Hindawi

Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Published by Hindawi
Online ISSN: 1741-4288
Discipline: Alternative Medicine & Complementary Therapies
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Aims and scope

Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (eCAM) is an international, peer-reviewed journal that seeks to understand the sources and to encourage rigorous research in this new, yet ancient world of complementary and alternative medicine. The journal seeks to apply scientific rigor to the study of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) modalities, particularly traditional Asian healing systems. eCAM emphasizes health outcome, while documenting biological mechanisms of action. The journal is devoted to the advancement of science in the field of basic research, clinical studies, methodology or scientific theory in diverse areas of Biomedical Sciences. The journal does not consider articles on homeopathy.

 

Editors

Recent publications
Article
  • Yanan LiYanan Li
  • Jingyi HuJingyi Hu
  • Cheng ChengCheng Cheng
  • [...]
  • Hong ShenHong Shen
Objective. Baicalin is an active compound found in many natural herbs and has been used to treat intestinal disorders such as diarrhea and colon cancer. In this study, we used a dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model to investigate baicalin’s mechanisms in the treatment of colitis. Methods. 3% DSS was administered through the drinking supply for 7 days to induce colitis followed by the administration of 5-aminosalicylic acid and baicalin at three different doses (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg, W/W) for an additional 7 days. Body weight, stool consistency, and colon length were recorded. Colon tissue was stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) to be used for histopathological scoring. Cytokine levels of the colon tissue and serum were evaluated using real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. mRNA expression and protein levels of tight junctions (TJs) were detected with qRT-PCR and Western blotting. Goblet cells and the mucosal layer of the colon were visualized by Alcian Blue/periodic acid-Schiff (AB/PAS) staining. Mucin 2 (MUC2) was evaluated in both mRNA expression and protein levels. Nod-like receptor pyrin domain-containing protein 6 (NLRP6) inflammasomes were detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Results. Treatment with baicalin significantly relieved colitis as evidenced by reversing both weight loss and colon length shortening. In addition, baicalin inhibited inflammation by reducing proinflammatory cytokines and protected the intestinal barrier by upregulating tight junction proteins. Moreover, goblet cell count and intestinal mucosa thickness were both significantly increased after baicalin treatment. Giving baicalin could upregulate the expression of NLRP6 and interleukin (IL-18) both in mRNA and protein. Conclusion. Baicalin ameliorates DSS-induced colitis by protecting goblet cells through activating NLRP6 inflammasomes.
 
Fluorescence labeling of MDA-MB-231 cells with acridine orange and ethidium bromide. .e monolayer cultured cells after treatment with (a) DMSO 1% as control, (b) etoposide at a concentration equal to the IC 50 as a positive control, and (c) stigma ethanol extract of C. cancellatus subsp. damascenus at a concentration equal to the IC 50 . Live cells are shown by the solid arrow; dashed and dotted arrows denote cells that are in the early and late stages of apoptosis, respectively. Fluorescence microscope images were captured at 400x magnification. (d) Percentage of cells that have undergone apoptosis. Data are shown as the mean and standard error of the mean based on three data points. * * * P < 0.001 compared to control.
Quantifying cell death by labeling MDA-MB-231 (a) and MCF-7 (b) cells with annexin V-FITC/PI using flow cytometry. From left to right, 48 h treatment with DMSO 1% (negative control), etoposide (positive control), and stigma ethanol extract of C. cancellatus subsp. damascenus. Statistical analysis of flow cytometry results was performed with three independent experiments. * * * P < 0.001 compared to control (DMSO 1%).
e activity of MMP-9 and MMP-2 in MDA-MB-231 cells. Following treatment of cells with DMSO 1% as a control, doxorubicin as a positive control, and stigmas ethanol extract of C. cancellatus subsp. damascenus, the extracellular medium was employed to investigate MMP-9 and MMP-2 activities by gelatin zymography. Quantification of each band is expressed as mean ± standard error of mean (n � 3). No significant difference was observed.
IC 50 values of the stigmas ethanol extract against MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 in monolayer (2D) and spheroid (3D) cultures.
Article
  • Raheleh ShakeriRaheleh Shakeri
  • Bahram SavariBahram Savari
  • Mahsa N. SheikholeslamiMahsa N. Sheikholeslami
  • [...]
  • Maliheh SafaviMaliheh Safavi
Safranal, crocin, crocetin, and picrocrocin are major known compounds in the stigma extract of Crocus sativus with various medicinal properties. Crocus cancellatus is another Crocus species that grows extensively in Iran’s various regions, such as the Kurdistan province. The predominant metabolites and biological properties of C. cancellatus have not yet been investigated. The ingredients of the stigma ethanol extract of C. cancellatus were investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The ROIMCR approach was performed to analyze the LC-MS full scan data sets. This method searches the MS regions of interest (ROI) data in the m/z domain and analyses the results using the multivariate curve-resolution alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) chemometrics technique for simultaneous resolution of two extracts. Also, the antiproliferative properties of C. cancellatus against MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cancer cells were examined by MTT, dual acridine orange/ethidium bromide test, Annexin V-FITC/PI, and zymography. The GC-MS and LC-MS untargeted metabolomics data analysis of the extract indicated the presence of cytotoxic agents including safranal, crocin, picrocrocin, and crocetin in the stigma ethanol extract of C. cancellatus. Biological tests showed that the viability of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cancer cells is decreased following C. cancellatus treatment in a time- and dose-dependent way in both monolayer and 3D cell cultures. The MCF-7 cell spheroids had greater resistance to the cytotoxic activity of the extract in 3D cell culture than the MDA-MB-231 cell spheroids. The morphological changes of the cells treated with C. cancellatus stigmas extract were indicative of apoptosis. Zymography analysis revealed a similar trend of matrix metallopeptidase-2 (MMP-2) and matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9) activity in the treated cells with C. cancellatus extract in comparison with doxorubicin treatment as a positive control. The findings of this research indicate that the ethanolic extract of C. cancellatus stigmas was a good source of bioactive metabolites with anticancer activity.
 
Qualitative phytochemical screening of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Olea africana.
Article
  • Kenneth Otieno OrengoKenneth Otieno Orengo
  • James Mucunu MbariaJames Mucunu Mbaria
  • Maingi NdichuMaingi Ndichu
  • [...]
  • Mitchel Otieno OkumuMitchel Otieno Okumu
Olea africana is used by some indigenous communities in Kenya to control gastrointestinal worms in animals. Plant-based anthelmintics are gaining popularity globally in the control of gastrointestinal worms in animals. The egg hatch inhibition assay was used to assess the in vitro anthelmintic efficacy of aqueous and ethanol leaf extracts of O. africana against the eggs of mixed gastrointestinal helminths in dogs. Probit regression was used to calculate the concentration of extracts that inhibited egg hatching by 50% (IC50). Albendazole was used as a control. Standard techniques were used to quantify the phytochemicals in the extracts. The aqueous extract had an IC50 of 1.85 mg/mL (1.64–2.10), and the ethanol extract had an IC50 of 0.25 mg/mL (0.23–0.26). Quantitative phytochemical analysis revealed that aqueous and ethanol extracts of O. africana contained alkaloids (19.40 and 61.60%), saponins (24.00 and 6.00%), phenols (0.95 and 1.28 mg/g gallic acid equivalents (GAE)), flavonoids (8.71 and 12.26 mg/g catechin equivalents (CE)), and tannins (67.30 and 76.30 mg/g of tannic acid equivalent (TAE)), respectively. O. africana has dose-dependent anthelmintic effects against mixed gastrointestinal worms in dogs. These findings support the traditional use of Olea africana as a treatment option for gastrointestinal worms in dogs.
 
