Interviews with six Agta guides during fieldwork in 2006 and 2008, involving joint observations of birds in the wild and examination of illustrations, generated 110 Agta names of bird species in the Northern Sierra Madre Natural Park in northern Luzon, Philippines. Indigenous knowledge of birds is not limited to economically important species, as is often assumed. Agta hunters are familiar with most discernible species. Secretive, silent and montane birds are largely unknown.
During January-July 1994, ornithological surveys were conducted in Nakay-Nam Theun National Biodiversity Conservation Area (NBCA), the Nakay Plateau, Nam Theun Extension Proposed NBCA and Xe Bang Nouan NBCA and briefer visits were made to several other sites, covering parts ofN orth, Central and South Laos (sensu King et aL 1975). Nakay-Nam Theun NBCA, Nam Theun Extension Proposed NBCA and the Nakay Plateau were found to have the richest community of globally and regionally threatened birds so far known in the Lao protected area system. In comparison, Xe Bang Nouan NBCA was found to have a threatened bird community of only moderate importance. Spotted Wren Babbler Spelaeornisftrmosus was recorded for the first time in Indochina. Eight other species new to Laos were recorded, namely Greylag Goose Anser anser, Oriental Cuckoo Cuculus saturatus, Yellow-vented Green Pigeon Treron seimundi, White-bellied Green Pigeon T. sieboldii, Asian House Martin Delichon dasypus, Short-tailed Scimitar Babbler jabouilleia danjoui, Red-tailed Minla Minla ignotinctaand Fork-tailed Sunbird Aethopyga christinae.A further 55 species new for Central Laos were confirmed, and two others provisionally identified.
Map of Buru and Seram showing localities mentioned in the text. 
Although the islands of Buru and Seram in eastern Indonesia support unique avifaunas with many endemic and near-endemic species, these have been little studied and are poorly known. Basic data on the distribution, abundance and habitat use of these species are urgently needed to better understand their ecology and conservation needs. Here we present new information obtained during three ornithological expeditions to Buru (October-December 1995, May-June 1996, January-February 2011) and one to Seram (January-February 2012). Our records extend the known altitudinal ranges of 32 species, including rare or threatened endemics such as Salmon-crested Cockatoo Cacatua moluccensis, Purple-naped Lory Lorius domicella and Seram Thrush Zoothera joiceyi, and distinctive endemic subspecies of Variable Kingfisher Ceyx lepidus and Red-bellied Pitta Pitta erythrogaster. Notes are included on all species encountered that are endemic to south Maluku or have a designated IUCN threat category of Near Threatened or higher, including a new observation of the Endangered, rarely recorded Rufous-throated White-eye Madanga ruficollis. Although our records significantly improve understanding of the distribution of Buru and Seram's birds, they also highlight the need for further fieldwork on the upper slopes of the islands' highest mountains, particularly the unexplored high plateau of Buru's Gn Kapalat Mada.
Details are given of 38 species new for Bangladesh which were recorded between July 2002 and December 2013. New sightings and information are given for a further 86 species that either have few records since 1978, or for which there have been major changes in known status, or for which there is uncertainty over status, or which are globally threatened and for which a status update for Bangladesh is warranted. In addition one species of doubtful occurrence is discussed, and the status of globally threatened and near threatened species is updated where appropriate. This period has seen an increase in the number of active Bangladeshi birdwatchers, several surveys for threatened species, the advent of digital photography to document sightings and, most recently, a series of ringing camps where mist-netting revealed the presence of secretive passerines in reed-scrub habitat in the north-eastern wetlands.
Map of survey locations in south-west Guangxi, south China. Site numbers correspond to Table 1. 
Birds previously listed as occurring in the limestone area of south-west Guangxi (Zhou et al. 2011), but not detected in 2004-2012. Seasonal status assigned according to Zhou et al. (2011) and our observations in other areas of Guangxi. VU = Vulnerable species in IUCN Red List. * = Class II in the list of Chinese National Key Protected Animals.
