Forest Policy and Economics

Published by Elsevier
Online ISSN: 1389-9341
Publications
Chronology of the domestication of the southern pine forest
Estimated cooperative research funding, 1999
Sales, timberland area and expenditures for research by major pulp and paper companies in the South
Article
The history of forest management in the southern United States has been a process of intensification and the pine forests of the Coastal Plain can be regarded as in the early stage of crop domestication. Silviculture research into tree improvement and other aspects of plantation establishment and management has been critical to the domestication process, which began in the early 1950s with the paradigm shift from natural stand management to plantation forestry. Advances were incremental innovations that relied heavily on basic knowledge gained in other disciplines and from formal university–industry silviculture research cooperatives. These cooperatives played a critical role in the domestication process, especially as they disseminated technological innovations. Sixteen major pulp and paper companies were examined in terms of participation in research cooperatives, expenditures on research and implementation of innovations. Despite a lack of relationship between company size (gross sales) and expenditures on forestry research, implementation of innovations was significantly related to research expenditures, timberland owned and total sales. Adjusting for timberland ownership or annual sales, the companies that spent the most on forestry research did the best job implementing research results. Emerging trends in industry structure and support for research may indicate a new role for public research institutions in the South, and call into question the need for silviculture research cooperatives.
 
Article
The study deals with the challenge of adjusting inconsistencies in the historical data series over time for the main forest resources parameters (forest area, growing stock and increment) based on the UNECE/FAO Forest Resources Assessments (FRA) source data. It describes the methods used to improve the quality of long-term series based on national inventory data and assesses trends for a number of European countries. It attempts to identify driving forces behind major long-term changes in key forest resources parameters.
 
Article
With the start of economic reforms in 1978, China's forest sector was caught up in a whirlwind of change. It began with the devolution of forest tenures in rural areas, but led to reform of state-owned forest enterprises via introduction of stumpage fees and liberalized forest product prices. From the early 1990s to 1998, while China increasingly embraced the market economy, the nation's natural forests continued to be depleted despite repeated emphasis on sustainable development. Then, in the wake of the 1998 floods in the Yangtze River basin, there was a shift in focus from timber production to environmental protection, with policy redirected toward the rehabilitation of damaged forest ecosystems, afforestation in desertified and degraded areas, and a ban on logging in natural forests. We provide an overview of the central themes of reform in China's forestry sector, identify the major factors that influenced policy formulation, and show that the outcomes of China's forest policy changes in the aggregate represent a paradigm shift.
 
Article
The National Forest Management Act (NFMA) of 1976 requires U.S. National Forests to develop Forest Plans every 15 years to guide their actions on the forest. The 1982 NFMA implementation regulations require the Forest Plans to provide for “species viability.” Throughout the 1980s, plans were written to meet this charge. In the Pacific Northwest, many plans were subsequently challenged on their ability to provide for species viability; ad hoc science groups were then commissioned to assess the plans relative to the viability standard. The ad hoc groups universally concluded that the plans provided inadequate species protection, and recommended major management changes based primarily on decreases in timber production. The Northwest Forest Plan and the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Plan were both developed, in part, from ad hoc science teams' recommendations. Through interviews and an examination of numerous Forest Plans, we explore how two such divergent outcomes could result from the same set of planning regulations. Four propositions are discussed: (1) The planners and ad hoc science groups characterized risk differently. (2) The ad hoc science groups raised the bar relative to what was needed to ensure protection. (3) The agency was not able to introduce change into its own organization. (4) Changing social values and increased appeals to the court system forced a change in the agency's priorities.
 
Article
The objective of this article was to measure the productivity of pulp and paper industry in OECD countries over the period of 1991–2000. We calculated the Malmquist productivity index by using the nonparametric-frontier approach, and decomposed the index into two components: technical change and efficiency change. Empirical results showed that the productivity change of pulp and paper industry in OECD countries ranged from Switzerland's −0.9% to Japan's 2.4% over the sampled period. The Nordic nations (Finland, Norway and Sweden) recorded, 1.2–1.5% improvement in their performance. The productivity of the Canadian pulp and paper industry increased by 2%, while that of its United States counterpart increased only by 0.8%. The results also showed that the last decade's productivity growth was attributed more to the technical change than efficiency change.
 
