Some women in rural Pakistan are chronically undernourished, and consequently underweight. Concerns have been expressed that the degree of undernourishment might be sufficiently severe to affect lactation performance. We have obtained data on maternal body composition and infant breast milk intake using stable isotope methods in a group of thirty three mother and infant pairs at approximately six months of age. The maternal body mass index ranged from 16.6 to 29.1 kg·m(-2). In this population we found that exclusive breast-feeding tended to be associated with lower maternal body fat, and that there was no evidence for compromised lactational performance due to malnourishment. Finally we note that when our data is combined with that from other studies there may be a generalised negative correlation between breast milk intake and maternal body fat.
Animal studies have demonstrated that iron may be related to carcinogenesis, and human studies found that heme iron can increase the formation of N-nitroso compounds, which are known carcinogens.
One of the postulated mechanisms linking red meat intake to cancer risk involves iron. Epidemiologic studies attempt to investigate the association between heme iron intake and cancer by applying a standard factor to total iron from meat. However, laboratory studies suggest that heme iron levels in meat vary according to cooking method and doneness level. We measured heme iron in meats cooked by different cooking methods to a range of doneness levels to use in conjunction with a food frequency questionnaire to estimate heme iron intake.
Composite meat samples were made to represent each meat type, cooking method and doneness level. Heme iron was measured using atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry.
Steak and hamburgers contained the highest levels of heme iron, pork and chicken thigh meat had slightly lower levels, and chicken breast meat had the lowest.
Although heme iron levels varied, there was no clear effect of cooking method or doneness level. We outline the methods used to create a heme iron database to be used in conjunction with food frequency questionnaires to estimate heme iron intake in relation to disease outcome.
This paper addresses consumers’ choices by looking into: current food choices made by different socio-economic groups; price barriers for diet improvement; and ways in which marketing may affect product choice. The study seeks: first, to analyze the differences in consumption of sausages of different nutritional composition among different socio-demographic and lifestage groups; and second, to measure whether it is possible to improve diet quality without affecting household expenditure. Sausages represent a relatively high proportion of red and processed meat purchases in Scotland, contributing significantly to the fat and sodium in the Scottish diet. The data used consisted of two-years of weekly information from a top-4, UK supermarket. The results suggest that it is possible to purchase similar quantities of a lower saturated fat or lower sodium sausage for the same price as a higher saturated fat or sodium sausage. However, it would cost more for some the groups to replace both a lower saturated fat and a lower sodium sausage in the household’s food basket.
This study aimed at evaluating the quality of melon Pele de Sapo “Mabel” and Yellow melon “UFERSA-05” minimally processed preserved in different packages. The fruits were harvested at
Mossoró-RN and transported to Serra Talhada-PE. In the first study, melon fruit Piel de Sapo “Mabel” was selected, washed, weighed, cooled, peeled, cut into cube shape, sanitized in chlorine solution,
drained, packaged in rigid polypropylene tray, sealed with polypropylene film or polypropylene rigid cap and kept for 8 days at 8˚C. In the second study, fruits of yellow melon “UFERSA-05”
and Pele de Sapo “Mabel” were minimally processed and kept in rigid polypropylene tray, sealed with polypropylene film and stored for 8 days at 8˚C. There was no significant interaction between packaging (sealed with film and polypropylene cover) and period of conservation, for pH, total titratable acidity (TTA), total soluble solids (TSS) and Loss of fresh mass (LFM) for Melon “Mabel”. While there was significant interaction between types of melon (“UFERSA-05” and “Mabel”) and
storage period (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 days) for pH, TTA and TSS. In sensory evaluation were noticeable changes in appearance, flavor, aroma and flesh firmness, characterized by translucency, alcoholic aroma and softening in “Mabel” melon kept in tray with lid. Melon “UFERSA-05” showed lower pH, total soluble solids, total soluble sugars, PME activity, lack of translucency high flesh firmness compared to “Mabel” melon during storage. The high levels of sugars in melon “Mabel” may be related to the incidence of translucency, which was not observed in “UFERSA-05” melon, with a strong potential to minimal processing.
