Folia Primatologica

Published by Karger
Online ISSN: 1421-9980
Print ISSN: 0015-5713
Publications
A chimpanzee of simian-type blood groups V.A, cef, G, H, L was isoimmunized with the red cells of another chimpanzee of simian-type V.B, cef, G, H, 1 in order to obtain antibodies of specificity anti-Bc, originally produced in another chimpanzee in 1964. In addition to the desired anti-Bc, the immunized chimpanzee produced also three other antibodies; anti-Yc cross-reactive with chimpanzee red cells of the simian-type Bc and/or Dc, a potent cold autoantibody reactive for red cells of all chimpanzees tested, and 'new' antibodies anti-Oc and anti-Pc. This study confirms the reproducibility of results obtained over a period of 13 years.
 
Most mammals and all primates, except man, develop vibrissae on the face. Histologically, the sinus hairs around the mouth and across the brow ridges of rhesus monkeys resemble those of nonprimate mammals except for their smaller size and lack of skeletal muscle attachments. These follicles grow in especially great density along the glabrous borders of the mouth. Unlike the linearly arranged vibrissae on the muzzles of more primitive mammals, the sinus hairs of the rhesus monkeys are distributed in less clearly defined patterns around the facial disc. Studies of vibrissae in nonprimate species indicate that these sensory hairs function in relation to eye-blinking, orienting, and biting reflexes, or in conjunction with olfaction.Copyright © 1970 S. Karger AG, Basel
 
Leaf colour, size and toughness were investigated in five plant species important in the diet of Macaca fascicularis in Singapore. Leaf colour and size were examined as potential visual cues for food selection, whereas toughness mirrored fibre content, the inverse of food quality. As leaves matured, they changed colour and toughened. Leaf lightness and yellowness were strongly negatively correlated with toughness, but variation in both the red-green axis of the CIE Lab colour space and leaf size were not. Leaves selected as food by the macaques were distinguished by being very light, yellow to slightly green. Some leaves were dappled with red. The literature suggests that these leaves are relatively rich in protein without being tough and therefore would be sought after by primates. We argue that leaf colour is an important indicator of the nutritive value of leaves. Trichromatic vision is an important advantage in finding those palatable leaves that are dappled red. These would appear dark to dichromatic primates and be deceptive by making leaves look older (lower in quality) than they actually are. This would decrease the perceived window of feeding opportunity for such primates who would be at a disadvantage in trying to find these leaves. It is possible that trichromatic vision in catarrhine primates may have originally evolved for the detection of red coloration in the leaves of shade-tolerant tropical plants, enabling the better exploitation of a food resource.
 
Morphologic, molecular and karyologic analyses of Callicebus lugens (Humboldt, 1811) of known geographic origin supported the proposition that this is a valid species. Morphologic and morphometric analyses showed evident differences between C. lugens and two other related taxa of the same group (Callicebus purinus and Callicebus torquatus). Cytochrome b DNA analyses (maximum parsimony, neighbour joining and maximum likelihood) were congruent in showing a strong association between C. lugens and Callicebus sp. of the torquatus group in one branch and a sister branch further divided into two clades: one with species of the personatus group and another, with species of the moloch group. Karyotypic analysis showed that C. lugens has the lowest diploid chromosome number of the primate order (2n = 16). Comparisons with other congeneric species clearly supported the proposition that C. lugens is karyotypically similar to others of the torquatus group.
 
Examination of the report of an ape by TULP m 1641 shows that this may have been Pan paniscus.
 
In a 5-year study data were compared on rank and reproductive success of 3 mature males in a group of barbary macaques who had sired 32 infants on 14 females. The results indicate that the absolute number of offspring as well as the proportion of offspring from higher-ranking females is a function of the male's rank. Asymmetrical access to receptive females was produced by either a high basic rank or by the formation of a coalition, or both of these, which resulted in at least partial exclusion of competitors from reproduction. Rank reversals in basic rank was preceded by severe fights between the opponents involving deep wounds or loss of canine teeth. When such fights occurred they reaped benefits in each case for the challenger, which were measurable in terms of reproductive success.
 
Some aspects of the ecology and behaviour of mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) in the wild state are described. It appears that the distribution of this species is considerably more limited than has been admitted till now. It is also probable that mandrills do not live together in the same place as drills (M. leucophaeus). Associations with other primate species are described as well as the status of the dominant male within the group and also the breeding season. Evidence is adduced that the ecology and behaviour are closely the drill.
 
