Antioxidative peptides (0.1-2.8 kDa) obtained from gel filtration of Alcalase-hydrolysed whey protein were subjected to individual peptide isolation by RP-HPLC. The sub-fraction P4 and a prominent pentapeptide identified by mass spectrometry (Val-His-Leu-Lys-Pro) (P4c) were found to be highly antioxidative, therefore, used to assess the efficacy against hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced human lung fibroblast MRC-5 cell oxidative injury. MRC-5 cells were damaged by incubation with H(2)O(2), but cell death was significantly reduced when exposed to P4 and P4c (P<0.05). Compared to the H(2)O(2)-damaged model control, P4 and P4c enhanced the activity of cell superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase, and decreased the levels of malonaldehyde (P<0.05). These results, with a more pronounced action of P4c than P4, demonstrated that antioxidative peptides had a significant protection of MRC-5 cells against the toxicity caused by H(2)O(2).
The enzymes currently used to increase meat tenderness are all mesophilic or thermophilic proteases. This study provides insight into the tenderization effect and the mechanism of a cold-adapted collagenolytic enzyme MCP-01 on beef meat at low temperatures. MCP-01 (10U of caseinolytic activity) reduced the meat shear force by 23% and increased the relative myofibrillar fragmentation index of the meat by 91.7% at 4°C, and it also kept the fresh colour and moisture of the meat. Compared to the commercially used tenderizers papain and bromelain, MCP-01 showed a unique tenderization mechanism. MCP-01 had a strong selectivity for degrading collagen at 4°C, showed a distinct digestion pattern on the myofibrillar proteins, and had a different disruption pattern on the muscle fibres under scanning electron micrograph. These results suggest that the cold-adapted collagenolytic protease MCP-01 may be promising for use as a meat tenderizer at low and moderate temperatures.
The chemical interaction of 2,3-butanedione with amino acids through Strecker reaction has been studied extensively. However, the formation of previously reported 4,5-dimethyl-1,2-benzoquinone from 2,3-butanedione/amino acid model systems has not been investigated in detail. In this study such model systems containing 2,3-butanedione were investigated under pyrolytic conditions using glycine, sodium glycinate and glycine hydrochloride as amino acids able to modulate acid/base catalytic activity of the reaction medium. The analysis of the data indicated that replacing glycine with its corresponding salts promoted significantly the generation of 2,3,6,7-tetramethylquinoxaline relative to tetramethylpyrazine, the indicator compound for the Strecker reaction. The origin of the 2,3,6,7-tetramethylquinoxaline was traced back to the formation of 4,5-dimethyl-1,2-benzoquinone through isotope labelling studies. Furthermore, these studies have also indicated the ability of glycine not only to catalyse the cyclocondensation of butanedione into 4,5-dimethyl-1,2-benzoquinone but also its conversion into 4,5-dimethyl-1,2-phenylenediamine through Strecker-type transformations. The trapping of 2,3-butanedione by this in situ generated 4,5-dimethyl-1,2-phenylenediamine gave rise to the observed 2,3,6,7-tetramethylquinoxaline.
The purpose of this research was to establish an analytical method for analysing the 1-[6-chloro-3-methyl-pyridyl-8-nitro-7-methyl-1 2 3 5 6 7-hexahydro imidazo-(1,2a)]-pyridine (IPP) residue levels and to evaluate the difference in plant growth and its physical condition. A high performance liquid chromatography connected to a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) was also employed. The results showed that the content of protein and water soluble carbohydrate (WSC) treated by IPP were initially higher with a significant delayed decrease. The biomarker response showed, even at a lower dose rate, exposure to the IPP caused stress effects and modified the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO). Different patterns of biomarker responses were observed by an increase in SOD and malondialdehyde (MDA), and differential effects for antioxidant enzymes with a decrease in CAT, POD and PPO. The conclusions show that this profile of biomarker variation could represent a useful method to characterise exposure to IPP in a wheat plant.