The effect of daily consumption of a yogurt containing Lactobacillus reuteri CRL 1098 on the lipid profile of hypercholesterolemic subjects was evaluated by performing a prospective, randomized, double-blind, cross-over placebo controlled clinical study. Participants consumed daily a yogurt containing L. reuteri CRL 1098 or a placebo for four weeks, separated by a wash-out period. Total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, high-density (HDL) and low-density (LDL) lipoprotein levels were assessed at the beginning and at the end of each period. We found a statistically significant reduction of total (–7.86 g/dl) and LDL (–7.02 g/dl) cholesterol in absolute changes (before-after) as well as a decreasing trend in the group receiving the yogurt containing L. reuteri with respect to the placebo group, without detecting changes in HDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels. Our results suggest that low amounts of yogurt (125 g/day) and low doses of the CRL 1098 strain (106 CFU) are sufficient to reduce total and LDL-cholesterol levels in hypercholesterolemic subjects.
Many gastrointestinal complaints and motility disorders are described in patients suffering from different eating disorders. These have a negative impact on refeeding. This report evaluated–on admission-gastric emptying of a standardized solid meal with 13C octanoic acid breath test in anorexic adolescents. The results were compared with age and gender matched controls. Gastric emptying data were related to a subjective symptom score. 21 Anorexic girls and 3 boys (mean age: 15.6 y ± 1.3 y), body mass index (mean 15.6 kg/m2 ± 1.6 kg/m2), weight loss (mean: 22.2% ± 10.7%) were studied. T? of the gastric emptying time exceeded the P95 in 14/24 (58%) patients, classified as having delayed gastric emptying (DGE). One patient (4%) had a T? exceeding P75 and was classified as slow (SGE), whereas 9/24 (38%) patients had normal gastric emptying (NGE). In comparison to NGE, subjects with DGE had significantly higher symptom scores (p = 0.01) and more weight loss. The DGE and SGE patients lost 25.29% and 21.38% of weight respectively, whereas a weight loss of 17.64% was found in anorexics with NGE. In conclusion, gastric emptying is delayed in patients with anorexia. This is associated with more significant gastrointestinal symptoms and higher weight loss.
Micronutrient deficiency (MD) is a problem among schoolchildren which, in addition to other effects, also affects their intellectual abilities. Inclusion of vegetables to food formulations can help to reduce MD because they contain vital micronutrients which are required for improved school performance. This study aimed at evaluating acceptability, determining the nutritional quality and estimating the contribution of vegetable enriched products to the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of schoolchildren (5 to 13 years). The vegetables used were red and green amaranth leaves, orange fleshed sweet potato and pumpkin. Selection of vegetables was based on richness in micronutrients; local availability and consumption levels in Uganda; and their underutilization status particularly in processed form. Each of the vegetables was preprocessed and incorporated separately into soybean and grain amaranth in the ratio of 10:40:50, respectively, to improve the nutrient and energy density of the formulations. Sensory screening of formulations in a range of products (porridges, soups and snacks) revealed that orange fleshed sweet potato formulation was most preferred for porridge as well as for snacks (at 30:70 ratio of orange fleshed sweet potato composite to wheat flour); while red amaranth leaves composite was most preferred for soup. When tested for acceptability, nutritional quality, as well as contribution to the RDA (for vitamin A, iron, zinc, protein and energy) for schoolchildren 5 to 13 years, acceptability tests and nutritional quality of food products from the formulations were highly rated compared to commercial products (pure maize porridge, wheat based soup and 100% refined wheat flour snacks). All products from the two formulations contributed favourably to vitamin A, iron, zinc and protein requirements of children (5 to 13 years). Based on these findings, orange fleshed sweet potato composite flour can be recommended for making porridge, and can substitute (30%) for wheat flour in making snacks; while red amaranth leaf composite flour can be recommended for making soups.