Comparison of the incidence of adverse reactions between the two groups.
Comparison of disinfection qualiication of nurses (n(%)).
Comparison of job satisfaction of nurses (n(%)).
Article
  • Xiuyu CaiXiuyu Cai
  • Jun LiJun Li
  • Wen LiWen Li
Objective. A case-control study was conducted to explore the application value of PDCA cycle regulation combined with nursing label in nursing safety and quality regulation in disinfection supply centers. Methods. The medical staff in the disinfection supply center of our hospital from January 2020 to December 2020 and from January 2021 to December 2021 were included in the control group (routine nursing regulation, n = 13) and the research group (PDCA circulation nursing regulation, n = 13). The differences in quality evaluation, disinfection qualification, quality regulation effect, supply satisfaction, job satisfaction, safety awareness, and comprehensive operation skills of nursing staff were compared, and the application value of PDCA cycle regulation combined with nursing label in nursing safety and quality regulation of disinfection supply center was comprehensively analyzed. Results. The quality score of nursing staff, and quality evaluation in the study group was significantly higher than that in the control group, and the difference was statistically significant ( P < 0.05 ). The disinfection qualification rate of nurses in the research group was significantly higher, and the difference was statistically significant ( P < 0.05 ). The effect of device quality supervision in the study group was significantly improved, and the difference was statistically significant ( P < 0.05 ). The scores of various supervisions in the study group were significantly higher than those in the control group, and the difference was statistically significant ( P < 0.05 ). The safety recognition ability, risk prevention awareness, service awareness, and theory and operation scores of nurses in the study group were significantly higher than those in the control group, and the difference was statistically significant ( P < 0.05 ). The incidence of adverse events in the study group was lower, and the difference was statistically significant ( P < 0.05 ). The satisfaction of the research group was significantly higher than that of the control group, and the difference was statistically significant ( P < 0.05 ). Conclusion. In summary, the implementation of the PDCA cycle supervision method in the supervision of the sterile supply center in conjunction with the nursing logo is conducive to improving the quality of supervision and sterilization of all work aspects of the sterile supply center, reducing the occurrence of adverse nursing events and promoting the job satisfaction of nurses. In addition, it is conducive to standardizing the operational processes of staff, improving self-learning awareness enhancement, and improving work quality and efficiency.
 
Comparison of baseline data of two groups of pregnant women.
Comparison of the basic conditions of the two groups of pregnant women and newborns.
Correlation analysis of birth weight and 3D-PDU index.
Comparison of adverse pregnancy outcomes between the two groups of pregnant women.
Article
  • Yanju WangYanju Wang
  • Lihua LiangLihua Liang
  • Yingfeng LiuYingfeng Liu
  • [...]
  • Jie RenJie Ren
In this study, the application value of three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound (3D-PDU) in fetal growth restriction (FGR) is explored. The retrospective cohort study enrolled pregnant women (with a gestational week of 11–13 + 6 weeks) who received routine health care in the obstetrics and gynecology clinic of our hospital from January 2020 to January 2021. The placentae were scanned using 3D-PDU, and the subjects were followed up until delivery. The fetuses were divided into the control group (n = 322) and FGR group (n = 44) according to their birth weight. There was no significant difference in nuchal translucency (NT), crown-rump length (CRL), and placental volume (PV) during the first trimester between the two groups ( P > 0.05 ). Compared with the control group, the FGR group showed significantly lower levels of vascularisation index (VI), flow index (FI), and vascularisation flow index (VFI) and a higher incidence of fetal distress and neonatal asphyxia ( P < 0.05 ). The FGR group showed a longer gestational week at birth, a higher probability of cesarean section, and a lower 5-minute Apgar score than the control group ( P < 0.05 ). The VI, FI, and VFI of the control group were significantly higher than those of the FGR group. Pearson analysis showed that birth weight was positively correlated with VI and FI ( P < 0.05 ). 3D-PDU assesses the blood perfusion of the fetus and placenta in the first trimester and predicts the pregnancy outcome, which shows great potential in the early diagnosis of FGR.
 
Variable importance of random forest model for predicting the risk of death in white multiple myeloma (MM) patients. .e variable importance of random forests indicates which variables contributed the most to the final model.
Characteristics of included patients in the training set.
Univariate analysis between the survival group and the death group in the training set.
Article
  • Jian TaoJian Tao
  • Ling WangLing Wang
  • Liyu ZhangLiyu Zhang
  • [...]
  • Xiaodan ZhouXiaodan Zhou
The prognosis of multiple myeloma (MM) patients was poor in white-American patients as compared to black-American patients. This study aimed to predict the death of MM patients in whites based on the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. A total of 28,912 white MM patients were included in this study. Data were randomly divided into a training set and a test set (7 : 3). The random forest and 5-fold cross-validation were used for developing a prediction model. The performance of the model was determined by calculating the area under the curve (AUC) with 95% confidence interval (CI). MM patients in the death group had older age, higher proportion of tumor distant metastasis, bone marrow as the disease site, receiving radiotherapy, and lower proportion of receiving chemotherapy than that in the survival group (all P < 0.001 ). The AUC of the random forest model in the training set and testing set was 0.741 (95% CI, 0.740–0.741) and 0.703 (95% CI, 0.703–0.704), respectively. In addition, the AUC of the age-based model was 0.688 (95% CI, 0.688–0.689) in the testing set. The results of the DeLong test indicated that the random forest model had better predictive effect than the age-based model (Z = 7.023, P < 0.001 ). Further validation was performed based on age and marital status. The results presented that the random forest model was robust in different age and marital status. The random forest model had a good performance to predict the death risk of MM patients in whites.
 
Inflammatory factors of ND mice and T1DM mice with or without TBF treatment after four weeks of treatment.
Inflammatory factors of ND mice and T2DM mice with or without TBF treatment.
Article
  • Wenwen ChengWenwen Cheng
  • Cifeng CaiCifeng Cai
  • Ivan KreftIvan Kreft
  • [...]
  • Zhiyong LiaoZhiyong Liao
Tartary buckwheat flavonoids (TBFs) exhibit diverse biological activities, with antioxidant, antidiabetes, anti-inflammatory, and cholesterol-lowering properties. In this study, we investigated the role of TBFs in attenuating glucose and lipid disturbances in diabetic mice and hence preventing the occurrence of diabetes-related colon lesions in mice by regulating the gut microbiota. The results showed that TBFs (1) reversed blood glucose levels and body weight changes; (2) improved levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TGs), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and fasting insulin; and (3) significantly reduced diabetes-related colon lesions in diabetic mice. In addition, TBFs also affected the diabetes-related imbalance of the gut microbiota and enriched beneficial microbiota, including Akkermansia and Prevotella. The TBF also selectively increased short-chain fatty acid-producing bacteria, including Roseburia and Odoribacter, and decreased the abundance of the diabetes-related gut microbiota, including Escherichia, Mucispirillum, and Bilophila. The correlation analysis indicated that TBFs improved metabolic parameters related to key communities of the gut microbiota. Our data suggested that TBFs alleviated glucose and lipid disturbances and improved colon lesions in diabetic mice, possibly by regulating the community composition of the gut microbiota. This regulation of the gut microbiota composition may explain the observed effects of TBFs to alleviate diabetes-related symptoms.
 
Metabolic pathways in the sepsis-AW mouse model mapped to KEGG.
Differential metabolic markers in the muscle of sepsis-AW mouse.
Continued.
Article
  • Yikang JiangYikang Jiang
  • Qiang WeiQiang Wei
  • Wei LiuWei Liu
  • [...]
  • Chuanjiang WangChuanjiang Wang
Background/Aim. We aimed to identify the differentially expressing metabolites (DEMs) in the muscles of the mouse model of sepsis-induced acquired weakness (sepsis-AW) using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Materials and Methods. Sepsis by cecal ligation puncture (CLP) with lower limb immobilization was used to produce a sepsis-AW model. After this, the grip strength of the C57BL/6 male mice was investigated. The transmission electron microscopy was utilized to determine the pathological model. LC-MS was used to detect the metabolic profiles within the mouse muscles. Additionally, a statistically diversified analysis was carried out. Results. Compared to the sepsis group, 30 DEMs, including 17 upregulated and 13 down-regulated metabolites, were found in the sepsis-AW group. The enriched metabolic pathways including purine metabolism, valine/leucine/isoleucine biosynthesis, cGMP-PKG pathway, mTOR pathway, FoxO pathway, and PI3K-Akt pathway were found to differ between the two groups. The targeted metabolomics analysis explored significant differences between four amino acid metabolites (leucine, cysteine, tyrosine, and serine) and two energy metabolites (AMP and cAMP) in the muscles of the sepsis-AW experimental model group, which was comparable to the sepsis group. Conclusion. The present work identified DEMs and metabolism-related pathways within the muscles of the sepsis-AW mice, which offered valuable experimental data for diagnosis and identification of the pathogenic mechanism underlying sepsis-AW.
 
