Cutaneous ageing, as visualized at the exposed areas of skin, reflects dramatic alterations in the structure and function of the extracellular matrix of connective tissues. Among them, the elastic fibre network, which is responsible for the physiological elasticity and resilience of normal skin, undergoes degradative changes leading to loss of functional elastic fibres. A potential strategy to counteract these degenerative changes entails topical application of a compound that may lead to regeneration of the elastic fibre network. In this study, we have evaluated the effects of a bi-metal, 0.1% copper-zinc malonate-containing cream that has been shown to efface wrinkles in clinical trials. An effect on elastin biosynthesis and elastic tissue accumulation in skin biopsies was observed in 21 female patients with photoaged facial skin, as measured at baseline and at 6 weeks of treatment. Histopathological evaluation revealed evidence of elastic fibre regeneration, including those extending perpendicularly towards the dermo-epidermal junction within the papillary dermis. Elastin biosynthesis, measured by semi-quantitative immunofluorescence with an antibody recognizing only the newly synthesized, uncrosslinked tropoelastin molecules, suggested statistically significant enhancement of elastin biosynthesis by the bi-metal compound when applied twice daily. Accumulation of elastic fibres was confirmed by assay of desmosine, an elastin-specific crosslink compound. These results suggest that the bi-metal, 0.1% copper-zinc malonate-containing cream has the propensity to increase elastin synthesis in human skin in vivo, and that regeneration of elastic fibres may contribute to wrinkle effacement in female patients with photoaged facial skin.
Ultraviolet (UV)-induced pyrimidine dimers are an early step in skin carcinogenesis, which is accelerated in the setting of long-term immunosuppression with systemic calcineurin inhibitors. It is not known whether topical application of calcineurin inhibitors exposes to a similar risk.
To assess the formation and clearance of UV-induced dipyrimidine dimers in human epidermis treated with topical pimecrolimus as compared to topical steroid, vehicle and untreated control.
Pretreated buttock skin of 20 human volunteers with (10) or without (10) atopic dermatitis was exposed to two minimal erythema doses (MED) of simulated solar radiation. DNA was extracted from epidermis 1 and 24 h postirradiation. Pyrimidine dimers were visualized by immuno slot blots and quantified by chemoluminescence image analysis.
One-hour postirradiation, pimecrolimus-treated epidermis contains less DNA damage as compared to untreated control, but there were no statistically significant differences between pimecrolimus, triamcinolone acetonide and vehicle. Dimer levels at 24 h postirradiation showed no significant differences between different treatments.
Treatment with pimecrolimus cream, triamcinolone acetonide cream and vehicle is not associated with increased epidermal DNA damage at 1 and 24 h post-UV exposure.
Non-classical human leucocyte antigen-E (HLA-E) mediates natural killer and CD8+ T-cell activity, suggesting a role in the regulation of autoimmunity. HLA-E*0103X/*0103X has been associated with Behcet's disease and HLA-E *0101/*0103X with childhood onset diabetes. We investigated HLA-E allele status in 52 Caucasian and Ashkenazi Jewish Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) patients and 51 healthy controls by restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction and amplification refractory mutation system. Associations were determined via chi-square test, Fisher's exact test and logistical regression analysis. HLA-E outcomes included presumed homozygous *0101/*0101 or *0103X/*0103X genotype status or *0101/*0103X heterozygous status. PV did not significantly associate with either *0101/*0101 or *0101/*0103X genotypes. HLA-E*0103X/*0103X (presumed homozygote) is significantly increased in patients with PV versus controls (P = 0.0146, OR = 3.730, 95%CI = 1.241-11.213). Our data provide the first evidence that HLA-E*0103X is a marker for genetic risk in PV.
Considering the clinical and genetic heterogeneity of psoriasis which may translate into distinct disease pathology and treatment response, correct typing of the main candidate gene HLA-C is critical but not trivial. To facilitate genotyping, we compared established techniques with our newly developed tool. Here, we propose that typing of four single nucleotide polymorphic markers within the HLA-C region correctly determines HLA-Cw*06:02 genotypes in psoriatic cases and healthy controls in a population of Caucasian origin. Typing of the SNPs presented herein proved to be precise, reliable, time and cost effective, and requiring low amount of DNA.
