of retail therapy. Accordingly, a number of questions and directions for future research on the topic of retail therapy are discussed, drawing upon the proposed tripartite framework.
The topic of product assortment has generated a plethora of research across various domains, including economics, analytical and empirical modeling, individual and group decision making, and social psychology. Despite the voluminous assortment research, however, the key findings have remained scattered across domains. In fact, the very domain of assortment research has not been clearly defined, thus complicating the understanding of the current state of assortment research. The goal of this review, therefore, is to define the field of assortment research and outline its key findings. In this context, this review delineates three key domains of assortment research: (1) how consumers perceive the variety of items in an assortment, (2) how consumers choose an item from a given assortment, and (3) how consumers choose among assortments. The key findings in each of these three areas are synthesized in the form of specific research propositions that build on the existing findings and provide guidance for further empirical investigation. By outlining the key findings in each of these three areas, this review offers an integrative framework for understanding the impact of assortment on consumer choice.
An important marketing objective by which a firm obtains sustainable competitive advantage is to create and harness customer loyalty for its brands. A high degree of consumer loyalty is probably the greatest asset marketers can possess. While there are several reasons for being loyal to a brand, I believe that in the past two decades undue emphasis has been given to the person-brand relationship and related constructs such as self-brand connections and commitment based on emotional attachment. In this review, I have highlighted other major reasons behind loyalty. I use a milder term - persistent preference - To highlight that a major subset of repeat purchase behavior is not characterized by a high degree of emotional content. Nonetheless, for many forms of challenges by competitors, this subset may show more or less the same consequences that are normally attributed to loyalty with heavy emotional content. I review classic and more recent research on brand loyalty and attitudinal resistance, and research on persistence from a behavioral decision theory perspective. Based on this review, I identify four types of persistent preferences and describe their characteristics.
The focus of this monograph is the information-economics theoretic framework of brand equity. Adopting this view, Erdem and Swait [1998] argue that consumer-based brand equity is the value of a brand as a credible signal of a product's positioning. In their framework, the content, clarity, and credibility of the brand signal creates intangible benefits, enhances perceived quality, and decreases consumer-perceived risk and information costs, and hence increases consumer utility, which underlies the added value associated with a brand. The central (and motivating) construct in this view is the "credibility" of brands as signals.
In this monograph, we introduce a conceptual framework to understand: (1) How globalization is changing the marketplace and the way consumers bring cultural meanings and identities to the fore of their minds, (2) the mechanisms by which brands acquire cultural meanings (i.e., from simple country-(or region-)-of-origin associations to the more complex enactment of cultural authority), (3) the tools that marketers have to purposefully imbue brands with cultural meanings that can resonate with culturally-diverse consumers (i.e., the tools to create cultural equity), and (4) how consumers respond to the cultural meanings in brands for fulfilling their goals.
In this article, we provide a comprehensive review of the literature on economic models of national brand - store brand competition and address three questions: (i) What types of economic models have been used to analyze the competition between national brands and store brands? (ii) What insights and implications have they generated? (iii) What are some useful future directions for modelers of national brand - store brand competition? We review 47 articles published or written during the period 1966-2011, present the model characteristics of the key articles, and develop over 160 results pertaining to national brand and store brand decisions. Then, we discuss the implications of these results and suggest directions for future research.
1: %GDP spending versus life expectancy.
2: Number of marketing health care related publications per year per journal.
3: Marketing research health care topics.
4: Marketing concepts in frequency and interrelationships.
This monograph describes the marketing research that has been published in the top marketing journals since their inception relating to health care, broadly defined. Over 1,000 articles are summarized across the chapters relating to consumer behavior and food, consumer behavior and other consumption, and business marketing issues. Research from outside of marketing is also briefly reviewed. This monograph celebrates the research that has been accomplished and closes with suggestions for future research.
In this monograph we examine the extent to which word-of-mouth communication (WOM) plays a complementary and/or substitute role with regard to advertising. A review of the existing literature reveals the main similarities and differences between these constructs. We also examine the conditions in which a social contagion process is most likely. Specifically, our literature review helps us answer the following questions: whetherWOM complements the advertising effect, when and how WOM can be a substitute of the marketing effort, and which issues limit WOM's ability to inform and persuade consumers. Published empirical evidence suggests that in most cases WOM complements advertising; however, three marketing strategies - viral marketing, referral reward programs, and a firm's creation of exogenous WOM - might work without advertising. This monograph concludes with a list of unanswered questions of potential interest to both researchers and managers.