From 2004 to 2012, we conducted a long-term series of surveys of birds in 16 areas in the largely limestone area of south-west Guangxi, south China. A total of 304 bird species (192 resident, 44 summer visitors, 62 winter visitors and 6 passage migrants) were recorded, including seven globally threatened birds and 40 Chinese National Key Protected Animals. Fourteen species and seven subspecies were recorded for the first time in the area. The fauna of south-west Guangxi is similar to that of south Yunnan and Indochina. We suggest that Nonggang Babbler Stachyris nonggangensis and Oriental Pied Hornbill Anthracoceros albirostris are the priority flagship bird species for the region. Nonggang National Nature Reserve is the most important site in south-west Guangxi for the conservation of endemic birds in limestone areas, while Quyang Lake is very important for wintering waterbirds. Further surveys and studies are necessary for bird conservation in south-west Guangxi.
We provide the first extensive migration data about northbound migrant raptors in Indochina. Daily counts were made at one site (Promsri Hill) in southern Thailand near the city of Chumphon, from late February through early April 2007-08. We identified 19 raptor species as migrants, and counted 43,451 individuals in 2007 (112.0 migrants/hr) and 55,088 in 2008 (160.6 migrants/hr), the highest number of species and seasonal totals for any spring raptor watch site in the region. In both years, large numbers of raptors were first seen beginning at 12h00, and more than 70% of the migration was observed between 14h00 and 17h00 with the onset of strong thermals and an onshore sea breeze from the nearby Gulf of Thailand. Two raptor species, Jerdon's Baza Aviceda jerdoni and Crested Serpent Eagle Spilornis cheela, were recorded as northbound migrants for the first time in Asia. Four species composed more than 95% of the migration: Black Baza Aviceda leuphotes (mean 50.8 migrants/hr in 2007-08), Grey-faced Buzzard Butastur indicus (47.5/hr in 2007-08), Chinese Sparrowhawk Accipitersoloensis (22.3/hr in 2007-08), and Oriental Honey-buzzard Pernis ptilorhynchus (7.5/hr in 2007-08). Most (>95%) Black Bazas, Chinese Sparrowhawks and Grey-faced Buzzards were observed migrating in flocks. Grey-faced Buzzard flocks averaged 25-30 birds/ flock. Seasonally, our counts indicate that the peak of the Grey-faced Buzzard migration occurs in early to mid-March, while Black Baza and Chinese Sparrowhawk peak in late March through early April. Oriental Honey-buzzard migrated throughout the observation period, with a peak in mid- to late March.
Counts of migrating Blue-tailed Bee-eaters Merops philippinus and Blue-throated Bee-eaters M. viridis were made from late February through early April 2007 and again in spring 2008 in southern Thailand at Promsri Hill, just west of the city of Chumphon. A total of 20,916 bee-eaters were counted, averaging 24.1.birds/hour in 2007 and 31.9.birds hour in 2008, the highest totals for any migrating Merops spp. to date. M. philippinus composed 95.5% (18,079) of the bee-eaters identified in migration. M. viridis was much less common, composing only 4.5% (854) of identified migrants. There were also 1,983 unidentified Merops migrants, 9.5% of the total flight. In 2007 and 2008, the first migrant flocks of both species were seen by late February-early March. The seasonal peak of the M. philippinus flight was in mid- to late March. The peak of the M. viridis flight occurred in late March through early April. Significantly more bee-eaters were counted when winds had an easterly component sea-breeze (NE, E, SE) from the nearby Gulf of Thailand, than when winds were from other directions. The daily peak of bee-eater migration occurred in the early afternoon from 12h00 to 14h00, with increasing easterly winds, one to two hours earlier than the peak of raptor migration. Because of the significant year-to-year variation in numbers of migrants counted at our watch site, we recommend (a) additional counts be made from early February through late May to determine the extent of spring bird migration through this area of South-East Asia; (b) initiate a satellite telemetry tracking program for migratory Merops spp. to determine where in the Oriental region these two species are returning to breed; (c) establish a network of migration watch sites in Thailand, and when practicable, neighbouring countries, in order to map diurnal landbird migration routes and important stopover areas, similar to the Asian Waterbird Census; and (d) develop educational materials, such as colouring books for children and on-line information flyers with colour photographs for adults, to make everyone aware of this spring migration phenomenon in southern Thailand.