Psoriasis is characterized by hyperproliferation and impared differentiation of epidermal keratinocytes (KCs). Psoriasis can be treated with derivatives of retinoic acid (RA) and vitamin D3. Analogues of vitamin D3 are able to inhibit proliferation and stimulate differentiation of KCs. In contrast, RA inhibits terminal differentiation of KCs. Interactions are known to occur between RA and vitamin D3 signalling pathways. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of all-trans RA on the binding of 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D3 (1,25 (OH)2D3) to the vitamin D3 receptor (VDR) of cultured human KCs. Cultured KCs from normal adults were incubated with or without RA (10-9-10-7M) for 4-24 h. Cells were then harvested, homogenized and ultrasonicated. The extracted protein was incubated with 3H-1,25 (OH)2D3 (0.015-1.0 nM) with or without 250-fold excess nonradioactive 1,25 (OH)2D3 for 24 h and specific binding was determined by use of the dextran coated charcoal binding assay. Western blot analysis utilizing the monoclonal antibody 9A7 gamma to VDR was performed on protein extracted from the KCs. The bands resulting from Western blot analysis were visualized by enhanced chemiluminescence. From Scatchard analysis it was found that KCs bind 1,25 (OH)2D3 with high affinity (Kd = 0.175 nM). This binding was dose and time dependently inhibited by RA (60% inhibition at 10-7 M after 24 h of incubation). By Western blot analysis, RA had no effect on the amount of protein extracted from KCs at any of the RA concentrations tested. In conclusion, these results show that binding of vitamin D3 to its receptor of human KCs can be inhibited markedly by RA without effecting the amount of protein. These results are in contrast to results with other cell types in which RA upregulates binding of 1,25 (OH)2D3 to the VDR. Because interaction between retinoids and vitamin D3 may occur at different levels during signal transduction, it is not possible to predict from our results whether RA will inhibit the effects of vitamin D3 in vivo.
1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol) affects differentiation and proliferation of epidermal keratinocytes in vitro and in vivo. We have studied the topical effects of calcitriol (0.08-2.0 micrograms/ml) and of a new vitamin D analogue, the epi-20-analogue KH1060 (0.4-2.0 micrograms/ml) on epidermal proliferation in normal hairless mice. Epidermis was examined at intervals from 4 h to 8 days after a single-dose application. The mitotic rate was assessed by the stathmokinetic method and hyperplasia was scored in histological sections. Cell cycle parameters were measured by bivariate bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd)/DNA flow cytometry on isolated epidermal basal cells after pulse-labelling with BrdUrd. Both calcitriol and KH1060 induced a dose- and time-dependent increase in the mitotic rate and in hyperplasia, the latter drug being the most effective. Calcitriol and KH1060 induced changes in the cell cycle traverse compatible with the regenerative reaction seen after other hyperplasiogens, but with an additionally increased accumulation of cells in the G2 phase. This is similar to that seen after topical application of retinoic acid to mouse skin. Our results are thus in contrast to the anti-proliferative effects of calcitriol observed in vitro and following treatment of the hyperproliferative disease psoriasis with calcitriol as well as other vitamin D analogues.
Hormonally active vitamin D3 - 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3) - acts as a signalling molecule in cutaneous immunity. In this study we investigated if Toll-like-receptor (TLR) function and antimicrobial peptide (AMP) expression are controlled by 1,25D3 in keratinocytes. The AMP cathelicidin and TLR cofactor CD14 were known to be induced by 1,25D3, and analysis of TLR2 expression revealed this also was increased by 1,25D3. Topical 1,25D3 application to human skin confirmed these results, showing increased cathelicidin, CD14 and TLR2 by immunostaining. Furthermore, the presence of 1,25D3 enabled human keratinocytes to respond to Malp2 (a TLR2/6 ligand) with increased cathelicidin production which was inhibited by neutralizing antibody to TLR2. 1,25D3 also increased the ability of keratinocytes to kill Staphylococcus aureus. Interestingly, keratinocytes surrounding human skin wounds increased expression of CD14 and showed a previously known increase in cathelicidin AMP. Thus, we hypothesized that 1,25D3 was also a signalling molecule during skin injury. Supporting this, we found that CYP27B1, the enzyme that converts 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 (25D3) to active 1,25D3, was significantly increased in wounds and induced in response to factors in the wound micromilieu such as TGFbeta(1) or TLR stimulation. Blocking the vitamin D receptor, inhibiting CYP27B1 enzymatic activity, or limiting 25D3 in culture each prevented TGFbeta(1) from inducing cathelicidin, CD14 or TLR2. Furthermore, mice deficient in CYP27B1 failed to increase CD14 in vivo following injury. Thus, this investigation demonstrates how injury initiates the innate immune response; 25D3 is activated to 1,25D3 by enzymatic conversion, a process triggered by microbial products or host factors such as TGFbeta(1). The increase in 1,25D3 then directly increases cathelicidin release and enables responsiveness to microbial products through induction of TLR cofactor CD14.