Article
  • Keke ZhangKeke Zhang
  • Zhou ZhouZhou Zhou
  • Chuchu WangChuchu Wang
  • [...]
  • Zhiyong LiuZhiyong Liu
Objective. To explore the molecular mechanism of the Cinnamomi ramulus and Paris polyphylla Sm. (C-P) drug pair in the treatment of adenomyosis (AM) based on network pharmacology and animal experiments. Methods. Via a network pharmacology strategy, a drug-component-target-disease network (D-C-T-D) and protein–protein interaction (PPI) network were constructed to explore the core components and key targets of C-P drug pair therapy for AM, and the core components and key targets were verified by molecular docking. Based on the results of network pharmacology, animal experiments were performed for further verification. The therapeutic effect of the C-P drug pair on uterine ectopic lesions was evaluated in a constructed AM rat model. Results. A total of 30 components and 45 corresponding targets of C-P in the treatment of AM were obtained through network pharmacology. In the D-C-T-D network and PPI network, 5 core components and 10 key targets were identified. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis showed that the PI3K signaling pathway was the most significantly enriched nontumor pathway. Molecular docking showed that most of the core components and key targets docked completely. Animal experiments showed that the C-P drug pair significantly ameliorated the pathological changes of endometriotic lesions in AM model rats and inhibited PI3K and Akt gene expression, and PI3K and Akt protein phosphorylation. In addition, treatment with the C-P drug pair promoted AM cell apoptosis; upregulated the protein expression of Bax, Caspase-3, and cleaved Caspase-9; and restrained Bcl-2 expression. Conclusions. We propose that the pharmacological mechanism of the C-P drug pair in the treatment of AM is related to inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway and promotion of apoptosis in AM ectopic lesions.
 
Comparison of proportions of survival, mortality, and giving treatment up.
Comparison of the prognosis of the two groups of patients.
Satisfaction on humanized nursing and routine nursing.
Article
  • Lili GanLili Gan
  • Jiafeng HuJiafeng Hu
  • Li XiaLi Xia
  • Xiaoqin XiXiaoqin Xi
This work aimed to explore the effect of humanized nursing on the patients’ recovery from severe sepsis based on continuous blood purification (CBP). 90 patients with severe sepsis were randomly and equally divided into a control group (basic intensive nursing + CBP) and a therapy group (humanized nursing + CBP). Before treatment and on the 7th and 14th days after treatment, indicators of patients were compared, including white blood cell (WBC), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), hepatic and renal function, C-reactive protein (CRP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), procalcitonin (PCT), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). The mortality and nursing satisfaction were compared. After treatment, the saturation of pulse oxygen (SPO2) in the therapy group (85 ± 20 and 91 ± 9) was higher than that in the control group (78 ± 28 and 82 ± 18, respectively), and the lactic acid level (LAL) was greatly lower (2.8 ± 2.4 and 1.6 ± 0.9 vs. 4.3 ± 2.3 and 2.3 ± 2.7). The Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE-II) score after treatment was lower (13.67 ± 4.28 and 8.45 ± 5.12 vs. 17.34 ± 6.4 and 11.46 ± 4.23). The BNP, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and CRP levels were decreased, and so did inflammatory indicators. The survival rate reached 71% and 47% in the therapy group and control group, respectively; and the nursing satisfaction was 97.80% and 26.67%, respectively. Humanized nursing combined with CBP could improve the therapeutic effect and speed up the recovery from severe sepsis.
 
Article
  • Ziming JiaZiming Jia
  • Yanhua ZhengYanhua Zheng
  • Shaohua FuShaohua Fu
  • [...]
  • Zhinan MeiZhinan Mei
Background. Shi-Wei-Gan-Ning-San (SWGNS) is a classic Tibetan prescription, which has obvious clinical effects in the treatment of viral hepatitis, fatty liver, liver fibrosis, liver cirrhosis, liver cancer, and other liver injuries. However, animal studies and mechanism studies are still lacking. This study aimed to investigate its hepatoprotective efficacy and pharmacological mechanism in animal experiments. Methods. Chronic liver injury was induced by oral administration of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in Wistar rats for 13 weeks. SWGNS was administered orally to rats at doses of 235, 705, and 1410 mg/kg for 13 weeks. Blood samples were collected for biochemical, ELISA, and radioimmunoassay. Livers were harvested for H&E and immunohistochemical staining. The major constituents of SWGNS were analyzed by HPLC. In vitro experiments were used to explore the protective effect of Crocin on BRL-3A in the environment of H2O2. Results. SWGNS reversed weight loss is induced by CCl4. Serum assays showed that SWGNS reduced CCl4-induced alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin, and γ-glutamyltransferase levels and increased the total protein and albumin levels. Histopathological evaluation showed that SWGNS alleviated hepatic steatosis, fibrosis, and inflammation. Furthermore, SWNGS reduced CCl4-induced elevations of TGF-β1, hyaluronic acid, laminin, and collagen IV in serum and reduced the high expression of α-SMA in tissues. Moreover, Crocin I and II are the main components of SWGNS. Crocin attenuated the damaging effects of H2O2 on BRL-3A. Conclusions. In conclusion, SWGNS alleviated CCl4-induced chronic liver injury by inhibiting the TGF-β1 pathway. This plays an important role in promoting traditional Tibetan medicine in clinical practice.
 
chemical structures of 14 compounds and ISs.
MDA and TNF-α levels in normal and model rats. ( * * P < 0.01).
Chromatogram of blank plasma samples, blank plasma + LLOQ samples, and plasma samples of rats obtained from 5 min after administration ((A) neochlorogenic acid, (B) chlorogenic acid, (C) cryptochlorogenic acid, (D) 3,4-diCQA, (E) 3,5-diCQA, (F) 4,5-diCQA, (G) columbianetin, (H) psoralen, (I) xanthotoxin, (J) bergapten, (K) columbianetin acetate, (L) isoimperatorin, (M) osthol, (N) columbianadin, (O) chloramphenicol, and (P) daidzein).
:e linear regression curve, correlation coefficient, and linear range of 14 compounds in rat plasma.
Article
  • Ajiao HouAjiao Hou
  • Huan YuHuan Yu
  • Song WangSong Wang
  • [...]
  • Hai JiangHai Jiang
An ultraperformance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was established to simultaneously determine 14 compounds of Angelicae pubescentis Radix (APR) in normal and arthritis rat plasma in which chloramphenicol and daidzein were used as the internal standards. After protein precipitation with acetonitrile, separation was carried out on a Thermo Hypersil GOLD C18 column using gradient elution with 0.1% formic acid aqueous and acetonitrile consisting as the mobile phase at a flowing rate of 0.3 mL/min. A Thermo TSQ QUANTIS triple quadrupole mass spectrometer was used to detect 14 compounds in positive/negative ion exchange mode and this study was the first to investigate the pharmacokinetic changes of the active compounds in rats under the pathological state of arthritis. The method was verified and the results showed that the intra- and interday precision, accuracy, matrix effect, and extraction recovery were all acceptable, and the analytes were stable under different storage conditions. In addition, the pharmacokinetic behaviors of the 14 compounds were significantly different in model rats compared with normal rats. This indicated that the pharmacokinetic behavior of drugs will vary with the pathological state of the body, which suggested that individualized and reasonable drug administration plans should be formulated for different pathological states in clinical practice. This study provided a scientific basis and data support for better understanding the pharmacodynamic substance basis and clinical application of APR against arthritis.
 