Mating activities in a group of 178 Barbary macaques were studied during the breeding season 1982/83. Copulations were observed between the middle of August and the end of March. More than 80% of all copulations were recorded from October to December. Number of estrous periods ranged from 1 to 5, most females (67%) had 2 estrous periods. Most females (87%) conceived during the first estrus. Postconceptional bleedings and 1 postconceptional estrus were observed regularly. Mean interval between the end of conceptional estrus and the end of postconceptional estrus was 28 days. Mean interval between the end of conceptional estrus and the onset of bleeding was 18.2 days. Conception rate was 79%. Conceptions occurred between the end of September and the middle of February. Most females (60%) conceived between the middle of November and the middle of December. Mean gestation length for a viable infant was 164.7 days. Consequences of the strong breeding seasonality are discussed.
 
The genotypes of 48 barbary macaques were determined with respect to four diallelic systems: ABO blood groups, transferrin, soluble glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, and pancreatic amylase. Paternity tests were performed for 32 offspring of 13 (14) females from an established breeding group which contained 3 sexually mature males.Copyright © 1981 S. Karger AG, Basel
 
The purpose of this study is to verify the subspecific level of the two recent refugial groups of Orang-utan on Borneo and Sumatra. A total of 47 skulls from both regions were studied by means of 32 craniometric characters. Univariate analysis showed highly significant differences only in males, whereas multivariate statistical analysis led to complete discrimination in both sexes. These results support the assumption that the geographically isolated Orang groups are subspecies.
 
A detailed description is given of the somatic chromosomes of two specimens of Pithecia pithecia pithecia. An indiogram, constructed on the basis of metrical chromosome data, is presented and compared with those of two other members of the Pitheciinae. The possible karyological relationship with the Pitheciinae, and the cytotaxonomic position of this group within the Platyrrhini are briefly discussed.
 
A preliminary study of the ecology and behavior of Lemur mongoz mongoz was carried out in the northwest of Madagascar. The animals were observed for approximately 250 h in July till August, 1973, and for 50 h in June, 1974. L.m.mongoz has been reported to be diurnal and to live in groups of 6-8 individuals. However, we found the animals to be nocturnal and that groups contained an adult male, an adult female and their offspring (groups numbering from 2 to 4 individuals). L.m.mongoz is thus the only species of the genus Lemur studied to date that is active exclusively at night and that lives in family groups. L.m.mongoz was also found to have a very specialized diet. During our study, it was observed to feed on only five species of plant and mainly on the nectar-producing parts (flowers and nectaries) of four of these species. It spent most of its feeding time licking nectar from the flowers of the kapok tree, Ceiba pentandra, and is probably a major pollinator of this tree in Madagascar. In Africa and South and Central America, the kapok tree is usually bat-pollinated. A dietary preference for nectar, although common among bats, has not previously been observed in primates.
 
We describe the G, Q and C banding patterns and the localization of the nucleolar organizing regions in the chromosomes of Cercopithecus petaurista and compare them to those of other primate species.
 
The late prepartum period, the parturition, and the puerperium of C. jacchus females are described in detail. No clear behavioral changes are to be seen in the pregnant females up to the day of parturition. Even a few hours before delivery there are little signs clearly indicating labor and the forthcoming birth, except of some restlessness. Parturition takes place almost exclusively at night. During labor and extrusion of the fetuses the mother assumes a squatting posture. Manual extraction of the newborns and the placenta does not occur. The young are licked frequently. They are able to grip the mother's fur just after expulsion. They reach the nipples by themselves. Group members show high curiosity in the birth but they do not actually interfere with the delivery process. Placentophagia seems to be a regular behavior pattern in the C. jacchus females.
 
The arterial blood supply to the sino-atrial (S-A) and atrio-ventricular (A-V) nodes was studied in 63 baboon hearts (Papio cynocephalus and Papio hamadryas). The arterial coronary injection was made with latex neoprene (23 hearts), a latex and lead oxide mixture (30 hearts) and polyester resin (10 hearts) for dissection, radiographic and corrosion cast studies, respectively. The S-A artery is a long recurrent left coronary branch (92.1%) or an ascendant less long right coronary branch (7.9%). The A-V arteries were 2 or 3 small branches of the interventricular posterior artery originating from the right or the left with the same frequency as in man. The percent distribution of the other coronary branches was similar to that observed in man.
 
The taxonomy of the marmoset genus Callithrix is re-evaluated. The members of the C. jacchus group (C. aurita, C. flaviceps, C. geoffroyi, C. jacchus, C. penicillata) are considered good species. Although they produce hybrids and even double hybrids in captivity and are largely allopatric in nature, there is some range overlap between them and natural hybrids are unknown. C. aurita coelestis and C. penicillata jordani are considered valid subspecies. C. humeralifer (including C. h. humeralifer and C. h. chrysoleuca) is probably more clossly related to the C. jacchus group than to C. argentata (which includes C. a. argentata, C. a. leucippe and C. a. melanura).Copyright © 1973 S. Karger AG, Basel
 
Q, G and C banding studies of the chromosomes of Nycticebus coucang permitted the identification of all pairs in the complement. The X was a long submetacentric, the Y a rather long metacentric. All members of the complement were non-acrocentrics. The differences between the 2n = 52 and the 2n = 50 karyotypes described in this species may be due to a centric translocation mechanism.
 