Altogether, when designing sales force compensation, decision makers are faced with a complex issue involving many variables, some of which are unobservable, interdependent, or uncertain. Moreover, compensation is often viewed as salespeople's primary motivator and in many corporations, it is the dominant sales expense. The objective of this monograph is to review the many insights provided by empirical research to date, some of which are just emerging in the marketing literature. We first discuss how plans should be designed according to the dominant research stream and contrast research findings with actual sales force compensation policies. Then, we highlight topics related to sales force compensation that are notably under-researched and show how taking them into account will enrich knowledge on compensation. Finally, we conclude with future trends in sales force compensation.
Experience is a new and exciting concept marketing academia and practice. This monograph reviews the various meanings of experience as the term is used in philosophy, psychology, and in consumer behavior and marketing. I will discuss the key concepts of experience marketing such as experiential value, different types of experiences, the distinction between ordinary and extraordinary experiences and experience touchpoints. I will also review the empirical findings that provide consumer insights on experiences - such as how experiences are remembered, whether positive and negative experiences can co-exist, how experiential attributes are processed and whether experiences are rational. Practical frameworks for managing and marketing experiences will be discussed. I will conclude with an exploration of how experience marketing can contribute to customer happiness.
In the current age of information and big data, consumer informational privacy has become an important issue in marketing. Besides being worried about the growing collection, storage, and use of personal information, consumers are anxious about a lack of transparency or control over their personal data. Despite these growing concerns, understanding of how firms' privacy practices affect consumers remains limited. We review the relevant literature on consumer privacy from a marketing perspective and summarize current knowledge about how information collection, information storage, information use, transparency, and control influence consumers' behavior. In addition, we discuss to what extent the influence of firms' privacy practices differs between firms, consumers, and environments. On the basis of this knowledge, we formulate several hypotheses aimed at providing direction for future research regarding the role of consumer informational privacy in marketing.
This is intended to assist researchers in employing ethnographic methods in marketing and consumer research. It is our response to the demands of practitioners, students, and academics who want to know more about ethnographic research, but who may not have had a formal training or exposure. Ethnographic research is an instantiation of what is sometimes referred to as interpretive research. Ethnography is increasingly used to explore marketing and consumer issues, designing products, services and systems that improve people's daily lives. We offer a step-by-step approach to conducting ethnography in business and consumer settings with some examples. We also provide a framework and some general principles.
Consumer financial behavior is a domain between micro-economics, behavioral finance, and marketing. It is based on insights and behavioral theories from cognitive, economic, and social psychology (biases, heuristics, social influences), in the context of and sometimes in conflict with micro-economic theories of consumers, investors, and markets. Behavioral finance has a descriptive approach, how people make financial decisions. Not always rational, but often in a systematic irrational way. Consumer financial behavior is also a basis and starting point for the marketing management of financial products and services, as well as for consumer education and protection policy. This monograph is on the determinants/drivers and consequences of spending, saving, borrowing, insuring, and investing. Ultimately, this monograph is on the financial requirements for financial inclusion, and participation in present society with its myriad of products and services, experiences, social media, information (overload), and the pursuit of meaning, satisfaction, happiness, and wellbeing.
This review takes stock of the development of Consumer Culture Theory (CCT) and provides a perspective from which this field of research can be framed, synthesized, and navigated. This review takes a conceptual and historical approach to map the rich theoretical inventory cultivated over almost 40 years of culturally-oriented research on consumption. The authors describe how CCT has emerged, chart various approaches to consumer culture studies, outline the dominant research domains, identify debates and controversies that circulate in the field, discuss the latest conceptual and methodological developments, and share managerial implications of a CCT approach. From this vantage point, they point to some promising directions for CCT research. © Eric Arnould, Melea Press, Emma Salminen and Jack S. Tillotson (2019).
