Foreign Literature Studies

Publications
Arthur Miller, one of the most admirable of Americans to come out of the "American century", died in 2005, aged 89. In the UK, at least, his work has undergone a revival and the themes of his great plays remain resonant, even though, in many respects, they are historically specific. The relationship between literature and history - whether conceived as a symbolist or allegorical relationship - together with an instance of the past invading the present, are brought out in a compelling episode in Miller's autobiography, Timebends, and offer a way of talking about those inter - connections in The Crucible.
 
As a new position and strategy proposed on the basis of reflecting on the relationship between the West and China, studies of differences can be regarded as an alertness and active response to the tendency of westernization or "one-way convergence" in academic fields. Instead of rejecting Western literary criticism or sticking to the tradition of national literary criticism, studies of differences argue for the resistance to homogeneity or oneness, and aim at seeking new ways of Chinese literary criticism with both universal values and national individuality in the communication and confrontation between literary criticisms in the West and China. Studies of differences are characterized by three important features: international perspective, reflective consciousness of the subject and focus on construction, which embody confidence and independence of Chinese literary criticism in the era of globalization, and are of great importance to maintaining the diversity of cultural ecology.
 
Malaysia has the largest Chinese population apart from Mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macao. Literature in the Chinese language has taken root and developed in this area since 1919. As Malaysia is situated at the cross-roads of Eastern and Western civilizations, the mixture of cultures and languages produced a Malaysian Chinese literature, quite different from the literature of China. Its most prominent distinction lies in the use of language. The authors resort to vocabulary from local dialects and languages and specific foreign loanwords, achieving a strong local color of the "Southern seas" (Nanyang). The paper takes The Reader of Malaysian Chinese Prose as linguistic material to discuss the "Malaysianized" vocabulary, the influence of local culture on literary language and the deep cultural background of Malaysian Chinese literature. <https://www.dropbox.com/s/pgkxh0o5l3k6tx5/FLS-2011-Vol6-fps-ykk-lts.pdf>
 
On May 5th and 6th, 2018, the Third International Symposium on Chinese Form of Marxist Literary Criticism & the Commemoration of the 200th Anniversary of Marx's Birth and the 170th Anniversary of The Communist Manifesto was held at Central China Normal University. There are four main topics in this conference: rethinking theoretical issues of classical Marxist literary criticism, the historical development of Chinese Marxist literary criticism, overseas studies of Marxist literary criticism, and the theoretical construction of the Chinese form of Marxist literary criticism. The conference approaches the essence of Marxist literary theory and criticism from a global perspective, in addition to promoting the theoretical construction of the Chinese form of Marxist literary criticism and theory, and highlighting the exuberant vitality of Marxist literary criticism and theory in the contemporary era.
 
The Irish Dramatic Movement of the early 20th century was led by W.B. Yeats, Lady Gregory, and other prominent members from the Protestant Ascendancy. While claiming to represent the Irish people, they also sought to educate them to a higher aesthetic standard. Their affiliation with popular nationalism was ambivalent and problematic. This tension between the movement's populist, national appeal and its elite, reformist, ascendancy control manifested itself in various aspects such as productions, castings and performances.
 
18th century English dramas concentrate on relationships between man and society, between man and his fellow beings, and between man and nature. The dramatic practice in the 18th century has established the ethics for typical bourgeois drama , namely , mercantile economy ethics , egotistic life ethics and sentimental natural ethics. These ethics which have embodied modern consciousness have accelerated the development of capitalism and regulated the interpersonal relationships of the new times, and will lead to future ecological socialism.
 
With the homonymic relationship between china and China as its clue, this paper reads closely the 18th century British writings in which the British imagine and know China through china, the ware, and analyzes how China, the country, is reduced to be superficial, fragile and monstrous due to the superficial and fragile materiality of china and its designs that are not drawn in accordance with perspective. This British view of China is featured with chinanization of China and generates the powerfulness and civilizedness of the 18th century Britain.
 
