Facilities

Published by Emerald
Online ISSN: 0263-2772
Publications
Article
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to describe the origins of today's new office concepts, focusing on the emergence of mobile and flexible working practices in the 1960s and 1970s. Thereby it intends to add a sense of historical awareness to the ongoing debate about the work environment. Design/methodology/approach - The historical description is based on literature study, looking at research reports, design handbooks and depictions of office life in popular culture such as movies and advertisements. Findings - The paper demonstrates that today's "new ways of working" are by no means new. It shows that the concepts of mobile offices, paperless offices, videoconferencing and flexible workplaces all originate from the end of the 1960s and the early 1970s. It also shows that these concepts were far from mainstream, standing in stark contrast to the rigidity and conservatism of everyday office life at the time. Research limitations/implications - This paper is the first result of a larger historical analysis of the recent history of the work environment. Further historical research will add to the presented insight in the evolution of office concepts. Practical implications - The paper's insight into the historical development of office concepts can help workplace strategists to make better, more careful forecasts of future workplace trends. Originality/value - Whereas most literature on the office concept tends to look at novel ideas and future developments, this paper looks back at the recent past. It discusses early workplace experiments that have been largely ignored, or remained unidentified, in much of the discourse on new ways of working.
 
Article
The Merchandise Mart was crowded and regular elevator service was slow as usual as more than 55 000 people attended NEOCON 21 in Chicago.
 
Article
Presents an AHP (analytical hierarchy process) decision model for facility location selection from the view of organizations which contemplate locations of a new facility or a relocation of existing facilities. The AHP model provides a framework to assist managers in analysing various location factors, evaluating location site alternatives, and making final location selections. The primary principle of the AHP model is to match decision-makers? preferences with location site characteristics. The model requires that a number of potential sites have been proposed. Alternatives are then evaluated and compared under both quantitative and qualitative factors to allow managers to incorporate managerial experiences and judgement in the solution process. Uses an example problem to illustrate the solution process. Addresses managerial implications for future research.
 
Article
The autumn round of exhibitions produced a great deal to interest facilities managers. There was no office furniture in Milan, but Orgatechnik in Cologne saw the launch of what may well prove to be important additions to the office furniture systems market.
 
Article
If facilities managers are to have an impact on the performance of buildings it is vitally important that they appreciate the links between day-to-day use of a building component or element and its durability. Facilities managers play an important role in providing a body of expertise and feedback to design professionals who frequently only have a limited association with the building in use. This article examines the impact of dynamic loads on raised access floors located in general office areas. In particular it highlights and discusses rolling loads, an area surrounded by controversy.
 
Article
Air-conditioning installations in buildings have been the focus of much criticism, with many commentators going so far as to propose a causal connection between sick buildings and air conditioning.
 
Article
Purpose – This paper analyses the daily activities of building operators and how they mediate between end‐users and technological systems in order to make “their” buildings energy efficient. Design/methodology/approach – The empirical data consists of four selected cases of non‐residential buildings of different sizes. Findings – The paper argues that building operators have the possibility of improving energy efficiency with or without extensive user involvement and with or without advanced technological systems. Originality/value – Starting from the practitioners' point of view a new perspective on the link between facilities management and energy efficiency emerges, which calls into question approaches which focus on either the behavioral or the technical side of a building's energy consumption.
 
Article
Discusses the implementation of computer-aided facilities management at US Bancorp, with particular emphasis on how this was justified by the facilities department to senior management. Examines system configuration and the productivity claims made by consultants and computer-aided design database (CADD) vendors. Considers project management and asset management with CADD at the organisation.
 
Article
Reports on the implications for facilities managers attendant to selecting among various service distribution methods, in particular wire and air distribution methods. Details the performance capabilities of various distribution methods. Concludes that fully functional, efficient buildings are just as critical to financial performance as the salesforce, engineering or manufacturing.
 
Article
Purpose - This paper aims to present the results of a post-occupancy evaluation (POE) in a complex hospital building, and also to discuss a system for analyzing and diagnosing those results. Design/methodology/approach - The POE was aimed at establishing adequate use and maintenance of the building. The main approaches of the study consisted of two basic performance features, namely, physical accessibility and fire safety. Findings - The importance of the pre-design evaluation (PDE) might also be recalled as well as the usefulness of the POE for new designs and for remodeling existing buildings, because these instruments aid in the constant updating of directive plans of occupation, especially in the case of large complexes such as health care facilities. One indication of this importance is the relatively low number of problems detected during the POE, when one considers the complexity of the work of renovation and the dimensions of the IPq facilities. Originality/value - The paper presents the results of a POE and recommendations that would make it possible to quickly identify the points where there is need for improvement, and the degree of importance or priority to be given.
 