Article
In Australia, a national policy was launched in 1997 to enhance regional wealth and international competitiveness of forest industries through a sustainable increase in plantations. An element of the policy was the development of a commercial forestry and farm forestry culture. In this context, farm forestry was intended to provide the opportunity to integrate smaller-scale plantations into agricultural landscapes on private land. Against this background, a study was undertaken to analyse the socio-economic returns from farm forestry in a case study in south-east Australia. Financial information during 1993-2007 for livestock grazing and 8Â ha of blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus) was analysed to compare the profitability of farming and farm forestry. During this period, a full cycle of blue gum (14Â years) to produce pulp logs was completed with a forestry company under a tree farming agreement. The blue gum was integrated with the livestock enterprise by planting the trees in belts that were mostly 10 rows or 30Â m wide positioned 250-300Â m apart and located strategically on productive agricultural land along land-class boundaries. For the blue gum farm forestry, the net present value to the farmer expressed in 1993 dollars was $1236/ha compared to $768/ha for livestock grazing during 1993-2007. The farmer reported they had successfully integrated farm forestry as a land-use, and that the farm forestry had provided important environmental benefits and social benefits. The farmer was committed to farm forestry being part of the diversified farming business into the future, with the management of a second crop of blue gum on the farm underway.
 
Article
This paper reports estimates of the costs of damage from the ice storm of 1998 for two producer size categories of maple syrup operation (1000 and 3000 tap) and three damage levels (light, moderate and severe) for eastern Ontario. These size categories represent approximately 500 and 1500 trees in production, respectively, given the general practice in the region of installing two taps per tree. Damage categories were defined on the basis of the proportion of average crown loss inflicted by the storm. Partial budget capital budgeting and stochastic simulation were used to generate interval estimates of damages. Sensitivity analysis was used to explore the robustness of the estimated damages. Estimated losses for 1000-tap operators with light, moderate and severe damage were $5385, $13 821 and $28 721, respectively. Losses for 3000-tap operators with light, moderate and severe damage were $14 160, $37 399 and $75 630, respectively. Average government financial assistance was found to be within 5–30% of the estimated losses.
 
Article
The implementation of the EU habitats directive 92/43/EEC and the creation of the coherent network ‘Natura 2000’, presumably the most ambitious supranational initiative for nature conservation world-wide, is facing increasing difficulties. The process has been delayed beyond hope for the initial time-frame of an existing network being met by the year 2004. Political will and acceptance amongst national administrations and rural population is lacking. In the highly complex political structure of the European Union, presently in a stage of rapid change and development, new forms of political influence have evolved for non-governmental organisations (NGOs). This study, using social research methods (problem-focussed interviews and literature studies), examines the aims, strategies and activities of the involved political actors, and illustrates the shifting political influence of NGOs over the past 10 years with regards to the development and implementation of the directive. In the theoretical framework of multi-level governance, the political influence of the forest owner associations CEPF and BNFF, as well as the environmental NGOs WWF and Fern, together with other involved actors on the development and the implementation process of the EU habitats directive (HD) is described. Drawing on the advocacy coalition framework (ACF) approach of Sabatier and Jenkins-Smith, a strategic alliance between the Directorate General (DG) Environment and the WWF with the common goal of successfully establishing Natura 2000 can be ascertained. This coalition, however, was found to be opposed in the political subsystem of Natura 2000 by a less firmly established and less influential coalition of land users and DG Agriculture. The discussion highlights the relationship between the involvement level of interest groups in the political process and the acceptance level of legislation among their members, also with regard to the EU enlargement and the transposition of EU legislation.
 
