Exceptional Children

Published by Council for Exceptional Children
Online ISSN: 0014-4029
Publications
Article
Self-regulated learning should be an educational objective for handicapped children and unsuccessful students. Self-regulated learning combines cognitive skill and motivational will so that students can select challenging tasks, apply effective learning strategies, and measure their success against personal standards. Self-regulated learning builds confidence in children and enables them to acquire effective problem-solving skills that extend beyond the classroom. A variety of classroom programs that enhance children's learning strategies, metacognition, and motivation, are described to show how instruction can foster self-regulated learning.
 
Article
Public Law 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975, promises that no school aged pupil will be denied a free appropriate public education because of a handicapping condition. The authors propose that by regulatory exclusion, a great population of students with behavior disorders do not have this federally mandated guarantee and will continue to be at the mercy of local school districts, which may or may not choose to accept the responsibility for their education. Public Law 94-142 qualifies 'emotionally disturbed' with the word 'seriously', implying no responsibility for the moderately disturbed child. The law further specifically excludes 'socially maladjusted' unless they are 'seriously emotionally disturbed'. The door is open for school districts to systematically exclude large numbers of behaviorally disordered students from special education classes and from school itself.
 
Article
The diversity within the population of multiply handicapped deaf children is the major contributor to the problems associated with the provision of appropriate educational services. In recognition of this diversity, any implementation efforts to serve this population must consider the following three interacting variables critical to program design and destiny; a designation or definition of the population to be served; the availability of capable personnel to serve the designated population; and the financial commitment to accomplish such a merger. The absence or unclear delineation of these variables and their interrelationships in a program design presents a prognosis for ineffectiveness and perpetual failure in appropriate service provisions.
 
Article
The New Jersey Mainstream Inservice Project is described as a response to the mandate of P.L. 94-142 (the Education for All Handicapped Children Act) for a comprehensive system of personnel development. The model stresses collaboration between the state department of education, 50 local school districts, and five institutions of higher education to provide regular educators with the skills and understanding to deal with exceptional children. Among problems confronted by the model were the state department's sole financial authority, limited personal association, and controversy over the use of the Discrepancy Evaluation Model. Eight implications of the project include the importance of building in support systems within and among collaborating institutions and of incorporating enough time for planning in the roles of staff members. (CL)
 
Article
The Sixth Annual Report to Congress on implementation of P.L. 94-142 is critically reviewed. The Annual Report fails to alert Congress that students who are difficult to teach and manage appear to be at significant risk of erroneous classification and inequitable treatment. This risk is due to the variability in identification and referral procedures across states and local districts, as seven years of national “child count” data indicate. These data were analyzed and interpreted to mean that school variability may reflect rational behavior by personnel faced with resource constraints and student diversity. Thus, attempts to fine tune current special education policy, especially for individuals classified as mildly handicapped, by “tightening” eligibility standards is both illogical and ill-advised. Implications for both policy and special education research are discussed.
 
Article
P.L. 94–142 requires that parents become involved in the educational decision-making of their handicapped child. For parents to become involved, they need to be familiar with the various complexities of the law so they can make informed decisions about their child's education. State and local education agencies inform parents primarily through printed materials. This study surveyed materials used by the 50 states and evaluated their comprehensibility. A computer program, using four common readability formulas, analyzed selected passages for their readability. Other factors also analyzed included print size, use of examples, comprehensibility, and page density. Results indicated a range of reading levels from grades five through eight. These results are interpreted in the context of reading literacy. Issues involved in development of materials for parents and future analysis of these materials are discussed.
 
Article
During the spring of 1980, the Research Triangle Institute conducted a telephone survey to determine the extent to which a sample of 153 handicapped migrant children were identified as being handicapped - and had IEP's prepared - by schools in which they were enrolled from January 1978 through June 1979. The survey also was used to determine the extent to which IEP's and IEP-related information were transmitted between, and utilized by, staff of the various schools in which the students were enrolled. Findings indicate that: the various schools in which students were enrolled were inconsistent in identifying these students as needing special education and in preparing their IEP's; IEP's were developed less frequently for the most mobile than for the less mobile migrant students; only a small percentage of the students had IEP's developed at more than one school; and IEP's and IEP-related information were rarely transmitted between schools.
 