During spring and autumn 2007 we carried out full-season raptor migration counts on Sangihe Island, Indonesia. In autumn, 23 0,214 migratory raptors were recorded. Chinese Sparrowhawk Accipiter soloensis comprised approximately 98 % of the flight. The count results indicate that the largest movements of this species towards the wintering grounds of eastern Indonesia occur along the East Asian Oceanic Flyway, and not the Continental Flyway as previously thought. Both spring and autumn migrations occurred in the face of monsoon headwinds. The relationship between migrant counts and day-to-day variation in wind direction in Sangihe differed between the two seasons. More migrants were counted during crosswind conditions in spring when their route takes them along closely spaced islands than during similar conditions in autumn, when they run the risk of being blown off course during longer over-water legs. Displacement over the sea by crosswinds coupled with records from other islands point to the existence of an additional and heretofore unknown eastern route, involving longer water crossings, between Mindanao and the northern Moluccas via the Talaud Islands. We gathered evidence that Chinese Sparrowhawk behave nomadically during the non-breeding season, following local food abundances of seasonal insect outbreaks induced by rains. Predictable landfall time on Sangihe suggests that traditional roosts of thousands of migrants occur on small islands along this oceanic route. Unmonitored land use conversion on these remote islands could result in the loss of vital roosting habitats.
Until October 2010 there had been little concerted work and nothing published on the movements of seabirds through the sea area known as the Singapore Strait, which lies between the Strait of Malacca to the west and the South China Sea to the east. This paper details the results of regular monthly surveys in the period from October 2010 to November 2011 and eight follow-up surveys in 2012 and 2013. These surveys confirmed that the Singapore Strait is a key passage area for Aleutian Tern Onychoprion aleuticus and the Near Threatened Swinhoe's Storm-petrel Hydrobates monorhis-with over 500 of the latter being recorded in a few hours on a single day on 17 September 2011. Pomarine Skua Stercorarius pomarinus and Long-tailed Skua S. longicaudus were recorded on several occasions, Short-tailed Shearwater Ardenna tenuirostris on spring passage, and significant numbers of Bridled Terns O. anaethetus in autumn. The skuas, Red-footed Booby Sula sula and Short-tailed Shearwater had not previously been recorded in the area. Based on the data gathered, the Singapore Strait is a marine migratory bottleneck as defined by BirdLife International and should qualify as an Important Bird Area.
The non-native species White-crested Laughingthrush Garrulax leucolophus and Lineated Barbet Megalaima lineata are now firmly established in various parts of Singapore. This study chronicles their spread over the past two decades and verifies their persistence in areas where they had previously been seen or heard. The relative abundance of these birds at 16 sites reported in the literature was evaluated by means of field visits whereby intra- and inter-species ecological interactions with native avian species were observed. Both species have spread and become established in the west, south and central parts of Singapore and field visits confirmed the persistence of populations in most of these areas, with evidence of breeding in some cases. The highest White-crested Laughingthrush count was at Kent Ridge Park followed by Bukit Batok Nature Park and Bukit Batok West/Brickland Road, while for Lineated Barbet the highest count was at Bukit Batok Nature Park followed by Fairways Drive and Bukit Brown. Further field studies across all parts of Singapore and the satellite islands are needed to determine accurate populations of these species and observe any adverse ecological interactions with native avian species. Appropriate intervention conservation measures may be proposed if there is evidence of detrimental effects of the increasing population of these alien species on native birds that occupy similar ecological/foraging niches and nesting sites.