Substance P is a neuropeptide which is present in peripheral C nerve endings and released from them. Free nerve endings of C nerve are present in human epidermis. The effects of substance P on the transmembrane signaling system of pig epidermal sheets were previously reported. In these studies, a small amount of cells other than keratinocytes contaminated the epidermal sheets and the species difference from human was also noticed. Therefore we investigated the effects of substance P on cultured normal human epidermal keratinocytes. Alteration of intracellular free calcium (Ca2+) in single living keratinocytes was studied using an inverted fluorescence microscope and Ca(2+)-sensitive dye, Fura 2-AM. Treatment of normal human epidermal keratinocytes with substance P resulted in an increase in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and in intracellular Ca2+. Substance P inhibited DNA synthesis of the keratinocytes in a dose-dependent manner. These results are consistent with the view that substance P stimulates phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate hydrolysis of human keratinocytes, resulting in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-Ca2+ signal.
Epidermal keratinocytes express beta 2-adrenergic receptors on the cell membrane. The binding of the agonists to the beta 2-adrenergic receptors regulates activation of adenylate cyclase. This transmembrane signaling system has been regarded to be one of the important pathways for the functions of keratinocytes. We previously reported that beta-adrenergic stimulation induced a transient increase of intracellular Ca2+ in normal human epidermal keratinocytes. Thus we investigated the effects of epinephrine on another transmembrane signaling system, the phosphatidyl-inositol signal transduction pathway in pig epidermis. Treatment of pig pure epidermis with epinephrine resulted in a transient increase in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate with a peak at 30 s. Epinephrine induced translocation of protein kinase C from cytosol to the membrane fraction. The activation of protein kinase C, translocation of protein kinase C from cytosol to the membrane fraction, was confirmed using the beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol. Moreover, the effect of epinephrine on the activation of protein kinase C was inhibited by preincubation with propranolol, a beta-adrenergic antagonist. The increase in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and translocation of protein kinase C by epinephrine are consistent with the view that beta-adrenergic stimulation induces turnover of inositol phospholipid in pig epidermis.
Prevalence of allergies has increased during the last two decades. Alteration of the gut microbiota composition is thought to play a crucial role in development of atopic diseases. Oral administration of probiotics has been reported to treat and/or prevent symptoms of atopic diseases in infants, but the results are still controversial. We investigated the potential efficacy of dietary interventions by a probiotic strain on prevention and treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD) in a human-like AD model, NC/NgaTnd mice by perinatal administration. Pregnant NC/NgaTnd mice were orally treated with the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus CGMCC 1.3724 (LPR), which was followed by treatment of pups until 12 weeks of age. LPR-treated mice exhibited significant lower clinical symptoms of dermatitis, reduced scratching frequency, lower levels of plasma total Immunoglobulin E and higher levels of interferon-gamma in skin biopsies, compared with untreated mice. The protective effect was also observed when mice started to be treated at weaning time (5 weeks of age) even with limited supplementation period of 2 weeks. However, treatment of mice with the probiotic starting 1 week after the onset of the disease (8 weeks of age) had limited effects. The usefulness of LPR for primary prevention of AD was supported.