Recently, 1,3-DAGs (1,3-diacylglycerols) have attracted considerable attention as healthy components of food, oil and pharmaceutical intermediates. Generally, 1,3-DAG is prepared by lipase-mediated catalysis in a solvent free system. However, the system's high reaction temperature (required to reach the reactants' melting point), high substrate concentration and high viscosity severely reduce the lipase's activity, selectivity and recycling efficiency. In this report, MjL (Mucor javanicus lipase) was found to have the best performance in the solvent-free synthesis of 1,3-DAGs of several common commercial lipases. By covalent binding to amino-group-activated NSM (nano-sized magnetite) particles and cross-linking to form an enzyme aggregate coat, MjL's specific activity increased 10-fold, and was able to be reused for 10 cycles with 90% residual activity at 55°C. 1,3-DAGs of lauric, myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acid were prepared using the resulting immobilised enzyme, all with yields greater than 90%, and the reaction time was also greatly reduced.
A gene encoding an endo-β-1,3-glucanase from Streptomyces matensis ATCC 23935 (SmβG) was characterised by cloning and expressing it in Escherichiacoli. The purified enzyme produced β-1,3-glucooligosaccharides, mainly laminaripentaose, from insoluble curdlan. The optimum pH and temperature were 6.0 and 55°C, respectively. SmβG inhibited the growth of Candida albicans, which indicates that this enzyme could be potentially used as an anti-fungal agent to control invasive Candida infections. The results suggest that SmβG may be a useful bioavailable β-1,3-glucanase.
A highly selective flow injection sorption system was developed for the fast determination of total iron in food samples. Iron (III) was reduced to iron (II) by ascorbic acid and preconcentrated on a mini-column packed with polyurethane foam (PUF) functionalized with N,N-bis(salicylidene)-1,3-propanediamine (SPDA). The retained Fe (II) was eluted with hydrochloric acid and subsequently reacted to 2,4,6-tri(2'-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine (TPTZ) then measured at 593nm. The procedure has resulted preconcentration factor 36, sample frequency 20h(-1) and detection limit 18μgL(-1). The precision (RSD) was found to be 5.7% and 3.1% at concentration levels 0.1 and 5.0μgmL(-1) iron (II), respectively. Finally, the method was successfully applied to determination of total iron in reference material and food samples.
Mushroom β-glucans are known for their activity as biological response modifiers and anticarcinogenic agents. β-1,3-1,6 Branched glucans with a triple helix tertiary structure are recognised as the most potent ones. In the present work, a colorimetric method for β-1,3-1,6-glucan quantification based on the dye Congo red is introduced. This method is specific for β-glucans with a triple helix. The β-1,3-1,6-glucan content of mycelia and fruiting bodies from various mushrooms was determined and compared with the total β-1,3-glucan content, measured by a fluorimetric method. The results show equal amounts of β-1,3-1,6- and total β-1,3-glucans in the analysed species but obvious differences between mycelia and fruiting bodies. On the average, 3% of mycelia and 8% of fruiting body dry mass consist of β-1,3-1,6-glucans. The average percentage of β-1,3-1,6-glucans in the total β-1,3-glucan content differs between mycelia (46%) and fruiting bodies (87%).
We investigated odour-active trace compounds in roasted Brazilian Arabica coffee. Aroma dilution extract analysis (AEDA) applied to the volatile oil extracted from roasted coffee brew revealed 34 odour-active compounds. Among these, a pungent-smelling unknown odour-active compound was determined. The volatile oil was fractioned by silica gel column chromatography. Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (MDGC-MS) of the fraction which contained a significant amount of the target unknown compound revealed the cyclic 1,4-diketone, cis-2,6-dimethyl-1,4-cyclohexanedione, which had a pungent odour, and was thus first identified in roasted coffee. Model experiments revealed that cis-2,6-dimethyl-1,4-cyclohexanedione was formed via thermal degradation of sugars, especially monosaccharides, under alkaline conditions. Further, we demonstrated that 2-hydroxy-3-pentanone and 1-hydroxy-2-propanone, thermal degradation products of monosaccharides, were closely related to the formation of cis-2,6-dimethyl-1,4-cyclohexanedione.
The presence of an α-1,6-glucosaccharide enhances absorption of water-soluble quercetin glycosides, a mixture of quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucoside (Q3G, 31.8%), mono (23.3%), di (20.3%) and more d-glucose adducts with α-1,4-linkage to a d-glucose moiety of Q3G, in a ligated small intestinal loop of anesthetized rats. We prepared α-1,6-glucosaccharides with different degrees of polymerization (DP) enzymatically and separated them into a megalo-isomaltosaccharide-containing fraction (M-IM, average DP=11.0) and an oligo-isomaltosaccharide-containing fraction (O-IM, average DP=3.6). Luminal injection of either saccharide fraction promoted the absorption of total quercetin-derivatives from the small intestinal segment and this effect was greater for M-IM than O-IM addition. M-IM also increased Q3G, but not the quercetin aglycone, concentration in the water-phase of the luminal contents more strongly than O-IM. The enhancement of Q3G solubilization in the luminal contents may be responsible for the increases in the quercetin glucoside absorption promoted by α-1,6-glucosaccharides, especially that by M-IM. These results suggest that the ingestion of α-1,6-glucosaccharides promotes Q3G bioavailability.