Article
This study examined the relationships between state-level fiscal and demographic variables and identification rates and cumulative placement rates for certain categories of special education students in 1976, 1980, and 1983. The study explored the feasibility of using extant national data to study implementation of special education programs. Identification rates for students with learning disabilities and emotional disturbance were associated with level of state per-capita income and proportion of rural school-age population. States with higher per-capita income tended to have higher cumulative placement rates in special classes and all more restrictive settings.
 
Article
The article discusses the effect of the Education for All Handicapped Children Act (P.L. 94-142) on the education of preschool handicapped children. (DLS)
 
Article
This article examines the impact of modifications in the identification of EMR students and in programming for them, following Diana, Larry P., and P.L. 94–142. These policy changes were designed to afford greater educational equity; but evidence has shown that minority children are not well served as a result. Further, the subsequent movement toward educational excellence in the schools appears to have imposed on marginally achieving students standards that almost ensure school failure. Continued vigilance is proposed on behalf of minority EMR and marginally achieving students.
 
Article
The study sought to determine the “level of consciousness” of selected regular and special educators for 50 competing educational policy statements. Fifty of the most frequently occurring policy items were selected, 20 arising as key concepts of the 1975 Education for All Handicapped Children Act (P.L. 94–142), intermingled with 30 of the most pressing issues drawn from the current regular (general) and vocational education literature. A Q-sort procedure required 199 general and special education teachers and administrators to prioritize the general and special education policy items, sorting them according to their importance. A discriminant functions analysis disclosed that respondents could be correctly classified as special or regular educators with 68% accuracy (cross-validated) on the basis of their level of consciousness for 11 P.L. 94–142 policy items. Special education administrators demonstrated the highest level of consciousness, general education administrators the lowest, and teachers the middle range.
 
Article
During the last few years a number of western countries have made recommendations through reports and legislation that they felt would provide significant educational benefits for handicapped children through the modification of their educational systems. Great Britain has also been mindful that changes should be made to provide a more meaningful education for exceptional children and established a committee under the Chairmanship of Mary Warnock to investigate special education. Salient recommendations from the resultant document, entitled Special Educational Needs: Report of the Committee of Enquiry into the Education of Handicapped Children and Young People are presented.
 
Article
This study attempted to determine articulation differences between two large groups of first grade children—those who did and did not have kindergarten experience. When these two groups entered first grade, their articulation errors were essentially the same. However, kindergarten experience appeared to be a factor in the reduction of sound errors of the children who were not enrolled in speech therapy. Normative data regarding the articulation of first grade children were obtained and compared with that of previous studies.
 
Article
Legal and educational issues related to year-round education for handicapped individuals are discussed. A review of legal developments supporting 12 month education and an historical exploration of the goals of compulsory schooling demonstrate the inherent conflict between providing a free appropriate education to all handicapped children and the existence of the 180 day rule. Additional arguments in support of year-round schooling are based on the concerns of parents and teachers, as well as the apparent methodological advantages to avoiding lengthy breaks in programing for the severely handicapped children. Finally, it is suggested that the concept of year-round schooling is not inconsistent with the goals of mainstreaming and the need of severely handicapped individuals to have the opportunity to generalize learned skills.
 
Article
On June 21, 1979, Judge Clarence C. Newcomer, of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania, issued his decision and Order in the case of Armstrong v. Kline. Judge Newcomer held that the undisputed policy and practice of the Pennsylvania Department of Education of refusing to provide or fund the provision of a program of special education and related services in excess of 180 days per year to any handicapped student was in violation of Public Law 94-142. Also held to be in violation of the law was the Department's companion policy of instructing all hearing officers who preside at special education due process hearings that they were without the power to order or approve any educational programs exceeding 180 days per year. On July 15, 1980, the Appellate Court upheld the District Court in three separate opinions. This article describes the decision of the District Court, explains how the reasoning of the Appellate Court differs, and points out some of the implications of the Appellate Court's holding.
 