Article
This pair of articles will examine the decision making process in establishing the brief for the electrical installation for an electronic office. In my own working lifetime the office electrical installation has changed from a tungsten lamp in an opal glass bowl in the centre of the room and a two or five or occasionally 15 amp power point, to the single most expensive item in equipping an office building intelligently.
 
Article
Last month we discussed methods of establishing the total quantum of an electrical supply. Three strategic issues were also introduced — the need to provide for growth, flexibility in operation and a continuous and stable operation. This last point will be the focus of this month's article.
 
Article
After a long period of review, draft and public and industry comment, the British Standard code of practice on wire management — BS 6396:1983: Electrical systems in office furniture and office screens — has now been completely updated and is due to be published in its new form in July 1989. BS 6396 will now become a full British Standard in its own right rather than a code of practice, but will retain its number. The original four-page document has been expanded to 15 pages. The major changes are discussed here.
 
Article
Discusses some of the ways that newly corporate polytechnics might benefit from facilities management. Argues that if polytechnics are to realise their full potential then their architectural environment must be seen to support their educational goals. Suggests a number of areas in which educational institutions could improve their environmental performance.
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present a conceptual framework that categorises the features and characteristics of the built environment that impact on health outcomes. Design/methodology/approach – An extensive literature review was carried out. A total of 1,163 abstracts were assessed, leading to 92 papers being reviewed. Findings – There is a considerable amount of evidence linking healthcare environments to patients' health outcomes, despite the lack of clarity in relation to cause‐effect relationships. Originality/value – The paper proposes a theoretical framework linking different built environment characteristics to health outcomes. This framework provides a structure to group causal effects according to their relation with design features, materials and ambient properties, art and aesthetic aspects and use of the built environment.
 
Article
Explains how computer aided design systems (CAD) can be of use to facilities managers. Argues that almost all currently available CAD systems are capable of much more than space planning; outlines a number of tools available, in particular measurement, furniture layouts, monitoring environmental conditions, personal space requirements, and stacking and blocking.
 
Article
Examines two facilities managers who have successfully implemented computer-aided facilities management systems. Illustrates the case for using in-house staff and integration between managers and engineers. Considers the role of user accessibility, software choice and investing in the right people to implement systems. Finally, offers practical recommendations.
 
Article
CD-ROM stands for Compact Disc — Read Only Memory: 600 Mbytes of information (text, data, image or voice) can be stored on a single disc. Its arrival has been heralded as an advance in personal computer storage as dramatic as that of audio CD in the world of long playing records.
 
Article
Employers seeking to establish nursery facilities will need to pay detailed attention to planning issues; to the demand for the facility within their organisation or partnership organisations; and to the quality of the space they require. Preliminary considerations for setting up a nursery were outlined in the first article in this series ( Facilities , Vol 7/No 6, June 1989).
 
Article
Care of the under-fives of working parents has been given headline status in recent weeks, as media coverage has drawn attention to Europe's ageing population. Employers are warned that the vitality, productivity and even security of Western Europe is threatened by this demographic change, in which more people move out of the labour force than enter when young.
 
Article
Air conditioning, canteens and washroom facilities all contribute to the productivity and reputation of an organisation. Increasingly, unfortunately, standards of hygiene in these areas fail to meet the levels required by law, either because of a lack of specialist cleaning equipment, poor staff supervision or lack of time to perform adequate cleaning and maintenance. Facilities deteriorate, with subsequent risk to human health.
 
Article
Even quite large corporate occupiers make decisions about their cleaning services, whether they are contracting them out or employing their own labour direct, purely on the basis of perfunctory information on the standard and frequency of cleaning and the terms and conditions of work.
 
Article
The development of new buildings and the refurbishment of old ones over the past 25 years has unfortunately been unaccompanied by any detailed consideration of how they are to be kept clean. Anyone concerned with maintaining buildings will have their own horror stories of uncleanable windows, elegant surfaces which are destroyed by conventional cleaning methods and services which require regular maintenance in inaccessible positions.
 
Article
Argues that training is the key to unlocking the potential of cleaning operatives. Suggests a training programme for cleaning and maintenance workers. Provides a step-by-step breakdown for managers to implement a training programme: identify training needs, plan the training programme, implement the programme, and continually review and assess the programme.
 
Article
On the whole, commercial and public buildings regularly have their windows cleaned. For many of them, exterior cleaning stops there. But is exterior cleaning sufficiently important to receive part of an already tight facilities budget — perhaps at the expense of something more significant?
 