Descriptive statistics.
Logistic estimation results.
Article
Public choice economists view the legislative process as a political market, in which interest groups attempt to influence the production of legislation that has pecuniary and non-pecuniary consequences for them; politicians provide these groups with relevant legislation. In this context, bill co-sponsorship acts as a signal to interest groups that a legislator is working to promote their interests and thereby maximize the payoffs received from such groups. In this paper we seek to identify factors associated with bill co-sponsorship, to determine whether interest group politics significantly explain bill co-sponsorship behavior in the U.S. Senate. Specifically, we examine Senate Bill 402, a bill seeking to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to allow a deduction for qualified timber gains. Senate co-sponsorship decisions concerning S.B. 402 are assessed using a model that identifies various political and industry (forestry) interests/characteristics. We demonstrate that a Senator's co-sponsorship of this bill is correlated with his/her seniority, tax-cutting ideology, strength of electoral victory in his/her most recent election, campaign contributions received from forestry interests, the relative contribution of forestry to Gross State Product, and the percent of total land in his/her state that is privately owned.
 
Article
Once so effective in providing sustained-yield conservation values, visions and models for the Western worlds’ transition to an industrial society, it is time again for foresters (plus many other types of forest managers and users) to re-think the role of rural economies and their forest ecosystems in the urban, post-industrial, global societies of North America and Europe. Our paper is an overview of traditional vs. emerging values and views about the role of forest management and managers in rural economic development. Much traditional forestry thinking is evolving today into more comprehensive, integrated forest ecosystem management and rural economic development concepts. For example, traditional sustained-yield models are expanding into ecosystem-based sustainability concepts; emphasis on the economic growth of forest products sectors is evolving into broader, sustainable community socioeconomic development; and the management of community sociopolitical conflict over forest management is beginning to be recognized as a sustainability consideration equally important as forest biological constraints. These all contribute to making public forest management today much more: (1) ecosystem-based and landscape-scale; (2) that incorporates diverse social values or uses; and (3) is interrelated with many community socioeconomic and political systems — from local to regional to national and super-regional (e.g. the European Community).
 
Article
This paper discusses the development of afforestation policy in Israel during the 20th century and identifies the factors influencing its design and implementation. Analysis of the chronological development of the decision-making process by the organizations involved in afforestation identifies five stages characterized by changing goals and a change in the character of the forest created. During most of the period, planting forests provided a tool for realizing national goals, and a policy that was guided by changing tasks imposed by the officials of the Zionist movement, the British Mandate Authorities and the State of Israel. Afforestation was originally perceived as an agricultural activity, and thereafter as a tool for managing the national land reserve and as an aid for developing settlements. The physical by-products, resulting from applying this policy, have a considerable impact on the present distribution of recreational open spaces and on the size of public land reserves. However, the forests that were planted created a non-sustainable resource, characterized by landscape that is the result of decisions made by different institutions and that was foreign to the local Mediterranean forest. Future afforestation policy needs to further activities that alter the quality of the existing forest resource. It also needs to adapt it to vacationers and further the management of afforested land as a long-lasting resource, as well as its integration into the local natural vegetation and the environmental system.
 
Number of USDA Forest Service NEPA cases January 1970–December 2001.  
Orientation of plaintiffs/appellants and case outcomes in all federal court cases (Supreme, Circuit, District) involving USDA Forest Service and NEPA, 1970–2001.  
Distribution of management activities disputed in USDA Forest Service NEPA cases by court level, 1970–2001.  
Top 5 management activities disputed in USDA Forest Service NEPA cases for U.S. District Courts, 1970–2001.  
Top 5 management activities disputed in USDA Forest Service NEPA cases for U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals, 1970–2001.  
Article
The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1970 changed the landscape of natural resource management by requiring federal agencies to assess the environmental consequences of their proposed actions and to include the public in their decision-making processes. Of all federal agencies in the United States, the Forest Service prepares the most Environmental Impact Statements under NEPA. The U.S. Forest Service manages the National Forest System, public forestlands comprising approximately 9% of the United States land area. The overall objectives of this study were to (1) determine the litigants, success rates, and management activities disputed for NEPA litigation involving the Forest Service from 1970 to 2001 and (2) examine differences and patterns in cases among the U.S. District, Circuit, and Supreme Courts. Methods include a historical analysis of published court cases and results show an increasing trend in the number of NEPA-Forest Service cases in the federal courts. Environmental groups were the most common litigants in NEPA-Forest Service cases and timber harvesting, management plans, and endangered species were the subject of the majority of cases in both the U.S. District Court and the U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals. The Forest Service won a preponderance of cases in which they were involved with success rates of 60% in U.S. District Court, 57% in the U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals, and 100% in the U.S. Supreme Court.
 