Biochemical properties and gel-forming ability were investigated as a function of storage time to understand the effect of 10MeV electron linear accelerator irradiation, combined with vacuum-packaging changes, on Atlantic salmon fillets during cold storage at 4°C. The results showed that compared with those of the control samples, pH, water soluble protein and extractable protein were not significantly altered by irradiation. However, pH, water soluble protein and extractable protein changed notably as storage time increased. While salt soluble protein (SSP), total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N), a(∗) values, 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) and total viable counts (TVC) were significantly (p<0.05) affected by different irradiation doses, which inhibited the increase in TVB-N but promoted TBA values during the storage period. Moreover, irradiation up to 3kGy did not significantly change the gel patterns, while the MHC patterns were slightly reduced with the increasing of the storage time.
In our study, we investigated the inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase in Smilax china. A methanol (MeOH) extract of S. china was partitioned into hexane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and water. Of the three fractions, EtOAc extract showed the strongest inhibition of tyrosinase activity with l-tyrosine or l-DOPA as a substrate. Two compounds were isolated from a final active fraction by activity-guided column chromatography. These compounds were identified as dioscin and oxyresveratrol by comparing their mass, (1)H- and (13)C-NMR spectral data with those reported in the literature. Dioscin showed little inhibition activity of tyrosinase, whereas oxyresveratrol, a known tyrosinase inhibitor, showed a strong tyrosinase inhibitory activity. We discovered that a mixture of oxyresveratrol and dioscin (IC(50)=5.1 and 5.7μg/ml) highly increased the inhibition of tyrosinase activity with l-tyrosine or l-DOPA as the substrate as compared to either oxyresveratrol (IC(50)=7.8 and 10.9μg/ml) or dioscin (IC(50)>100 and 100μg/ml) alone.
The mechanism underlying the freeze-thaw fractionation of 7S and 11S globulins in soymilk was investigated. Freeze-thawed soymilk demonstrated an increased particle size compared with raw soymilk. Further, when defatted raw soymilk was freeze-thawed, it was fractionated into 7S (supernatant) and 11S (precipitate) globulins, similar to what is found with freeze-thaw of raw soymilk. When raw soymilk samples with different ratios of 11S/7S were freeze-thawed, the 11S-deficient variety showed no precipitate. The addition of sodium sulphite or sodium dodecyl sulphate also inhibited precipitate formation after freeze-thawing, resulting in no fractionation. These results suggest that the fractionation is due to selective precipitation of aggregates of 11S globulins and/or 11S globulins and lipid complexes, in which the protein molecules interact through disulphide bonds and/or hydrophobic interactions.
A modified QuEChERS method for simultaneous determination of 124 pesticide residues in rice was established and validated. The rice samples were initially extracted with acetonitrile (MeCN), and the targeted pesticides were purified following the dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE) cleanup method and detected by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The efficiency of citrate-buffered and unbuffered method in liquid extraction procedure was compared; the amount of primary secondary amine (PSA) was optimised. In the method validation, correlation coefficients (r(2)) were higher than 0.990 with the linear ranging from 10 to 200μgkg(-1). At the fortification levels of 20-200μgkg(-1), average recoveries ranged from 70% to 122.7% with the RSD <20%.
The intrinsic isotopic labelling of plants with (13)CO2 is an effective method to generate highly labelled compounds using photosynthesis and avoiding labour-intensive complex organic syntheses. In this study, the intrinsic isotopic labelling of polyphenols in parsley, spinach and peppermint is shown for the first time. The plants were grown in an atmosphere where (12)CO2 was replaced by (13)CO2, in order to generate highly labelled compounds. The total content of (13)C as well as the individual polyphenols were analysed by Isotopic Ratio-MS and HPLC-Iontrap-MS(n). After 34days of plant growth under (13)CO2, degree of labelling was found to be higher than 90atom% (13)C for most polyphenols, predominantly consisting of highly and fully labelled isotopomers; the total plant material contained more than 88atom% (13)C. Such highly labelled compounds can be used in future studies to dissect both metabolism and bioavailability of polyphenols in humans.