The 18th century Poetry is not only associated with sentimentality, but also with ruins, relics, cemetry and dark nights. However, these associations are only the superficial traits of the 18th century poetry. Read positively, the 18th century poetry expresses lovely passions, but between the lines there are still traces of negative sentimets which stir up the reader's sentimentality. The present author argues that the reason why the mainstream of the 18th century is regarded as sentimental is that it is imbued with sentimental traits that can touch the innermost part of the reader's soul, that is, the solitude, sadness and anxiety a person experiences when he is trapped in a particular situation.
 
In 1930s, Langston Hughes, then a radical socialist African American writer, transferred from his 1920s aestheticism-oriented poetics to a reality-accommodating pragmatic poetics, by which he put emphasis on the social functions of art to do propaganda for social revolution. This poetics allows the Popular Front aesthetics to influence his creation, which leads to the rise of his Popular Front poems. These poems are acclimated to the new political requirements while witnessing a growing artistic maturity. The major features are: a collection of voices in a single poem or different personae in one voice; hybridity of low and high cultures, including high modernism; multiculturalism based on racial integration; and poetics of disalienation, a poetics of explanation to produce new subjectivity and social reality in a pattern of affirmation-interpellation/alienation-reaffirmation.
 
In 1938, Haruo Sato's trip to Beijing, as a commissioner of Bungeishunju, was filled with political overtones. They held a banquet with staying-in-Beijing intellectuals such as Zhou Zuoren, Qian Daosun, intending to court the "pro-Japanese" Chinese who were already inclined to serve the Japanese government, but it ended up distressingly unhappy because of Zhou and Qian's political silence. But three to four years later when Sato, Yasuda, and Juro recalled the banquet, it showed an additional significance of taking a speculation or looking on Chinese people's attitude on the occasion. When Sato visited the battle ruins of Marco Polo Bridge, he composed some poems, in which he put the blame of the war on the Chinese side, and thought that Japan was the hope of Oriental future and Greater East Asia had a bright future. When commenting on Chinese women he encountered in Beijing, Sato ridiculed disgracefully those new women who had stayed in Japan, and took a condescendingly hypocritical attitude towards those young prostitutes. In the war context, he totally lost the integrity and conscience that an intellectual should have. About the Japanese writers' activities in China and writings about China, as well as the discussion about the war responsibility during the periods of the war of aggression against China, Chinese intellectuals should take a refuse-to-forget attitude, and do a thorough and solid verification and research, rather than the venerable-taboo-against-the-harming-country attitude taken by Zhang Chengzhi.
 
The subject matter and stylistic patterns of new Chinese novels on country life are rather the result of those travelling from the former Soviet Union, than the reflection of the real situation in the Chinese countryside. The key principles of this bind of novels, that is, the construction of class division, the model of new sovialist individuals, and the Red Discourse for socialist new life, are all borrowed from Soviet collectivist novels, which have exerted great influence on the development of Chinese novels on country life.
 
Like many of their white peers, post-World War II African American writers and critics strongly engaged the legacy of early twentieth century modernism. They were interested in the utility of various strains of "high modernism" for the figuration of black subjectivity and experience as well as a tool for aggressively claiming African American artistic citizenship. At the same time, black writers were acutely aware of the racism of many of the leading U. S. modernists and their champions, such as T. S. Eliot, Ezra Pound, and Alan Tate, interrogating this racism even as they drew on their work. Also, while the neomodernist revival in the United States generally can be seen as an assault on the aesthetics and cultural institutions of the Popular Front as the Cold War intensified, black neomodernist writers, many of whom had been active on the Left, often maintained formal and thematic ties to Popular Front art in ways that distinguished them from most of their white counterparts. African American engagement with modernism and the modernist revival championed by the New Critics and the New York Intellectuals in the 1940s and 1950s developed essentially along two tracks. One track featured the rise of a black neo-modernism obviously influenced by the general Cold War neo-modernist revival, but also with a long foreground in African American literature and art. The other promoted a related, though in many respects opposed growth of a more populist African American literary avant gardism, positing African American high art both as on the cutting edge of world artistic expression and inextricably linked to African American experience and expressive culture, particularly the new jazz of bebop. Both the neo-modernist and more populist avant-garde strains of African American literature, though having a long foreground, were in many respects rooted in black Left culture and politics of the 1930s, 1940s, and early 1950s.
 