Desmogleins play critical roles in cell adhesion and skin blistering diseases, as they are the target antigens of autoimmune antibodies and bacterial toxins. We recently cloned several novel members of the desmoglein gene family, bringing the number of desmogleins to four in the rat and human genomes and six in the mouse. Here, we have produced a monoclonal antibody to a cytoplasmic epitope of Dsg4, assessed its specificity and compared it to several existing Dsg1-3 antibodies. We also demonstrated cross-reactivity of commercially available and often used Dsg1 antibodies. Using these tools, we delineated the unique expression patterns of each desmoglein isoform in various human and mouse stratified squamous epithelia, including skin, hair, palm, and oral mucosa. Interestingly, in the epidermis, the expression of each desmoglein correlates with their gene arrangement in the cadherin locus. In human, Dsg4 was detected primarily in the granular and cornified cell layers of the epidermis, while present throughout all differentiated layers of the oral mucosa and palm, and in the matrix cells of anagen hair bulb. Similar pattern of expression for Dsg4 was observed in mouse, with the exception that it was expressed at significantly lower levels in the mouse epidermis. These results demonstrate the complexity of desmoglein gene expression and provide additional insights into the correlation between tissue expression patterns and disease phenotypes.
Interleukin-33 has recently gained much attention due to its role in allergic responses. It has been shown to amplify Th2 responses and to act as a damage-associated molecular pattern. IL-33 acts on a broad range of cells and has been proposed to link innate and adaptive features of allergic responses. It was the aim of this study to investigate this property of IL-33 in the inflammatory response characterising atopic dermatitis (AD). We have analysed the response of skin-resident cells derived from patients with AD and healthy donors with regard to the expression of IL-33 and its receptor ST2. The functional impact of IL-33 on CD4+ T cells was investigated. Keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts clearly differ in their regulation of IL-33. In fibroblasts, the concerted action of TNF-α and IL-1β was the strongest inducer, whereas IFN-γ is clearly the key molecule that upregulates IL-33 in keratinocytes with a more pronounced response of cells derived from patients with AD. Keratinocytes from patients with AD showed a markedly higher constitutive expression level of surface ST2. CD4+ T cells respond to IL-33. Unexpectedly, IL-33 failed to induce a significant secretion of IL-5 or IL-13. By contrast, high amounts of IFN-γ were detectable if IL-33 was added to the T-cell receptor-stimulated cells or in combination with IL-12. These results suggest that IL-33 and IFN-γ are closely interlinked in epidermal AD inflammation. IFN-γ induces IL-33 in keratinocytes and IL-33 acts on activated T cells to further increase the release of IFN-γ, therefore contributing to drive skin inflammation towards chronic responses.
Cyclosporin A (CsA) has been used as a potent immunosuppressive agent for inhibiting the graft rejection after organ transplantation. However, CsA provokes lots of side effects including hirsutism, the phenomenon of abnormal hair growth in the body. In the present study, we investigated the hair growth stimulating effect of CsA using in vivo and in vitro test models. When topically applied on the back skin of mice, CsA induced fast telogen to anagen transition. In contrast, CsA had no effect on the growth of human hair follicle tissues cultured in vitro, indicating that it might not have the mitogenic effect on hair follicles. To identify the genes related with CsA-induced hair growth, we performed differential display RT-PCR. Among the genes obtained, the expression of synapse associated protein 102 (SAP102) was verified using competitive RT-PCR. The result showed that the expression of SAP102 was significantly induced by CsA treatment in the back skin of C57BL/6 mice. However, the increase of SAP102 mRNA was also seen in spontaneous anagen mice, suggesting that induction of SAP102 is one event of the anagen hair growth response regardless of how the growth state was induced. SAP102 was not expressed in cultured human hair outer root sheath and dermal papilla cells. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed that CsA induced the expression of SAP102 in perifollicular region of mouse anagen hair. Together, these results suggest that SAP102 is one of hair-cycle-dependent genes, whose expression is related with the anagen progression.