Honey can be adulterated in various ways. One of the adulteration methods is the addition of different sugar syrups during or after honey production. Starch-based sugar syrups, high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), glucose syrup (GS) and saccharose syrups (SS), which are produced from beet or canes, can be used for adulterating honey. In this study, adulterated honey samples were prepared with the addition of HFCS, GS and SS (beet sugar) at a ratio of 0%, 10%, 20%, 40% and 50% by weight. (13)C/(12)C analysis was conducted on these adulterated honey samples using an isotope ratio mass spectrometer in combination with an elemental analyser (EA-IRMS). As a result, adulteration using C(4) sugar syrups (HFCS and GS) could be detected to a certain extent while adulteration of honey using C(3) sugar syrups (beet sugar) could not be detected. Adulteration by using SS (beet sugar) still has a serious detection problem, especially in countries in which beet is used in manufacturing sugar. For this reason, practice and analysis methods are needed to meet this deficit and to detect the adulterations precisely in the studies that will be conducted.
While putative disease-preventing lycopene metabolites are found in both tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) products and in their consumers, mammalian lycopene metabolism is poorly understood. Advances in tomato cell culturing techniques offer an economical tool for generation of highly-enriched (13)C-lycopene for human bioavailability and metabolism studies. To enhance the (13)C-enrichment and yields of labelled lycopene from the hp-1 tomato cell line, cultures were first grown in (13)C-glucose media for three serial batches and produced increasing proportions of uniformly labelled lycopene (14.3±1.2%, 39.6±0.5%, and 48.9±1.5%) with consistent yields (from 5.8 to 9mg/L). An optimised 9-day-long (13)C-loading and 18-day-long labelling strategy developed based on glucose utilisation and lycopene yields, yielded (13)C-lycopene with 93% (13)C isotopic purity, and 55% of isotopomers were uniformly labelled. Furthermore, an optimised acetone and hexane extraction led to a fourfold increase in lycopene recovery from cultures compared to a standard extraction.
A Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) method developed for the analysis of moisture in edible oils using dry acetonitrile as the extraction solvent was re-examined with the objective of improving its overall sensitivity and reproducibility. Quantitation was based on the H-O-H bending absorption at ∼1630 cm(-1) instead of the bands in the OH stretching region, fewer interferences being an issue in the former as opposed to the latter region. In addition, a spectroscopic dilution correction procedure was developed to compensate for any miscibility of oil samples with acetonitrile, and gap-segment 2nd derivative spectra were employed to minimise the associated possibility of spectral interferences from absorptions of the oils. In comprehensive standard addition experiments using a variety of edible oils, the FTIR method was shown to recover the amounts of water quantitatively added to dry oil with an accuracy of ±20 ppm when the spectra of the acetonitrile extracts of the water-spiked oils were ratioed against the spectra of the acetonitrile extracts of the corresponding dry oils. The accuracy deteriorated substantially when the spectra of the acetonitrile extracts of the water-spiked oils were ratioed against the spectrum of the acetonitrile extraction solvent only. However, the primary variable affecting the apparent difference in the accuracy of the two approaches was determined to be the variability in the residual moisture content of the dried oils used in the standard addition experiments, as confirmed by an FTIR procedure based on H-D exchange with D(2)O. The FTIR method as structured is amenable to automation (>120 samples/h) and provides a very competitive means by which to routinely measure moisture present in a variety of hydrophobic materials that are normally the domain of Karl Fischer titration, such as edible oils, mineral oils, biodiesel and fuels.
A method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 14 fat-soluble dyes in chilli products. The samples were extracted with hexane/acetone. The cleanup was performed with gel permeation chromatography (GPC) cleanup system. A HPLC separation was performed using variable wavelength detector and a gradient elution with 0.1% formic acid and methanol-acetonitrile (1:1, v/v) as the mobile phases. Good linearity (R(2)⩾0.995) was observed between 0.1 and 5.0μg/mL. Detection limits of the investigated dyes, which were evaluated at signal to noise ratio of 3, were in the ranges of 11-71μg/kg. The recoveries of the 14 synthetic colourants in three matrices ranged from 73.4% to 103.5%. Relative standard deviations ranged from 3.7% to 12.3%. The method has been successfully used for the determination of banned dyes in real samples.