Understanding how culture influences consumer behaviors is crucial to success in international marketing. In this monograph, the authors present a conceptual and empirical framework for understanding how culture impacts consumer behaviors, and recommend seven analytical steps for understanding similarities and differences between cultures as well as within-culture variations in consumer behaviors. These analytical steps are: (1) identify the key components of culture; (2) find out and describe the major clusters of countries or regions based on their similarities and differences in consumption behaviors; (3) relate similarities and differences in consumption behaviors to key components of culture; (4) develop and test specific hypotheses regarding the joint effects of different components of culture on consumption behaviors; (5) track the changes in consumption behavior within a country in response to social and economic development; (6) formulate and test specific hypotheses regarding the joint effects of different components of culture on changes in consumer behaviors within a country; and (7) conduct experimental studies to understand when consumers will follow cultural norms and when they will not. In the present monograph, we illustrate the utility of the proposed conceptual and analytical approach by combining business analytic and experimental methods to model tourist consumption, although this approach can be applied to explain behaviors in other domains of consumption. The authors close by suggesting several directions for future research on culture and behavior.
Purchase intentions are frequently measured and used by marketing managers as an input for decisions about new and existing products and services. Purchase intentions are correlated and predict future sales, but do so imperfectly. I review and summarize research on the relationship between purchase intentions and sales that has been conducted over the past 60 years. This review offers insights into how best to measure purchase intentions, how to forecast sales from purchase intentions measures, and why purchase intentions do not always translate into sales.
Mental imagery and mental simulations play an important role in any consumption experience. For decades, however, the famed “imagery debate” dominated discussions on imagery and to some extent stymied research on how imagery impacts consumption. As researchers debated whether a picture-like component was part of the underlying mental representation or not, a researcher’s inability to produce concrete evidence that people had indeed formed mental images was often used to challenge imagery-based explanations. Despite this, the last decade has witnessed burgeoning research on how consumers use imagery in a myriad of ways — often in the service of some larger goal. The monograph views imagery through this functional lens and reviews and organizes these findings. This review provides a historical perspective on imagery research and then uses evidence from past research to lay down a conceptual foundation for new work that will undoubtedly emerge in the coming decades. Questions such as “What triggers imagery?” “Are there differences between perception and imagery?” “How do we use imagery to create simulations and imagine what we do not see?” “How does imagery exert an influence?” and “Are there individual and
Nonprofit organizations are continually faced with the challenge of where to allocate their limited funds and other resources across the diverse range of programs that they offer. Rather than examining each program separately, nonprofits should view their activities as a portfolio of programs. Mission, Money, and Merit are the three critical axes for strategic management of a nonprofit's portfolio. The M3 portfolio approach developed here visually presents the size (typically cost) of each program, as well as the relationships among the programs relative to the nonprofit's mission, resource-cost coverage, and performance quality. The portfolio model then measures the center of gravity for the nonprofit on each axis and the overall balance of the organization's activities. By presenting the complexity of any organization visually and colorfully, management can better see and judge what programs may need enhancing, changing, or eliminating. But this is not all the model offers. Through its participatory approach of asking managers to independently rate each of the programs on the three axes, hidden assumptions are illuminated, differences are highlighted, agreements are shared, and learning takes place. The enhanced communication among managers that occurs as a result of this process contributes enormously and directly to the quality of strategic and tactical decision-making by the nonprofit toward greater productivity, effectiveness, sustainability, balance, and success.
Marketing and performance data often include measures repeated over time. Time-series models are uniquely suited to capture the time dependence of both a criterion variable and predictor variables, and how they relate to each other over time. The objective of this monograph is to give you a foundation in these models and to enable you to apply them to your own research domain of interest. To this end, we will discuss both the underlying perspectives and differences between alternative models, and the practical issues with testing, model choice, model estimation and interpretation common in empirical research. This combination of marketing phenomena and modeling philosophy sets this work apart from previous treatments on the broader topic of econometics and time series analysis in marketing.
1: Cyclic optimal advertising policies.
1: Likelihood Principle. 
1: Crisis likelihood effects on sales and advertising trajectories. 
