More than one million teenage girls become pregnant annually and 31,000 are younger than 15 years old. 400,000 of these annual pregnancies in the US are aborted. These high rates of adolescent pregnancy and abortion have failed to significantly decline despite school curricula which instruct students in sex education and birth control. Adolescents often need counseling to evaluate the possible outcomes which may be associated with their behaviors. Abortion, in particular, can awaken strong emotions in those who undergo the procedure. Previewing, an interpersonal technique derived from caregiver-infant interactions, is a strategy which may be effective in counseling adolescents who are undergoing abortions. The process involves a caregiver representing through imagery a developmental skill the prospective infant is likely to achieve in the near future such as crawling. An enactment exercise is then devised during which the new skill may be practiced with the potential infant. The sequelae of previewing include an enhanced ability to predict and respond to upcoming developmental changes as well as changes in the interpersonal relationship between mother and infant. Previewing techniques may be used analogously with adolescents confronting abortion to help them represent alternatives for handling the pregnancy, predict the most beneficial alternatives, envision and work through negative emotions, and devise more adaptive behaviors to be enacted in the future so that pregnancy becomes a planned event rather than an accident. Three case studies, each focusing upon a different phase of the teenager's cognitive and emotional development, are presented in addition to the general discussion of the previewing approach.
Unmarried adolescent mothers face greater risk of less schooling, more emotional problems, higher poverty, and less income than those who relinquish their infants for adoption. Currently, around 5% of unmarried mothers give up their children for adoption (52,000 children annually, of which 24,500 are infants). Reasoned-action theory according to Ajzen and Fishbein (1980) was utilized in order to examine the potent family and personal variables that underlie this decision. In addition, a literature review of research studies applying reasoned-action theory to pregnant teenagers is provided, along with suggestions for clinical application of the theory. Family support has been found an important variable in the teenagers' decision. Family members may encourage or discourage the teenagers to keep the baby. Families may come closer together to cope with an unplanned pregnancy; however, some families experience deterioration of adaptability over time. The theory focuses 1) on the relationship of the individual and the decision or behavioral intention (BI), and 2) on immediate sociopsychological determinants of a BI. In some instances behavior (B) and BI are unrelated. The theory characterizes BIs in terms of the subjective probability concerning behavioral performance. The person's intention to perform a behavior is the result of a choice between behavioral alternatives: 1) adoption, 2) keeping the child as single mother, 3) keeping the child and raising it with the father in a formal relationship, 4) keeping the child and raising it with the help of parents. According to the Fishbein and Ajzen model, differences between minority and White relinquishment rates occur because these groups 1) differ in their beliefs and attitudes toward behavioral alternatives, 2) differ in normative beliefs, and/or 3) differ in relative weights they accord to attitudes versus cultural norms. This model with many variables is useful in measuring behavior, choice, and BI; attitudes and subjective norms; normative beliefs; and beliefs about consequences in clinical application by practitioners and agencies.
Adolescent pregnancy carries significant risks to the health of the pregnant adolescent and her child. These risks, which include pregnancy complications, low birth weight, and infant mortality, are due in large part to the behavior of the adolescent and her socioeconomic circumstances. Early and consistent use of health care can minimize risks by permitting the detection and management of serious problems. Human service professionals should use every opportunity to encourage good prenatal care, while keeping in mind the developmental and personal needs of the pregnant adolescent.
To obtain qualitative data on perceptions of self and body during adolescent pregnancy, diaries maintained by 14 young women recruited from school-based programs for pregnant teens in Idaho were reviewed. The adolescents ranged in age from 15-19 years (mean, 16 years). Each week, for six weeks, study subjects wrote diary entries on two topics: "My thoughts about myself" and "My thoughts about my body." The affective quality of the entries was rated on a scale of 1 (very negative) to 5 (very positive). Feelings about self had an overall mean score of 2.18; the words "edgy," "depressed," "lonely," and "moody" appeared frequently. Key terms used to describe body image (mean score, 2.40) were "fat," "huge," and "ugly." Discernible was a conflict between the weight gain of pregnancy and the culture's emphasis on thinness. Self-related diary entries were more variable (grand mean change score, 1.89) than body-image entries (1.56). There was no association between affective scores and demographic factors such as age, health status, number of previous pregnancies, or living arrangements. The bodily changes and fluctuating moods associated with pregnancy appeared, in these adolescents, to exacerbate the instability that accompanies the normal developmental process of adolescence. Teachers and health professionals who work with pregnant adolescents should be alert to the need for self-esteem building and social support in this population.