Nowadays, people are busier and busier for working and living, and suffer a lot of pressure on their body or mind. Therefore, people are prone to have fatigue activity and decrease their working efficiency and happiness. It was reported that fatigue is a common symptom in the community, with up to half of the general population complaining of fatigue. More and more researchers devoted themselves to studying natural active ingredients in organism as the anti-fatigue drugs to release fatigue symptom. However, these natural ingredients were difficult to obtain from plants, animals and microorganisms by separating and purifying. In addition, some active substances have many side effects. In our study, we employed tea seed oil as main ingredients blended with bis-(carboxyethylgermanium) sesquioxide (Ge-132) to investigate the effects of anti-fatigue on mice by administrating mice with low dose, intermediate dose and high dose of tea seed oil complex for 0, 2 or 4 weeks. The specific tests of studying effects of anti-fatigue were body weight, weight-loaded force swimming, blood urea nitrogen, blood lactic acid and hepaticglycogen. And the results showed that appropriate level of tea seed oil complex could decrease the body weight and prolong the weight-loaded swimming time, and had an active effect on the bloodurea nitrogen, hepatic glycogen and blood lactic acid level mice, which significantly embodied the anti-fatigue activity of tea seed oil complex.
L-arabinose isomerase (L-AI) is the key enzyme for D-galactose isomerization of D-tagatose by biological method. In this research, Lactobacillus plantarum WU14 with high D-tagatose yield was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum was isolated from the number of lactic acid bacteria from pickled vegetables. The crude L-arabinose isomerase activity of Lactobacillus plantarum WU14 with high D-tagatose yield was 13.95 U/mL under the optimal temperature 60˚C, pH 7.17 and substrate concentration 0.8 mol/L, and the conversion rate of 56.12% could be gained after 28 hours. Protein structure and specific of L-Arabinose Isomerase of Lactobacillus plantarum WU14 were researched. The results showed that L-arabinose isomerase is mainly composed of alpha helix and random coil. Then the recombinant L-AI gene was inserted into the food-grade expression vector pRNA48 and expressed in L. lactis NZ9000 successfully. The target protein expression reached the maximum amount when the induced concentration of nisin reaches 30 ng/mL after 12 h. And the crude enzyme activity of recombinant bacteria reached 6.21 U/mL under 60˚C. Otherwise the optimal conversion rate recombinant of L. lactis NZ9000/pRNA48-L-AI can reach 39.21% under the temperature of 50˚C, pH 7.17 and D-galactose concentration was 0.6 mol/L.
Fermented foods play an important role in the daily life and diet of the populations in Congo. Among these fermented foods, there is Pilipili or fermented pepper which is consumed without prior cooking. The microorganisms present are eaten alive. Few studies have been carried out on these microorganisms which may have beneficial effects on health. This study aimed to investing taxonomic diversity of bacterial communities in 3 samples of fermented peppers produced in 3 distinct areas of Brazzaville. To do this investigation, Illumina Miseq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene was used. The results showed that the number of identified operational taxonomic units (OTUs) ranged from 156 to 392. All OTUs belong to the domain of Bacteria and could be categorized into 21 Phyla, 36 Classes, 58 Orders, 100 Families and 171 genera. Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were the main dominant phyla of the total phyla present with a relative abundance of 89.12% and 8.08%, respectly. At the class level, Bacili were dominant in EB1 (99.50%), EB3 (85.32%) and EB2
(42.29%) while Clostridia in EB2 (40.10%). Lactobacillus, Clostridium sensu stricto and Frutobacillus were the dominant genera in the sample EB1, EB2 and EB3, respectively. The hierarchical classification showed that the samples EB1 and EB2 form the same group and EB3 is unique. Principal component analysis showed that the younger EB3 and EB2 samples were more diverse than the older EB1 sample. This study is a first in Congo on the diversity of fermented pepper using Illumina Miseq. It has shown that this food is very diverse and can be a source for the isolation of bacteria with biotechnological potential.