The karyotype of Saguinus midas tamarin (2n = 46) is presented. By G-banding all individual chromosome pairs are easily identifiable.Copyright © 1977 S. Karger AG, Basel
 
The areal patterns of the telencephalic cortices of Galago demidovii and Microcebus murinus were compared. A very similar pattern was found in both species. This striking similarity is considered a further argument for the newly proposed phylogenetic relationship of cheirogaleids and galagos.
 
Two new specimens of Calicebus torquatus confirm the previously reported unusually low diploid number of 2n = 20. Banding studies and radioautography identify the X chromosome and compare the karyotype with that of Callicebus moloch cupreus. The latter species has considerably less C-banded heterochromatin. A comparison of Giemsa bands establishes only few comparable chromosome segments.
 
Fishing behaviour was first observed in Galago crassicaudatus. Some of the animals (Maria, Werner, Ilse) was born in the wild, some in captivity in family groups [Welker, 1972]. The colony had been under permanent observation since 1971. The following results were obtained: (1) One animal had to begin with fishing behaviour. (2) The other animals learned it by watching one animal fishing. (3) Animals born in captivity, deceived by the refraction of the water, grasped constantly too high.
 
The karyotype of Aotus is interpreted as composed by 11 pairs of submetacentric and 15 pairs of acrocentric chromosomes.Copyright © 1971 S. Karger AG, Basel
 
The karyotypes of 22 South American owl monkeys (Aotus trivirgatus) are surveyed. Animals were assigned on the basis of coat color variation to two previously described subspecies, Aotus trivirgatus griseimembra and Aotus trivirgatus trivirgatus. A Robertsonian polymorphism, distributed consistent with a Hardy-Weinberg equi librium, was found among 17 Aotus trivirgatus griseimembra, whose diploid numbers were 54, 53, and 52. The 5 Aotus trivirgatus trivirgatus all had diploid numbers of 54. Their karyotypes are significantly different from those of Aotus trivirgatus griseimembra, however, and may indicate the need for taxonomic re-classification.Copyright © 1971 S. Karger AG, Basel
 
The denticles of the sublinguae of Galago crassicaudatus and G. senegalensis are studied histologically. There are, at the oral end of the sublingua, main or primary denticles which bear on their surface the much smaller secondary denticles. Spine-like small denticles occur on the surface of the ventromedian keel also. The structure of the primary denticles is the same as of the secondary ones. The rigidity of the denticles is due to the filling of the vessels with blood. It is suggested that the denticles act as sense organs of touch as well as papillae operariae. In the latter functions they clean the lower procumbent incisors like a toothbrush.
 
A gross anatomical and microscopical study of the external nose of Tarsius bancanus borneanus demonstrated the typical strepsirrhine shape of the nostrils and an extreme platyrrhine condition. The wide internarial area possesses no sinus hairs. The concepts of strepsirrhinism and haplorrhinism may be used to characterize the different shapes of the nostrils, but they do not have any taxonomical significance.
 
The early postnatal development of Tarsius bancanus borneanus was observed in two cases, stressing diverse developing behavioral patterns. One social role of secretion of the circumoral gland [Sprankel] became evident. The observations elucidated the function of the different senses during the first months in the life of a Tarsier. Social aspects, feeding behavior, locomotion and play form the main parts of this study.Copyright © 1974 S. Karger AG, Basel
 
The name Macaca speciosa I. GEOFFROY, 1826 is based on the “Macaque a face rouge” described and illustrated by F. CuviER (1824-29). The animal illustrated is a Japanese macaque, not an Indochinese hear macaque as presupposed in current nomenclatural usage. Erroneous transfer of the name to the Indochinese hear macaque followed BLYTH's (1875) influential misidentification of the “Macaque a face rouge”. The valid scientific name for the Indochinese hear macaque is M.arctoides I. GEOFFROY, 1831. Although the oldest available name for the Japanese macaque is M.speciosa, it is proposed that M.fuscata (BLYTH, 1875) he conserved as the name for this species by suppression of the names M.speciosa I. GEOFFROY, 1826 and Papio japonicus [RENNIE], 1838. The brown-faced stumptailed macaque of southern China, M.thibetana A. MILNE EDWARDS, 1870 is specifically distinct from M.arctoides and M.fuscata.
 