Robert Creeley: Selected Poems, 1945-2005 edited by Benjamin Friedlander is the latest poetry collection by American poet Robert Creeley. Tracing the entire sixty-year arc of Creeley's accomplishment and exhibiting his poetry style at a full length, this book offers its readers an opportunity to have a thorough understanding of Creeley and his poetry. It also proves a good resource lor researchers of contemporary American poetry.
 
While Langston Hughes continued to use the word "dream" or "dreams" in his poetry throughout his career, the use of the dream and the speaker's relationship to dreams changed in the last few years of his life. I will suggest that a combination of effects, including the centennial of the Emancipation Proclamation, his own advancing age and global travels, as well as the Black Arts Movement brought Langston Hughes to a new consciousness of what was possible and what actions must be taken to make the world a better place. The dreams that occupied his poems in the 1960s reflected the needs, the hopes, and the aspirations of a community far more global than the residents of Harlem, New York, who had been the subjects of Montage of a Dream Deferred. Moreover, the dreams he wrote about were more visions of the future than fantasies.
 
Since 1965, Singapore has gradually established a policy of bilingual education, the purpose of which is to establish the dominant position of English in Singapore's education system. The Singaporean government has controlled the development of Chinese language education (Hua Wen) and caused a great trauma and permanent pain in the hearts of Singaporean Chinese. Nanyang University in 1980 was forced to close, the two big Chinese newspapers "Sin Chew Daily" and "Nanyang Siang Pau" were forced to merge in 1983, and Chinese schools were closed in 1987. All changes bespeak the Singapore government's governing philosophy of pragmatism. In the past 60 years, various established writers have focused on an array of common themes related to the cultural activities organized by nanlai (coming from China) teachers, the trauma caused by the abrupt closure of Chinese schools in the 1970s and 1980s, and the ensuing predicaments confronting the Singaporean Chinese. In this paper, I focus on selected works of established Singaporean Chinese writers, such as Yeng Pway Ngon, Tan Swie Hian, Kuo Pao Kun, Teoh Hee La, Chia Hwee Pheng (Xi Ni Er), Chia Joo Ming, Quan Sy Ren, Tan Chee Lay and Ng How Wee as case studies. Situated in the background of Singaporean-Malaysian literary historiography, this paper seeks to reveal the construction of Singaporean Chinese national consciousness embedded in both official and folk historical narratives. Moreover, I intend to recalibrate our understanding of the historical formation and characteristics of contemporary Singaporean Chinese culture.
 
Since the end of the 19th century, a large population of Chinese has emigrated from Southern China to Malaya. Such migration built up one of the features of the Malayan history. After independence, such migrations never ceased, but were limited to various states in the country. It was most notable in Kuala Lumpur, which had long been known as "the Town of Roaming Citizens". It was there where moving and gathering happened in continuity. Once elevated to a city, its reconstruction and development attracted many residents from other states to reside here. Writers recorded the city lifestyles of Kuala Lumpur since the 1960's. "Roaming" is a strong trait in Kuala Lumpur Chinese literature. As residents of this "City of Roaming Citizens", many "Kuala-Lumpurians" were originally from other states. As a citizen in this city, the mixed emotions of attachment and detestation coexist, implying a contradiction of "leaving" and "settling" within. By going back to the "primordial characteristic of cities", this article will attempt to analyze the gains and losses of people drifting in cities as impact and reconstruction, as well as freedom and sublimation.
 
Both Michel Foucault's serial lectures "Society Must Be Defended" (1976) in the Collège de France and Jean Baudrillard's Symbolic Exchange and Death (1976) deal with disciplinary/regulatory power techniques and the macro-logic of symbolic exchange. Though discursively re-forming the boundary between life and death on the level of power and that of symbolic exchange, Foucault and Baudrillard's investigate modernity in the throes of life and death, which illuminates the ambivalent relationship of appropriation and repulsion between Western discourse of philosophical modernity and the Other in its ethnical, cultural, social and historical sense. Revealing the double bind methodologically confining both Foucault and Baudrillard's discursive formations of modernity in this way, one can not help reflecting on the necessity to reconstruct the boundary of culture concerning inter-cultural translation internal to theoretical formulations.
 