Effects of a single oral dose of 2000 mg/Kg hexane extract of Annona muricata leaves on mouse liver enzymes. .e unpaired twotailed t-test showed no significant difference between the control and test animals for ALT (alanine aminotransferase) (P � 0.17) and AST (aspartate aminotransferase) (P � 0. 96).
Minimum inhibitory concentrations of Annona muricata leaf extracts against multidrug-resistant Salmonella isolates.
Article
  • Moses Njutain NgemenyaMoses Njutain Ngemenya
  • Rodolph AsonganaRodolph Asongana
  • Denis ZofouDenis Zofou
  • [...]
  • Smith Borakaeyabe BabiakaSmith Borakaeyabe Babiaka
The treatment of Salmonella infections is threatened by multidrug resistance necessitating the search for alternative treatments, such as from medicinal plants. There are several reports on the antibacterial activity of Annona muricata. This study assessed the activity against multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella and also the toxicity of the leaves of this plant. The hexane and methanol extracts of the leaves were screened against characterized MDR isolates by disc diffusion and microdilution methods. A cytotoxicity test was performed on monkey kidney epithelial cells; an acute toxicity test was conducted in BALB/c mice and the liver and kidney functions were assessed at the end of the test. Both extracts recorded weak activity in the disc test. Conversely, the extracts showed a wide range of activity against specific Salmonella isolates in the microdilution assay, and the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration value recorded was 0.0625 mg/mL. The hexane extract (ANOHEX) was not cytotoxic (CC50 = 57.7 µg/mL) and was also not toxic to the mice at 2000 mg/Kg bodyweight, while the methanol extract (ANOMET) was cytotoxic (CC50 = 18.44 µg/mL), and mortality was recorded at 2000 mg/Kg but not at 300 mg/Kg. There were no significant changes in biomarkers of the liver (alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase) and kidney (creatinine and urea) functions P > 0.05 , except for ANOHEX which significantly decreased creatinine P = 0.01 , in the test mice which was not considered a toxic effect. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated high bacteriostatic activity against MDR Salmonella and a low risk of toxicity of A. muricata leaves. Hence, the leaves are a potential alternative treatment for resistant Salmonella infection. The natural products should be further investigated in vitro and in vivo.
 
General data.
Evaluation of clinical efficacy of the two groups (n, (%)).
Comparison of the incidence of adverse events between two groups (n (%)).
Article
  • Guiping WangGuiping Wang
  • Xiaokun LiuXiaokun Liu
  • Zimo GuoZimo Guo
  • [...]
  • Qi ZhangQi Zhang
Objective. To determine the influence of Entresto on clinical symptoms, ventricular remodeling (VR), and economic stress of patients with both acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and acute heart failure (AHF). Methods. Totally 120 patients with AMI complicated with AHF admitted to our hospital between January 2017 and August 2019 were enrolled and randomly assigned to an observation group (obs group) and a control group (con group) (each n = 60). The obs group was treated with Entresto, while the other with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI). After treatment, the efficacy on both groups was evaluated, and their cardiac function-associated indexes (left ventricular end-systolic diameter (LVESd), left ventricular end-diastolic dimension (LVEDd), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), VR-associated indexes (interventricular septal thickness (IVST), and left ventricular mass index (LVMI)) were determined and compared before treatment and after 1 month of treatment. Additionally, their NT-pro-BNP, CRP, and TNF-α were tested and compared before and after treatment, and they were also compared in hospitalization time, treatment expense, readmission rate within one year after discharge, and adverse events. Results. After treatment, the obs group showed notably higher efficacy than the con group ( P < 0.05 ). Before treatment, the two groups were not greatly different in LVESd, LVEDd, LVEF, IVST, LVMI, NT-pro BNP, CRP, and TNF-α (all P > 0.05 ), while after treatment, these indexes of both groups were improved, but the improvement in the obs group was more notable ( P < 0.05 ). Additionally, the hospitalization time, treatment expense, readmission rate one year after discharge, and incidence of adverse events in the obs group were notably lower (all P < 0.05 ). Conclusion. For patients with both AMI and AHF, Entresto can contribute to strong amelioration of their clinical symptoms and prognosis and ventricular reverse-remodeling, with a high safety, so it is worthy of clinical promotion.
 
Flow diagram of publication inclusion.
Study quality assessment of the included publications.
Article
Objective. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) on ovarian mass, weight, sex hormone disorders, and insulin resistance in animal models of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods. This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted through a comprehensive search in three databases to find studies testing CHM in animal models of PCOS. Two researchers independently reviewed the retrieval, extraction, and quality assessment of the dataset. The pooled effects were calculated using random-effect models; heterogeneity was explored through subgroup analysis; and stability was assessed through sensitivity analysis. In addition, publication bias was assessed using the Egger’s bias test. Results. Fifteen studies with twelve mice and 463 rats published from 2016 to 2021 met the inclusion criteria. The results of primary outcomes revealed that CHM therapy was significantly different with control animals in ovarian mass and testosterone (SMD, −1.01 (95% CI, −1.58, −1.45); SMD, −1.62 (95% CI, −2.07, −1.16), respectively). The secondary outcomes as well showed an overall positive effect of CHM compared with control animals in weight (SMD, −1.02 (95% CI, −1.39, −0.65)), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) (SMD, 0.58 (95% CI, 0.19, 0.97)), luteinizing hormone (LH) (SMD, −0.94 [95% CI, −1.25, −0.64)), homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (SMD, −1.24 (95% CI, −1.57, −0.92)). Subgroup analyses indicated that PCOS induction drug, formula composition, random allocation, and assessment of model establishment were relevant factors that influenced the effects of interventions. The stability of the meta-analysis was showed robust through sensitivity analysis. The publication bias was substantial. Conclusions. Administration with CHM revealed a statistically positive effect on ovarian mass, weight, sex hormone disorders, and insulin resistance. Moreover, these data call for further high-quality studies investigating the underlying mechanism in more depth.
 
Comparison of general information between the two groups.
VAT comparison between central and peripheral AVS patients.
Article
Objective. To evaluate the difference between the vestibular autorotation test (VAT) in the peripheral and central acute vestibular syndrome (AVS). Methodology. Patients with AVS diagnosed by clinical manifestation admitted to the third affiliated hospital of Qiqihar Medical College from January 2019 to January 2021 were enrolled and divided into peripheral AVS (peripheral group) and central AVS (central group) according to the results of the MRI examination. Results. A total of 332 patients with AVS were recruited, including 282 patients in the peripheral group and 50 patients in the central group. The horizontal gain of both groups showed a downward trend at 2–6 Hz. There was no significant change in the horizontal phase between the two groups at 2–6 Hz. The horizontal gain of the two groups was stable at 2–6 Hz with no significant changes in the horizontal phase between 2–6 Hz in both groups. The central group showed a significantly lower proportion of gain increase coupled with loss and a strikingly higher proportion of gain increase without a loss than in the peripheral group (all P < 0.001 ). Conclusion. The increased horizontal and vertical gain of VAT in patients with AVS is of high value in the diagnosis of ACS. Significant differences in the results of VAT in patients with central and peripheral AVS could provide a reference for diagnosis.
 
Article
Global and antigen-independent immunosuppression by growing tumours can cause life-threating damage when concurrent with an infection in tumour-bearing hosts. In the present study, we investigated whether the oral administration of the Japanese traditional herbal (Kampo) medicine, juzentaihoto (JTT), plays a role in the improvement of antiviral cellular immunity in tumour-bearing hosts. Female BALB/c mice subcutaneously injected with murine colorectal cancer CT26 cells fed a control or JTT diet were inoculated with recombinant vaccinia virus expressing human immunodeficiency virus-1 glycoprotein 160 (vSC25). At 7 days postinfection, anti-vSC25 cellular immunity was evaluated by measuring the abundance of splenic virus-specific CD8+ T cells. JTT had no impact on CT26 tumour growth in vivo. Surprisingly, JTT augmented anti-vSC25 cellular immunity in CT26-bearing mice. Depletion of either CD25+ regulatory T (Treg) cells or myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) also enhanced anti-vSC25 cellular immunity in tumour-bearing mice but had no therapeutic benefit against tumour growth. However, JTT had no impact on the abundance of these immunosuppressive cells. Overall, our data indicates that JTT contributes to the improvement of anti-vSC25 cellular immunity in tumour-bearing hosts possibly via a mechanism independent of CD25+ Treg cells and MDSCs, suggesting that this Kampo medicine can act as a promising antiviral adjuvant in an immunosuppressive state caused by tumours.
 