This article presents a method of carbon extraction from vinegar used in preparation of liquid scintillation counting cocktails for measurements of low (14)C radioactivity. The presented method is relatively fast and can be used to produce liquid scintillation cocktails e.g., via benzene synthesis. In this work we present specific radiocarbon radioactivity determinations and based on them estimation of bio product content for five commercially available vinegars. All investigated vinegars are likely produced from plants in fermentation process.
Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is an essential component of most living cells. Apart from antioxidant activity, it has been reported to inhibit cancer cell growth in vitro in human cancer cells. However, the cellular mechanism underlying anticancer activity has not been fully elucidated. In this study, vitamin C showed a cytotoxic effect on human gastric cancer cell line AGS (LD50 300μg/ml). Further, flow cytometry analysis showed that vitamin C increased the sub-G1 (apoptosis) population and apoptosis confirmed by fluorescein isothiocyanate-Annexin V double staining in AGS cells. Moreover, specific immuno-blotting revealed the expression of the phosphorylated form of Bad (S136), 14-3-3σ, pro-caspases-3, -6, -8, and-9 protein levels were significantly decreased and Bax/Bcl-xL ratio was increased in a dose-dependent manner. Also, wound healing assay results showed that vitamin C inhibited AGS cell proliferation. These findings suggest that vitamin C induces apoptosis and might be a potential therapeutic agent for gastric cancer.
Lactose uptake rate by kefir yeast, immobilized on tubular cellulose and gluten pellets during fermentation of lactose and whey, was monitored using (14)C-labelled lactose. Results illustrated that, in all cases, lactose uptake rate was strongly correlated with fermentation rate and the fermentation's kinetic parameters were improved by kefir yeast entrapped in tubular cellulose. As a result, twofold faster fermentations were achieved in comparison with kefir yeast immobilized on gluten. This is probably due to cluster and hydrogen bonds formation between cellulose and inhibitors, such as Ca(++) and generated lactic acid, by which they leave the liquid medium. The findings, regarding the promotional effect of cellulose, seem promising for application in industrial whey fermentations.
Since the price of Arabica is currently more than twice higher than Robusta, a rapid and reliable method for the determination of the roasted coffee blend composition is fundamental for the authentication of commercial blends used for the Italian Espresso coffee. A GC-FID method based on the ratio between the integrated peak areas of kahweol (K) divided by the sum of K and 16-O-methylcafestol (16MCF) was developed. No internal/external standard was used. Moreover, the quantitation of the unsaponifiable compounds is not necessary, as well as the calculation of any response factors. The percentage of Robusta in 34 samples of coffee blends with known composition, and in 48 samples of pure varieties was used to build a cubic polynomial function with R(2)=0.998. The roasting conditions did not affect the results. Considering eight commercial blends (ranging 0-90% Robusta), no significant difference (two-tailed P=0.817) was registered between the claimed and the predicted composition.
In Brazil, the consumption of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) is increasing annually, but there are no experimental studies concerning the phenolic compound contents of commercial EVOO. The aim of this work was to optimise the separation of 17 phenolic compounds already detected in EVOO. A Doehlert matrix experimental design was used, evaluating the effects of pH and electrolyte concentration. Resolution, runtime and migration time relative standard deviation values were evaluated. Derringer's desirability function was used to simultaneously optimise all 37 responses. The 17 peaks were separated in 19min using a fused-silica capillary (50μm internal diameter, 72cm of effective length) with an extended light path and 101.3mmolL(-1) of boric acid electrolyte (pH 9.15, 30kV). The method was validated and applied to 15 EVOO samples found in Brazilian supermarkets.
