Folia Zoologica -Praha-

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Percentage of each habitat type present in the Alpine ibex study area. Cogne Valley (Italy) 1996-1997.
Habitat selection by adult male Alpine ibex in Cogne Valley (Italy) 1996-1997. Analysis relative to seasonal habitat selection. MJI mean Jacobs index calculated for all individuals. Positive values indicate preference, while negative ones indicate avoidance. For more details, see the text.
Habitat use and selection of 14 Alpine ibex males were studied in the Gran Paradiso National Park. Alpine meadows were always overused and positively selected, because this habitat constituted an important food resource for the ibex. Even if rocks (30%) and stone ravines (22%) were the most frequented habitats in the study area, their use was lower than their availability because they offered few trophic resources. Pastures were used only in spring when the ibexes were looking for those sites just free from snow and with fresh vegetation. Stone ravines, where the ibexes rested in the hottest days, were most used in summer. Rocks were most used in winter: rock-faces are the only sites where the risk of avalanches is low and where it is still possible to find snow-free patches. Larch woods were especially used in winter and spring when it was still possible to find snow-free patches. The home range sizes proved to be influenced by the amount of Alpine meadows and rocks.
 
In 1996 and 1997, research was performed focused on obtaining basic information on the local population of the moose (Alces alces) in the Czech Republic. Based on own research, published data, and information obtained from regional administration, foresters, and hunters, constituent characteristics of the population were evaluated, i.e. the population dynamics, distribution pattern, and foraging ecology. The perspectives of survival of the species in the man-made landscape were outlined. The results were compared with the data published from areas inside the continuous range, i.e. mainly from eastern and northern Europe. After 400 years, moose re-appeared in the territory of the Czech Republic in 1957, and regular reproduction was evidenced from 1973. At present, moose occur permanently in two areas covering 1 600 km(2) altogether, and the size of this population is estimated at 30 to 50 heads. Other 10 or 20 individuals occur irregularly in other parts of the country. A smaller area of the permanent occurrence is situated in the foothills of the eastern part of the Sumava Mts. In this area, forests are composed mainly of secondary Norway spruce stands, and wet meadows overgrown by great willow (Salix caprea) are abundant. The other area of the permanent occurrence includes the Trebon basin, dotted by numerous ponds and peat-bogs with prevailing Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). The base of the food of moose in the Sumava Mts. are great willow and black alder (Frangula alnus) consumed all the year round. In the other area, pine needles prevail in the winter food. The extent of damage to forest stands is small because of the low population density. The environmental conditions in the manmade landscape are generally inappropriate for moose, because of the high density of human population, the limited food resources reduced by intensive agriculture and forestry, and competition for food with other ungulates (Cervus elaphus, Capreolus capreolus). A proposal of measures that should enable the existence of the local moose population is suggested.
 
This work presents a series of drawings as well as different criteria describing the early life stages and juveniles of some fish species from the River Sinnamary. The material originates from studies that began at the end of 1992 and provide some insight into the ecology of these stages. For each of the 64 different taxa, from 52 genera, 21 families and 5 orders, we describe, for individuals of different sizes, the general body and head shapes, the fins development and the pigmentation pattern and illustrate them with drawings. For most of these taxa, we also provide information about their spatial and temporal occurrence, the habitats in which they were caught and their diet.
 