Article
Objective. Osteoarthritis (OA), also known as joint failure, is characterized by joint pain and, in severe cases, can lead to loss of joint function in patients. Immune-related genes and immune cell infiltration play a crucial role in OA development. We used bioinformatics approaches to detect potential diagnostic markers and available drugs for OA while initially exploring the immune mechanisms of OA. Methods. The training set GSE55235 and validation set GSE51588 and GSE55457 were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified by the limma package. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was performed on the GSE55235 dataset using the cluster profiler package. At the same time, DEGs were analyzed by gene ontology (GO) and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). In addition, protein-protein interaction (PPI) analysis was performed on the common DEGs of the three datasets using the STRING database. Proteins with direct linkage were identified as hub genes, and the relation of hub genes was subsequently analyzed using the GOSemSim package. Hub genes’ expression profiles and diagnostic capabilities (ROC curves) were analyzed and validated using three datasets. In addition, we performed RT-qPCR to validate the levels of hub genes. The immune microenvironment was analyzed using the CIBERSORT package, and the relationship between hub genes and immune cells was evaluated. In addition, we used a linkage map (CMAP) database to identify available drug candidates. Finally, the GSEA of hub genes was used to decipher the potential pathways corresponding to hub genes. Results. Three hub genes (CX3CR1, MYC, and TLR7) were identified. CX3CR1 and TLR7 were highly expressed in patients with OA, whereas the expression of MYC was low. The results of RT-qPCR validation were consistent with those obtained using datasets. Among these genes, CX3CR1 and TLR7 can be used as diagnostic markers. It was found that CX3CR1, MYC, and TLR7 affect the immune microenvironment of OA via different immune cells. In addition, we identified a potential drug for the treatment of OA. Altogether, CX3CR1, MYC, and TLR7 affect the immune response of OA through multiple pathways. Conclusion. CX3CR1, MYC, and TLR7 are associated with various immune cells and are the potential diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets for OA.
 
Article
Objective. Based on a retrospective cohort study, the study aims to investigate the effects of adipose plasma transfusion compared with normal plasma transfusion on adverse transfusion reactions, important functional indicators, and clinical safety in patients with parenteral nutrition (PN). Methods. One hundred and twenty inpatients who needed PN and plasma transfusion in Xianning Central Hospital from September 1, 2021, to March 31, 2022, were enrolled as the actual application verification cases. All the patients in the group noticed the informed consent form, and the normal plasma transfusion was set as the control group (n = 40), and the fat plasma transfusion was set as the study group. Mild adipose plasma transfusion was adopted in study group ① and moderate adipose plasma transfusion was used in study group ②, 40 cases in each group. The blood routine tests, blood lipids, blood coagulation, liver function tests, and the incidence of adverse reactions of blood transfusion were compared. Results. The comparison results of platelet count, red blood cell count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit among the three groups are as follows: study group ②> study group ①> control group ( P < 0.05 ).The levels of blood lipids in the three groups, triglyceride, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, and low density lipoprotein were compared in group ②>group ①>control group ( P < 0.05 ).The liver function tests indexes of the three groups were compared: ALT, AST, LDH: study ②<study ①<control group; ALP: study ②>study ①>control group. Regarding the incidence of adverse transfusion reactions, the incidence of adverse transfusion reactions in the study group was lower than in the control group ( P < 0.05 ). Conclusion. Compared with normal plasma transfusion, the inpatients who need PN and plasma transfusion can effectively use the scrapped mild and moderate fatty plasma and reduce the plasma scrap rate. In the meantime, it has little effect on the function of the important indexes of the patients, and the incidence of adverse reactions of blood transfusion is low and the safety is high. Infusion of adipose plasma can also improve the effective individual and rational utilization of blood products. Trial registration: This trial is registered with chiCTR220005918.
 
Article
Objective. To analyze the health status of thyroid function in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer cured with PD-1 antibody and to explore the risk factors of thyroid dysfunction. Methods. 100 patients from Hunan Provincial People’s Hospital with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer hospitalized from January 2021 to March 2022 were selected. All patients were treated with a PD-1 antibody. The differences in sex, age, operation history, chemotherapy history, radiotherapy history, and thyroid nodules between patients with abnormal thyroid function and normal thyroid function after treatment were compared. Moreover, the risk factors of thyroid dysfunction were analyzed. Results. The proportion of women in the normal thyroid function group was lower compared to the abnormal thyroid function group. And the proportion of patients with the course of the disease within 1 year in the normal thyroid function group was higher compared to the abnormal thyroid function group. The incidence of thyroid color ultrasound nodules in the normal thyroid function group was remarkably higher compared to the abnormal thyroid function group ( P < 0.05 ). The proportion of patients with nodules in the abnormal thyroid function group was remarkably higher compared to the normal thyroid function group. Among the 36 patients who developed abnormal thyroid function, the incidence of hyperthyroidism (hyperthyroidism) and subclinical hyperthyroidism (subclinical hyperthyroidism) was 33.33%. The incidence of hypothyroidism (hypothyroidism) and hypothyroidism (subclinical hypothyroidism) was 66.66%. The cumulative incidence rates after 3 cycles, 6 cycles, and 12 cycles were 63.88%, 83.33%, and 94.44%, respectively. T4 and FT3 levels decreased more than the normal group following therapy. The results showed that females, course of disease more than one year, and thyroid nodule were independent risk factors of thyroid dysfunction. Conclusion. Female gender, disease duration of more than 1 year, and thyroid nodules were independent risk factors for thyroid dysfunction after PD-1 antibody therapy. Therefore, clinical treatment should focus on patients with the above factors, and early intervention should be implemented to avoid the occurrence of thyroid dysfunction after PD-1 antibody treatment.
 
Article
Peptic ulcer is a universal condition that is a public health problem due to its prevalence, risk of complications and socioeconomic impact. This study aimed to determine the antiulcer effect of the hydroalcoholic extract from Senna multiglandulosa leaves against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Thirty-six male albino Holtzman rats were assigned to six groups. Group I received physiological saline (PS) at doses of 10 mL/kg; group II: ethanol (PS + ethanol 5 mL/kg); group III; omeprazole 100 mg/kg/day (gold standard); groups IV, V and VI received doses of 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day of S. multiglandulosa extract, respectively. The stomach was removed to determine the ulcerative lesions and two sections of the glandular zone to carry out the analysis of the gastric mucus and sulfhydryl groups content. As result, S. multiglandulosa at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg produced a significant decrease of the injured area, with values of 46.28 ± 7.95 mm2 and 6.91 ± 2.48 mm2, respectively ( P < 0.001 ). The protective effect was showed at dose of 500 mg/kg (92.27%) and a significant increase in the production of mucus with a value of 83.13 ± 13.09 mg/mL/g of tissue (61.14%). The production of nonprotein sulfhydryl groups (NP-SG) also increased significantly at the three evaluated doses, being 250.34 ± 21.16 μg/g tissue at dose of 500 mg/kg (119.94%). It is concluded that S. multiglandulosa extract protected against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer due to increased gastric mucus secretion and its antioxidant activity due to the generation of nonprotein sulfhydryl groups.
 
Article
Objective. The determination of miRNA-mRNA pairs for intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD) regulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines were investigated. Methods. Two dataset (accession number GSE27494 and GSE41883 from platform GPL1352) of expression profiling was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). The annulus cells were isolated from annulus fibrosus in patients with degenerative disc disease. The cells were then cultured in a three-dimensional (3D) collagen containing with/without proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) or interleukin beta (IL-1β)). After being cultured for 14 days, the isolated total RNA was analyzed via microarray, and the expression array data were obtained using BRB-Array Tools followed by analyzing the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and the prediction of potential miRNA targets of hub genes through online database. Results. Firstly, 52 and 296 DEGs were found in IL-1β- and TNF-α-induced annulus cells, respectively, of these there had 42 common DEGs (co-DEGs) with 34 increased transcripts and 8 reduced ones. Based on the GO and KEGG software, these co-DEGs were mainly enriched in the response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and molecule of bacterial origin, the regulation of receptor ligand activity and signaling receptor activator activity, as well as the following signaling pathways, including TNF signaling pathway, IL-17 signaling pathway, and NF-κB signaling pathway. Top hub genes (CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL8, IL1Β and PTGS2) regulated by several potential microRNAs were involved in TNF-α/IL-1β treated annulus cells. Conclusions. Several candidate genes regulated by miRNAs caused by TNF-α/IL-1β in the annulus cells were found, which will guide diagnosis and treatment for degenerative disc disease.
 