Growth promoter administration, in livestock, potentially poses a major threat to public health, due to the potential endocrine and carcinogenic activity of residues, accumulating in edible tissues, such as skeletal muscle. Therefore, development of new screening tests and methods for the detection of illicit treatments of food animals would be useful. In this study the serum concentrations of oxytocin peptide were measured in beef cattle receiving 17β oestradiol, dexamethasone or placebo over a period of 40days. Changes in gene expression of oxytocin precursor in skeletal muscle were also examined in these animals. Serum analysis using an oxytocin EIA kit indicated a significant up-regulation of the biosynthesis of this nonapeptide only in cattle after 17β oestradiol, but not after dexamethasone or placebo treatment. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis showed a significant overexpression of the oxytocin precursor gene by 33.5 and 13.3-fold in cattle treated with 17β oestradiol and dexamethasone, respectively, in comparison to placebo treated animals. Regulation of gene expression by some myogenic regulatory factors in skeletal muscle was also evaluated in these animal groups, confirming the activity of both growth promoters on this gene. To investigate the use of the oxytocin precursor gene as biomarker for 17β oestradiol and dexamethasone treatment in beef cattle, an absolute quantification of this gene by qPCR was developed. A standard curve was generated and developed with TaqMan® technology and optimal criterion value, sensitivity and specificity of this screening method were established through ROC analysis. This analysis suggested that the up-regulation of oxytocin precursor gene expression in skeletal muscle tissue is a valid marker for detection of illicit 17β oestradiol and/or dexamethasone use in beef cattle. This method may serve as a novel diagnostic tool in the screening phase, and, if introduced in routine testing, may significantly improve overall efficacy and success of the food screening process ordered by state authorities.
A novel and fast method based on the solid phase extraction (SPE) coupled to a flow injection system for the determination of caffeine in coffee beans was developed. The caffeine extraction of coffee beans was carried out with hot water. A C18 reverse-phase mini-column was coupled to a continuous flow manifold to carry out the on-line SPE and the quantification of caffeine from aqueous extracts. Column length, retention time, elution volume, extracting solution and injection volume were evaluated. The retention time was of 90s and the elution was carried out with 400μL of a methanol:water mixture (25:75). The proposed on-line SPE was compared against a chloroform extraction from aqueous extracts. With the proposed method the sample preparation was minimised and the sample throughput was increased (10determination/h) because no dilution was required. Green coffee beans and beans with different roasting degree were analyzed.
The objective of this study was to investigate the level of 18 trace elements of two freeze-dried samples from the Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) and the Strawberry (Fragaria×Ananassa). The total free amino acid composition in the blueberry and strawberry was determined by an Amino Acid Analyzer. Eleven free amino acids were found in both berries. The trace elements in each dried fruit sample were determined by ICP-MS with microwave digestion. The linearity range of the standard curves was 0-1250.0μgL(-1) (Mg, P, K, Ca),while in all cases, except for B, Na, Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Cd, Pb, Ge and As, which was 125.0μgmL(-1), all related coefficients were above 0.9999; recovery was in the range of 79.0-106.8%. Minor concentrations of nutritional elements were found in each freeze-dried berry. In sum, the toxic trace element analysis found the content of toxic trace elements in each freeze-dried berry sample was safe for human consumption and that the overall quality of the blueberry surpassed that of the strawberry. The results certify that the two freeze-dried berries have potential for human consumption in value-added products and have a certain theoretical and practical significance.
The present research was devoted to studying the kinetics of the artificial rancidification of peanut oil (PO) when a sample of this oil was isothermally heated at 180°C in an air stream. The formation of radical species due to heating was evaluated using a radical index whose value was determined using a biosensor method based on a superoxide dismutase (SOD), while the increasing toxicity was monitored using a suitable toxicity measuring probe based on the Clark electrode and immobilized yeast cells. An extra virgin olive oil was isothermally rancidified under the same experimental conditions and the corresponding data were used for the purpose of comparison. Both the so-called "model-fitting" and the classical kinetic methods were applied to the isothermal process biosensor data in order to obtain the kinetic constant rate value at 180°C.
1H NMR spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis were applied to the metabolic profiling and discrimination of wild sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides L.) berries from different locations in Finland (subspecies (ssp.) rhamnoides) and China (ssp. sinensis). Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) showed discrimination of the two subspecies and different growth sites. The discrimination of ssp. rhamnoides was mainly associated with typically higher temperature, radiation and humidity and lower precipitation in the south, yielding higher levels of O-ethyl β-d-glucopyranoside and d-glucose, and lower levels of malic, quinic and ascorbic acids. Significant metabolic differences (p<0.05) in genetically identical berries were observed between latitudes 60° and 67° north in Finland. High altitudes (> 2000m) correlated with greater levels of malic and ascorbic acids in ssp. sinensis. The NMR metabolomics approach applied here is effective for identification of metabolites, geographical origin and subspecies of sea buckthorn berries.