The genus Triaenops has been considered monospecific in its African and Middle Eastern range (T. persicus), while three other species have been recognised as endemic to Madagascar (T. menamena, T. furculus, and T. auritus), and another to the western Seychelles (T. pauliani). We analysed representative samples of T persicus from East Africa and the Middle East using both morphological and molecular genetics approaches and compared them with most of the available type material of species of this genus. Morphological comparisons revealed four distinct morphotypes in the set of examined specimens; one in Africa, the others in the Middle East. The Middle Eastern morphotypes differed mainly in size, while the allopatric African form showed differences in skull shape. Two of three Arabian morphotypes occur in sympatry. Cytochrome b gene-based molecular analysis revealed significant divergences (K2P distance 6.4-8.1% in complete cyt b sequence) among most of the morphotypes. Therefore, we propose a split of the current T persicus rank into three species: T afer in Africa, and T persicus and T parvus sp. nov. in the Middle East. The results of the molecular analysis also indicated relatively close proximity of the Malagasy T menamena to Arabian T persicus, suggesting a northern route of colonisation of Madagascar from populations from the Middle East or north-eastern Africa as a plausible alternative to presumed colonisation from East Africa. Due to a considerable genetic distance (21.6-26.2% in 731 bp sequence of cyt b) and substantial morphological differences from the continental forms of Triaenops as well as from Malagasy T. menamena, we propose generic status (Paratriaenops gen. nov.) for the group of Malagasy species, T furculus, T auritus, and T pauliani. We separated the genera Triaenops and Paratriaenops gen. nov. from other hipposiderid bats into Triaenopini trib. nov. recognising their isolated position within the family Hipposideridae Lydekker, 1891.
 
C. coturnix occurrence sites in Portugal. Sites sampled (*) and not sampled (+). The sample sizes are indicated for each location.
Primer sequences, repeat motifs , PCR conditions and references of the eight G. gallus microsatellite loci.
Factorial Correspondence Analysis of individual quail microsatellite genotypes. Each dot on the graphic corresponds to one individual. Cc-C. coturnix; H-hybrids; Cj-C. japonica.
Hybridization is particularly widespread in birds and can affect species status and recovery. The common quail Coturnix coturnix is a protected game species that has undergone significant population decrease due to habitat changes. The release of Japanese quail C. japonica and or hybrids for restocking has been occurring since the 1970¿s. Both species have not developed reproductive isolating mechanisms and hybridization is occurring. Species distinction based on morphology and male callings is difficult. In this work cytochrome b gene and five microsatellite loci were used with the aim of establishing an identification test for quails sampled in Portugal. Cytochrome b gene revealed to be of promising use to identify the quail maternal lineage. Success in species assignment with the studied microsatellite loci was moderate to identify samples with suspicion of being hybrids with common quail maternal lineage.
 
The harvest mouse is a prey item for numerous vertebrates in various habitats, ranging from marshes and farmland, to urbanized areas. It has no specialised avian or mammalian predator and it always represents a low proportion of their diet, except in some wetlands where its frequency can exceed 40% of total mammals taken by owls, which confirms the harvest mouse preference for this kind of habitat. Conversely, it is a much less important prey in farmlands. In Europe, barn owl (Tyto alba), long-eared owl (Asio otus), tawny owl (Strix aluco) and to a lesser extent little owl (Athene noctua) are the major avian predators of harvest mouse. Among carnivores, polecat (Mustela putorius) seems to be the main predator for the harvest mouse, but the scarcity of literature does not allow definitive conclusions. The influence of snow cover on the availability of harvest mice for raptors is pointed out, since this mouse tends to move above snow and therefore becomes easier prey than other rodents. Moreover, it seems that carnivores may be more efficient than raptors for hunting Micromys mice, probably because of their way of foraging amongst tall vegetation that makes them more likely to discover harvest mice.
 
Presented here are the results of research on spatial organisation among hares originating from enclosure-type rearing but released into a natural environment for them. The fates of the 60 animals were traced by radiotelemetry in the course of four successive years of research. The mean annual home range size was found to be 1.68 km2 in males, significantly greater than that noted for females (0.43 km2). Similar relationships were observed in the case of seasonal ranges. The mean distance of movements noted for hares between successive radio-locations in the first month after release (at 239 m) was significantly greater than that noted for the second month (103 m) or the third (116 m). The mean distance of movement within individual annual home range for the males hares was 335 m and was significantly greater than that for females (226 m). Similar findings were obtained for seasonal ranges.
 