This paper seeks to trace the development of American fiction during the last twenty years of the twentieth century. During this period, the social and economic development and the changes in the intellectual, cultural and academic circles not only influenced but also stimulated the American fiction, which both inherited the tradition and demonstrated the experimental spirit in its form and content. What is most striking about the fiction in this period is its diversity: the innovation of traditional literary forms, the emergence of ethnic and women writers, and the canonization of fictions traditionally taken as popular literature. American fiction during these two decades was highly prosperous and remarkable in its achievement.
 
Based on the statistics of the research papers on Hardy collected in "The Index of Research Papers on Newspapers and Journals of China" and CNKI Database of Chinese Journals from 1980 to 2004, this paper makes a comparative and integrated analysis on the reception of Hardy in China according to the distribution of research years, journals, authors, themes, etc. It also describes the historical development and the present condition of Hardy research in China, and meanwhile discusses its existing problems.
 
1984 has been well known as an anti-totalitarian novel. It combines the fictitious facts into historical truth with simple words to convey impressive feeling and to describe the ethical disorder of the "big ocean country", the revolting certain principles, the absurd disciplines and the ideological deformation. It is obvious to make people abandon their identities into ethical dilemma, which establishes the literary aesthetic of terror. Besides, applying metaphor to satirize ethical revolting, doing double focuses to satirize ethical confliction and using uncertain sentences of narrative structures to satirize the ethical dilemma, this novel does not only probe the ethical matters but also notice the changes of sphinx factor from human to animal so that people give up their identity of blood relatives and friends and moral principals, and break through ethical taboo as well as get rid of the human's restraint. As a result, people's ethical relationship has been entirely turned from relatives into enemies, friends into foes and rational persons into irrational ones.
 
L. E. Ulitskaya is a distinct representative of the vigorous development of New Russian Literature. Her creations are well known for strong sympathy for the individuals and subtle psychological descriptions. In this paper, taking Ulitskaya's novels created in 1990s as an example, the authors analyze the poetic characteristics of her creation. The stern post-war years and closed space constitute a unique space-time background. Description of dreams is not only the means to design and arrange the writings, but also the organic part of expressing the theme and creative aims. The third person narrative and free indirect speech constitute the main means of narrative fiction.
 
In-yer-face Theatre describes an important theatrical trend that emerged in Britain and lasted the whole decade of the 1990s. The label "In-yer-face" was given by Aleks Sierz, Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts, author of the seminal study of new 1990s playwrights, In-Yer-Face Theatre: British Drama Today (2001). Another important work of him is Rewriting the Nation: British Theatre Today (2011). Entrusted by Foreign Literature Studies, Professor Cen Wei of Shandong Normal University, China, interviewed Dr. Sierz in person in August 2015 in London, and via e-mail in June 2016 from China. In the interview, Dr. Sierz answered in detail the questions about the origin of the In-yer-face Theatre, its aesthetic style and the development of contemporary British theatre. According to him, In-yer-face Theatre is a production of the socio-political, cultural and ideological changes of the 1990s and it is both an aesthetic style and a historically specific trend. He makes comments on the literary creation of its most representative playwrights such as Sarah Kane, Anthony Neilson, Mark Ravenhill and Martin Crimp. Dr. Sierz highlights the significance and value of In-yer-face Theatre as a landmark phenomenon in the history of British drama.
 
This paper aims to discuss how the 19th century British travel writers construct the image of America through the aesthetic representation of Englishness, the Picturesque. As a matter of fact, America provoked complicated feelings in those British writers who travelled in their former colony. On one hand, they wanted to re-implant the "Englishness" through their identification of the England-like landscapes with the Beautiful; on the other hand, they used the Sublime to describe those unfamiliar landscapes with an aim to transform or control them. In a certain sense, the image of America under their pens was not a real one, while the Picturesque gaze, which symbolized the process of Othering, was more than an aesthetic one. As a conclusion, the Picturesque in the 19th century colonial social context was well combined with the travel writings. By doing so, they formed a new colonial narrative and successfully promoted the formation of Englishness.
 