Adolescent pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease rates in the US are among the highest of developed nations. Findings are reported from a study conducted to determine which reproductive health topics adolescents and their parents discuss, which immediate and extended family members discuss reproductive health topics with their female adolescent relatives, which family members and peers encourage female adolescents to use family planning services, and how adolescent age, pregnancy history, or parental encouragement of the use of family planning relates to the discussion of reproductive health topics. All females of maximum age 19 years registering for an appointment at 1 of 3 family planning clinics in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, were consecutively recruited to participate in the study. A survey of 249 female adolescent family planning clients found that women aged 13-16 years were more likely than women aged 17-19 years to discuss sexual behavior with adult, nonparental relatives (p = .007). Teens with a prior pregnancy were more likely than never-pregnant teens to report parental discussion of contraception choices (p = .004) and of sites for contraceptive care (p = .0023). Adolescents discuss sexuality with a complex network of family and peers. Social work clinical and community skills facilitate family-centered reproductive health training and counseling for the improved reproductive health of US adolescents.
A growing number of researchers have focused attention on the social characteristics and health-jeopardizing behaviors of teenage fathers over the past decade. The authors expand the scope of such studies by including a wider array of outcome variables, compared across four groups of males: (1) those who caused a pregnancy that was carried to term or (2) a pregnancy that resulted in abortion or miscarriage, (3) those uncertain as to whether they ever caused a pregnancy, and (4) those who never were involved in a pregnancy. Those never involved in a pregnancy were less likely to manifest various acting-out and health-compromising behaviors, whereas the three pregnancy-linked groups were characterized by their similarity to one another.
Studies conducted in the 1970s and 1980s on the impact of parent-teen communication on adolescent sexual behavior and contraceptive use generally failed to reveal any significant association. Although 30-60% of adolescents report some communication about sexuality with at least one parent, peers and printed material are identified as more valuable sources of information for decision making. No consistent relationship has been recorded between parental attitudes toward premarital sex (liberal or conservative) and their child's sexual behavior. The literature is limited, however, by serious gaps and methodological problems. Typically, researchers ask teenagers if they have engaged in discussions about sex or birth control with their parents and then correlate the finding with a measure of sexual or contraceptive behavior. Few studies have attempted to identify the content of these discussions (e.g., a mechanistic presentation of facts about reproduction versus an interactive exchange on the pros and cons of premarital intercourse) or acknowledge the complexity of the communication process. Also neglected has been the impact of the family context (e.g., the degree of cohesion or the structure of power relations) on the way in which information is presented and absorbed. Also absent has been any effort to elucidate why a given source of information is perceived, by the teenager, as useful. Finally, an emphasis on the teenager's perspective has led to a neglect of the impact of parental discomfort with discussions about sexuality and the identification of strategies to facilitate parent-child communication. Needed are multivariate research models that recognize the complex interplay among variables that shape premarital sexual behavior.
The prevention literature has given little attention to how parental influences affect substance use among Mexican origin adolescents, even though they form part of the largest ethnic minority group in the United States. This study explored the effects of three types of parental influences-parental monitoring of the child's whereabouts, degree of parental permissiveness, and the strength of parental injunctive norms discouraging substance use-on alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use and anti-drug norms. Results showed that parental permissiveness and parental injunctive norms, particularly anti-drug injunctive norms, had the strongest effects on the substance use outcomes, but parental monitoring generally was not a significant predictor. These results and implications for prevention are discussed in light of Mexican cultural norms toward substance use, gender roles, and family roles.