Chinese Sparrowhawks Accipiter soloensis were found for the first time wintering in mainland Papua (Indonesian New Guinea) during a field survey carried out between December 2010 and March 2011. A combination of 39 road, boat and foot transects were completed in the provinces of Papua and West Papua, covering a total of 2,303 km, of which 1,948 km were on roads or footpaths and 355 km on rivers. Transects were supplemented by frequent spot counts and stops to broadcast recordings of Chinese Sparrowhawk vocalisations. Routes covered eight sample areas in the most representative habitats of the region. A total of 10 Chinese Sparrowhawks were recorded at four locations, all close to the coast. The new records are up to 1,200 km east of the easternmost extent of the previously known wintering range, thus proving that this species does winter in Indonesian New Guinea, although most likely at low density. Seventeen other raptor species were recorded on the transects. In addition, 12 days were spent between 6 and 17 March 2011 at a suitable coastal watch site at the westernmost point of West Papua, but no visible migration of Chinese Sparrowhawk was observed.
Large-billed Reed Warbler Acrocephalus orinus has a limited distribution of the breeding grounds. It is known to inhabit valleys of the Panj river and its tributaries in Gorny Barakhshan Autonomous Republic (Tajikistan) and Badakhshan province (Afghanistan). Here we give descriptions of nests and eggs of this species based on 18 fresh nests found in Panj and Ghund valleys (Tajikistan) in 2011. Unlike closely related species A. dumetorum and A. scirpaceus, Large-billed Reed Warbler has nests built with a layer of wool and seed tufts. Nests are placed on twigs of sea-buckthorn, willow and other bushes, herbs and reed stems over dry soil. Large-billed Reed Warbler clutch size is relatively small (on average, 3.77 ± 0.83 eggs (n = 13)). The ground colour of eggs is usually white, not bluish, greenish or rosy as in the related species.
We report in detail on the first well documented, probable breeding location of the Large-billed Reed Warbler Acrocephalus orinus, found in north-east Afghanistan, give a description of its song and summarise its identification criteria using new information from live birds. Fifteen birds were captured and measured in the presumed breeding season, and later their identity was confirmed using DNA markers. In one of the localities visited many birds were singing. We also describe the habitat and assess some conservation issues.
Study sites where playback was performed around the Tonle Sap, Cambodia.
Ordination plot showing playback locations, classified according to the presence or absence of Manchurian Reed Warbler in relation to principal component axes explaining variation in habitat characteristics. Axes PCA1 and PCA2, collectively, explain 93% of variation in the habitat characteristics shown. NB ‘snaow’ is Sesbania spp. 
Habitat types and capture rate for Manchurian Reed Warblers (MRW) netted in Kompong Thom and Siem Reap provinces.
Sixty tape playback trials and 17 net rides were used to investigate the habitat associations of Manchurian Reed Warbler Acrocephalus tangorum at what is potentially its most significant wintering site, the Tonle Sap floodplain in Cambodia. Fieldwork in March 2006 concentrated at three sites within the inundation zone during the dry season when floodwaters are at their lowest. This corresponds with the non-breeding season, when Palearctic migrant Acrocephalus warblers visit. We analysed cover of different habitat types at two scales: close to and broadly surrounding playback locations. Detections within broad habitat types differed significantly from random (c2 = 32.8, d.f = 5, P <0.001) with an apparent bias towards grass habitats represented in the study area by tall (>1.0 m) grassland. A principal component analysis (PCA) of the proportionate abundance of different habitats within 10 m of playback locations generated just two PCA axes, correlating strongly with the abundance of grassland and wet habitat features (PCA1) and woodland and scrub (PCA2). Logistic regression with both axes as predictor variables revealed a significant effect of PCA1 (z = -2.566, P = 0.010), but no significant effect of PCA2 (z = 0.088, P = 0.419). All sites with detections had a low loading on PCA1, suggesting a strong association with grasslands. Capture rates were extremely low compared with one wintering location in Thailand, so while our study suggests the Tonle Sap is of global importance for the species, we cannot find sufficient evidence to warrant revising the species's IUCN Red List status from Vulnerable to a lower category of threat.