This primer provides a gentle introduction to the estimation and control of dynamic marketing models. It introduces dynamic models in discrete- And continuous-time, scalar and multivariate settings, with observed outcomes and unobserved states, as well as random and/or time-varying parameters. It exemplifies how various dynamic models can be cast into the unifying state space framework, the benefit of which is to use one common algorithm to estimate all dynamic models. The primer then focuses on the estimation part, which answers questions such as: how much is the sales elasticity of advertising? How much sales lift can managers expect for a certain level of price promotion? What is the best sales forecast for the next quarter? The estimation relies on two principles: Kalman filtering and the likelihood principle. The Kalman filter recursively infers the means and covariances of an unobserved state vector as the observed outcomes arrive over time. This evolution of moments is then embedded in the likelihood function to obtain parameter estimates and their statistical significance. Next, the primer elucidates the control part, which answers questions such as: how much should managers spend on advertising over time and across regions? What is the best promotional timing and depth? How should managers optimally respond to competing brands' actions and resulting outcomes? The control part relies on the maximum principle and the optimality principle. Pontryagin's maximum principle allows managers to determine the optimal course of action (for example, the optimal levels and timing of advertising spends or price promotions) to attain a specified goal, such as profit maximization. Bellman's optimality principle, on the other hand, offers insights into optimal course correction when implementing the best plan as the state of a system varies dynamically and/or stochastically. Finally, the 176 primer presents three examples on the application of optimal control, differential games, and stochastic control theory to marketing problems, and illustrates how to discover novel insights into managerial decision-making.
Experimental economics employs laboratory and field experiments to characterize human behavior subject to economic constraints as well as to characterize economic behavior subject to human constraints. Despite a diversity of opinions, experimental economists adhere to a common set of research principles and methodologies that have developed over the years and distinguish this set of methodologies from experimental methodologies established in other disciplines. In recent years, the methodology of experimental economics has entered mainstream marketing research and has grown increasingly popular. This review presents an outline of the fundamental methodology of economic experiments as implemented in marketing research, gives examples of recent marketing experiments that adhere to the tenets of experimental economics, and organizes the marketing research employing experimental economics methodology into distinct topics, with additional detail on theory and applications.
Generating more than $2 trillion worldwide, entertainment encompasses numerous industries, such as the motion picture, publishing, music, sports, broadcasting, gaming, event, and tourism. It is rapidly growing and waging an enormous impact on the global economy, culture, and consumer well-being. It also serves as an essential platform for advertisers, relaying brand messages to entertainment audiences via advertising, sponsorship, and other forms of branded entertainment. The distinct properties of entertainment, such as its experiential nature, short lifecycle, integration with human talents, sequential distribution, and complementary consumption with technology hardware, entail unique challenges to executives and academics. This monograph thus delineates a general framework of entertainment marketing and synthesizestherelevantstudiesthataddresssomeofthesechallenges.It concludes by inviting continued research on the intriguing and rapidly changing entertainment and media landscape.
The relevance of academic research to marketing practitioners has been openly questioned in the literature. Do papers in leading journals provide useful frameworks, conclusions, and recommendations for marketing practitioners? Or is the gap between academia and practice simply too wide? More specifically, is academic research useful for those senior executives charged with developing strategy and delivering results for their organization - colloquially known as the C-suite - the decisionmakers who also determine the status of marketing within their organization? To answer this question, I review the strategic marketing literature to understand what we have learned over the decade from 2004 to 2014 and to assess the relevance of this learning to the Csuite. Contrary to the assertion that this literature has little to say to practitioners, I find many valuable bodies of knowledge on themes of high relevance to the C-suite, from which I draw conclusions in five important domains. These are the financial impact of marketing, digital marketing, innovation, marketing capabilities and societal concerns. While the advances in research in these domains over the decade are impressive, I conclude that where marketing as an academic discipline has to do better is communicating these insights to the highest levels of business.
This monograph aims to introduce researchers to the fascinating world of linguistics and to show how to conduct meaningful language research in marketing, exploring the way language influences behavior and how language can express thoughts, emotions, and mental states in marketing contexts. Ann Kronrod, who holds a Ph.D. in linguistics and conducts linguistic research in marketing, familiarizes the reader with fundamental concepts and prominent theories in linguistics, reviews the currently available research in marketing that examines language questions, lays out a guide to conducting compelling language research in marketing, and offers exciting future directions for developing new perspectives on language within marketing research. This monograph can be used as a basic guide for beginning researchers who are interested to conduct language research in marketing, or as a summary for more seasoned researchers who already acquired linguistics education and would like to get up to date on recent streams in the research of language in marketing.
1 Brand attachment: Construct, consequences, and causes.
This review examines four key issues involved in developing and establishing strong brand relationships with its customers. The first concerns the meaning of "brand attachment" and its critical consequences for brand equity. The second concerns outcomes of brand attachment to customers and the firm. The third concerns the causes of brand attachment. We articulate the process by which strong brand attachment is created through meaningful personal connections between the brand and its customers. We also articulate the identification and management of a strategic brand exemplar that allows the firm to create brand attachment and sustain and grow the brand's competitive advantages.