Research on families dealing with mental illness has considered either positive or negative aspects of intergenerational family relationships. The current study extends this work by using intergenerational ambivalence theory to examine aging mothers' contradictory expectations toward adult daughters who are mentally ill. This study focuses on interviews obtained from a sample of 22 mothers aged 52-90 who expressed considerable sociological ambivalence in relation to their grown daughters. Four strategies of managing ambivalence are identified: excusing behaviors, reducing expectations, adjusting help-giving, and confronting. The implications are that practitioners should be aware of intergenerational ambivalence, help aging parents identify their ambivalence management strategies, and assess the extent to which these strategies are adaptive. Future research directions in this area are also discussed.
There has been national concern since the early 1980s over the need to prevent teen pregnancy. Much of that concern has stemmed from concerns over the notion that families formed as a result of adolescent parenthood are often poor and welfare dependent. Much of the research on adolescent childbearing implies that having a child disadvantages adolescents in terms of future life options. The author examined the life experiences of 1666 Black female high school graduates of average age 25.4 years 5 years out of high school using data from the National Survey of Family Growth Cycle IV. 474 virgins, 570 never-pregnant women, 65 ever-pregnant women, and 557 adolescent mothers were examined. Most of the women had never married, with virgins and adolescent mothers the least likely to be in marital relationships. Relative to the other subgroups, virgins reported higher educational, financial, and occupational achievement. However, a significant proportion of adolescent mothers were more successful than conventional stereotypes suggest. Several had secured professional jobs, had middle-income status, and were pursuing additional educational training. The implications for future research, education, and policy are discussed.
This paper examines: (1) the impact of having a child with a disability on parents' mental and physical health among urban-dwelling African Americans and (2) the extent to which positive and negative social interactions with family other than the spouse moderate the impact of child's disability on parental adaptation. Analyses are based on a probability sample of African Americans living in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The analytic sample includes 48 parents of a child with a disability and 144 comparison group parents of non-disabled children. Results showed that having a child with a disability is associated with more somatic symptoms. However, the negative consequences of the child's disability on parents' mental health are reduced when parents receive greater positive support from family.
The study objective was to examine how parental endorsement of cultural pride reinforcement messages may explain African American child anxiety. Data were gathered from 72 African American parents and their elementary school-aged children. Results indicated stronger parental endorsement of cultural pride reinforcement messages predicted less child anxiety. Additionally parental endorsement of these messages moderated the relationship between child mental health risk factor exposure and child anxiety. Specifically in the presence of high exposure, children of parents who endorsed high levels of cultural pride reinforcement messages had significantly lower anxiety scores relative to children of parents who endorsed low levels of these messages. Findings indicated parental endorsement of these messages may be an important factor in explaining African American child anxiety.
A national random survey of 2000 NASW members in post-master's practice in mental health was conducted to investigate their experiences with and attitudes about working with individuals with severe and persistent mental illness (SPMI). Through a series of structural equation models, we examined the influence of different frustrations reported by the respondents on their attitudes toward working with individuals with SPMI. Results suggest that social workers' attitudes toward working with individuals with SPMI are primarily influenced by their frustrations related to client behaviors and treatment issues, rather than frustrations with system related issues. Implications for social work practice and directions for future research are discussed. (105 words).
Understandably, many social workers lament the profound impact that managed care has had on their professional lives. Regardless of managed care's merits, social workers have had to alter the way they deliver their services. For many practitioners, managed care has imposed severe constraints on their ability to initiate services and provide services with sufficient frequency and duration to address clients' problems meaningfully.
SLOWLY AT FIRST, and more rapidly in recent years, for-profit organizations have been entering the health and human services market, particularly in such industries as nursing homes, home health, residential treatment, group homes, adult and child day care, adoption, habilitation, mental health, and substance abuse. Indeed, one of the hallmarks of the last decade has been the proliferation of for-profit companies offering services previously provided primarily by nonprofit and government agencies.