Article
Taking a lease of commercial premises is a commitment not to be underestimated. Its terms can hinder the full and proper use and enjoyment and, indeed, disposal of the premises by a tenant who is unaware of potential pitfalls at the negotiating stage. It is unwise for a tenant to commit itself to entering into a lease without first seeking legal advice.
 
Article
Deals with the dangers to computer systems from flooding and water-related hazards which so far appear to have been underestimated, and offers preventive and remedial advice to companies which may find themselves in such a position.
 
Article
In the first part of this article ( Facilities Vol 7/No 3/March 1989) we saw that, where a lease prohibits a tenant from carrying out a particular act without the consent (or approval or some other similar word) of the landlord, the general rule is that the words 'such consent (etc) not to be unreasonably withheld' will not be implied into the lease if they are not expressly included.
 
Article
The Construction Products Directive of 21 December 1988 — on the approximation of laws, regulations and administrative provisions of the member states relating to construction products — provides for free trade in construction products throughout the European Economic Community. Implementation must be achieved by 27 June 1991. The directive has been made under a 1985 resolution of the Council of Ministers on the New Approach to Technical Harmonisation and Standards ('the new approach') which allows directives concerning harmonisation of product standards to be issued on a majority vote.
 
Article
Twenty-five years ago lift installations were almost invariably serviced by the manufacturing company that installed them and although, as is always the case, comprised a mixture of electro-mechanical as well as electrical components, the electrical systems were relatively straightforward and within the scope of the servicing engineer.
 
Article
Representatives of 20 major companies from as far as Bahrain and South Africa attended the FM course held recently at Reading University. Run in association with Facilities , the five-day event was the first of its kind in the UK and, according to organiser, Professor Bill Biggs, was as much about bringing like-minded people together for an exchange of views, as it was about offering a rigorous academic framework: 'The main thing is to bring people together for a long enough period so they can really start to talk.'
 
Article
Ernst & Whinney, international chartered accountants, have occupied their London headquarters building, Becket House, since December 1982. The building is a 147 000 sq ft speculative office development on 12 floors, completed in 1972. Ernst & Whinney are sole tenants.
 
Article
The Finance Bill 1989 introduced a totally new concept in taxation — the right of a citizen to elect to tax another without the government having any say in the matter.
 
Article
This article, the third in our series (see also Facilities , Vol 6/No 10 and Vol 7/No 1) outlines the chief methods for classification and indexing records. Filing systems are methods of collecting similar or related documents. The success of any filing system depends on the ability to retrieve information stored. Classification is the means of defining the relationship of the documents and indexing is the means by which they are identified.
 
Article
Despite the increasingly sophisticated fire precautions required by legislation, and a heightened public awareness of its dangers, fire remains one of the main causes of death and serious injury in the community. Since the majority of these accidents occur in the home, fire service information concentrates very much on the domestic aspect of fire.
 
Article
In October we discussed the reasoning and procedures for achieving a rational and standardised system of records management ( Facilities , Vol 6/No 10, October 1988). In this issue we provide a guide to the various market options for storing material currently available.
 
Article
Argues that the assumption that raising the standard of the work environment will automatically raise productivity is not necessarily the case. Considers the role of management practice within the relationship: good management begets good office design. Describes a body of research that supports this thesis. Provides an overall strategy for improving office environments.
 
Article
Superconductivity has been around for most of this century. In 1911 Kamerlingh Onnes, a Dutch physicist, discovered that the resistance of mercury to electric current dropped effectively to zero at 4° Kelvin. This extremely low temperature — 452°F below zero — was able to be achieved by his production, three years earlier, of liquid helium.
 
Article
Reviews the two types of signing: information signage and statutory/mandatory signage. Outlines typical procedures for establishing signage in the workplace, including discussions and initial designs, development and finished designs, and implementation and quality control. Finally, examines materials and cost considerations.
 
Article
Argues that the concept of the total workplace goes beyond physical facilities to take account of the whole network of social, organisational, and design elements that constitute the context in which we spend our working lives. Uses the Steelcase Corporate Development Centre, in Grand Rapids, Michigan, as an example of a total workplace, and to show the effectiveness of teamwork and the critical need for communication in advanced work culture. Discusses a number of key social process areas that represent an integral part of the workplace. Finally, considers the application of the total workplace concept to other organisations and contexts.
 