Yin Qiping's book, Debating the Discourse of "Progress": A New Type of Novels in 9th Century England, sheds light on the way some major novelists in the 19th century England voiced their anxiety over the prevalent discourse of "progress", thus revealing the structure of feeling which would otherwise be concealed under the mainstream discourse of the society. A conscientious effort to participate in the on-going academic debates concerned, as well as an intense concern for the reality of the contemporary Chinese society, stands out in high relief. Combining ideological approach with close reading, indicative of both vigor and rigor, the book spearheads a new tendency in present-day studies in English novels.
 
Poetic truth as a concept emerges in England in its transition into the modern world at the turn of the 19th century. In opposition to scientific truth together with rationality, poetic truth gives expression to the anxiety of the intelligentsia towards the transition of society. The English Romantic poets, in inheritance of Humean Sentimentalism, emphasize imagination and fellow feelings on the premise of holism and common humanity. In the vein of Romanticism Victorian critics shift the focus on the epistemological value of poetry. While John Stuart Mill seeks to balance intellectual education with the cultivation of emotion, Matthew Arnold sticks to the elite culture against popular culture and social anarchy. Both scholars aim to cope with the cultural crisis by advocating poetic truth and the comprehensive cultivation of human mind.
 
Proceeding from the perspective of postcolonial criticism and illustrating its argument with the works of white literary masters such as Cooper, Melville and Mark Twain, this article analyzes the stereotypical Indian images in the white literature of 19 th century America and explores how white writers erase the actual existence of Indian people with fabricated Indian images , envision Indian extinction in their texts and thereby justify the dislocation, annihilation and expropriation of American Indians , the original occupants of North American continent. Hence, this article comes to the conclusion that the stereotypical Indian images invented by the white canons of America play a pivotal role in silencing and marginalizing Indian people and therefore they constitute part and parcel of white colonialist discourse.
 
Chinese literary critics of foreign literature have already been accustomed to viewing literature as vividly mirroring social realities, especially in the studies of the 19th-century Russian literary creations. Actually, the literary creations by the classical 19th-century Russian writers could remain in circulation to date, largely due to their transcendence over their contemporary social realities and the fact that the meanings of the literary text often derive from its own intelligent mechanism. The literary text is neither a static passive object nor simply a device transmitting and memorizing information, but a dynamic organism endowed with subjectivity, which can work on the reader through boundary transpositions, the dialogue mechanism and space-time changes, continuously creating meanings in the hemispherical interactions inside the reader's brain.
 
There are many disease narrative phenomena in British female novels in the 19th century. Disease narratives is an effective means for writers to spread the story ethical clues and construct complex relationships and emotional kink. The disease narratives and artistic practice of these female writers established a certain relationship with ancient Greek Aristotle's Nicomachean ethics (namely, the "median theory"), the ethics of medieval Augustine and others religious ethics, Protestant reformist ethics, and the British utilitarian ethical ideas. The ethical awareness and ethical choices of female writers are characterized by epoch, blending and interactivity through disease narratives. Furthermore, it can also observe the obvious limitations of its ethical concepts and ethical practice in the reverse direction in the 19th century, such as the characteristics of rebelliousness, duality, mystery and reflexivity in the aspects of gender, class, religion, science and technology.
 
From 1913 to 1916 the Irish poet William Butler Yeats and the American poet Ezra Pound studied and tried to imitate Japanese Noh plays, brief, stark plays in which gods or spirits manifested themselves to mortals. But a European writing a play will write a European play, despite attempts to purge the play of many European aspects; for this reason, Yeats as a European playwright working in an Asian genre would discover that the work belongs to some more familiar genre: the mystery play. Although the original mystery plays were Medieval dramatizations of scenes from the Bible, the sort of mystery play that meant the most to Yeats was the 19th-century updates of mystery plays: for instance, Cain: A Mystery (1821) by Lord Byron.
 