Article
Although the concept of clinical teaching is a persistently recurring educational theme today, reflecting the heritage of special education, it is hidden in the pattern of teacher education programs. In order to prepare the clinician educator for membership in a multidisciplinary and interagency team, it is necessary for the academic community to innovate an approach to teacher education curricula design and to modify academic administrative structure. Basic assumptions and requirements for implementation of a clinical teacher training program are presented.
 
Article
Inherent in each of the five titles of The Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 are implications for developing quality educational programs for gifted children. The Act provides financial assistance for (a) the education of children of low income families; (b) school library resources, textbooks, and other instructional materials; (c) supplementary educational centers and services; (d) educational research and training; and (e) strengthening state departments of education. Suggestions for the implementation of each title are offered.
 
Article
The United Nations has designated 1965 as International Cooperation Year as a means of emphasizing cooperative programs and activities throughout the world. This paper encourages CEC federation and chapter participation in ICY, and suggests programs and materials which may be used to make CEC members aware of the importance of international cooperation.
 
Article
Factors associated with the employment status of handicapped youth were investigated in a sample of 462 youths from nine Vermont school districts. All students from these districts who exited high school between 1979 and 1983, and who had been receiving special education services, were identified. Interviews were conducted with 301 youths to solicit current employment status, employment and training history, and use of social services. Additional information regarding educational history, age, and community demographics was obtained through individual student records. Employment outcomes were related to secondary vocational and training experiences, controlling for geographic location, gender, and level of functioning. Results indicated that over half the sample were employed; that most of the youths found jobs through the “self-family-friend network”; that part-time or summer work during high school were predictors of percentage of time employed since high school and current wages. These findings were discussed in terms of their implications for researchers, service providers, and policy makers.
 
Article
The author interviewed 13 specialists in early childhood education for the handicapped as to their opinions regarding and hopes for the field in the next decade. These interviews are analyzed and the results presented as a series of obtainable goals for the 1980's. The recommendations vary from suggestions for modification of training in universities and colleges to the establishment of family centers.
 
Article
The U.S. Department of Education 1984 Annual Report to Congress on progress in achieving the intent of P.L. 94-142 gives cause for thought and questions in the minds of local special education practitioners. Questions concern the extent to which there has been locally perceived progress in improving services to handicapped children, meaningfully characterizing that progress for critical audiences, and major initiatives yet to be addressed. In the opinion of the author, there have been both substantive and substantial improvements in local special education programs and services, in part attributable to the provisions in P.L. 94-142. Stability in local, state, and federal funding for programs and services remains a major area demanding attention.
 
Article
The Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EAHCA), Public Law 94-142, provides for a free, appropriate public education for handicapped children, as well as due process procedures. However, the EAHCA does not directly address relief available to parents who successfully allege inappropriate actions by school. In this article, we examine case law that has provided three primary types of relief (injunctive relief, tuition reimbursement, and attorneys' fees) in special education lawsuits. The Supreme Court's decision in Smith v. Robinson, (1984) which removed attorneys' fees for action under the EAHCA, is analyzed. The congressional reaction to Smith v. Robinson and the Handicapped Children's Protection Act of 1986, Public Law 99-372, is described, and case law relying on that act is examined.
 
Article
Behavior modification research and training materials within education have focused on techniques in which the locus of control rests solely with an external change agent. Recently, there has been increased interest in having the person control his own behavior. With the growing emphasis on normalization for handicapped children, self control techniques may be especially pertinent. There are three self control strategies that appear to have immediate implication for exceptional children: (a) cue regulation, (b) self reinforcement, and (c) self observation.
 