The four-horned antelope (Tetracerus quadricornis) is a vulnerable, solitary endemic and smallest Asian herbivore bovid. Its activity and social behaviour were observed in the three wildlife sanctuaries of western India, by opportunistic focal animal sampling method from April 2014 to May 2016. The results show two peaks in animal activity; first in morning hours and second in evening hours mostly devoted to feeding (28.12 %) and walking (22.35 %). The species was observed to be mostly solitary (67.06 %) and the mean group size was 2.5 (± 1.29 SD). The mean flight initiation distance was 62.53 (± 23.47 SD) m, which was insignificantly related to freezing duration (r² = 0.188, Y-intercept = 46.33 ± 8.49, P = 0.08). Localized defecation of T. quadricornis was found along with three mammals, while direct observations showed its association with six other mammals. The species also gleaned four plant parts of 13 tree species dropped by langurs.
 
A b s t r a c t. The variability of the external characters of four sibling Plecotus species in Croatia was analysed. For the recently discovered species P. macrobullaris and P. kolombatovici we used specimens identified by mitochondrial DNA sequences as key specimens. Living individuals of P. kolombatovici can be distinguished from P. macrobullaris and P. auritus by means of shorter thumb and hind foot, more clearly than distinguishing P. austriacus from P. auritus. Using the triangular pad on the lower lip it is easy to distinguish P. macrobullaris from all other species in the field. Sympatric distribution is confirmed for P. macrobullaris and P. auritus as well as for P. auritus and P. austriacus. In Istria, P. kolombatovici was found only at one site syntopic with P. austriacus and at another site inhabiting the same church attic with P. macrobullaris.
 
Amblyceps yunnanensis, a new species, is described here based on the specimens collected from a tributary of the upper Irrawaddy in the western Yunnan Province, China. It differs from all its congeners by the following combination of morphological features: skin smooth with a complete lateral line; adipose-fin originates at vertical level from anterior one quarter of the length of the anal-fin base, in the form of a low and smooth edge; dorsal-fin with one very weak spine; pectoral-fins without spines; caudal-fin truncated without pinnate-like rays.
 
In the Czech Republic, the Balkan spiny loach Sabanejewia balcanica was historically only known from the River Bečva, a left tributary of the River Morava, itself a main tributary of the River Danube. Following its assumed extinction in the Czech Republic, a small population was found in a 1 km stretch of the River Vlára at the Slovak border, with individuals presumably having migrated from Slovakia. In 2016, we recorded six individuals in the downstream stretch of the River Jihlava. Based on present knowledge, this appears to be a population situated wholly outside of its previously known area of distribution, and the only population presently found in the 26000 km² River Morava drainage basin. The distance of this population from the species’ present distribution area and historic findings in the River Bečva clearly indicate a much wider historical distribution of this species in the past.
 
Two available subspecific names are used interchangeably for the Balkan lynx. In this contribution I demonstrate that the valid name is Lynx lynx balcanicus Bures, 1941, and L. l. martinoi Miric, 1978, is its junior synonym. The type locality of L. l. balcanicus is the Sara Mts. in the Republic of Macedonia. In reaching this conclusion, I refrain from infringing upon taxonomic judgment on whether or not the Balkan lynx is a subspecies in its own right. While addressing the Balkan lynx over the last decade, conservationists have largely ignored the older synonym balcanicus and used instead a junior synonym martinoi.
 