Primary solitary bone tumor and tumor-like lesion-type metastases of the iliac crest.
X-ray, CT, and MRI diagnosis: missed diagnosis rate and misdiagnosis rate.
Diagnostic value of X-ray, CT, and MRI.
X-ray, CT, and MRI diagnosis: positive predictive value and negative predictive value.
Article
Objective. To explore the imaging diagnostic value of primary solitary bone tumor and tumor-like lesion of iliac crest. Methods. A total of 156 patients with primary solitary bone tumors and tumor-like lesions of the iliac bone treated in our hospital were selected, and the patients were diagnosed by X-ray, CT, and MRI. Sexual analysis of single diagnostic and combined diagnostic value was carried out. Results. Round high-density shadow, soft tissue mass shadow, soft tissue mass, right intestinal tube, and bladder obvious pressure were observed. The detection rates of giant cell tumor of bone, myeloma, osteochondroma, chondroma, eosinophilic granuloma, osteosarcoma, fibrous dysplasia, and Hodgkin lymphoma were 34.6%, 12.8%, 11.5%, 10.3%, 7.7%, 6.4%, 3.8%, and 2.6%, and the differences were statistically significant (P < 005); X-ray, CT, MR single diagnostic comparison, three methods joint diagnostic missed diagnosis rate and misdiagnosis rate, higher detection rate ( P < 0.05 ); combined with X-ray, CT, MR single diagnosis, three methods joint diagnosis sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, statistical significance ( P < 0.05 ); comparison with X-ray, CT, MR single diagnosis, three methods jointly diagnosed positive predictive value, negative predictive value higher, difference statistics significance ( P < 0.05 ); there is a significant difference in the near-end, backbone, and distal detection rate of different bone tumors and tumor lesions, including the humerus and tibia. There is a statistical significance of the detection rate, and the difference is P < 0.05 . Conclusion. X-ray plays an important role in the diagnosis of primary solitary bone tumor and tumor-like lesion of iliac crest and is the first choice in clinical diagnosis. In the diagnosis of tumor disease, range, and soft tissue mass, MRI and CT diagnostic value can provide effective theoretical basis for patient clinical treatment. Therefore, the appropriate diagnostic method should be selected according to the specific situation of the patient, so that the efficiency of the clinical feature is improved.
 
Overall process of animal experiment.
Composition of experimental diet.
:e list of various components analyzed in ALM16.
Article
The present study aimed to evaluate the antiobesity potential and synergistic effects of ALM16, a mixture of Astragalus membranaceus (AM) and Lithospermum erythrorhizon (LE) extracts, in HFD-induced obese mice. C57BL/6 mice were fed a normal diet (ND), high-fat diet (HFD), HFD + AM, HFD + LE or HFD + ALM16 (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) daily for 5 weeks. Compared to the ND group, HFD-fed mice showed significant increases in body weight, food efficiency ratio, weights of white adipose tissues, adipocytes size, liver weight, and hepatic steatosis grade. However, ALM16 significantly reduced those increases induced by HFD. Moreover, as compared to the HFD group, the ALM16 group significantly ameliorated serum levels of lipid profiles (TG, TC, HDL, and LDL), adipokines (leptin and adiponectin), and liver damage markers (AST and ALT levels). Notably, ALM16 was more effective than AM or LE alone and had a similar or more potent effect than Garcinia cambogia extracts, as a positive control, at the same dose. These results demonstrate that ALM16 synergistically exerts anti-obesity effects based on complementary interactions between each component. Also, metabolic profiling between each extract and the ALM16 was confirmed by UPLC-QTOF/MS, and the difference was confirmed by relative quantification.
 
:e chemical components of Peitu Shengjin Recipe in the positive mode.
:e chemical components of Peitu Shengjin Recipe in the negative mode.
Continued.
Article
Background. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common respiratory disease, but there is no specific medicine for COPD. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of Peitu Shengjin Recipe (PSR) and Biostime Probiotic Powder on COPD rats. Methods. UPLC-Q/TOF-MS was used to detect the chemical constituents in PSR. The COPD rat model was established by cigarette smoke combined with tracheal injection of lipopolysaccharide. We assessed lung function by calculating FEV0.3/FVC%, dynamic lung compliance (Cdyn), and resistance of inspiration (RI). Histological analysis was performed by HE staining. The levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-4, and IL-10 were detected by the ELISA. The mRNA and protein expressions of the TLR4/NF-kB signaling pathway were detected by the qRT-PCR and western blotting, respectively. Results. There were 53 ESI+ and 50 ESI− components in PSR. After high-dose PSR treatment, FEV0.3/FVC% and Cdyn increased significantly, while RI decreased. Compared with the COPD model, the RI of the Biostime Probiotic Powder group was significantly lower. HE staining showed that the inflammatory cell infiltration was reduced to varying degrees, the bronchial tube wall was not thickened, and the alveoli were relatively intact after treatment with PSR and Biostime Probiotic Powder. Compared with the model group, the levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-4, and IL-10 in the PSR group and the Biostime Probiotic Powder group were reversed. The mRNA and protein expressions of TLR4 and NF-kB were significantly decreased after PSR and Biostime Probiotic Powder treatment. Conclusion. Our findings suggest that PSR and Biostime Probiotic Powder have protective effects on COPD rats, which may be achieved by modulating the TLR4/NF-kB signaling pathway.
 
Article
Objective. This study was designed to understand the local changes of burn injuries in recent 10 years, so as to provide reliable reference data and viewpoints for prevention and vigilance of local burn injuries. Methods. In this study, 184 patients with a burn injury admitted to our hospital from 2012 to 2021 were enrolled and analyzed retrospectively. According to their information in the electronic database, the number of patients with burn injuries and the location of each disaster each year were analyzed, and the age, sex, hospital stay and hospitalization expense of each patient were collected. With 5 years as the boundary, the patients were divided into a 2012–2016 group and a 2017–2021 group and the differences of the two groups in the abovementioned aspects were compared. Results. During 2012–2021, the incidence rate of burn injuries in men was higher than that in women and workplaces had a higher burn injury rate than residents’ homes. Compared with the period of 2012–2016, the number of fires or explosions and the number of patients with a burn injury during 2017–2028 both increased, but there was no significant change in disaster location, male-female ratio, age, average hospital stay, and average hospitalization expense. Conclusion. In the face of the increasing prevalence of burn injuries, we should strengthen fire-fighting knowledge-related education and fire prevention management and actively explore post-burn injury treatment strategies and potential treatment targets to promote the development of burn injury management and treatment strategies.
 
Article
Background. Multiple system and organ damage occurs with the continuous progression of primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS), and the lack of specific drugs against this disease is a huge challenge. White peony (WP), a widely used traditional Chinese herb, has been confirmed to have a therapeutic value in pSS. However, the specific mechanisms of WP in the treatment of pSS are unknown. Methods. The active ingredients and their targets in WP were searched on the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform (TCMSP), and disease-related targets were collected from GeneCards, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), and the Therapeutic Target Database (TTD). The overlapping targets were acquired by taking the intersection. A protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was structured using the STRING database. A disease-drug-ingredient-target (D-D-I-T) network was built using Cytoscape software. By filtering twice, core targets were acquired. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia Gene and Genome (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis were accompanied by R packages. Finally, molecular docking was used to verify the abovementioned results. Results. In total, we screened 88 WP-related targets, 1480 pSS-related targets, and 32 overlapping targets. D-D-I-T Network analysis displayed six main active ingredients of WP, which played a significant therapeutic role in pSS. Further topological analysis selected seven core target genes, including IL-6, TNF, PPARγ, AKT1, CASP3, NOS3, and JUN. GO and KEGG analysis were used to elucidate pharmacological mechanisms, mainly acting in the AGE-RAGE signaling pathway. Molecular docking proved that paeoniflorin bound well with core targets. Conclusion. Our study revealed that IL-6, TNF, AKT1, CASP3, NOS3, and JUN may be pathogenic target genes, and PPARγ may be a protective target gene. The main active ingredients of WP mainly played a therapeutic role via the AGE-RAGE signaling pathway. These findings provide a fundamental and theoretical basis for the clinical application of WP.
 