A review of recent research findings suggests that social policies have a significant effect on adolescent pregnancy and its outcomes. Excluded from the analysis were studies that did not control for the influence of personal, familial, and environmental factors on adolescent sexual behavior. Policies most likely to prevent undesired outcomes are those offering tangible family planning services and improving both the access to and affordability of abortion. Most effective in improving contraceptive use among teenagers appear to be comprehensive community-based programs with links to local schools. There is no evidence that efforts to promote values such as abstinence or enhance self-esteem are successful. However, job training, guaranteed student loans, and other measures that improve the educational and earnings opportunities of adolescents may have an indirect impact on reducing teenage pregnancy and childbearing by providing an incentive for deferred parenthood. The research concerning the impact of AFDC benefits is inconclusive, but higher welfare benefits appear to discourage marriage. In addition, the deteriorating economic status of young males over the past 15 years has increased the proportion of out-of-wedlock births.
This article draws on the unified theory of behavior change to examine adult community members' participation in a collaborative, community-based HIV prevention program for inner-city youth. Specifically, the impact of a training and mentorship process is examined with a sample of parent facilitators hired to deliver an evidence-based HIV prevention program in Bronx, New York. Findings indicate that the training program impacted four of five key constructs (environmental constraints, habitual behavior, social norms, and self-concept) expected to be related to parents' ability to deliver the program constructs significantly beyond any increase evidenced by the control group (HIV knowledge increased in both groups). Community-level training programs may therefore be an effective medium for increasing caregivers' intention to collaborate in community-based prevention programs.
The number of incarcerated mothers has risen steadily in the past 20 years, with a majority of the mothers' children being cared for by relatives, usually the maternal grandmother (Smith, Krisman, Strozier, & Marley, 2004). This article examines the unique coparenting relationship of grandmothers and mothers through qualitative individual interviews with a sample of 24 incarcerated mothers with children between the ages of 2 and 6, and 24 grandmothers raising their children. The study revealed many different variants of healthy coparenting alliances, achieved against often huge odds. Much variation was also discovered in dyads where coparenting alliances were not as successful. Implications for practice include performing structural family assessments, enhancing jail education programs, and offering extended coparenting treatment after discharge.
Evidence-based practice (EBP) has become a hot topic in clinical social work and other mental health disciplines. Mental health professionals have called attention to the need for clinical decision-making to be based on the best available empirically supported treatments integrated with client preferences, values, and circumstances. This movement has greatly stimulated mental health professionals to develop, test, and adopt efficacious treatments for clients with psychological problems, but what is missing in the literature is the cultural context in which these treatments must be implemented to be effective with racial/ethnic minority populations. Herein, we utilize the culturally centered framework of Bernal, Bonilla and Bellido (1995) to examine its utility in assessing to what extent empirically supported mental health treatments incorporate culturally relevant components.
Despite increasing popularity of support groups for custodial grandfamilies, the few published studies to date raise questions regarding actual support group usage and disregard predictors of such use. This study examined patterns of self-reported use, need, and unmet need of both grandparent and grandchild support groups. In addition, the Andersen Social Behavioral Model was used to identify predisposing, enabling, and need factors that predicted use in a national sample of 733 grandfamilies recruited by either convenience or population-based strategies. Reported use and need for support groups were lower in the population-based sample, and predictors varied by sampling strategy. The findings are discussed in terms of how they inform service providers and researchers regarding factors that influence support group use by custodial grandfamilies.
Parent training programs, with a range of empirical support, are available to improve parenting skills and reduce child behavior problems. Yet, little is known about programs provided in typical communities. This pilot study's purpose was to identify and describe parent programs—and the agencies that provide them—in one midsized Midwestern city. The sample included 21 program directors and 25 practitioners employed by 19 agencies. Data were gathered using structured phone interviews. Of the 35 programs represented, 37.1% were developed by the agency, while close to two thirds were previously developed interventions. Only a small number of the parent programs identified were classified into the category of strong empirical support; however, several included hallmarks often associated with empirically supported parent programs.