Article
Participatory forest management (PFM) in Bangladesh has become the dominant strategy in the country's forestry sector. The main goal of PFM is to enhance the capacity of both state and civil society stakeholders to manage forests in a sustainable manner. This study aims to evaluate capacity development for key stakeholders using ‘4Rs’ stakeholder analysis. The data for this study were collected through focus group discussions with local stakeholders, individual interviews with forest department (FD) staff and a sample survey of participating farmers. Information derived from focus group and individual interviews were analysed using conceptual content analysis and sample survey data were analysed using statistical analysis. Conceptual content analysis suggested the following: among stakeholders, the national government, concerned civil servants, concerned FD staff and the funding agency are the most important and influential stakeholders; although local FD staff and participating farmers are important and are the most experienced stakeholders, they cannot participate in the decision-making process and thus are less influential as stakeholders. The FD usually has ownership and revenue collection rights over a PFM project, while participating farmers have only usufruct rights over the forest resources and are responsible for protecting and managing the participatory managed forests, so that those stakeholders with many responsibilities and rights benefit less. Relationships between the project implementers and the local stakeholders are poor. Statistical analysis suggests that in respect to participating farmers: about 46% did not received any benefits from the forests; about 30% who received benefits were not satisfied with what they received; about 85% did not attend any decision-making process; about 19% did not agree with the strategy of PFM; and about 28% were unable to participate in PFM with their acquired capacity. Overall analyses suggest that the capacity of stakeholders for sustainable PFM did not develop to the level anticipated under the project proposal.
 
Article
In this paper we use a real options approach to analyze farmers' economic incentives to abandon gum production or expand by creating new plantations. Our results indicate that agricultural crops currently provide higher economic benefits as compared to gum agroforestry. However, we show that the incentives for gum producers to abandon gum production is low, because (i) land is abundant, (ii) gum arabic is produced during the dry season and agricultural crops mainly during the wet season, and (iii) the dry season opportunity cost of labor is low. Hence, an increase in deforestation in the near future is not expected. The analysis further shows that an increase in the prices of gum arabic of about 315% is needed to induce an expansion of gum agroforestry and a shift in land use system from continuous agricultural production to gum agroforestry system. Hence, also an expansion of gum forests and/or agroforests in the near future is not expected. Price policies to improve incentives for expanding gum forests are discussed.
 
Article
The Aboriginal Forest Planning Process (AFPP) was developed to integrate indigenous and western forest management approaches. The AFPP is a participatory decision-making tool designed to enhance co-management of the John Prince Research Forest (JPRF) in central interior British Columbia, Canada and to elicit goals, objectives, criteria, and indicators of sustainable forest management from the JPRFs Aboriginal partners. Analysis of community interview transcripts, traditional land use documentation, and secondary sources resulted in a three-stage approach to information elicitation, management, and application. Resource and social values, concerns, and traditional knowledge are summarized and compiled according to criteria themes and sub-themes. This condensed information is further divided into spatial, quantitative, and qualitative criteria and indicator categories. The AFPP was a useful method for developing forest management goals, objectives and criteria; however, further interviews were required to identify appropriate management indicators.
 
Article
The objective of this study was to project the effects on the world forest sector of eliminating quickly all import tariffs. The projections were done for two scenarios: (1) progressive tariff reduction according to the current schedule of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade; (2) complete elimination of all tariffs within the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) countries. The projections were obtained with the global forest products model (GFPM), for the years 1998–2010. The model gave market equilibrium projections of quantities produced, consumed, imported and exported for each of 180 countries, and for 14 commodity groups, covering roundwood, sawnwood, wood-based panels, pulp and recycled fibers and paper and paperboard. The model also projected world equilibrium prices. The results showed that, with or without ATL agreement, the world consumption and trade of all forest products would continue to grow along the historical trends, and the world prices of forest products would increase moderately. With the elimination of tariffs in APEC countries, the projected world production and consumption of all products would change little (less than 0.5%). The tariff reduction effects would be larger for trade, and the commodity composition of world trade would shift from raw materials to more processed products. The timber harvest would change in a number of countries, but the net effect at the world scale would be small. While the US consumption and production of forest products would change little, the US would reduce its export of logs and increase exports of most processed products. The US timber harvest was expected to be indistinguishable compared to what it would be in the absence of the Accelerated Tariff Liberalization agreement.
 