This paper builds on recent research that shows that product experience is based on the interaction of a range of sensory cues whose effect is non-conscious (e.g., visual cues affect taste perception) to revisit the classic issue of product taste testing. We propose that as consumers are unaware of the influence of a range of stimuli on their judgments and experience it is difficult for managers to collect valid and reliable consumer insights regarding the manner in which perceptual and sensory cues affect judgments and how they interact with each other. Therefore, we propose that the methodological paradigm of taste testing can and should be used to examine the effect of strategic and tactical marketing mix decisions in domains when consumer decision-making is non-conscious. Based on previous academic research, specific directions for managers to execute the test are provided: How to design and conduct a taste test, what measures to include and why, and how to analyze taste test results. We provide an example of the insight the methodology can provide using three related taste tests. While we use the attribute of taste as a specific example, the methodology and results can be translated into other domains where consumers may not be able to accurately explicate the reasons for their product experience, but that drive marketing decisions, including and beyond changing intrinsic product attributes.
Marketing management support systems (MMSS) are computer-enabled devices that help marketers to make better decisions. Marketing processes can be quite complex, involving large numbers of variables and mostly outcomes are the results of the actions of many different stakeholders (e.g., the company itself, its customers, its competitors). Moreover, a large number of interdependencies exist between the relevant variables and the outcomes of marketing actions are subject to major uncertainties. Given the complexities of the market place, marketing management support systems are useful tools to help the marketing decision makers carry out their jobs. Marketing management support systems can only be effective when they are optimally geared towards their users. We, therefore, deal with decision making in marketing (which generates the need for marketing management support systems). We discuss how marketing decisions are made, how they should be made, and the relative roles of analytical versus intuitive cognitive processes in marketing decision-making. We also discuss the match between marketing problem-solving modes and the various types of marketing management support systems. Finally we discuss how the impact of MMSS can be improved. This is important, given the current under-utilization of MMSS in practice. We discuss the conditions for the successful implementation and effective use of marketing management support systems. The issue ends with a discussion of the opportunities and challenges for marketing management support systems as we foresee them.
Building on prior work (MacInnis and de Mello (2005) 'The concept of hope and its relevance to product evaluation and choice'. Journal of Marketing 69(January), 1-14; de Mello and MacInnis (2005) 'Why and how consumers hope: Motivated reasoning and the marketplace'. Inside Consumption: Consumer Motives, Goals, and Desires, S. Ratneshwar and D. G. Mick (eds.). London/New York: Routledge, pp. 44-66), the authors argue that the concept of hope is highly relevant to consumer behavior and marketing, though its study has not yet appeared in these literatures. Complicating this study is that the definition of hope across literatures is inconsistent. The purpose of this conceptual article is to articulate the concept of hope and elucidate its relevance to consumer behavior.We do so in six sections. The first section explores the conceptual meaning of hope. A definition of hope and the constituent elements that underlie it is articulated. We compare this definition to ones provided elsewhere and differentiate hope from related terms like wishing, expectations, involvement, and faith. The second section focuses on what consumers hope for. The third section considers several important consumer relevant outcomes of hope, including biased processing and self-deception, risk taking behavior, product satisfaction, and life satisfaction and materialism. The fourth section addresses the extent to which marketers are purveyors of hope and what tactics they use to induce hope in consumers. The fifth section uses the conceptualization of hope to both discuss novel ways of measuring hope and their comparisons to existing hope measures. The final section addresses a set of interesting, yet unresolved questions about hope and consumer behavior.
The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of various literatures related to consumer search for information, and its effect on markets. Normative models of consumer search prior to purchase, and of consumer search through experience, are reviewed first. Models of consumer consideration set formation are also outlined. These models are generally based on consumers balancing the costs and benefits of search, which implies that search should be limited if it is costly. The extensive empirical literature on consumer search, which is reviewed next, does indicate that search is limited. The third major section of this review discusses the effect of search on market equilibrium, and market forces related to the supply of information. These include models of how advertising, retailing, and the Internet become organized to facilitate consumer search. The review concludes with a discussion of overall findings and suggestions for further research.
Top-cited authors
Pierre Chandon
Brian Wansink
  • Cornell University
Helen HaeEun Chun
  • Cornell University
Deborah J. Macinnis
  • University of Southern California
Ernan Haruvy
  • McGill University