Discusses the demands placed on family practitioners in the 21st century due to interactions among persons from diverse cultural and social backgrounds, changes in the definition of family, and fragmentation and disconnection of families. The article stresses the importance of practitioners being culturally competent and knowledgeable of the dynamics of power and powerlessness and how this operates in human functioning. An understanding of these areas aids practitioners in their ability to empower culturally diverse families. Empowerment may be used as an intervention strategy that focuses on the contradictions faced by these populations and on their maladaptive and adaptive responses. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Although Native People have been able to maintain many of their traditional child protective mechanisms, these have been eroded over time by forces largely outside of tribal control. The passage of the Indian Child Welfare Act in 1978 provided an opportunity to return the care of Indian children to their people. Yet, over twenty years later, there remain issues that prevent its full operationalization. This paper identifies some of the major policy issues that need to be addressed in order to provide the same opportunities to American Indian children as are given to other children in the U.S. in the area of child welfare. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Discusses childhood sexual abuse as a contributing but often unrecognized factor in couple dysfunction. Guidelines are presented whereby therapists can detect an abuse history in 1 or both members of a couple when it is not disclosed by the partners. Techniques for introducing and integrating the issue of sexual abuse into ongoing therapy are presented. The need to create a supportive atmosphere by focusing on empathic communication and building trust with the couple is emphasized. Therapists are advised to avoid becoming overly involved in power struggles with their clients about the impact of sexual abuse on their lives, for to do so can revictimize the client. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Studied the nature of elder abuse (EA) using face-to-face interviews with 47 noninstitutionalized elders (aged 62 yrs and older) in Alabama. Ss were selected from a senior citizen organization. A questionnaire was also mailed to the closest relative caretaker. Approximately 75% of the elders and 50% of the caretakers defined EA in terms of neglect, and more than 50% of the elders and 25% of the caretakers endorsed the felony penalty for EA. Elders were significantly more likely to perceive social service agencies and the family as the best contexts in which to deal with EA; caretakers favored the criminal courts. Elders identified families as the most neglectful, while caretakers identified social agencies. It is concluded that EA is a problem warranting multidisciplinary intervention and that support services are needed for families. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
This qualitative study utilized the long interview method to identify a range of family dynamics that may affect a child's ability to disclose sexual abuse. It is estimated that 30% to 80% of victims do not purposefully disclose child sexual abuse (CSA) before adulthood. Retrospective data about disclosure processes were elicited through interviews with 20 male and female CSA survivors. Four major themes emerged suggesting that CSA disclosure can be significantly compromised when certain conditions exist: rigidly fixed, gender roles based on a patriarchy-based family structure; family violence; closed, indirect communication patterns; and social isolation. It is important to identify disclosure barriers in order to ameliorate them effectively, because when children are not able to disclose sexual abuse, the effects are potentially devastating. Results are discussed in relation to implications for practice with children and their families, including relevance of established models of family assessment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
388 staff and administrators drawn from a statewide sample of 74 substance abuse and domestic violence programs completed a questionnaire on linkage, referral, impairments to interagency cooperation, and beliefs about cross-problem incidence. Ss estimated that 46% of the male substance abusers currently in their care were batterers, 60% of the female substance abusers were victims, and 42% of the women currently in domestic violence programs were substance abusers. 80% of Ss indicated that these clients would benefit from increased cooperation between substance abuse and domestic violence programs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Surveyed 185 survivors of abusive relationships to identify women who successfully ended such relationships, to present a profile of their personal and abuse histories, to describe the strategies for ending the violence, and to report their satisfaction with treatment methods and results. 16 Ss were living with the former abuser and were satisfied, 11 Ss were living with the former abuser and were not satisfied, and 158 Ss were not living with the former abuser. Ss tended to be advantaged in that they were older, married longer, better educated, and working outside the home. They had a substantial history of abuse and had tried numerous unsuccessful strategies before ending the abuse. Satisfied Ss clearly felt a strong emotional attachment to their partners and felt hopeful, as opposed to emotionally estranged, in contrast with dissatisfied Ss. Of the range of resources used to end abuse, the majority of survivors used friends and family. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Evaluated the extent of depression, anxiety, and the level of self-concept in 83 sexually abused children (75 girls and 8 boys; average age 12.9 yrs). Ss were administered 3 self-report measures to evaluate the target symptoms: the Children's Depression Inventory, the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale, and the Self-Perception Profile for Children. The girls' measures of depression, anxiety, and self-esteem were significantly different from those of standardization samples. These differences indicated higher levels of depression and anxiety and lower self-esteem. The boys' scores did not differ from norms on these measures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Evaluated the effectiveness of a 9-wk program of group therapy for 5 girls (aged 7–9 yrs) who had been sexually abused. Results provided some support for the hypothesis that group treatment results in a decrease in problem behaviors as reported by parents. Decreases were noted by parents in Ss' internalizing symptoms, externalizing behaviors, and sexual behavior problems. Results also suggest that for evaluating sexually abused children of this age group, parent report measures may be particularly useful, but much work is needed to evaluate the use of children's self-report measures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Discusses bibliotherapy with an emphasis on how it can be used to help the abused child. Examples of useful books for helping children cope with abuse are presented. A case study describes a group of children who were abused. The group met for 6 wks and was conducted by a social worker. The purpose of the group was to provide support, improve socialization skills, and raise the self-esteem of the children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Evaluated the effectiveness of a 12-wk, semistructured group-treatment program with 6 boys (aged 8–11 yrs) who had experienced either extra- or intrafamilial sexual abuse. The program provided sex education and instruction about avoiding revictimization. Ss were interviewed and completed the Child Behavior Checklist, Child Depression Inventory, the Children's Manifest Anxiety scale, and the Self-Esteem Inventory before entering the program, immediately following the program, and at a follow-up meeting 7-mo later. All Ss but one experienced decreased anxiety after the program, and 4 Ss reported additional reductions at follow up. 4 Ss experienced decreased depression from pre- to postgroup or from postgroup to follow up, and all Ss but one reported increases in self-esteem. Ss also experienced significant improvements in externalizing and internalizing behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Conducted life-history interviews to determine the thoughts, feelings, and misgivings of 3 men (aged 27–32 yrs) who were sexually abused as children and who tried to come to terms with their sexual identity. Ss' accounts illustrate 3 types of sexual orientation among such victims of sexual abuse: homosexual, heterosexual, and unsure but possibly bisexual. Although the sexual orientation of 2 Ss was not affected by the abuse, the process of coming to terms with their sexual identity involved years of silent suffering. The sexual abuse appeared to have interrupted heterosexual development and to have introduced lifelong sexual-identity confusion in the remaining S. Coming to terms with sexual orientation was complicated by internalized homophobia and having to deal with a homophobic culture. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
This article, part 2 of a 2-part series, demonstrates the uses of the Clinical Assessment Package for Risks and Strengths (CASPARS), newly developed clinical rating scales that incorporate research on resilience and social work's strengths perspectives. The CASPARS is composed of 5 instruments: Family Relationships, Emotional Expressiveness, Peer Relationships, Sexuality, and Family Embeddednes in Community. Part 1 reported on the instrument's conceptual base and their reliabilities and validities. In the present article, the authors show through case studies of 2 boys (aged 7 and 9 yrs) how these instruments can be useful for assessment intervention planning predicting outcome of interventions, and the evaluation of the effects of treatment. The structure of the instruments and the theory behind them have implications beyond the assessment of children and their families. The instruments provide a model for the development of other strengths-based instruments that could be customized to a variety of social work practice settings and populations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Examined cultural variations in the coping and adaptation process among 30 Chinese, Malay, and Indian families caring for a relative with schizophrenic illness. Primary caregivers were interviewed about the effects of patient behaviors on the family and the use of helpful coping techniques or informal and formal community support systems. 