Owing to disturbance, degradation and destruction of riverine habitats, the Black-bellied Tern Sterna acuticauda has become extremely rare in Bangladesh. A casual sighting of a pair in breeding plumage on the Jamuna River in January 2011 generated hope that the species might still breed. This paper sets out the findings of surveys carried out between December 2011 and April 2012 to determine the current status of the Black-bellied Tern and other riverine birds along the Jamuna and upper Padma rivers. Potentially suitable and undisturbed sandbanks away from the main channels were identified from satellite images. In addition, more intensive searches were targeted on the locations of recent and historical sightings of Black-bellied Tern. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with local fishermen and villagers on the occurrence of Black-bellied Tern and potential threats to riverine birds such as hunting and egg collection. A total of 75 species of birds was recorded during the survey: 69 on the Jamuna and 49 on the Padma rivers. Although no evidence of continued breeding (or even presence) of Black-bellied Tern was found, the extent of potentially suitable habitat suggests that its presence in small numbers cannot be entirely ruled out. As a consequence a number of recommendations are made which if implemented would benefit not only Black-bellied Tern but also the remaining riverine species in Bangladesh.
Differences in the mean home range size of adult female and male Mandarin Ducks during the breeding and non-breeding seasons on the Tachia River, Taiwan.
The home range and movements of wild birds are closely associated with their habitat selection and use, knowledge of which is critical for management and conservation programmes. From 1999 to 2002 we used radio-tracking technology to document the location and movement of 29 adult and six first-year male and 41 adult and five first-year female Mandarin Ducks Aix galericulata on the Tachia River and some of its tributaries in central Taiwan. The home ranges of both males and females were smaller during the breeding season than the non-breeding season. The home ranges of males were larger than those of females only during the breeding season. Female yearling Mandarin Ducks appeared to show stronger philopatry than males.This information may be useful in helping design a plan for the sustainable management of the Mandarin Duck population on the Tachia River.
Gyps vultures in the Indian subcontinent and South-East Asia have declined catastrophically during the last decade, and current populations are estimated to be <5% of the original (Prakash et al. 2003). The major reason for these declines appears to be the use of the veterinary drug diclofenac for treating cattle (Oaks et al. 2004, Prakash et al. 2005, Swan et al. 2005). Conservation efforts in India have included research and captive breeding programs (Prakash et al. 2003, Umapathy et al. 2005, MoEF 2006). Most detailed studies have taken place in northern India, where vultures occurred at their highest densities in the past; less information is available from southern India. The southern Indian state of Andhra Pradesh has six species of vultures: White-backed Vulture Gyps bengalensis, Long-billed Vulture Gyps indicus, Indian Griffon Vulture Gyps fulvus, Egyptian Vulture Neophron percnopterus, King Vulture Sarcogyps calvus and Cinereous Vulture Aegypius monachus (Ali and Ripley 1983). An informal survey between 1990 and 1997 counted approximately 8,500 vultures across the state (Srinivasulu and Srinivasulu 1999). In the present study, we provide updated information on the status and distribution of vultures in Andhra Pradesh.
The state of Manipur in India, a part of the Eastern Himalaya Endemic Bird Area, is a poorly known area for birds. The findings of a recent study are documented here. Noteworthy records include some globally threatened and near-threatened species such as Blyth's Tragopan Tragopan blythii, Green Peafowl Pavo muticus, Rufous-necked Hornbill Aceros nipalensis and Mrs Hume's Pheasant Syrmaticus humiae. Five species were recorded for the first time: Brown Hornbill Anorrhinus tickelli, Blue Rock Thrush Monticola solitarius, Little Forktail Enicurus scouleri, Baya Weaver Ploceus philippinus and Common Rosefinch Carpodacus erythrinus. An annotated checklist of all the birds (607 species) recorded so far is also presented. Some important observations are presented in greater detail. Conservation problems are discussed briefly and recommendations are made for protection of habitat and birds.