Tacca involucrata (Batflower or Polynesian arrowroot) tubers are a stable food in tropics where it occurs. In central Nigeria, it is processed locally after digging it from the ground by peeling with sharp sand, grating and soaking in fresh water after which it is filtered and the filtrate is dried and is cooked with other ingredients. The marc, said to be bitter, is usually discarded by deep burial as it is considered poisonous to livestock and humans. All parts of the plant are used in folk medicine to treat various diseases. The aim of this work was to analyze quantitatively the phytochemical, elemental, vitamin and proximate composition of the marc of the tubers with a view of assessing its pharmacological and nutritional potentials. The marc was obtained from Jandeikyura Village in Wukari LGA of Taraba State, Nigeria, and was extracted with 80% methanol for 72 hr to give a yield of 10.1% w/w and was whitish in colour. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of reducing sugars, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, glycosides and hydrogen cyanide at 195.65 ± 0.5, 3.44 ± 0.2, 1.29 ± 0.5, 0.83 ± 0.4, 1.36 ± 1.0 and 0.00985 ± 0.3 (mg/100g), respectively. The ele- mental analysis showed the presence of potassium, sodium, magnesium, selenium, manganese, vanadium and some heavy metals like lead, aluminium, arsenic and mercury at 36.45 ± 0.1, 44.04 ± 0.1, 1.52 ± 0.2, 0.80 ± 0.9, 0.52 ± 0.7, 0.27 ± 0.7, 0.07 ± 0.6, 0.008 ± 0.05, 0.085 ± 0.6 and 0.026 ± 0.6 (mg/100g), respectively. Vitamin analysis showed the presence of vitamins A, B1, B2, B3, C and E in various amount as 2.26 ± 0.8 µg, 0.83 ± 0.8 mg/100g, 0.58 ± 0.4 mg/100g, 0.33 ± 0.6 mg/100g, 9.80 ± 0.4 mg/100g and 6.86 ± 0.9 mg/100g, respectively. The proximate analysis showed the marc to contain moisture, ash, fats, fibre, crude protein and carbohydrate in the range of 10.83% ± 0.3%, 1.93% ± 0.6%, 1.06% ± 0.5%, 4.42% ± 0.4%, 6.12% ± 0.6% and 86.07% ± 0.3%, respectively. This shows that despite the presence of hydrogen cyanide and some heavy metals in traces amount which are considered poisonous to livestock and humans, the marc contains some elements, vita- mins, phytochemical and nutrients which are pharmacologically and nutritionally important. * Corresponding author.
The food insecurity experiences and related behaviors of Nigerian households during the COVID-19 lockdown have not been fully discussed. This study was conducted to elicit information on the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on economic and behavioral patterns related to food access. An online-based semi-structured questionnaire distributed through messaging platforms was used to collect information on characteristics, food purchasing behaviour before and during COVID-19 lockdown among respondents. Experience of food insecurity was assessed using Food Insecurity Experience Scale (FIES). A total of 883 responses were received and analyzed using SPSS Version 20.0. Most of the respondents (90.5%) were at home or had stopped going to work due to COVID-19 restrictions. Even though smaller households had higher food expenditure claims than larger households (p = 0.012), the larger the household, the more acute the challenge of economic access to food (p = 0.050). Location (p = 0.000), age (p = 0.003), occupation (p = 0.014) and income level (p = 0.000) were associated with experience of food insecurity. In conclusion, lockdown restrictions increased food expenditure and experience of food insecurity among the respondents and thus we recommend the probe of long-term consequences of deviations from usual food access on undernutrition or overnutrition in Nigerian households.