A unique series of epidermal cell lines representing different stages of malignant transformation were spontaneously derived from a single adult immunosuppressed individual. Four keratinocyte lines (PM1-4) established from forehead skin are here compared with 4 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) lines (MET1-4) derived respectively from a primary cutaneous tumour, two local recurrences and a distant metastasis of invasive SCC. Despite altered growth properties, the PM lines retained many features of normal keratinocytes including keratin phenotype, differentiation capacity and non-tumorigenicity in athymic mice. In contrast, from early passage, the MET lines displayed markedly reduced growth requirements, abnormal differentiation, aberrant K18 expression and tumorigenicity in athymic mice. The abnormal keratin profile of individual MET lines closely reflected the keratin phenotype of the tumour of origin. Although unusual HPV types were identified in the original tissue, there was no evidence of persistent virus within any cell line and it appears that HPV is not critical for maintenance of the immortal phenotype. The PM lines were distinctly different from invasive SCC lines and are likely to be useful for studies of mutations important early in neoplastic progression. The SCC series represent primary, recurrent and metastatic carcinoma. Availability of such a series from the same individual will facilitate genetic analysis of the malignant process.
The goal of this study was to compare the effects of the Q-switched 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser and the 1320-nm Nd:YAG laser non-ablative treatments on mouse skin in vivo. Skin elasticity measurements were carried out with a Reviscometer, and skin samples were taken for histological study, hydroxyproline content assay and estimation of collagen type I and III. By the second month after non-ablative treatments, the 1064-nm laser treatment resulted in an average of 25% greater improvement of skin elasticity, 6% more increase of dermal thickness, and 11% higher synthesis of hydroxyproline than the 1320-nm laser. Collagen type III increased markedly after the 1064-nm laser treatment whereas more collagen type I was elicited by the 1320-nm laser. Our results demonstrated that the 1064-nm laser was more effective than the 1320-nm Nd:YAG laser in non-ablative treatments, but the results needed to be confirmed in humans. It appeared that photo-mechanic reaction could cause more collagen type III synthesis whereas the photo-thermal effect was in favor of the formation of collagen type I.
The effects of prostaglandin (PG) I1 analog, SM-10906 (SM-6) and PGE1 on extracellular matrix formation and the release of cytokines by cultured normal human dermal fibroblasts (NDF) and hypertrophic scar fibroblasts (HSF) were compared in order to evaluate the clinical efficacy of PGs in preventing scar formation. In the present study, we measured type I collagen synthesis, collagenase activity, production of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta 1 and levels of adenosine 3,5-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) in NDF and HSF cultured with or without PGs. The results demonstrated that HSF culture supernatants has a significantly higher level of type I collagen and TGF-beta 1 than those of NDF. However, the levels of collagenase activity and IL-8 in HSF were significantly lower in comparison to that of NDF. There was no substantial difference in IL-6 production between two types of culture cells. On the other hand, PGE1 and SM-6 significantly enhanced collagenase activity and raised the collagenase/type I collagen ratio in the HSF supernatants. In addition, both PGE1 and SM-6 increased production of TGF-beta 1, IL-8 and IL-6 and levels of cAMP in both cell types. However, they had no effect on the type I collagen synthesis of either types. These results suggest that, the stable PGI1 analog, SM-6, similarly acts as PGE1 in HSF by increasing the activity of collagenase.
16-hydroxy-9-oxo-10E,12E,14E-octadecatrienoic acid, also known as Corchorifatty acid B (CFAB), is isolated from the ethanol extracts of the aerial parts of Melissa officinalis Linné (Labiatae) and exhibits inhibitory effects on cellular pigmentation in both human melanocytes and mouse melanoma B16 cells. CFAB specifically decreases cellular melanin by most likely inducing rapid degradation of tyrosinase in B16 cells. Interestingly, unlike other reagents that promote degradation of tyrosinase in proteasomes or lysosomes, neither proteasomal nor lysosomal inhibitors can halt CFAB-induced tyrosinase degradation. Only brefeldin A, which specifically inhibits protein transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi complex, can effectively impede CFAB-induced tyrosinase decrease. These results suggest that CFAB-induced tyrosinase decrease occurs in post-Golgi compartments but not in proteasomal or lysosomal compartments. Taken together, CFAB is a unique reagent that primarily accelerates tyrosinase decrease by a mechanism that differs from those considered for other hypopigmentation reagents currently reported.