Article
Summarises the results of a survey of major property agents in Scotland, regarding the professionals’ views of the methods adopted and the quality of information supplied by small and medium-sized organisations to procure space. This survey confirms the view that property is not clearly understood by the business community and that there is a tendency for such businesses to be defensive when questioned on their specific property needs. It further confirms that spatial quantification is neither well-considered nor understood and that the property agent has little confidence in the stated requirements. The agent also seems reluctant to introduce tools to the business to better understand and communicate these requirements. The agent considers that the property information supplied by business is of poor quality and that the person responsible for such procurement within business is, predominantly, not at a high level of seniority.
 
Article
The management of large-scale facilities such as airports requires a wide knowledge of potential problems that can arise as a result of strategic decisions. These decisions are often made many years before they come to fruition. The paper focuses on the potential compensation problems surrounding the construction of a new runway with particular reference to Manchester Airport; and examines the methods of practice and theory which may be adopted in the valuation of residential property affected by physical factors arising from the construction of a new installation.
 
Article
As societies become aware that their future will be directed and shaped more and more by resource and environmental constraints, it is relevant for any country to carry out critical appraisal of any resources potentially available and the key criteria when assessing this trend is “sustainability”. The resource that is physically existing today and which has to develop a healthy, secure and socially acceptable environment for the majority, is housing. Housing management is currently and will continue to be an important field for facilities management studies. This paper examines some of the main aspects of the management schemes currently in use in the housing sector in transition economies and the influence of these on the quality of the housing stock as a resource. The critical criterion when examining and proposing any of the alternative management schemes is the sustainable development of society.
 
Article
Looks at how, following the boom period of the mid-1980s, complacency led to the early 1990s proving to be traumatic times for organizations. Following the 1980s expansion, survival of companies is put at risk from draining cashflows. Shows that an overall comprehensive strategy, with regard to facilities/assets, must be emphasized and carried out or survival of organizations may not occur for the next upturn to be taken advantage of.
 
Article
Information technology for office buildings has evolved from proprietary mainframe based systems to a new architecture based on a hierarchy of data network hubs and structural cabling. Explains the standards on which this new architecture is based and the implications for office building design. Covers also significant gaps in the standards such as measuring radiation from unscreened cables.
 
Article
It is ironic, but even today we often have more information available about the relative merits of different cars or copiers costing a few thousand pounds than we have about buildings costing ten or a hundred times as much. Yet buildings are really only ‘products’ writ large, purchased or leased by firms for specific purposes. They are tools of the trade, meant to help get a job done.
 
Article
Purpose ? The aim of this paper is to report on a study that was undertaken into the practice and process of briefing within the UK. The purpose of the study was to assess the nature and extent to which accessible environments for new public buildings are considered at the briefing stage of the design process. Design/methodology/approach ? A questionnaire was distributed to 2,017 design practices in the UK, resulting in a usable response rate of 961 questionnaires. Findings ? The analysis of the questionnaires showed that, while designers are keen to ensure that buildings and their environments facilitate social inclusion, there are significant barriers to achieving this, particularly due to a lack of understanding of disability and how a person with a disability interacts with a building, and how the regulations and legislation can support this interaction rather than just providing minimum standards. Practical implications ? The implications of the research are that designers and clients are procuring buildings that are not fully inclusive, thereby excluding people from fully participating in the activities that are undertaken in that building. Originality/value ? The paper provides an insight into the relationship between designers and users by demonstrating that, while designers are keen to ensure that buildings and their environments facilitate social inclusion, there are significant barriers to achieving this.
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this article is to develop a quantitative building accessibility assessment model for the construction industry. Design/methodology/approach – The building accessibility assessment criteria are incorporated in a hierarchy structure based on the relevant building regulations and British standards. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is employed to determine the priority of the accessibility criteria. A review of the application of AHP is included in the paper. Finally, a case scenario is used to illustrate the method. Findings – This paper provides a methodology to prioritize the building accessibility criteria and to indicate how well a building design meets accessibility requirements quantitatively. Practical limitations/implications – A model is advocated for use by accessibility consultants and building designers to establish a quantitative assessment for building accessibility. It can also be used in the development of accessibility assessment software. Originality/value – This paper presents a novel quantitative building accessibility assessment model.
 
Article
Looks at the latest developments in insurance and its relevance for facilities managers. Any shortcomings in policy coverage are exploited fully thereby causing distrust between the parties involved. Shows that although insurance has a low priority, it is in a firm's favour to have good cover.
 
Top-cited authors
David Baldry
  • University of Salford
Professor Dilanthi Amaratunga
  • University of Huddersfield
Ilfryn Price
  • Sheffield Hallam University
Sarel Lavy
  • Texas A&M University
Michael Pitt
  • University College London