Article
Purpose. The research aims to investigate the mechanism of action of aspirin in the treatment of Kawasaki disease. Methods. We predicted the targets of aspirin with the help of the Drugbank and PharmMapper databases, the target genes of Kawasaki disease were mined in the GeneCards and Disgenet databases, the intersection targets were processed in the Venny database, and the gene expression differences were observed in the GEO database. The Drugbank and PharmMapper databases were used to predict the target of aspirin, and the target genes of Kawasaki disease were explored in the GeneCards and Disgenet databases, and the Venny was used for intersection processing. We observed the gene expression differences in the GEO database. The disease-core gene target-drug network was established and molecular docking was used for verification. Molecular dynamics simulation verification was carried out to combine the active ingredient and the target with a stable combination. The supercomputer platform was used to measure and analyze the binding free energy, the number of hydrogen bonds, the stability of the protein target at the residue level, the radius of gyration, and the solvent accessible surface area. Results. Aspirin had 294 gene targets, Kawasaki disease had 416 gene targets, 42 intersecting targets were obtained, we screened 13 core targets by PPI; In the GO analysis, we learned that the biological process of Kawasaki disease involved the positive regulation of chemokine biosynthesis and inflammatory response; pathway enrichment involved PI3K-AKT signaling pathway, tumor necrosis factor signaling pathway, etc. After molecular docking, the data showed that CTSG, ELANE, and FGF1 had the best binding degree to aspirin. Molecular dynamics was used to prove and analyze the binding stability of active ingredients and protein targets, and Aspirin/ELANE combination has the strongest binding energy. Conclusion. In the treatment of Kawasaki disease, aspirin may regulate inflammatory response and vascular remodeling through CTSG, ELANE, and FGF1.
 
Article
Background. Biejiajian pill (BJJP), a classical traditional Chinese formula, has been reported that it has an effective treatment for diabetic atherosclerosis in recent years, but its underlying mechanisms remain elusive. The study aimed to explore the potential mechanisms of BJJP on diabetic atherosclerosis by integrating network pharmacology, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics simulation. Methods. The active components of BJJP were collected by TCMSP and TCMID, and then the potential targets were obtained from the SwissTargetPrediction database. The targets related to diabetic atherosclerosis were identified from the GeneCards and OMIM databases. The intersection of the potential targets regulated by active components of BJJP and the targets of diabetic atherosclerosis were common targets, which were visualized by the Venn diagram. The common targets were imported into the STRING database to construct a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. The network of “Medicine-Compound-Target” was constructed with Cytoscape 3.7.1 software. GO functional enrichment analysis and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis were performed using the DAVID database and visualized through bioinformatics. The intersecting targets were input into Cytoscape 3.7.1 software, and the Network Analyzer tool was employed to screen out the key targets. Then molecular docking was used to verify the binding affinity between the active compounds and the key targets, and molecular dynamics simulation was used to investigate the stability of the binding models. Results. A total of 81 active components, 186 targets of BJJP, and 4041 targets of diabetic atherosclerosis were obtained. Furthermore, 121 overlapping targets were identified. GO functional enrichment analysis revealed that these targets were correlated with the oxidation-reduction process, negative regulation of apoptotic process, inflammatory response, and other biological processes. The results of the KEGG pathway enrichment analysis showed that the common targets mainly participated in proteoglycans in cancer, PPAR signaling pathway, adherens junction, insulin resistance, HIF-1 signaling pathway, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, etc. The results of molecular docking confirmed that the core active components in BJJP could bind well to the key targets. Results from molecular dynamics simulation showed that the binding energies of AKT1-Luteolin, MMP9-quercetin, and MMP9-luteolin complexes were −28.93 kJ·mol−1, −37.12 kJ·mol−1, and −62.91 kJ·mol−1, respectively. Conclusion. The study revealed that BJJP is characterized as multicomponent, multitarget, and multipathway to treat diabetic atherosclerosis, which is helpful to provide ideas and a basis for pharmacological research and clinical application in the future.
 
Article
Objective. Brain metastasis (BM) is associated with a high mortality in patients with breast cancer (BC). Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms of BM in BM remain uncertain. The study aims to identify the key genes in BC in relation to BM and to assess their prognostic value. Methods. Two microarray datasets GSE125989 and GSE100534 were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between primary BC and BM samples. The function enrichment analysis and protein-protein interaction (PPI) network were performed. We mapped hub genes into the Kaplan–Meier database for their correlations with BC survival. Results. Venn diagram analysis showed an overlapped upregulated DEG and 18 overlapped downregulated ones between primary BC and BM samples. We constructed the PPI network, and top 5 hub genes were sorted out according to the node degree, including type I collagen α1 chain (COL1A1), lumican (LUM), type III collagen α1 chain (COL3A1), type V collagen α2 chain (COL5A2), and periosteal protein (POSTN). The Kaplan–Meier database analysis found that COL1A1, COL3A1, and POSTN were significantly correlated with overall survival of BC patients. Conclusion. The study suggests that COL1A1, COL3A1, and POSTN may be key genes associated with BM in patients with BC.
 
3D and 2D representations of the best key interaction between isolated phytochemicals and selected enzyme (Phytol with M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, linolenic acid with urate oxidase, phytol with glutaminase domain of glucosamine 6-phosphate synthase and oleic acid with the crystal structure of human cytochrome P450 2C9).
:e quantitative analysis of total phenol content of B. lacera extracts.
:e binding affinity of the screened phytochemicals and standard drugs to the selected proteins.
:e antimicrobial activity of B. lacera extracts and standard against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains.
Article
Blumea lacera (Burm.f.) DC., popular for its traditional use in di erent diseases, was employed in phytochemical and biological investigations. e chemical studies led to the isolation of acyclic diterpene-phytol (1) along with two fatty acids-linolenic acid (2) and oleic acid (3). All the structures were determined by 1 H NMR spectroscopic analysis and rst time reported from this plant. Di erent fractions of crude methanol extract were subjected to antioxidant, cytotoxicity, antimicrobial, and antidiarrheal assays. e molecular docking studies have been implemented using PyRx, UCSF Chimera, Discovery Studio, and online tools. In addition, e ADME/T analysis and PASS prediction were implemented by using PASS online tools. In the molecular docking study of antioxidant, cytotoxicity, antimicrobial, and antidiarrheal activity, the compounds showed strong binding a nity ranging from −4.5 to −6.2 kcal/mol. Again, all three isolated compounds met the preconditions of Lipinski's ve rules for drug discovery. In DPPH free radical scavenging assay, the pet-ether and chloroform soluble fraction showed noteworthy antioxidant activity sowing promising IC 50 values (10.76 μg/ml and 11.77 μg/ml, respectively), compared to the standard (6.05 μg/ml) with a total phenolic content range of 7.33-40.33 mg of GAE/gm. e pet-ether soluble fraction revealed substantial cytotoxicity showing an LC 50 value of 1.03 μg/ml, compared to the standard (0.93 μg/ml). Besides, ethyl acetate soluble fraction showed moderate activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, while both ethyl acetate and pet-ether soluble fraction showed excellent dose-dependent antidiarrheal activity.
 
Article
Objective. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of swallowing rehabilitation training with a balloon dilation therapy on the deglutition function and quality of life of patients with dysphagia after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods. The study was a retrospective study. The data of the 100 patients with dysphagia after NPC radiotherapy in our hospital between April 2021 and April 2022 were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were separated into the control group (n = 50) and experimental group (n = 50) according to their different treatments that were balloon dilation for the former and balloon dilation with swallowing rehabilitation training for the latter. The deglutition function, which was comprehensively evaluated by Kubota’s water swallow test and assessments of penetration/aspiration and pharyngeal residue, and quality of life were compared between the two groups. Results. The scores of Kubota’s water swallow test, penetration aspiration scale (PAS), and Yale pharyngeal residue severity rating scale (YPR-SRS) in the experimental group after treatment were (2.04 ± 0.66), (2.92 ± 1.07), and (2.42 ± 0.90), respectively, which were remarkably lower than (2.58 ± 0.78), (4.38 ± 1.51), and (2.78 ± 0.86) in the control group, with distinct differences in the data between both the groups ( P < 0.05 ). The quality of life of patients in the experimental group was distinctly better than that in the control group ( P < 0.001 ). Conclusion. Swallowing rehabilitation training in combination with a balloon dilation therapy can improve the deglutition function in patients with dysphagia after NPC radiotherapy as well as their quality of life, with a clinical application value.
 