In his book In the Year of Jubilee, George Gissing presents to readers his characters' literary taste, which is closely related to their social status, through their reading choices. By leading a justified literary taste, the 19th century British middle-class members attempt to legitimize their own culture and their social position. However, the lingering sense of displacement, which has hovered the process of legitimization, indicates the middle classes' cultural anxiety and reflection. In other words, readers can get a glimpse of the middle classes' complicated feelings, which include their yearning for and reflection on cultural orthodoxy as well as their expectation and anxiety for the cultural legitimization, through their reading choices:
 
The 19th century Russian novels are more of the self-realization of authors' subjectivity than just objective reflections of the social life of that era. Associated with the authors' own world views and subjective consciousness, this kind of creative subjectivity consistently overcomes and transcends the limitations of subjective consciousness. Actively revealing objective realities, the authors are not subject to their fetters, making the creative energy so fully released that they cannot control. Therefore, the authors often fail to control the creation, but are constrained by their own creation. Thus, in a kind of interwoven state of the consciousness and subconsciousness, the authors keenly feel human sufferings, self-transcendent love and future ideal factors. In the multifaceted narrative interactions of dialogue collisions and viewpoint conversions, the authors build a "living" art world, giving subjectivity to the texts of fictions.
 
Compared with the studies of American fiction between 1995-1999, the number of monographs on American fiction published between 2000 and 2004 has not significantly increased; however, there is much progress in depth and width. The general features can be summarized as follows: first, post-modem fiction and ethnic fiction have been at the center of the research interest. Second, the research scope is not wide enough; mostly confined to cultural criticism, gender studies, racial studies, post-modem characteristics, narrative techniques and local colors in American fiction. Third, genre study becomes a new spotlight with attention to initiation stones, war novels, popular fiction, tragic novels, Jewish novels, Chinese-American fiction and post-modernist fiction. Fourth, the study of the history of American literature has got new breakthrough. Fifth, the absence of Chinese human values and critical discourse become more obvious in these years' literary studies.
 
This paper summarizes and analyzes the achievements and problems concerning the studies of British fiction in China from 2001 to 2005. It consists of three parts: data analysis, main problems and proposals. As this research shows, during the period of China's Tenth Five-Year Planning, British fiction studies in China tend to be vigorous and plural in perspectives, man ifesting the rich fruits of contemporary literary theories and criticism. Meanwhile, there exist many problems such as the mechanism of applying theories to critical practice, the "aphasia" of criticism, them is understanding of literary theory as a result of poor translation, and the "jam" and "blanks" of literary researches. Based on the above problems, this paper puts forward some constructive proposals.
 
On the basis of the studies of English poetry in China between 2000 and 2004, this paper summarizes the trend and characteristics of the poetry study in the recent five years. It puts forward some constructive proposals in the light of the problems existed in this field, and gives some advice for the study and development of English poetry.
 
This report is a survey on the studies of American poetry and drama both in China and abroad. The time span for the survey will be from 2001 to 2005 (in China) and from 2000 to 2005 (abroad). With a detailed research and analysis, the report tries to present the weaknesses and problems in the studies of American poetry and drama in China, and also intends to give some constructive advice to enhance the studies of American poetry and drama in China.
 
Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clezio, 2008 winner of Nobel Prize for Literature, is undoubtedly one of the key figures in the arena of French literature. Of all his publications, Le Proces Verbal, Desert, Ourania, Ritournelle de la faim are the most representative ones. Seen from the themes, his fiction attaches great significance to the interrelations of human beings and human traditions, of human beings and human society, and, in particular, of human beings and Nature. Le Clezio accordingly argues that human beings, once stepping into the real nature, will find their knowledge about society as well as human existence a kind of deviation. It is, according to him, necessary to combine comprehensive knowledge with different means for the understanding of the real world. With respect to the sources where his fictions spring into being, Le Clezio believes that his novels are a mirror of two different worlds. One is the French world and the other is the peripheral world which is different from the mainstream human civilization. His works, therefore, show a profound humanistic concern for marginal civilizations. As regards to the forms of his fictional writing, Le Clezio mildly criticizes the extreme formalism prevailing in the 1960s and 1970s French literature. He, however, holds that the micro ways of narration in Western historical studies and Joycean modernist, methods of representation can be applied to the presentation of the real history and the hidden world of human beings.
 