18 Ss reported that negative schizophrenic behaviors caused distress, and 17 Ss reported that the patient's illness had adversely affected their households. Chinese Ss experienced approximately twice as many adverse effects as did Malay and Indian Ss. Malay families were least adversely affected, because they tended to use more helpful coping strategies and relied on informal support networks. Indian families also used helpful coping strategies, but they relied on formal support networks. Chinese families used less helpful coping strategies and did not use either informal or formal support networks. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Explores the effect of chronic pediatric disability on grandparents, concentrating on grandparents' response to a disabled grandchild and on how their reaction affects the nuclear family. The roles grandparents often assume as well as the meaning of grandparenthood to society are identified, and the emotional and practical effects of a disabled grandchild on grandparents is considered. The role of grandparents as stressors and resources to the family with a disabled child are discussed. Models and programs drawn from the literature that attempt to help grandparents adapt to their disabled grandchildren and to acquire skills and knowledge that enable them to cope with their special situation are presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Drawing upon narratives spoken by mothers (aged 23–54 yrs) living with HIV/AIDS, this article describes the role of recovery in helping many women survive the two "diseases" of HIV infection and addiction. The theme of surviving 2 diseases emerged from secondary qualitative analysis of narratives contained in focus group transcripts. Originally convened to address questions involving life experience and support services, the focus group discussions revealed the importance of recovery, spirituality, positive thinking, inner strength, and social support in helping many women cope with the complexity of living with 2 highly stigmatized conditions. Secondary analysis provided the opportunity to more closely examine the relevance of recovery principles to ending addiction and strengthening women's feelings of self-efficacy and support. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Examined various risk and protective factors at multiple system levels that mediate the impact of marital violence on child adjustment. Participants were 185 children (aged 7–13 yrs) from 120 families and their mothers who were residing at shelters for battered women. Results indicate that in families characterized by marital violence, the mother was critically important to the child's well-being. Violence in the mother–child relationship had a significant and deleterious effect on the child's development. Children exposed to multiple stressful life events (e.g., marital separation of parents, moving to a new school district) had higher internalizing behavior-problem scores. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Examines the usefulness of the family-systems perspective in understanding parents' adaptation to a disabled child. Particular attention is given to family theorists' emphasis on degrees of connectedness and intergenerational issues. Case examples are provided. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Discusses managed mental health care (MMHC), which is viewed as a revolution in the private mental health care delivery system. MMHC is marked by increased employer interest in how health care dollars are spent, new financial arrangements between payers and providers, and a reshaping of clinical practice to focus on efficacy and efficiency according to objective clinical care guidelines. MMHC systems are composed of networks of providers in partnership with MMHC firms whose goal is to pursue effective management of benefits and care. Areas of cooperation and potential pitfalls of relationships between community-based agencies and MMHC entities are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Assessed the confidence of 67 adolescent parents (aged 15–21 yrs) in various parenting situations, and identified support systems and areas of assistance that would enhance their competence in handling the daily stresses of parenthood. 18 adult mothers of adolescent parents were also asked to share their views regarding these issues. Although the majority of adolescent parents reported feeling confident in their parenting roles, all were receptive to formal and informal assistance, including help with decision making, obtaining employment, budgeting, and emotional support from friends and family. Mothers of adolescent parents reported that they were confident in their child's parenting abilities, but believed that further assistance would enhance their child's competence as a parent. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
In response to the Preschool and Early Intervention Act (PL 99–457), this article provides a comprehensive schema for approaching the assessment of adolescent parents and their infants. Relevant theories for extrapolating directions for practice and specific scales used in assessment and intervention for the development of the individual family service plan (IFSP) are explored. The IFSP can provide the integrative framework that ties together all of the assessment data gathered from various instruments, observations, and informal sources into a comprehensive view of the child and family and a guide to strategic intervention planning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Highlights features of the life stage of adolescence and presents an overview of adolescent problems. Topics discussed include school, substance use, injuries, violence, depression