The phylogram of the most parsimonious (MP) tree based on cyt b haplotype sequence rooted by A. maximus lowi. Refer to Table 1 for the haplotype distribution. Figures next to the nodes indicate the NJ bootstrap values / MP bootstrap values. DNA sequences obtained from Genbank are shown as highlighted individuals. 
Matrix of pairwise F ST values among six populations of the white-nest swiftlets based on cyt b sequence. Figures with asterisk indicate the values which are significant at p = 0.05.
The taxonomy of South-East Asian swiftlets (Apodidae, Collocaliini) has proved challenging because of their limited variation in size and plumage colouration. Of particular interest are 'white-nest' swiftlets, whose nests, built almost entirely of hardened secretions from paired sublingual salivary glands, are valued in the edible birds'-nest trade. The natural breeding sites of white-nest swiftlets are caves or grottoes but, for over a century, there has been a progressive increase in numbers occupying man-made structures. Through most of South-East Asia there is now a developed industry, utilising sophisticated practices to attract and retain white-nest swiftlets in purpose-made buildings, known as 'house-farms'-a novel form of domestication. A review of the systematics of wild populations based on museum skins collectedin late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, before the expansion of house-farms, concludes that there are two largely allopatric species of white-nest swiftlet in Malaysia, identified as Grey-rumped Swiftlet Aerodramus inexpectatus, with subspecies A. i. germani and A. i. perplexus, and Thunberg's or Brown-rumped Swiftlet Aerodramus fuciphagus, with subspecies A. f. fuciphagus and A. f. vestitus. During 2003 to 2010, house-farm swiftlets in southern Thailand, east and west coasts of Peninsular Malaysia, Sarawak, Java and southern East Kalimantan, Indonesia, were photographed to show variability in plumage of the rump. House-farm birds of Sarawak resembled neither of the wild species occurring naturally in the state. Tissue samples from embryos in eggs were collected for genetic studies from house-farms in Medan, Sumatra, west and east coasts of Peninsular Malaysia, and Sibu, Sarawak. Results of phylogenetic analyses, AMOVA and pairwise FST comparison based on the partial cytochrome-b sequence are presented. Of the 11 haplotypes identified, two are restricted to a wild population of Brown-rumped Swiftlets A. f. vestitus of Middle Baram, Sarawak, thereby shown to be genetically distinct from house-farm birds. One haplotype is common among all house-farm birds, two are unique to Medan, three and one to Kuantan and Endau-Rompin, respectively. The birds from Sarawak share haplotypes with all other house-farm populations in Peninsular Malaysia and Medan, Sumatra. The evidence for two clades within house-farm samples indicates that Peninsular Malaysian birds combine genetic components from north (A. inexpectatus germani) and south (A. f. fuciphagus). Sarawak house-farm birds are similar to east coast Peninsular Malaysian populations in plumage characters and genes, and apparently arrived by spontaneous immigration from Peninsular Malaysia. If hybrids have arisen among Malaysian house-farm white-nest swiftlets, they are excluded from regulation by the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature.