Chinese scholars are generally not familiar with the German female writer Herta Muller, and are surprised at her winning the 2009 Nobel Prize for literature. This paper is devoted to the study of Muller and her works. It divides Muller's writing into four stages, and discusses the features of each stage. It points out that Muller's works are highly politically oriented, reflecting the angst under the dictatorship and the rootlessness of the exile. It holds that Muller's main literary achievements lie in her poetic language, and in her new form of poetry, i.e. collage-poetry. It also analyzes the intercultural trait of Maller's works and its results.
 
Paul Harding's debut novel Tinkers won the 2010 Pulitzer Prize for fiction. The novel demonstrates sophisticated techniques and touches upon plural and profound themes. It includes in-depth depictions of figures and extensive description of the New England country scene. By employing fine prose and modern techniques, Harding sings a moving song of ordinary people by narrating a tinker family saga in which people lead lives of quiet desperation. However, as a debut, Tinkers has noticeable flaws in some aspects, including structure, grammar, plot and style.
 
In 2013, domestic scholars studied playwrights and poets of each period of British literature and their works from multiple perspectives, yielding fairly rich achievements. Meanwhile, contributions from translation field promoted the acceptance of English drama and poetry in China. Through the survey and analysis of the research project, monographs, complied and translated works, and journal papers etc. achieved in these two domestic study fields in 2013, this report discloses the following three common problems: (1) Scholars tend to concentrate on certain writers, works, or certain literary period, thus there is an imbalance in studies. (2) Some scholars are weak in theoretical foundation, and lack of innovative research methods, which makes them vulnerable to "aphasia" among foreign academic circles. (3)The amount of translated materials is inadequate, and quality needs to be improved. This report hence suggests that domestic scholars could focus more on study of writers and works of a particular period, monograph, inter-disciplinary study, as well as introduction and translation of foreign academic works.
 
In 2013, research on American poetry and drama in China Made some new achievements and exhibited new trends. The general features can be summarized as follows: first, the researchers continued to focus on the classic writers and works; second, the use of all kinds of critical theories greatly expanded the research scope; third, the translation of poetry had a great development; fourth, general introduction, special subject, periodization, and genres of drama review obtained some encouraging results; fifth, minority poetry and drama, homoerotic poetry and homosexual drama are the new trends of the studies. Comparing the domestic research of American poetry and drama with foreign studies during the same period, this article puts forward some proposals: first, research on the parallel comparison, and the influence studies of American writers and works need to develop in depth and width; second, cross-disciplinary research of American poetry and drama need greater efforts; third, periodic history, genre research, and special subject still need to be strengthened; fourth, research on drama stylistics and theatrical exchange history need pioneering innovation research.
 
This paper is a survey of the studies of American fiction both in China and abroad in 2013. It attempts to summarize the main achievements, general features and problems concerning American fiction studies, based on a detailed data analysis in the very year. The studies of American fiction in China in 2013 have made substantial academic achievements, and adopted pluralistic study perspectives and creative literary methods. Investigation shows that compared with the studies abroad, Chinese scholars' academic interest lies in the multi-perspective reinterpretation of literary classics while paying a due attention to some well-known contemporary American novelists. Meanwhile, redundant research and lack of critical innovation still remain the two biggest problems. Based on the analysis of such achievements and problems, the paper puts forward some suggestions for further studies of American fiction in China.
 
Plenty of papers and books published concerning the studies of English fiction in China in 2013 showed considerable progress as well as long-existing problems. Female and minority writers were paid more attention to and classical authors were still the main focus of Chinese scholars. The social consciousness of the studies was strengthened and the research perspectives were multiplied while repetition of studies and theoretical predetermination were still evident. In comparison with English fiction studies in the West in 2013, Chinese studies on English fiction should enlarge the research scope, adopt more flexible perspectives, and strengthen systematic and international studies.
 
After more than a decade of development, the research of Chinese ethical literary criticism has seen a steady improving theoretical structure which is being joined by a growing number of scholars. As such, the study is winning more Western peer's recognition as it is spreading to the world and becoming a prominent school of study. Against such a background, the Forum on Ethical Literary Criticism and World Literature Research held by Jinan University during December 17-18 of 2016 was hailed as a success. Scholars home and abroad held in-depth discussions on the theory and practice of the ethical literary criticism from different angle. The Forum created favorable impact and contributed to the further development of the research on Chinese ethical literary criticism and its continuous going to the world.
 