The growth of main fish species (Rutilus rutilus roach, Leuciscus cephalus chub, Scardinius erythrophthalmus rudd, and Perca fluviatilis perch) in the Klicava Reservoir (central Bohemia, 60 ha) was studied from 1963 to 1995. The growth of all these species showed the following common characteristics. (1) slowing down at the end of the 1960 s resulting from a high abundance of the roach, which was dominant in the reservoir that time, (2) cyclic changes and considerable synchrony of these cycles, the length of one cycles in the roach and chub was of 8 to 10 years and about 10 years in the rudd, (3) stepwise growth acceleration in older age groups of all species. The growth of dominant roach was evaluated by a multiple linear regression using roach abundance, reservoir area and temperature as independent variables. These parameters explain 43 % of the variability of growth data, their moving averages as much as 59 %. Adding total phosphorus concentration in the surface water layer as a further independent parameter did not lead to a better growth prediction. The abundance of the fish was found to be the most important parameter explaining changes of the growth.
 
The paper deals with the population changes of birds inhabiting an extensive area (15.8 km(2)) dominated by arable land, Situated on the Silesian Lowland in south-western Poland. The number of territories was established with the use of the mapping method in the years 1977-1979 and 2001. Some changes in habitat and indices of agricultural production occurred between the two Study periods. The 2001 study revealed a clear rise of the species diversity and the area was colonised with 18 new bird species. In the group of agricultural birds the only visible decrease was recorded for the species nesting in or using open cultivated areas, where the total abundance dropped. Within this group the most affected were: Perdix perdix, Vanellus vanellus and Alauda arvensis. The abundance of species inhabiting non-cropped, treeless habitats within open farmland went up. The total abundance of twelve species nesting in hedgerows and woodlots also rose. The severe reduction of the bird populations inhabiting open farmland is most probably associated with much larger environmental changes linked with intensification of agriculture, compared to the small transformations of the non-cropped or marginal habitats (sometimes becoming even larger and more diverse), where bird abundance went up.
 
Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii), imported to the Czech Republic in 1995 as fertilized eggs and then reared to juveniles (0+), were analysed for 7 meristic and 38 plastic characters. The values of meristic characters were: D 36-49, mean 41.4; A 20-29, 24.0; scutae in dorsal line 11-17, mean 13.5; in lateral line 39-50, 44.8; in ventral line 9-13, 10.6; in C 25-41, mean 33.4 fulcrae; and branchial spines 31-38, mean 34.8. With its branchial spines number, the introduced population studied approaches that of free-living populations from the River Yenisei and Lake Baical, the mean values of the other meristic characters were lower than those in all other free-living populations. With their mean values of plastic characters, our specimens differ coincidentally from populations from the Rivers Yenisci and Lena and from artificially produced strains reared in the former USSR, and they differ markedly from free-living populations of Amur sturgeon from the River Amur. We agree to the generally accepted opinion on existence of 2-3 subspecies in the taxon of Siberian sturgeon (A. baerii) and we respect the Amur sturgeon (Acipenser schrencki) as a valid species.
 
Size-related changes in feeding habits of the dwarf loach Kichulchoia brevifasciata were studied by assessing the gut contents in 43 specimens collected between March 2006 and April 2007. The food items showed rapid changes when the fish reached approximately 35-40 mm of standard length. On the basis of the index of the relative importance of the gut contents (IRI), we identified that small individuals mainly fed on the amoebozoa Difflugia and larvae of the aquatic insect Ephemeroptera, while large individuals mainly fed on the diatom algae Navicula and larvae of the insect groups Chironomidae and Trichoptera. The results indicate that a suitable habitat for this highly endangered species has to contain a very diverse community of small benthic invertebrates to allow recruitment across all ontogenetic stages.
 