Several pale Charadrius plovers associating with Kentish Plovers Charadrius alexandrinus in Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam, which were presumed not to resemble any known taxon, have been recorded since 1993 Evidence is presented which establishes that these birds are Aegialites [Charadrius] dealbatus, described by Robert Swinhoe in 1870 as a species distinct from Kentish Plover Subsequent confusion has resulted in this name being applied to the form of Kentish Plover that occurs in abundance in East and South-East Asia, while the true taxon dealbatus has been overlooked by almost all subsequent taxonomists, and mistakenly described and illustrated as Kentish Plover in all studies of this taxon This paper suggests that this confusion arose, in part, due to misconceptions over the appearance of dealbatus, which resulted in many museum specimens of Kentish Plover from East Asia being Incorrectly identified and erroneously labelled as dealbatus Swinhoe did not designate a type specimen when he described dealbatus, and this was only done in 1896, from a composite series of Swinhoe s specimens that comprised two taxa Here, we formally select and describe a lectotype of Aegialites [Charadrius] dealbatus from Swinhoe s pre-1870 specimens, list all known Swinhoe specimens of the composite taxa as paralectotypes of Aegialites [Charadrius] dealbatus and establish which specimens represent this taxon and which are Kentish Plover Comparison with other small Charadrius plovers occurring in South-East Asia establishes the diagnosibilty of dealbatus as a distinct taxon that differs in aspects of plumage, behaviour, habitat preference and breeding distribution from the commonly occurring Kentish Plover in East and South-East Asia Consistent morphological differences from Kentish Plover include a larger and heavier bill with a pale base to the lower mandible, pale pinkish-grey legs, light sandy-brown upperparts and a longer and more conspicuous wing-bar, particularly across the primaries We describe plumage differences between sexes and age classes, and compare dealbatus with Kentish and Malaysian Plover C peronn The breeding range remains uncertain but probably lies in coastal South China, and evidence suggests that dealbatus is allopatric with Kentish Plover, which breeds in northern China An investigation to establish the phylogenetic relationship between dealbatus and other small Charadrius plovers is currently in progress If dealbatus proves to be distinct at the species level, we recommend that the name Charadrius dealbatus with the English name White-faced Plover is adopted The name Charadriu alexandrinus nihonensis is available for the larger-billed form of Kentish Plover breeding in north-eastern Asia The true taxon dealbatus is believed to be rare but probably under-recorded
Males of the sexually dimorphic Orange Bullfinch Pyrrhula aurantiaca have previously been thought to have a particular subadult body plumage, whereas there is no such plumage stage known in all other Pyrrhula taxa. This particular plumage is characterised by light yellow ventral colour compared to the intensive orange of adult males. It has alternatively been explained as representing geographic variation. In contrast, reconstruction of the hitherto unknown moult cycle using museum specimens shows that birds are coloured richly orange from late autumn to spring and become increasingly yellowish during the summer. The different coloration is therefore most likely a consequence of colour fading because of carotenoid degradation (i.e. photobleaching) during the breeding season.
Lake Baikal lies in eastern Siberia, Russia. Due to its huge size, its waterbird fauna is still insufficiently known in spite of a long history of relevant research and the efforts of local and visiting ornithologists and birdwatchers. Overall, 137 waterbird species have been recorded at Lake Baikal since 1800, with records of five further species considered not acceptable, and one species recorded only prior to 1800. Only 50 species currently breed at Lake Baikal, while another 11 species bred there in the past or were recorded as occasional breeders. Only three species of conservation importance (all Near Threatened) currently breed or regularly migrate at Lake Baikal : Asian Dowitcher Limnodromus semipalmatus, Black-tailed Godwit Limosa limosa and Eurasian Curlew Numenius arquata.