European forest growing stock (excluding Russia), billion of m .
shows the development of growing forest stock in Europe. It is increasing in all three alternatives, implying that harvest is lower than the net annual yield. On average for the period 2000-2020, the growing forest stock (after harvest) is increased by 1.2% p.a. in the base scenario, 1.5% p.a. in the medium growth scenario and 1.9
Projected European Russia logs prices, percent from the base scenario (CSLOG is conifer sawlog, PLOGH is pulplog hardwood, PLOGS is pulplog softwood).
Article
The global forest sector model EFI-GTM was applied to assess regional impacts in Europe of increased timber supply caused by potential acceleration of forest growth in Europe. The EFI-GTM is a multi-periodic partial equilibrium model, which contains 31 European regions and 30 regions for the rest of the world, and trade between the regions. The endogenous sectors include 26 forest industry products and six wood categories. Three alternative forest growth scenarios were analysed: a base line assuming the present annual rate of growth in the European countries, and two accelerating growth scenarios corresponding to a 20 and 40% increase after 20 years in the forest growth relative to the baseline growth. In the accelerated growth scenarios equilibrium prices for logs and sawnwood decreased significantly from the baseline levels, whereas the other forest product prices were not affected much. Depending on region and timber category, the log prices in 2020 were 7–9 and 13–17% lower than the base line prices in the medium and high forest growth scenarios, respectively. For sawnwood, the corresponding price decreases were 2 and 3.5–4.5%. In Western Europe, log harvest and sawnwood production increased because accelerated forest growth substituted for imports of these commodities from Russia and Eastern European countries. This decreased the harvests in Russia and Eastern Europe relative to the base case. In all the three forest growth scenarios the forest owners income as well as the forest industry profit increase over time.
 
Article
Corporate social performance in the pulp and paper industry was studied by testing a potential indicator, the acceptability of operations, divided for this purpose into technical, financial, environmental, social, cultural and political dimensions and re-grouped into financial-technical, environmental and social acceptability criteria in the empirical analysis. The basic material was gathered from four case mills and their surroundings in four countries: China, Finland, Germany and Portugal. The stakeholders in the case companies determined the priorities among the acceptability criteria by means of pairwise comparisons, after which a prioritisation function, i.e. the weights on the criteria, was estimated using regression techniques. The resulting stakeholders’ valuations were compared cross-culturally and intra-culturally. Technical, financial and environmental issues were perceived as the most relevant elements of the acceptability of operations, and thus of corporate social performance. Despite the common elements identified, the present findings indicated that the concept of the acceptability of operations varies from place to place. It was obvious that national and company culture influenced the elements that were emphasised at a particular time, although all background factors could not be studied statistically in the present context. The variability in the concept of acceptability makes the definition of CSP difficult even within one branch of industry, not to mention providing a general definition for all business.
 
Article
In this paper, the feasibility of using stakeholder approaches to assess forest management practices is examined. The paper focuses on two such approaches: the idea of ethical accounting developed for livestock farming, and the so-called ethical matrix. More extensive accounting is needed in forestry. The public is increasingly sensitive to, and aware of, the broader impact of forest management, not only on human welfare but also on environmental values such as nature conservation and biodiversity. Green accounting is being used to assess the environmental effects of forestry. In a broader approach such as ethical accounting as developed for livestock farming, both the purpose and the type of use that is being made of the forest must be examined. It is also necessary to ask which visible or invisible stakeholders are to be included. However, it is important to note that the adoption of stakeholder approaches does not remove the need to reflect on one's fundamental ethical position. In fact, one must critically consider one's basic values before applying these approaches to forestry.
 