Map of hamster locations detected by State Phytosanitary Administration (black circles) between 2000 and 2010 and those detected by us (white circles) in autumn 2010. The shaded districts are those where the monitoring programme for the common voles was regularly conducted. The Grulich line in red depicts the range from the 70’s of the 20 th century. 
Questionnaire data showing the presence (black triangles) and absence (white triangles) of hamsters in the Czech Republic according to farmers. The Grulich line in red depicts the range from the 70’s of the 20 th century. 
Map of hamster locations after 2000 based on museum data (squares with cross inside), BioLib database (white squares) and nonrelated research (black squares). The Grulich line in red depicts the range from the 70’s of the 20 th century. 
A physical map of the Czech Republic showing a close match between the distribution of hamsters and land altitude when all data are superimposed on it, including the Grulich border line in red. Monitoring data comprise locations from both State Phytosanitary Administration and us (source 1 and 2). Questionnaire data show locations obtained from farmers (source 3). Museum, BioLib and nonrelated research data are sources 4 to 6, see Methods). 
The relationship between hamster occurrence and altitude as predicted by a logistic regression model containing a quadratic term for altitude. The bars show frequencies of positive (1) and negative (0) evidence for occurrences of hamsters in autumn 2010. 
Abundances of the common hamster in western Europe declined dramatically over the last 30 years. Recently, severe restrictions in distribution range have also been reported from central European countries. Here we update knowledge of the hamster distribution range in the Czech Republic based on information from six independent sources: (1) monitoring programme for the common vole carried out by State Phytosanitary Administration, (2) monitoring carried out directly by us, (3) questionnaire data from farming companies, (4) questionnaire data from district museums, (5) data from a public server BioLib for mapping species distribution, and (6) observations from nonrelated research activities and persons taking interest in hamsters. The comparison of locations detected after 2000 with those from the last survey > 30 years ago suggests that the range is severely reduced with hamsters retreating to the optimum lowland habitats along large rivers. These results suggest that the demographic mechanisms causing population decline in western populations operate in central Europe as well.
 
In the current study 744 cloacal samples were collected from mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) in the Czech Republic and tested for the presence of influenza virus between 2008 and 2010. Of the total number of 744 mallards tested nine were positive (prevalence 1.2 %) for influenza virus. All the mallards were up to 1.5 years old and the majority (89 %) were killed by hunters.
 
The collecting locality of Nannospalax xanthodon (2n = 58) in Başpınar village, Kemaliye, Erzincan (▲), and geographic position of the other studied 2n = 58 populations. For numbering of sites and the references see Table 1.  
Metaphase spread and karyotype of a specimen from Başpınar village, Kemaliye, Erzincan.  
Metaphase spread and C-banded karyotype of a specimen from Başpınar village, Kemaliye, Erzincan.  
Silver-stained metaphase spread and karyotype of a specimen from Başpınar village, Kemaliye, Erzincan.  
In this study, the 2n = 58 chromosomal race of blind mole rats, Nannospalax xanthodon, from the Erzincan province in Turkey was investigated. Conventional chromosome staining, Ag-NOR staining and C-banding analysis were carried out in the specimens studied. The karyotype included three small or medium-sized meta/submetacentric pairs and twenty-five acrocentric pairs of autosomes of gradually diminishing size (NFa = 62). C-heterochromatin regions were found in centromeric and pericentromeric areas or in short arms of some bi-armed autosomal pairs and in pericentromeric areas of a few acrocentric autosomes. The X chromosome had a centromeric C-positive band and the short arm of the Y chromosome appeared to be C-positively stained. The NORs were localized in distal heterochromatin areas of the short arms of two pairs of biarmed and one pair of acrocentric autosomes. Within the 58 chromosome populations reported from Turkey, two groups can be recognized differing by the presence or absence of a large submetacentric autosomal pair. The populations possessing this marker chromosome occur in central and northern Anatolia, whereas populations form eastern Anatolia have no similar chromosome in their karyotype.
 