Demographic Characteristics of Sample (N = 761)
Summary of Responses to Miscellaneous Questions Question Percent 1. What major barriers have you encountered during your postsecondary education as a result of being a student with a disability?
Article
College and university students with disabilities were surveyed to determine their levels of satisfaction with accessibility, special services, and accommodations at their schools. In addition, students were requested to identify barriers to postsecondary education, improvements in services, and other concerns. Respondents generally expressed satisfaction with the services that they had received. However, the majority indicated that they had encountered barriers to their education, including a lack of understanding and cooperation from administrators, faculty, staff, and other students; lack of adaptive aids and other resources; and inaccessibility of buildings and grounds. Recommendations were made for improving the delivery of services and self-advocacy of students with disabilities.
 
Article
Forty-two junior high level students were instructed in use of the soroban, a type of abacus. Prior to instruction, the students were tested with an easy test and a difficult test to determine their skill in computation of whole and decimal numbers. After four months and again after eight months of instruction and practice with the soroban, the students were tested with equivalent tests. The results demonstrated that the soroban is a practical and efficient approach for overcoming computational problems encountered by the blind.
 
Article
With the rapid growth of Hispanic student populations in the United Stages comes a corresponding increase in the number of students who have limited English proficiency as well as disabilities. Specific educational interventions, such as programs of English for speakers of other languages (ESOL) and bilingual instruction, are needed to enable these students to enter the mainstream. The chief obstacles to bilingual special education are the paucity of personnel training programs that include cross-cultural communication, and a lack of awareness of the need for these services. Transdisciplinary teaming is a cost-effective, appropriate approach to providing the services which both handicapped and at risk language minority students require.
 
Article
The Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities was administered to 22 children with petit mal epilepsy and 28 children evidencing mixed seizures to determine whether any differences would be found when these 2 groups were compared either with each other or with a randomly selected group of nonepileptic children equivalent with respect to age, sex, and intelligence. Results obtained by analysis of variance revealed no significant differences in the 10 subtest scores either between the 2 epileptic groups or between the epileptics and the contrast group. Further, there was no greater proportion of learning disabilities among the epileptic subjects than among the contrast group, which would suggest that there is no necessity for special education provisions solely on the basis of a diagnosis of epilepsy.
 
Article
74 children in 7 preschool programs for the deaf were assessed in a measure of receptive communication. Subjects ranged from 48 to 72 mth with a mean chronological age of 61.96 mth. Hearing losses ranged from 71 to 100 decibels with a mean loss of 95.49 decibels. Subjects were tested across 5 modes of communication: sound alone, sound plus speechreading, sound and speechreading plus fingerspelling, sound and speechreading plus signs, and the printed word. Four levels of difficulty were assessed for each mode: number concepts, adjective noun phrases, noun conjunction noun phrases, and noun verb prepositional phrase constructions. Results suggest that the most efficient means of receptive communication was simultaneous use of sound and speechreading plus signs. Children using this system receive information at least as efficiently as other deaf children when manual components are removed. Implications of the findings are discussed.
 
Article
Fifty middle class and 50 lower class Negro kindergarten boys were administered a battery of eight instruments designed to assess specific information processing abilities. An analysis of 19 variables produced five reasonably meaningful components, with a general language ability component the most significant. When class groups were compared, this component discriminated most significantly between the groups. Implications for educational definition, diagnosis, and program planning are discussed.
 
Article
A meta-analysis, the application of statistical methods to findings from a large collection of individual studies, is reported for the literature assessing the effectiveness of psycholinguistic training using the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA) as the criterion measure. The analysis establishes the efficacy of psycholinguistic training since the average child receiving psycholinguistic training performs better than 65% of untrained children. Additional data delineating results for ITPA subtests and various study characteristics support the primary finding. It was concluded that extant research, contrary to previous research reviews which were found to underestimate the positive effects of intervention, has demonstrated the effectiveness of psycholinguistic training.
 
Top-cited authors
Russell Monroe Gersten
  • Instructional Research Group
Lynn Fuchs
  • Vanderbilt University
Jim Halle
  • University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
Robert H Horner
  • University of Oregon
Gail G. Mcgee
  • Emory University