A simple and sensitive spectrophotometric method to the simultaneous determination of Mn(2+) and Fe(3+) in foods, vegetable and water sample with the aid of artificial neural networks (ANNs) is described. It relies on the complexation of analytes with recently synthesised bis pyrazol base ligand as 4,4'[(4-cholorophenyl)methylene] bis(3-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-ol)(CMBPP). The analytical data show that the ratio of ligand to metal in metal complexes is 1:1 and 1:2 for Fe(3+) and Mn(2+), respectively. It was found that the complexation reactions are completed at pH 6.7 and 5min after mixing. The results showed that Mn(2+) and Fe(3+) could be determined simultaneously in the range of 0.20-7.5 and 0.30-9.0mgl(-1), respectively. The analytical characteristics of the method such as the detection limit and the relative standard error predictions were calculated. The data obtained from synthetic mixtures of the metal ions were processed by radial basis function networks (RBFNs) and feed forward neural networks (FFNNs). The optimal conditions of the neural networks were obtained by adjusting various parameters by trial-and-error. Under the working conditions, the proposed methods were successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of elements in different water, tablet, rice, tea leaves, tomato, cabbage and lettuce samples.
Three series of fourteen deep-frying experiments on three foods of very different compositions were carried out using extra virgin olive oil as the original frying medium. The aim of the study was to establish how the nature of the food being fried influences the composition of the frying medium. The changes in the composition of the frying media referred to the evolution of molar percentage of the different kinds of acyl groups, as well as to the evolution of the concentration of newly formed compounds such as aldehydes, epoxystearyl groups, primary and secondary alcohols were monitored in a simultaneous way by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Changes due to hydrolytic processes were also considered. In addition, the evolution of the Iodine Value and percentage in weight of polar compounds was also analysed. The influence of food lipids migration to the frying medium on the composition of this latter was evidenced.
In this paper, a novel chemiluminescence (CL) method has been developed for the determination of propyl gallate (PG). The proposed method was based on the enhancing effect of PG on the CL signal of 2-phenyl-4,5-di(2-furyl)-1H-imidazole (PDFI) and K3Fe(CN)6 reaction in an alkaline solution. Under the optimum conditions, the enhanced CL intensity was linearly related to the concentration of PG. The linear range of the calibration curve was 0.05-8μg/mL, and the corresponding detection limit (3σ) was 0.036μg/mL. The relative standard deviation for determining 1.0μg/mL PG was 2.8% (n=11). The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of PG in edible oil. The edible oil samples were prepared by the solid-phase extraction (SPE) with a C18 column served as the stationary phase. Furthermore, the possible CL mechanism was also discussed briefly based on the photoluminescence (PL) and CL spectra.
Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), a natural dietary isothiocyanate, inhibits angiogenesis but the molecular mechanisms that underlie this effect are not known. In this study, under hypoxic conditions (1% O2), we examined the effect of PEITC on the intracellular level of the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-1α) and extracellular level of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in a variety of human cancer cell lines. Surprisingly, we observed that PEITC suppressed the HIF-1α accumulation during hypoxia in human glioma U87, human prostate cancer DU145, colon cancer HCT116, liver cancer HepG2, and breast cancer SkBr3 cells. PEITC treatment also significantly reduced the hypoxia-induced secretion of VEGF. Suppression of HIF-1α accumulation during treatment with PEITC in hypoxia was related to PI3K and MAPK pathways. Taken together, these results suggest that PEITC inhibits the HIF-1α expression through inhibiting the PI3K and MAPK signalling pathway and provide a new insight into a potential mechanism of the anticancer properties of PEITC.
Ginger is a commonly used spice with anti-inflammatory potential. Colitis is the common pathological lesion of inflammatory bowel diseases. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of ginger and its component zingerone in mice with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis. Ginger and zingerone ameliorated TNBS-induced colonic injury in a dose-dependent manner. Pathway analysis of ginger- and zingerone-regulated gene expression profiles showed that ginger and zingerone significantly regulated cytokine-related pathways. Network analysis showed that nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were key molecules involved in the expression of ginger- and zingerone-affected genes. Ex vivo imaging and immunohistochemical staining further verified that ginger and zingerone suppressed TNBS-induced NF-κB activation and IL-1β protein level in the colon. In conclusion, ginger improved TNBS-induced colitis via modulation of NF-κB activity and IL-1β signalling pathway. Moreover, zingerone might be the active component of ginger responsible for the amelioration of colitis induced by TNBS.