The cyprinid Alburnoides bipunctatus (Bloch) is threatened throughout Europe. However, in Switzerland a slight recovery of stocks has been observed recently. Potential habitats of A. bipunctatus in the River Aare near Berne were fished in summer, autumn and winter. Associations of shoals of A.bipunctatus with other fish species were most common with C. gobio, followed by B. barbus, S. trutta m. fario and L. cephalus. Length-frequency distributions and scale readings were used to distinguish age-classes (maximum age: 5+). The Von Bertalanffy growth equation was L(t)=182.1(1-e.0331((t-0.474))). Growth was faster after age 1 compared to several rivers in Eastern Europe and Russia. Fulton's coefficients of condition did not differ significantly between seasons, but values were highly variable (0.6 - 1.9). Shoals of A. bipunctatus were predominantly medium sized (up to 319 individuals) and consisted of different age-classes. Shoals with only one age class (0+ or 1+) were found in a few habitats in summer. The apparent recovery of stocks is supposed to be related to population structure and reproductive strategy, which allows the species to recolonise formerly abandoned habitats. Therefore conservation must focus on habitat improvements and migration facilities.
 
All older larvae avoided open water, but as 0+ juveniles the cyprinids (Rutilus rutilus, Abramis brama, Blicca bjoerkna and Scardinius erythrophthalmus) except Tinca tinca co-exploited the rare open areas of the otherwise densely vegetated backwater. Juvenile T. tinca and Lepomis gibbosus were significantly associated with each other, but the former was found mostly in filamentous algae and the latter avoided open areas, preferring Nuphar beds. -from Author
 
Former studies demonstrated that the river loach species Lefua sp. and Lefua echigonia (Nemacheilidae) have thin white linear markings from the pectoral fin base to the ventral fin base on both right and left sides of the abdomen that can be used to identify individuals in laboratory and in the field. In the present study we demonstrate the existence of such markings and the uniqueness of their shape in reared individuals of a further six species of Nemacheilidae, but found them absent in three species of Balitoridae. Furthermore, the long-term stability of the shape of the markings was examined in reared individuals of the nemacheilid Barbatula toni over two years. The white line markings offer a non-invasive tool for the individual recognition of nemacheilid species, some of which are threatened with extinction.
 
Spring spawning migrations of paddlefish Polyodon spathula into the River Missouri above Fort Peck Reservoir, Montana were investigated with radio-telemetry during 2006-2009. Selected migration characteristics (total movement, rate of movement, maximum upriver ascent, duration of the migration, upriver residence time and spawning periodicity) were compared between sexes and among years. Paddlefish exhibited sexual dimorphisms in selected measures of migratory behavior. Females typically moved at a faster rate (mean, 13.4 km/ day for females versus 10.1 km/day for males) and remained in the river a shorter time (mean, 40 days) than did males (mean, 45 days). Females and males exhibited similar total movements, upriver residence times and mean maximum ascents. Spawning periodicity was shorter for males (mean, 1.5 years) than females (mean, 2.3 years). Total movement, movement rate, mean duration of the spawning migration and upriver residence time of both sexes differed among years. Results from this study indicate that certain analyses of paddlefish migrations and migratory behavior should be undertaken separately for female and male fish.
 
Diel feeding patterns of subadult and adult cyprinids of three species (roach Rutilus rutilus, bream Abramis brama, bleak Alburnus alburnus), which foraged almost exclusively on microcrustacean plankton, were studied in the meso-eutrophic Rimov Reservoir (Czech Republic). All cyprinids showed a daytime feeding periodicity, with a marked night-time decline in gut fullness. Diel variations in gut fullness were observed in roach 200270 rum standard length (SL) and bream 220-330 rum SL during May and in bleak, roach and bream of 110-170 rum SL, respectively, during August. Our results corroborate other studies in which light intensity has been found to be an important factor affecting cyprinid foraging on zooplankton. Daily zooplankton consumption rates ranged from 1.5 % of wet body weight in bream, (220-330 mm SL) to 9.9 % of wet body weight in bleak (110-170 mm SL).
 