and suicide, sexually transmitted diseases, and sexuality, pregnancy, and childbearing. Strategies for interviewing adolescents and special interventions are reviewed. Ways to handle confidentiality are discussed, and the need for a high degree of self-awareness on the part of clinicians working with adolescents is stressed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Reviews the empirical literature on the impact of part-time employment on various aspects of adolescent psychosocial development. The workplace as a context for adolescent development is discussed in relation to history and demographics. The author discusses the consequences of youth work for autonomy, interpersonal relationships, and academic and other development outcomes. The benefits and problems of employment during adolescence are also described. It is premature to conclude whether what adolescents do and learn in the workplace is developmentally beneficial or detrimental. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Describes a peer-counseling model aimed at preventing repeat pregnancy and school dropout among adolescent mothers. Six adolescent mothers were paid to be peer counselors to pregnant teens aged 15 yrs or younger. The case of a 17-yr-old student and mother illustrates the program's major points. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Examined cultural differences in the self-descriptions of 134 Black (BL) and Hispanic (HS) pregnant and parenting 11–20 yr old adolescents. 70.9% were HS, and 29.1% were BL. Ss completed a self-image inventory when reporting for treatment at a program designed to provide case-management services to pregnant, parenting, and at-risk for pregnancy adolescents. HS Ss were reluctant to trust others with knowledge of their problems, whereas BL Ss shared their problems readily. While BL females had plans for resuming schooling, HS females had less cultural support for career achievement. Although the family played an important role in BL and HS cultures, family functioning, role definitions, and expectations for individual members were different. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Examines social and health issues facing gay, lesbian, or bisexual adolescents. These teenagers lack peer support and positive role models and find it difficult to establish a positive adolescent identity. Social and emotional isolation are often critical problems. Four stages of gay, lesbian, and bisexual identity development, sensitization, identity confusion, identity assumption, and identity commitment are discussed, along with issues related to staying in vs coming out of the closet. The following health and social risks are examined: psychological dysfunction, suicide, running away, dropping out of school, prostitution, violence, and AIDS and other sexually-transmitted diseases. Implications for practitioners in providing comprehensive, culturally appropriate services for these individuals are presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Presents research findings based on 20 clinical case studies of biracial/bicultural adolescents (aged 14–18 yrs). Conflicts experienced by biracial and bicultural adolescents in their attempts to master developmental tasks are identified. Seven case examples are presented. The cases include a wide spectrum of adaptive and maladaptive behaviors, ranging from mild anxiety and depressive symptomatology to eating disorders, substance abuse, delinquency, and sexual promiscuity to major psychiatric impairment and suicidal behavior. Issues of assessment, intervention and treatment, and training and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Explored the differences between 236 9th-grade adolescents who have a sense of belonging (SBL) in their families and those who do not. The 6 outcome variables were 2 personality constructs, self-esteem and locus of control; 2 measures of subjective perceptions, sense of belonging in school and sense of belonging in the community; and 2 behavioral measures, time spent with the family and level of participation in organized school and community activities. There was a relationship between Ss' SBL and self-esteem. Ss who felt an SBL in their family had more internal locus of control. Ss who had an SBL to their families had an SBL to their schools and their communities. Ss with a stronger SBL in their families spent more time with them. Those who felt a greater SBL in their families had a higher level of involvement in school and community activities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Reviews theoretical perspectives and research findings, with an emphasis on the risk-reduction model, prevention interventions, research methodologies, and policy implications concerning the prevention of child and adolescent mental disorders. The results point to directions for future research and present public policy. A risk-reduction model in preventative research, whereby risk factors are identified and matched to empirically tested interventions, is most promising. If risk factors can be decreased or in some way altered while protective factors are enhanced, the likelihood of at-risk children eventually developing a mental disorder would decrease. The ultimate goal is to achieve optimal prevention by building the principles of prevention into the ordinary activities of everyday life and into community structures to enhance development over the entire life span. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)