The 50s-60s in the 20th century is usually considered as a transitional period in the history of American poetry. Before the mid-50s, Eliot and his follower-the American New Criticism took the dominant position in the field of American poetry and literary criticism. After the mid-50s, postmodernist poetry, represented by William Carlos Williams, Allen Ginsberg and Robert Lowell, gradually came onto the historical stage. Based on the social and historical background, the article tries to figure out the representative figures and important events in the period, and presents a clear picture of transition in the modern American poetry.
 
The 21st century literature in English has exhibited two characteristics, i. e., the loss of dominance of British and American literature along with the rise of former Commonwealth literatures and the flourish of ethnic literature in English-speaking countries. The study of literature in English has also witnessed widespread interests and efforts of Chinese researchers. The January 2011 "International Conference on 20th Century Literature in English" demonstrates the vanguard research achievements in China's English literary studies and promotes international exchanges in culture and literary criticism.
 
A Thematic Exploration of 20th Century Western Literature, written by Jiang Chengyong, Wu Yuesu and others, is the first monograph in China that studies the 20th century Western literature from the perspective of theme. Taking two literary masters' works as cases for its study, the book studies six major types of theme, and pays pilgrimage to the whole 20th century Western literature by exhibiting the century's painful fission in spirit and culture and man's yearning for salvation. It reveals the continuity between the traditional and the modern themes as well as foregrounds their discrepancy. It affirms the literary masters' faith in spiritual values and emphasizes the idealistic quality of literature. It goes beyond the traditional dichotomy by combining studies of form and content, and, incorporating new theories and methods, pushes 20th century Western literature study to a new height.
 
Marjorie Perloff is one of the few critics who is essential to the critical field of contemporary American poetry. Her 21st-century Modernism: The "New" Poetics is a new powerful work on the features and development of American poetry in the new century. Persisting in her constant cautious, exquisite and profound research style, Perloff makes a deep and meticulous study on modernism, postmodernism, and the directions and methods of contemporary poetry. She approves of the experimental and inventive consciousness of language poetry and points out the continuity, connection and wholeness in the poetic development at the turn of the 20th century with Eliot, Stein, Duchamp and Khlebnikov as the major figures. Perloff s timely and persuasive intervention in the criticism of twentieth-century poetry reaffirms her vital role as the foremost interpreter of language poetry and constitutes an outstanding sample of contemporary poetry study as well.
 
This paper surveys and comments on the overall situation of Chinese scholars' studies on Donne and his works by looking back on its developing course, sorting them into different categories and especially making objective and just comment on the unique research features and methods of major scholars whose study on Donne have made great contribution to and had profound influence upon Chinese researchers' study on Donne as a whole. Meanwhile, this paper draws a conclusion of the multi-dimensional argument and main points put forward by researchers at. different levels, who apply different kinds of literary critical theories to a thorough study of the artistic charm of Donne's far-reaching influence upon modern poetry in the 20th century. This paper attempts to get a more exact orientation and a clearer view of the overall development of China's research on Donne, which serves as a basis to widen the academic horizon, put Donne study within a more open, free and multi-dimensional academic research system and sufficiently carry forward an innovative spirit in attempt to explore deeper into Donne's. works and to make the research more mature.
 
With exquisite framing, extensive reading and considerate dialectic, Marjorie Perloff e-laborates the relationship between the poetry of the 20th and the 21st centuries as well as the modernity in contemporary American poetry in her work 21st-Century Modernism: the "New" Poetics. Acknowledging the significance of experimental and innovative writing, Perloff proposes that the importance be attached to understanding the continuity and integrity of the poetry of different periods.
 
French literature presented a colourful appearance in the 20th century when the realist literature and the modernist literature kept abreast of one another. Along with the decline of the modernist literature at the end of the century, French literature entered the transitional period charaterized by the popular fiction as a prevailing school. The vote of "the Best Foreign Novels of the Year in 21st century" began in 2002 in China. It is a pioneering work through which Chinese scholars evaluate foreign novels with their own vision.
 
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