Development stages of white bream oocytes in the post-spawning season in Lake Kortowskie. 
A b s t r a c t . Among white bream, Abramis bjoerkna from Lake Kortowskie in North-Eastern Poland, some females showed characteristics of defined fertility while some females in the period of vitellogenesis of the first and second batch of oocytes showed characteristics of undefined fertility. Some females representing defined fertility showed characteristics of single spawning during the reproduction season. The other females with both defined and undefined fertility showed characteristics of batch spawning reproduction type. The results showed that female white bream were characterized by diversified vitellogenetic activity. They showed linkages to both the reproduction type with single spawning during the reproductive season and the type of reproduction with batch spawning related to undefined fertility.
 
The distribution and abundance of Cobitis simplicispina was assessed in the tributaries of the Sakarya Basin, surrounding Ankara. The total abundance and the proportion of this species within the ichthyofauna at all seven sampling sites were 149 individuals per 50 m and 3.67 %, respectively. Compared with an earlier study at the same sampling sites, some slight differences in distribution were observed.
 
Winter weather limits populations of resident bird species. Although many small-scale or speciesspecific studies illustrated this fact, our knowledge of interspecific differences in population responses to winter temperatures is incomplete due to lack of community-level studies. For this purpose, we have used long-term monitoring data on breeding bird populations of 37 common bird species wintering in the Czech Republic. We predicted that species will differ in their relationship between winter temperature and abundance with respect to their body mass and dietary niche. Smaller species having relatively higher energy expenditure should show closer relationship between breeding abundance and winter temperature than larger species. Concerning dietary niche, abundance of species feeding on animals should be more affected by temperature than abundance of species feeding on plants or omnivorous species. Our results confirmed the second prediction: populations of species preying on animals followed winter temperatures more closely than populations of species feeding on both animals and plants. Food-mediated mortality is probably more important than direct effects of low temperatures. In general, relationships between abundance and temperature were relatively weak in most species and we suggest that possible changes in winter temperatures may not seriously affect populations of common breeding birds in the Czech Republic.
 
Several series of available environmental (land use/land cover, agriculture, soil, climate) variables are used in exploratory models to test their use for successful prediction of red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa L.) abundance in spring. A Geographic Information System and stepwise multiple regression analysis are used to show and predict distribution of this population parameter in an agricultural region of southern France. High spring abundance was observed to be distributed mainly in the central and north-western part of the study area. Two partial models, land use/land cover and agriculture, and a complete model with land use and temperature variables are the most signifcant and more accurate than any others. The complete model is the best model (lowest Akaike Information Criterion and highest Akaike weight). The potential abundance obtained from this best model shows communes with high Kilometric Abundance Indices (KAI), mainly located in the northwestern part of the region. Partridge abundance was unevenly or irregularly distributed across the study area, which is typical of wildlife species inhabiting complex and changing landscapes limited by various sources of human pressure, such as agriculture, urbanization and game management. A game tool is provided using potential spring abundance to plan the harvest quotas two months before opening the hunting season.
 
Study area; arrow indicates the location of stream section studied.
Abundance dynamics of barbel, Barbus barbus in the stretch of Jihlava River near Hrub‰ice in 1999–2002 assessed using the Petersen and Jolly-Seber methods. (SP-99 to AU-02). N – abundance per whole river stretch; CLl – lower confidence limits; CLu – upper confidence limits. 
The regression analysis of the abundance dependence upon the time in the barbel population from the studied stretch of Jihlava River. Period from spring 1999 to autumn 2002 (SP-99 – AU-02). (Petersen procedure). 
on a stretch of the Jihlava River at Hrub‰ice. C, number of all barbel caught; M 1 , no of specimens tagged during particular period; M 2 , cumulated number of tagged fish; R, number of recaptured fish.
A four-year experiment with a total of 993 individually-tagged barbel, Barbus barbus, resulted in the assessment of survival and abundance. The mean annual survival rate was 0.862, but the partial values assessed separately for seasons (spring - autumn and autumn - spring) differed considerably and the possible reasons for this phenomenon are discussed. On the basis of known survival rate, the abundance was subsequently estimated (for the entire studied stretch and per hectare) using the Petersen capture-recapture method for the period spring 1999 to autumn 2002, and the mean value reached 303 ± 110 ind.ha-1 (minimum 195, maximum 498 ind.ha-1). The Jolly-Seber method was also used to estimate abundance from autumn 1999 to spring 2001 and gave a mean 425 ± 120 ind.ha-1 and a range 233-563 ind.ha1. These results were in autumn 2001 supported by another simultaneously conducted census following the removal method by Zippin (316 ind.ha-1). The abundance showed a significant tendency to increase during the four-year survey, which is in an accordance with the long-term changes observed in the dynamics of the fish community in this stream.
 