We conducted surveys for nocturnal birds (Strigiformes, Caprimulgiformes) at Bala rainforest, southern Thailand, in the ten lunar months from March to November 2004, mainly between dusk and midnight of successive nights in the week preceding full moon. At 0.5-km intervals along the 12.6 km of road that bisects Bala, we listened for calls both before and after broadcasting a 1-min recording of the loud call for each of the species that we expected. We also searched, by day and on non-survey nights, for additional signs of nocturnal species along or near the road, especially of Buffy Fish Owl Ketupa ketupa and nightjars. From all detections of a species, whether heard calling, responding to our broadcast, or seen, we estimated its distribution, temporal and spatial relative abundance, and density along the road. Two species were new records for Bala, Oriental Bay Owl Phodilus badius and Brown Wood Owl Strix leptogrammica. Two small insectivorous species were the most widespread and abundant, Collared Scops Owl Otus bakkamoena and Javan Frogmouth Batrachostomus javensi, at -8.0/km2 and -5.5/km2, respectively. We detected three medium-sized to small species, Oriental Bay Owl, Reddish Scops Owl Otus rufescens and Brown Hawk Owl Ninox scutulata, as well as a possible fourth species, Gould's Frogmouth Batrachostomus stellatus, only in lowland forest below ~300 m asl; all were at low overall densities of -1.6/km2. Three large species also occurred at low densities, but probably as widely spaced territorial pairs along the road: Barred Eagle Owl Bubo sumatranus at ≤ -2.5 km/ pr, Brown Wood Owl Strix leptogrammica at ≤4.2 km/pr, and Buffy Fish Owl at ≤2.5 km/pr, the last estimated from spacing of signs along streambeds. Smaller species were most vocal during the middle of the dry season (May) and larger species during the south-west monsoon (August-September). Grey Nightjar Caprimulgus indicus was the only common caprimulgid, a boreal migrant detected during November to April. Our results are useful for preliminary ecological and management analyses, but require repetition, refinement of technique and comparison with results from different Indomalayan forests to improve their applicability.
Birds of five protected areas (Lawachara, Satchari, Rema-Kalenga, Chunati and Teknaf) in north-east and south-east Bangladesh were studied during 2005-2008 by strip transect sampling and opportunistic surveys. Of 239 species of birds recorded, 189 were residents, 39 winter visitors, 6 summer visitors and 5 vagrants; 40 (17%) were 'Very Common', 66 (28%) 'Common', 48 (20%) 'Fairly Common' and 85 (35%) 'Uncommon'. Population densities of eight species, selected as indicators of forest condition, were estimated; two understorey species, Red Junglefowl Gallus gallus and Puff-throated Babbler Pellorneum ruficeps, increased in the study period, perhaps owing to understorey regeneration increasing the carrying capacity and nesting sites, plus (for the junglefowl) reduced hunting pressure. However, illegal logging of timber trees continues in some areas, probably causing the decline of Oriental Pied Hornbill Anthracoceros albirostris. Densities of the other five indicators (Red-headed Trogon Harpactes erythrocephalus, Greater Racket-tailed Drongo Dicrurus paradiseus, White-rumped Shama Copsychus malabaricus, Hill Myna Gracula religiosa and White-crested Laughingthrush Garrulax leucolophus) remained more or less unchanged.
During a week-long survey in August 2004, we found 19 nests of the Masked Finfoot Heliopais personatus in a 60 km(2) area of the Bangladesh Sundarbans mangrove forest in the Ganges-Meghna-Brahmaputra delta Three nests contained eggs (3-5 per clutch) The preferred nesting tree was sundri Heritiera fomes (79% of nests) The nests were positioned in the first line of vegetation overhanging riverbanks (mean stream width 23 m) with a mean height of the nest above high tide water level of 1 8 m The nesting behaviour, not previously described, was studied at one nest During the entire observation period (commencing three days before hatching), only the female incubated the eggs, the male was not seen near the nest While on the nest, the hatchlings were fed small fish and shrimp A presumed contact call of the female, heard before she returned to the chicks, was sound-recorded The chicks had left the nest by the morning after hatching Future nesting surveys in the Sundarbans should cover at least the months of July and August to gather information on nest densities, egg-laying and hatching dates, incubation periods, and the role of the sexes in nest construction and incubation
Top-cited authors
James Eaton
  • Birdtour Asia Limited
Frank Rheindt
  • Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore
Bas van Balen
  • Basilornis Consults
Dr Colin R. Trainor
  • Charles Darwin University
Eben Goodale
  • Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University