Article
The study evaluates social acceptability of three alternative forest management regimes: state-controlled management; community-based management; and collaborative management involving multiple stakeholders. Villagers, foresters, park employees, entrepreneurs and environmentalists were surveyed. A fuzzy-logic based possibility schema for evaluation of forest stakeholder attitudes is developed, and empirically used to investigate stakeholder attitudes towards these alternative forest regimes in Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. Non-parametric statistical analysis is used to draw statistical inferences. The three regimes are ranked based on efficiency, justice, and (un)certainty criteria. The results indicate that the conventional bureaucratic forest regime is falling out of favor in the interests of multi-stakeholders forest management. Due to strategic significance of Mount Kilimanjaro forest resources, and diverse interests of multi-stakeholders (local to global), complete devolution of power to local communities did not gunner an overall favorable social acceptability, either, among the surveyed stakeholders. The findings, however, support a strong desire for increased societal participation in the form of collaborative multi-stakeholder forest management. This outcome calls for significant policy changes to increase participation, as well as harmonization of values and institutions of different stakeholders as a pre-requisite for negotiation among the stakeholders in Mount Kilimanjaro who seek to co-ordinate their activities for sustainable forest management.
 
Article
In the socioecological landscape planning of natural resource management, sociocultural and ecological decision criteria are integrated with ‘traditional’ economic considerations in an analytic and systemic way. As the main phases, the approach involves (1) pinpointing the sites of foremost importance from the viewpoint of ecological and sociocultural management objectives; (2) elaborating different so-called ecological and sociocultural networks, the combinations of which determine alternative socioecological networks; (3) producing alternative timber production programmes for areas not included in different socioecological networks (resulting in different alternative management plans for the whole area under planning); (4) evaluating the relative worth of alternative plans with respect to each relevant objective; and, finally, (5) the holistic comparison of alternative management plans by applying multiple criteria decision aid methods. This article first discusses the principles and rationale of the approach. Then an illustrative application of the new planning approach is presented. In the application, recreational and ecological objectives were integrated into forest management planning of a landscape owned by the State. The criteria were measured on ordinal scale, and they were ranked according to their mutual importance. Stochastic multicriteria acceptability analysis with ordinal criteria (SMAA-O) was used in the holistic comparison of alternative landscape-level plans. The socioecological landscape planning approach was found practicable. The Finnish Forest and Park Service, governing the vast majority of State-owned lands in Finland, has already made the decision to apply the approach in strategic natural resource management.
 
Article
Nowadays, forest policies often address both public and private forest as a means to meet the increasing demand for forest services in densely populated regions. Policy bodies that attempt to involve privately owned forests in their policy have financial (so-called carrots), regulative (sticks), and informational (sermons) instruments at their disposal. We questioned 405 private forest owners in Flanders, the northern region of Belgium, about their acceptance of these three instruments. An empirical typology that was based on six motivations and supplemented with nine attitudes resulted in four well-defined owner groups: materialistic, satisfied recreational, dissatisfied recreational and profit-seeking owners. Despite the use by the Forest Service of carrots, sticks and sermons for changing the management of privately owned forests, none of our owner groups were committed to changing their management practices. Policy instruments were accepted as long as they did not involve a change in the owner's current management practices. The highest acceptance of policy instruments was found for the best informed and most highly educated owners, i.e., the satisfied and dissatisfied recreational owners. The lowest acceptance was found for the poorly informed and least educated owners, i.e., the profit-seeking owners. Therefore, we expect practice-based education, which includes economic as well as ecological and recreational aspects of forest management, to be a prerequisite for the successful use of carrots, sticks and sermons.
 
Article
Patterns in forest products trade between European Union and Central and Eastern European access candidates were studied. The results indicated that both production and trade of forest products in Central and Eastern European countries in transition have considerably increased during the 1990s. The European Union has been the most important trading partner for CEE countries, even though the EU share from the external trade has been quite stable. The gravity models estimated explained approximately 66% of the variation in volume of bilateral trade flows in EU and CEE countries in 1997. Results indicated that trade between EU and CEE countries was below the level that would be expected on the basis of income and distance. A model separating the trade flows according to direction suggested that this is due to the low intensity of West–East trade, which probably originates in low levels of consumption of higher value-added products in CEE countries. East–West trade did not significantly differ from the average pattern.
 