Alopecia is a common dermatological condition in humans and other mammals. Here, we present two similar but histologically distinct mouse models of scarring alopecia. Both mutant lines were generated using random genome-wide N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis, and both harbor dominant mutations on chromosome 11. In both mutants, there is an early onset of alopecia that progresses to nearly complete pelage hair loss in both males and females by 20 weeks of age. Histologically, there is an increased dermal cellularity due to inflammatory cell infiltration at 7-10 days of age. By 3 weeks of age, the epidermis is acanthotic and the dermis is approximately twice as thick as in control mice due to a substantial, mostly mononuclear, inflammatory cell infiltrate. This infiltrate becomes more perifollicular by 4-5 weeks of age but is localized differently in the two mutants. In alopecia 1 (Alo-1), the perifollicular infiltrate is confined to the portion of the follicle within the dermis, whereas in Alo-2, the infiltrate extends the full length of the follicle. Expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I on the follicular epithelium in the two mutants is much greater than that in non-mutants. Furthermore, MHC class I expression is localized differently in the two mutant lines and mirrors the pattern of the inflammatory infiltrate. Despite these differences, the clinical progression of alopecia is identical in both mutants. The early onset of the disease, predictable progression, and differences in inflammatory cell localization between the two mutants make these mice particularly useful models for inflammatory hair loss and autoimmune diseases in general.
There is increasing evidence that selected peptide fragments of the neuropeptide alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) have preserved immunomodulatory effects in various in vitro and in vivo models. However, until recently, emphasis has been attributed mostly to peptides related to the central pharmacophore of alpha-MSH (6-9) as well as to peptides homologous to the C-terminal tripeptide sequence, MSH (11-13). Here we investigated in detail the in vitro effects of an alpha MSH (11-13) derivative, K(D)PT, in which the last amino acid valine of alpha-MSH (11-13) was substituted by threonine and by the D-enantiomer of proline in position 2. Using the immortalized human sebocyte cell line SZ95 as an in vitro model we demonstrate that K(D)PDT has potent antagonistic effects against interleukin (IL)-induced activation of NF-kB presumably by inhibiting IkBalpha protein degradation. In contrast IL-1-mediated activation of the stress kinase p38 was not affected. The significance of the NF-kB-modulatory effect of K(D)PT was highlighted by suppression of IL-1-mediated mRNA expression and protein secretion of IL-6 and IL-8, two proinflammatory cytokines crucially implicated in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. Interestingly, K(D)PT likewise suppressed P. acnes-induced expression of IL-6 and IL-8. Our in vitro data are promising towards the therapeutic exploitation of small peptide derivatives of the C-terminal domain of alpha-MSH, e.g. K(D)PT, not only for the treatment of acne but also for many other inflammatory skin diseases.
We have investigated the expression and function of the isoforms of laminin bearing the alpha5 chain, i.e. laminin-10/11 in neonatal and adult human skin. By immunostaining human skin derived from a variety of anatomic sites, we found that the laminin-alpha5 chain is expressed abundantly in the basement membrane underlying the interfollicular epidermis and the blood vessels in the dermis. Interestingly, while the expression level of the well-studied laminin-5 isoform did not change significantly with age, laminin-10/11 (alpha5 chain) appeared to decrease in the basement membrane underlying the epidermis, in adult skin. In contrast, the levels of laminin-10/11 in the basement membrane underlying blood vessels remained unchanged in neonatal vs. adult skin. Importantly, in vitro cell adhesion assays demonstrated that laminin-10/11 is a potent adhesive substrate for both neonatal and adult keratinocytes and that this adhesion is mediated by the alpha3beta1 and alpha6beta4 integrins. Adhesion assays performed with fractionated basal keratinocytes showed that stem cells, transit amplifying cells and early differentiating cells all adhere to purified laminin-10/11 via these receptors. Further, laminin-10/11 provided a proliferative signal for neonatal foreskin keratinocytes, adult breast skin keratinocytes, and even a human papillomavirus type-18 transformed tumorigenic keratinocyte cell line in vitro. Finally, laminin-10/11 was shown to stimulate keratinocyte migration in an in vitro wound healing assay. These results provide strong evidence for a functional role for laminin-10/11 in epidermal proliferation during homeostasis, wound healing and neoplasia.
The parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrp), structurally similar to the parathyroid hormone (PTH) in its NH(2)-terminal part, was first identified as a tumour-derived peptide responsible for a paraneoplastic syndrome known as humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy. The PTHrp gene is expressed not only in cancer but also in normal tissues during adult and/or fetal life, where it plays predominantly paracrine and/or autocrine roles. In the skin PTHrp produced by keratinocytes acts on fibroblasts by complex cooperative circuits involving cytokines and growth factors. In this report, we studied the direct effects of synthetic PTHrp 1-40 on proliferation and collagen synthesis and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activity in cultures of fibroblasts isolated from normal human skin. Fibroblasts exposure to varying doses of PTHrp for 48 h, significantly and dose-dependently inhibited proliferation evaluated by [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation into DNA. A dose-dependent stimulation of cAMP released into the medium was concomitantly observed. In contrast, PTHrp had no effect on collagen synthesis evaluated either by [(3)H]-proline incorporation or by radioimmunoassay (RIA) of the carboxyterminal fragment of type I procollagen (PICP). MMP-2 activity, evaluated by quantitative zymographic analysis, was significantly increased by PTHrp treatment at doses of 160 and 320 nM. These findings indicate that PTHrp may play a role in normal dermal physiology by controlling both fibroblast proliferation and extracellular matrix degradation.
Ichthyosis vulgaris (IV) is a mild to severe scaling disorder of uncertain etiology estimated to affect as many as 1 : 250 in the population. Family studies have shown that in many cases IV follows an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern, but gene mapping studies have not been reported. To investigate the genetic basis for inherited IV, we have performed gene linkage studies in two multigenerational families where affected individuals have clinical features of IV but distinct histological features. The epidermis in this disorder characteristically displays non-specific orthohyperkeratosis. Notably, a subset of IV patients with a reduced or absent granular epidermal layer (AGL) have been reported, and decreased filaggrin levels have been described in others. The prominent role of profilaggrin in human keratohyalin suggests that defects in the gene for profilaggrin (FLG), its processing of profillagrin to filaggrin, or a gene involved in profilaggrin regulation may underlie or modify the pathology in IV. Family 1 had seven individuals with IV, severe heat intolerance and epidermis with 1-3 granular layers (consistent with normal epidermal histology). Ichthyosis vulgaris in this family did not segregate with FLG or other genes in the epidermal differentiation complex. In contrast, five of the six IV patients in Family 2, all siblings, had epidermis with no granular layer. Significant evidence was obtained for linkage of IV with the associated AGL phenotype to the epidermal differentiation complex (which includes FLG) assuming either a recessive (max Lod 3.4) or dominant (max Lod 3.6) inheritance model. Sequence analysis of FLG did not reveal a mutation in the amino or carboxyl terminal portions of the coding sequence adjacent to filaggrin repeats. The AGL may represent an endophenotype for IV, and the presence of a modifier of IV pathology at this locus is discussed.
Extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) is an established therapy for transplant rejection, graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) after allogeneic stem cell transplantation, cutaneous T-cell lymphoma and systemic autoimmune disorders such as systemic sclerosis. Knowledge regarding the in vivo behaviour of the cells after reinfusion is very limited. The aim of this prospective study was to investigate the path of 8-MOP-/UVA-exposed radiolabelled cells after ECP treatment and reinfusion. In this prospective single-centre study, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and neutrophils of 10 patients undergoing ECP as part of their regular treatment were labelled separately with (111) In-oxine after exposure to 8-MOP/UVA and prior to reinfusion. The fate of the labelled leucocytes was monitored at 10 min, 3.5 and 24 h following reinfusion with whole-body scintigraphy. Comparison of distribution patterns showed that PBMC and neutrophils have different kinetic patterns after intravenous reinjection. The most prominent difference was immediate retention of PBMC but not of neutrophils in the lungs corresponding to a signal three times more intense. After 24 h, more than 80% of both cell populations could be detected in liver and spleen. By means of a novel tool allowing for tracking of 8-MOP-/UVA-exposed leucocytes in ECP, we could show that organ-specific homing of leucocytes after ECP can be visualized in vivo and that migration patterns differ between PBMC and neutrophils. Based on our results, further studies should (i) extend the morphometric studies described here to specific ECP-responsive conditions and (ii) functionally address the interaction of ECP-modified PBMC with pulmonary tissue in experimental models.