Objectives: The goal of this study was to determine the association of rice consumption with nutrient intake and diet quality in a recent nationally representative sample of US adults. Methods: NHANES data (2005-2010) were used to assess the association of rice consumption by adults (19+ yrs; N = 14,386) with nutrient intake and diet quality. 24-hour dietary intakes were used to calculate usual intake (UI) of rice consumption using the National Cancer Institute methodology. Rice consumption groups were 0.25 to 0.5 to 1.0 oz. eq. of UI of rice. Diet quality (using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 [HEI-2005]) was calculated. Covariate adjusted least square means ± SE were determined and quartile trends across the rice consumption categories were examined. Results: Significant (p < 0.001) positive trends (β coefficient across rice consumption categories) were seen for sodium (118.99 mg), dietary fiber (0.57 g), folate (58.24 μg DFE), magnesium (11.83 mg), iron (0.97 mg) and potassium (29.45 mg). Significant negative trends (p < 0.0001) were seen for intakes of saturated fatty acids (−1.75 g), added sugars (−1.31 g); and calcium (−40.46 mg). HEI-2005 also showed a positive trend (p < 0.0001) with rice consumption (5.5 points). HEI-2005 component scores for total fruit (0.07), whole fruit (0.11), dark green/orange vegetables (0.25), total grains (0.10), meat/beans (0.24), and oils (0.15) were higher (p < 0.01) in rice consumers than non-consumers. HEI-2005 component scores for saturated fatty acids (0.63), solid fats, added sugars, and alcohol (1.22) were higher suggesting more favorable intake, but sodium (−0.24) was lower. Conclusion: Overall, consumption of rice should be encouraged to improve nutrient intake and diet quality. Nutrition education can provide ways to reduce sodium added to rice dishes.
Objective: The goal of this study was to identify commonly consumed grain food patterns in US adults (≥19 years old; N = 14,384) and compare nutrient intakes, with focus on 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines’ shortfall nutrients, diet quality, and health parameters of those consuming various grain food patterns to those not consuming grains. Methods: This study conducted secondary analyses of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2010. Cluster analysis was used and identified 8 grain patterns: 1) no consumption of main grain groups, 2) crackers and salty snacks, 3) yeast breads and rolls, 4) cakes, cookies, and pies, 5) cereals, 6) pasta, cooked cereals and rice, 7) quick breads, and 8) mixed grains. Results: Adults consuming “cereals”, “pasta, cooked cereals and rice”, and “mixed grains” had a better diet quality compared to no grains. Consuming many, but not all, of the grain food patterns resulted in less saturated fat and lower added sugars. Adults consuming “cereals”, “pasta, cooked cereals and rice” and “quick breads” had greater dietary fiber intake vs. no grains group. Calcium intake was increased in the cereals group, while magnesium intake was greater in adults consuming “cereals” and “pasta, cooked cereals and rice” vs. no grains. Vitamin D (D2 + D3) intake was higher in adults consuming “cereals”, “pasta, cooked cereals and rice”, and “mixed grains” vs. no grain group. Adults consuming “pasta, cooked cereals and rice” had lower body weights (79.1 ± 0.7 vs. 82.5 ± 1.2 kg; P = 0.009) and waist circumference (95.2 ± 0.6 vs. 98.2 ± 1.0 cm; P = 0.004) in comparison to those consuming no grains. Conclusions: Certain grain food patterns are associated with greater 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines’ shortfall nutrients, better diet quality and lower body weights in adults. Additionally, certain grain food patterns are associated with lower intake of nutrients to limit, including saturated fat and added sugars.