Article
This study examined access of rural women to forest resources and its impact on rural household welfare in North Central Nigeria. Three states out of 6 states in the study area were purposively selected to cover 3 ethnic groups. A state was selected to cover at least one ethnic group. 4 villages were randomly selected in each state to make a total of 12 sample villages. Primary data were collected through structured questionnaire from 20 randomly selected rural women in each sample village to make a total of 240 respondents. Interview schedule was used to get information from 3 key informants in each sample village. The results of the study showed that rural women have restricted access to the exploitation of firewood and forest fruits on communal and family lands in the study area. They however have free and independent access to exploit fodder among the 3 ethnic groups while rural women have free access to exploit snails and mushrooms among the Yoruba ethnic groups in the study area. Chi-square test (p < 0.05) shows that a significant association exists between total income earned by rural women and the income they earned from the exploitation of forest resources in the study area. This means that if the access of rural women to the exploitation of forest resources in the study area is improved, income earned by rural women will also increase. The results further showed that the impacts of the access of rural women to the exploitation of forest resources on rural household welfare include provisions of income, food and medicinal materials as well as money rural women spent on their children's education, health care and household feeding.
 
Article
There is an increasing understanding that forests and the forestry sector are key elements in poverty reduction strategies in Africa. However, issues of equity between various forest users are becoming a major challenge to environmental development, forest management and poverty reduction. This paper presents an analysis of household representatives' socio-economic determinants and other constraints on accessing forest products, based on data collected through a questionnaire survey of 1865 respondents in seven districts of the Sissili province, southern Burkina Faso. Three logistic regression models were developed to examine determinants of access to the forest for collecting fuelwood, grazing livestock and collecting non-timber forest products (NTFPs). The results showed that access to forest products is associated with individual characteristics. Age, ethnicity, occupation and sources of income were significant determinants of access to all types of forest products. Access to the forest for grazing livestock was further influenced by gender and household size, while access to NTFPs was influenced by gender, household size and education level of the respondents. The formal forest law that precludes grazing in the forest, and customary rules and regulations pertaining to land tenure, were reported to be serious constraints to forest access for women and migrant people. Understanding the factors influencing access to products from commonly-owned forest resources could form the basis for developing, modifying and targeting policy instruments that promote equitable access. Policies should particularly encourage the direct involvement of vulnerable and marginalized groups (women and migrants) in forest management activities.
 
Article
This paper explores the impact of the re-introduction of access restrictions to forests in Tanzania, through participatory forest management (PFM), that have excluded villagers from forests to which they have traditionally, albeit illegally, had access to collect non-timber forest products (NTFPs). Motivated by our fieldwork, and using a spatial-temporal model, we focus on the paths of forest degradation and regeneration and villagers' utility before and after an access restriction is introduced. Our paper illustrates a number of key points for policy makers. First, the benefits of forest conservation tend to be greatest in the first few periods after an access restriction is introduced, after which the overall forest quality often declines. Second, villagers may displace their NTFP collection into more distant forests that may have been completely protected by distance alone before access to a closer forest was restricted. Third, permitting villagers to collect limited amounts of NTFPs for a fee, or alternatively fining villagers caught collecting illegally from the protected forest, and returning the fee or fine revenue to the villagers, can improve both forest quality and villagers' livelihoods.
 
Article
Among many other stakes, the economic stake derived from the exploitation of tropical forest resources is a burning issue. This is evidenced by insecurity in intergenerational access to forest resources and financial benefits relating to the latter, on the one hand, and by a deep iniquity at the intra-generational level, on the other hand. The following paper highlights, as a moral, social and policy dilemma, how stakeholders and generations, ‘self-interested’, mark out access to forest resources and to financial benefits relating to the latter. Through intensive participatory research, quantitative data collection, participant observation, future scenarios and some International Forestry Research's social science methods and interactive games (SSM & IG) based on the evaluation of the sustainability of forest management systems, field research conducted in the forest zone of Cameroon on access to forest resources has generated two central results. Firstly, future generations will be confronted—in a dramatic way—to quantitative and qualitative scarcity of forest resources, following their over exploitation by present generations. Secondly, as concerns the intra-generational access benefits generated by commercial exploitation of forests and the assessment of the circulation of forestry fees, there is much inequity, in as much as those benefits are more profitable to a ‘forestry elite’—‘a self-interested block’—than to local communities, who strongly claim to have historical rights over these forests. As a contribution of social science to public knowledge and to policy development, this article is nourishing ‘rational choice’ and ‘rational egoism’ theory and is targeting decision-making processes in the ever first attempt of forest management decentralization and ‘legal’ benefits sharing in Central Africa (the second largest forest of the World). The article recommends the shortening of the distance between decision-making and beneficiaries, downwardly accountability, ‘bottom-up’ mechanisms of public dialogue in forest management and a collaborative infrastructure in the circulation and the distribution of forest benefits.
 