Examination of a plentiful material of both skins and skulls of the hoolock gibbon (Hylobates hoolock Harlan 1834) has shown that two well-marked geographic races can be distinguished, which are separated by the Chindwin river in Burma. The name H. h. leuconedys is proposed for the eastern subspecies, which is distinguished by its white preputial tuft, the separation of the white eyebrow streaks, and other less important features. One locality, Dalu, near the Chindwin headwaters, shows intergrades between the two races.
 
Some aspects of the ecology of black colobus monkeys in nature are described in relation to their exploitation of their ecological niche and their association with other primates. The ‘jumping-roaring display’ of this species is compared with that of other colobus that have been studied up to the present in their natural biotop. Its possible social significance is evaluated. Some aspects of alimentation and reproduction are also described.Copyright © 1973 S. Karger AG, Basel
 
The dental enamel prisms of Cercopithecidae were examined by scanning electron microscopy. The main task of this study was to show the prism morphology representatives of different genera as well as their comparison with the fossil Mesopithecus pentelicus Wagner, 1839. The method used to show the enamel prisms was to etch the tooth surface with hydrochloric acid. In this way the outlines of the prisms were better contrasted for the descriptive morphology of the prisms than in etching with phosphoric acid. Two types were determined, in accord with the systematic division into subfamilies. In the subfamily Cercopithecinae elongated slender prisms were dominating, some with pointed, others with truncated tops. Most characteristic of this type were Macaca and Cercopithecus. An exception was Papio hamadryas which had broader, rounded prisms. In this way it differed largely from P. anubis whose prisms were short and mostly triangular. A very interesting fact was that very different patterns were found in P. anubis and P. hamadryas, although these two species are regarded as only one species by many authors. The second subfamily, the Colobinae, was characterized by broader prisms with a rounded shape, nearly as long as wide. Exceptions of the 'Colobine type' were at first Colobus with prisms little longer than wide and secondly Nasalis, with mostly parallel sides and truncated tops of the prisms. The prism outlines of Mesopithecus showed the greatest similarity to those of Presbytis which represents the characteristic 'Colobine type'. This fact confirmed the actual systematic position of the fossil Mesopithecus within the subfamily Colobinae. In addition to previously known primitive features of Mesopithecus within the subfamily of Colobinae, we present here a further concrete, common feature with asiatic Colobines.
 
This paper reports some data on the life history of a greater galago which was nearly 15 years in captivity and within this time produced 11 offspring. The animal was reproductive until the end of its life.Copyright © 1982 S. Karger AG, Basel
 
Angola colobus display a social structure rather similar to mantled guereza; living in small, tight-knit troops with usually a single adult male who performs the distinctive jumpingroaring display. Food consists largely of leaves; Celtis is a favoured source wherever it occurs. Unripe figs are also consumed. Observations on flight behaviour, intragroup relations, interspecies associations, and the determinants of troop composition are made.Copyright © 1973 S. Karger AG, Basel
 
Karyological datas are reported for some Callithricidae including an XX/’XO’ sex determination system in Callimico goeldii.Copyright © 1970 S. Karger AG, Basel
 
Two wild-born adult Callimico males showed a skillful performance in killing a small eastern ribbon snake (Thamnophis s. sauritus); in both instances the snake was eaten; to date only capuchins (Cebus spec.) were known to kill and eat snakes. The killing action was very similar to the killing of lizards but differed from preying on frogs. This gives us evidence that small snakes may represent a source of protein for some Callimico in the wild. At the same time a new aspect of the relationship between snakes and nonhuman primates is indicated.Copyright © 1971 S. Karger AG, Basel
 
The histologic anatomy of the eye of Callimico goeldii is described and histometric data are communicated. The retina is treated with special attention. The eye of Callimico features all characteristics of a visual organ adapted to diurnal activity as is known from many higher primates and man. The well-differentiated Fovea centralis and the numerical relations of the three retinal neurons, which are clearly reduced from the periphery towards the center of the retina, indicate a particularly high degree of centralization ("Zentralisationsstufe" sensu Rohen). Similar numerical relations are found in the taxonomically related families Cebidae and Callithrichidae. A high degree of centralization is understood to facilitate a good visual resolution. The eyelid apparatus is differentiated like in other higher primates. The eye muscles contain extraordinarily many nervous-muscular entities that are interpreted to serve as nervous regulatory functions. The histologic results relate well with certain behavioral phenomena of this species.
 
Top-cited authors
Robin Dunbar
  • University of Oxford
William Jungers
  • Stony Brook University
Ian Tattersall
  • American Museum of Natural History
Colin Austin Chapman
  • George Washington University
Michelle Sauther
  • University of Colorado Boulder