The aggregation of fish below a longitudinal barrier was investigated in the lower River Morava (Danube basin), near the village of Lanzhot (79.5 river km). The study stretch of the river is isolated from its flood plain by channelisation and is regulated by weirs. Fish were sampled monthly over four years (1991-1994), below and within a rocky chute that limits upstream migration. In total, 26 species from 5 families were recorded. Some were found only occasionally or occurred permanently, but in very low densities without any tendency towards seasonal aggregation. Roach, chub, gudgeon, and whitefin gudgeon, aggregated below the barrier in April-May, with seasonal variations in each year. Bleak also displayed seasonal variations but aggregated later, predominantly in May-July. Numbers of all fish were significantly higher during 1992 and 1993, compared with the other two years. It appears that the time and intensity of upstream movement and aggregation of cyprinid fishes in lowland rivers is dependent upon factors other than temperature and discharge in any particular season. It seems that regular large scale upstream migration of fish in the lower regulated River Morava does not occur at present as the typical migratory species such as nase, vimba or ire are almost absent.
 
We present the results of six years common vole trapping in various field crops and in other habitat types in 46 km2 of a poorly wooded, agricultural landscape in southern Moravia (Czech Republic). Data are presented as several- yearly mean relative abundances and frequencies of occurrence, as seasonal variations. Alfalfa, winter wheat, spring barley and sugar beet fields provide important habitats for common vole reproduction. Winter wheat, winter rape and fields turned up after the sugar beet and maize harvests are important wintering habitats, with the last two habitats showing evidence for winter reproduction. Windbreaks, woodlots and straw ricks provide temporary refuges only.
 
We examined the ecological factors influencing winter abundance of mammals in the natural deciduous forest and the Japanese larch, Larix leptolepis, plantation in Mount Maehwa, Hongcheon, South Korea. We counted the tracks of five mammal species - the Korean hare, Lepus coreanus; the raccoon dog, Nyctereutes procyonoides; the Siberian weasel, Mustela sibirica; the water deer, Hydropotes inermis and the wild boar, Sus scrofa - in the snow from November 2013 to February 2014. We showed that the mean basal area, canopy cover and shrub cover were significantly higher in the Japanese larch plantation than in the natural deciduous forest. The winter abundances of Korean hares, raccoon dogs and water deer were higher in the Japanese larch plantation than in the natural deciduous forest. The results of stepwise analysis revealed that the winter abundances of four species were significantly correlated with >= 1 of the habitat variables. The winter abundances of Korean hares, water deer and wild boars were significantly correlated with shrub cover. The winter abundances of Korean hares, raccoon dogs and wild boars were significantly correlated with fallen logs; and the winter abundance of water deer was significantly correlated with canopy cover. For all of the investigated species, the preferred winter habitat was the Japanese larch plantation, with dense shrub cover and high number of fallen logs. Our results indicate that for planning conservation and forest management strategies for mammal species, the preferred forest habitat variables must be taken into consideration.
 
Top-cited authors
Jan Zima
  • The Czech Academy of Sciences
Gordon H. Copp
  • Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science
Miloslav Homolka
  • The Czech Academy of Sciences
Karel Halacka
  • Institute of Vertebrate Biology
Jozsef Lanszki
  • Balaton Limnological Research Institute ELKH