Article
As one of the world's fastest growing economies and important forest product markets, China has recently become a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO) with commitments to further opening its markets to the world. This study analyzes the effects of China's entry into the WTO on global forest product trade using a computable general equilibrium model. Two scenarios are analyzed: (1) unilateral trade liberalization by China resulting from its WTO accession and (2) combination of China's trade liberalization with the Uruguay Round (UR). Our results indicate that China's accession to the WTO would significantly increase its imports of forest products and reduce its domestic market prices of lumber and wood products as well as pulp, paper, and allied products. Most of Chinese new imports would be used as intermediate goods by industries to produce final products for domestic consumption and re-export. The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and the Asian New Industrializing Economies would benefit most from the unilateral trade liberalization by China. The combination of China's WTO accession and the UR would strengthen the competitiveness of North America and the European Union in Chinese forest product markets. Although China's accession to the WTO would affect forest product trade flows between China and its trade partners, it would have relatively small impacts on the world price, production, and trade value of forest products.
 
Article
In 2002 the Danish Minister of Environment initiated a process to investigate the possibilities of establishing national parks in Denmark. For this purpose experts were mobilised to investigate the status and potentials of the areas in question. The national park process was extensive in scope and complex, and in theory such complexity is assumed to make it difficult for non-experts to understand all the relevant aspects of policy. This exclusion of non-experts may lead to scientification of politics. Furthermore politicisation of science might occur as experts might advocate political interests disguised as objective science, and policy-makers might select results that further their own interests. As a result policy-makers risk losing a source of legitimacy, scientists risk losing credibility and the citizens risk losing the possibility to hold policy-makers accountable for their decisions, which puts democracy at risk. This paper examines the accountability relationships that experts were a part of in the national park process. These include accountability towards the employer, towards the buyer and towards the general public. The purpose is to determine if these relationships were adequate to circumvent the problems associated with scientification of politics and to discuss how accountability relationships and thereby democracy could be strengthened. The empirical analysis shows that in the national park process experts were mainly accountable towards the National Forest and Nature Agency. There were formal accountability relationships between the experts and the local steering committees and the national advisory group, but these relationships were less significant. Moreover, despite the fact that the process was deemed unusually open to the public by the participants, the relationship between experts and the public cannot be characterised as an accountability relationship and could have been improved by including experts in the deliberative fora of the process.
 
Article
The paper presents a model to analyse trade in illegally harvested timber with a particular focus on trade via third party countries. The model is deduced from the conventional input–output-analysis. In contrast to this type of analysis, inverse export coefficients are introduced to analyse the effect of a certain amount of country-specific supply, e.g., of illegally harvested timber, to the use of wood and wood products of all other countries, based on trade relationships. A database has been compiled especially for application of the model. It comprises data on industrial round-wood production in terms of industrial wood harvested and removed from the forest; recovered wood fibre in the form of recovered paper and waste wood; bilateral trade of 272 wood-based commodities in m³ raw wood equivalent (rwe), and domestic use of those commodities. Two scenarios expressing high and low estimates of illegal harvesting for all countries have been employed in the model. The model reveals the trade linkages between all countries of the world and allows quantification of the global supply and use arising from illegal harvesting. Furthermore it allows calculation of the import of illegally harvested timber for each country of the world. And finally, the model likewise allows the quantification of domestic use of illegally harvested timber for each country of the world.
 
Top-cited authors
Jyrki Kangas
  • University of Eastern Finland
Mikko Kurttila
  • Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke)
Pål Vedeld
  • Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU)
Miika Kajanus
  • Savonia-ammattikorkeakoulu
B. J. M. Arts
  • Wageningen University & Research