The aim of this study was to apply the Korean Dietary Pattern Score (KDPS) to Korean subjects based on traditional Korean-style meals. The KDPS is based on the 3-Chup Bansang (the traditional Korean daily table setting) and considers the intake of 6 major food groups according to the Korean Dietary Reference Intakes (KDRIs). The KDPS consists of 2 parts: the Korean-Style Meal Score (KSMS) and the Food Group Score (FGS). The KDPS was applied dietary data collected during the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) in 2007. Socio-demographic status, gender, age, and body mass index are all factors that have been shown to be meaningful predictors for the KDPS. When the effect of the KDPS on risk of disease was evaluated, a higher total KDPS was associated with a decreased risk of elevated systolic blood pressure (p < 0.05) and hypercholesterolemia (p < 0.05). In addition, as the KSMS increased, the risk of central obesity (p < 0.05) and hypertension (p < 0.01) significantly decreased. A higher total KDPS suggests a greater diversity of food intake, and therefore greater dietary diversity appears to lower the risk of disease. The KDPS is relevant because it integrates scores for Korean-style meal patterns and meal evaluation from a nutritional perspective. In conclusion, the KDPS is appropriate for evaluating the quality of diet, adherence to Korean-style meal patterns, and risk of related diseases. These results will be useful for evaluating the nation’s dietary patterns, nutrition, and health status when planning nutrition policies and programs.
Legumes are a good source of calories, protein and mineral nutrients for human nutrition and health. In this study, the edible leaves and grain of 27 field-grown cowpea genotypes were assessed for trace elements and macronutrient density at Manga in the Sudano-Sahelian zone of Ghana in 2005 and 2006, using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrome-try. The genotypes differed markedly in their accumulation of trace elements and major nutrients in edible leaves and grain. Except for P, the concentrations of K, Ca, Mg, S and Na were much higher in edible cowpea leaves than grain in 2005. A similar pattern was observed for Ca, Mg, S, Na in 2006. However, more dramatic variations were found in the micronutrient concentrations between edible cowpea leaves and grain. The levels of the trace elements Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn and B were sometimes 2-to 20-fold greater in leaves than grain of cowpea. Furthermore, there were strong geno-typic differences in mineral density of cowpea leaves and grain. For the major nutrients, for example, IT93K-2045-29 and IT90K-59 accumulated greater concentrations of P, K, Ca, S and Na in both edible leaves and grain in 2006, while ITH98-46, which showed the least macronutrient density, exhibited the highest concentrations of Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn and B in edible leaves, as well as Fe, Cu and Mn in grain. These results have implications for cowpea breeding, as well as for human nutrition and health.
In Bangladesh, Fish is a major source of daily protein intake of millions of people but most of the fishes are consumed here as fresh fish which is highly susceptible to damage during transportation and marketing. Therefore, an innovative approach was undertaken to process the fish to avoid damage and extend shelf-life while preserving the nutritional qualities to facilitate the more efficient use of fish as a source of protein and other essential nutrients. This study was conducted to develop some dried protein-enriched fish powders from some commonly consumed fish species in Bangladesh and the nutritional, sensorial, and safety qualities were assessed. Five indigenous abundant fish species including small indigenous fish (SIS) and carp fishes namely Awaous grammepomus, Channa punctata, Puntius puntio, Hypoph-thalmichthys molitrix and Labeo rohita were used for the preparation of dried protein-enriched fish powders. Biochemical, trace elements, sensorial, total viable count (TVC), pH, peroxide value, and moisture reconstitution during 90 days storage period were performed by standard analytical methods. The moisture, protein, fat, ash, carbohydrate (including fiber), and energy contents were ranged from (6.84% to 8.85%), (70.80% to 75.80%), (5.85% to 8.04%), (7.66% to 9.19%), (3.14% to 6.01%) and (367.50% to 379.61% kcal)/100g re-How to cite this paper: 964 Food and Nutrition Sciences spectively. Highest content of protein was found in A. grammepomus (75.80%) samples and the lowest in H. molitrix (70.80%) samples. Maximum calcium content was found in sample L. rohita (2.54 g/kg) and minimum in C. punctata as (2.43 g/kg). Maximum iron content was found in H. molitrix (0.15 g/kg) and minimum in A. grammepomus. As for the phosphorous content the L. rohita samples contained the highest (1.4 g/kg) and the lowest in C. punctata (0.73 g/kg) samples. The pH, peroxide value (mEq of O 2 /kg of fat), and moisture reconstitution (g/100g) during 90 days were ranged from (5.30 to 8.17), (8.60 to 16.77), and (6.84 to 13.83) respectively. Microbial loads over the 90 days period were in acceptable range at the end of 90 days storage period. On the basis of biochemical qualities, sensorial and microbial attributes our findings suggest that the dried fish powders are enriched with macro and micro-nutrients especially proteins and could safely be used at least up to 3 months for food applications.
Debaryomyces nepalensis NCYC 3413, halotolerant yeast isolated from rotten apple, was capable of utilizing components of hemicellulose hydrolysate such as glucose, galactose, mannose, xylose and arabinose. The organism utilizes xylose as a sole carbon source and produces xylitol. The Plackett-Burman design was applied to determine the specific medium components affecting xylitol production and found that xylose, K2HPO4, and ZnSO4 were critical in augmenting xylitol production. These significant parameters were further optimized using response surface methodology. The optimum concentrations of xylose, K2HPO4, and ZnSO4 were found to be 100 g/l, 10.6 g/l and 8.9 mg/l respectively. Under these optimal conditions the xylitol production increased from 27 g/l to 36 g/l with a yield of 0.44 g/g (57% increase in total yield). In addition, formation of the by product (glycerol) was decreased under optimal conditions.
The present study demonstrates a novel herbal formulation LI85008F inhibiting adipocyte differentiation and potenti-ates lipolysis in 3T3-L1 mouse adipocytes. LI85008F is formulated by combining extracts of three Indian herbs Mor-inga oleifera, Murraya koenigii and Curcuma longa. Oil red O staining of 3T3-L1 adipocytes reveals that LI85008F is a synergistic formulation that inhibits adipocyte differentiation in a dose dependent manner and concurrently down regulates the key adipogenic transcription factors Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor gamma (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBP). LI85008F confers significant reductions in intracellular triglyceride con-tent in a dose dependent manner. Evidence suggests that LI85008F antagonizes PPARγthrough Ser112 phosphorylation via MAPK/ERK activation. Immunoblot analyses reveal that LI85008F treatment also down regulates the protein ex-pressions of key PPARγ responsive gene products such as Adipocyte differentiation related protein (ADRP), CD36, Adipocyte specific binding protein 2 (aP2) and perilipin. In differentiated adipocytes culture, LI85008F treatment re-sults in significantly (p = 0.0169) increased lipolysis as measured by the release of glycerol. LI85008F does not exhibit cytotoxic effect on adipocytes. Taken together, the results suggest that LI85008F inhibits lipogenesis in adipocytes and concurrently antagonizes PPARγ and other lipogenic factors and in addition, potentiates triglyceride mobilization from the fat cells or enhances lipolysis.
The main eicosanoids inflammatory mediators, prostaglandins and leukotrienes, are both generated from arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4 n-6). AA is a member of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Numerous studies have demonstrated that various contents of PUFAs can modulate the inflammatory responses. However, fewer studies have examined n-9-PUFAs and their effects on the inflammatory responses. In the present study, the role of 5,8,11-cis-eicosatrienoic acid (ETrA; 20:3 n-9, also called Mead acid) in the inflammatory responses has been investigated. The anti-inflammatory activities of ETrA were examined using an in vitro macrophage system and the inhibitory effect was confirmed by western blot analysis for iNOS and COX-2 expressions. The interactions between ETrA and COX-2 protein were simulated to produce a computer modeling protein-ligand complexes and the results suggest a possible mechanism for the effects of ETrA. In this study, we described a significant inhibition of the inflammatory activities initiated by ETrA. Since ETrA is a substance presented in the tissues of young animals, we therefore anticipate that ETrA can be utilized as a natural therapeutic supplement to inhibit inflammatory activities.