Article
Objective. To explore the effect of vitamin AD drops on growth retardation in children. Methods. From February 2020 to February 2021, 100 children with constipation and recurrent respiratory infections treated in our hospital were assigned to a vitamin AD drops group and intramuscular thymosin group, with 50 cases in each group. Outcome measures included mean height, body mass index (BMI), frequency of respiratory infections, increase in height and BMI, growth retardation, clinical effectiveness, immune function, medication compliance, and adverse responses. Results. The vitamin AD drops group showed higher mean height (t = 5.958, P < 0.05 ), greater body mass (t = 3.997, P < 0.05 ), and less frequency of respiratory infections than the intramuscular thymosin group (t = 26.564, P < 0.05 ). The vitamin AD drops group resulted in a lower ratio of height increase of >1 cm and a higher ratio of >2 cm as compared with the intramuscular thymosin group (χ2 = 8.167, P < 0.05 ). The vitamin AD drops group showed a lower ratio of weight gain of 0 and > 1 kg and a higher ratio of >2 kg versus the intramuscular thymosin group (χ2 = 4.058, P < 0.05 ). Vitamin AD drops resulted in a significantly lower growth retardation rate than intramuscular thymosin administration (χ2 = 5.530, P < 0.05 ). The vitamin AD drops group yielded markedly higher treatment efficiency in contrast to the intramuscular thymosin group (Z = 2.111, P < 0.05 ). The levels of CD3+CD4+, CD3+CD8+, CD4/CD8, IgA, IgG, and IgM in the two groups of patients after medication were higher than those before medication ( P < 0.05 ), with higher levels in the vitamin AD drops group compared with the intramuscular thymosin group ( P < 0.05 ). The vitamin AD drops group showed remarkably higher medication compliance in patients versus the intramuscular thymosin group (Z = 2.239, P < 0.05 ). The vitamin AD drops group experienced a significantly lower incidence of adverse reactions (χ2 = 4.396, P < 0.05 ). Conclusion. Vitamin AD drops are more effective than the intramuscular injection of thymosin in reducing the incidence of growth retardation in children.
 
Article
Background. The application of virtual reality (VR) in clinical settings is growing rapidly, with encouraging results. As VR has been introduced into complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), a systematic review must be undertaken to understand its current status. Aim. This review aims to evaluate and summarize the current applications of VR in CAM, as well as to explore potential directions for future research and development. Methods. After a brief description of VR technology, we discuss the past 20 years of clinical VR applications in the medical field. Then, we discuss the theoretical basis of the combination of VR technology and CAM, the research thus far, and practical factors regarding usability, etc., from the following three main aspects: clinical application, teaching, and scientific research. Finally, we summarize and propose hypotheses on the application of VR in CAM and its limitations. Results. Our review of the theoretical underpinnings and research findings to date leads to the prediction that VR and CAM will have a significant impact on future research and practice. Conclusion. Although there is still much research needed to advance the science in this area, we strongly believe that VR applications will become indispensable tools in the toolbox of CAM researchers and practitioners and will only grow in relevance and popularity in the era of digital health.
 
Article
Objective. To investigate the efficacy of donepezil hydrochloride plus olanzapine for senile dementia and its effect on the recovery of cognitive function. Methods. A total of 60 patients with senile dementia admitted to our hospital from April 2020 to July 2021 were recruited and assigned to receive either olanzapine alone (observation group) or donepezil hydrochloride plus olanzapine (experimental group) via the random number table method, with 30 patients in each group. Results. The combined therapy resulted in significantly higher clinical efficacy versus monotherapy of olanzapine ( P < 0.05 ). Before treatment, the difference in the scores of cognitive function between the two groups did not come up to the statistical standard ( P > 0.05 ). Donepezil hydrochloride plus olanzapine was associated with significantly higher scores of cognitive function in patients versus olanzapine alone ( P < 0.05 ). The two groups had a similar incidence of adverse reactions ( P > 0.05 ). Conclusion. Donepezil hydrochloride plus olanzapine substantially enhances the recovery of cognitive function of patients with senile dementia and features a manageable safety. Further trials are, however, required prior to clinical promotion.
 
Article
Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of fluticasone and salmeterol dry powder in treating patients with bronchial asthma and its effects on inflammatory factors and pulmonary function. Methods. One hundred patients with bronchial asthma, admitted to our hospital between April 2019 and June 2020, were enrolled and assigned into two groups using the random number table method. The observation group (n = 50) received budesonide powder, and the experimental group received fluticasone and salmeterol dry powder. The two groups were compared with regard to clinical efficacy, inflammatory factors, pulmonary function, and adverse reactions. Results. In the experimental group, the total effective rate of treatment was significantly higher than that in the observation group ( P < 0.05 ); after treatment, the levels of inflammatory factors in the experimental group were lower than those in the observation group ( P < 0.05 ); after treatment, lung function in the experimental group was significantly higher than that in the observation group ( P < 0.05 ); the incidence of adverse reactions in the experimental group was significantly lower than that in the observation group ( P < 0.05 ). Conclusion. Salmeterol and fluticasone powder has shown impressive clinical benefits in the treatment of bronchial asthma patients. It might be a viable approach to reduce inflammatory factors and improve pulmonary function. Moreover, its good clinical safety profile makes it a promising treatment that ought to be promoted and used widely.
 
Article
Objective. To systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of Huangqin Tang (HQT) combined with mesalazine for the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). Methods. The China Knowledge Network, Wanfang Data, VIP, PubMed, SinoMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of UC with HQT in Chinese and English. The search time was from the establishment of the database to October 2021. The included literature was evaluated for data extraction and risk of bias, efficacy and safety were evaluated using the RevMan5.3 software, and the quality of evidence was evaluated using GRADE. Results. Six studies with a total of 565 subjects were included, and a meta-analysis showed that HQT combined with mesalazine for UC significantly improved the cure rate (RR = 1.56, 95% CI [1.23, 1.98), P = 0.0003 ) and overall efficacy rate (RR = 1.24, 95% CI [1.14, 1.35], P = 0.00001 ), which significantly reduced the clinical symptom scores; however, all had high heterogeneity. HQT combined with mesalazine modulated the patients’ serum IL-6, IL-10, IgA, and IgG levels. HQT combined with mesalazine for UC tended to reduce adverse effects; however, the difference was not statistically significant. All GRADE ratings of the quality of evidence were of low quality. Conclusions. HQT combined with mesalazine in the treatment of UC significantly improved the cure rate and overall treatment efficiency and regulated the expression levels of serum IL-6, IL-10, IgA, and IgG.
 
Article
Objective. Present study mainly explored the effect of miR-216b-5p on experimental optic neuritis and mechanism. Methods. Female C57BL/6 mice were utilized to establish the EAE model. miR-216b-5p expression was measured by RT-qPCR. Protein expression was evaluated via western blot. Inflammatory infiltration score was analyzed by HE staining. Visual function was assessed by measuring the OKR. Flow cytometry assay was conducted to measure the percentage of IL-17 cells. ELISA was utilized to evaluate the immune factor. Results. The EAE mouse model was successfully established. The EAE score of mice began to increase in EAE group after 11 days of MOG35-55 and CFA immunization. The degree of inflammatory cell infiltration in EAE mice was higher than that in normal mice. Compared with normal mice, the number of microglia and astrocytes was raised in EAE mice. miR-216b-5p expression was obviously declined and FAS expression was obviously raised in EAE. Compared with NC group, demyelination scores and axonal loss were markedly declined in miR-216b-5p mimic group. IL-17A concentration and the percentage of IL-17 cells were obviously declined in miR-216b-5p mimic group. FAS was predicted to be regulated by miR-216b-5p by TargetScan, and luciferase reporter assay confirmed this prediction. In addition, overexpression of FAS exacerbated experimental optic neuritis by promoting the inflammatory response and Th17 cell differentiation, and miR-216b-5p reversed this effect. Conclusions. miR-216b-5p downregulated FAS and inhibited the progression of experimental optic neuritis via promoting the inflammatory response and Th17 cell differentiation.
 
Article
Dendrobium officinale is a traditional Chinese medicine for treating gastrointestinal diseases by nourishing “Yin” and thickening the stomach lining. To study whether D. officinale endophytes can colonize the intestinal tract and regulate gut microbiota in mice, we used autoclave steam sterilizing and 60Co-γ radiation to eliminate D. officinale endophytes from its juice. Then, high-throughput ITS1-ITS2 rDNA and 16S rRNA gene amplicons were sequenced to analyze the microbial community of D. officinale endophytes and fecal samples of mice after administration of fresh D. officinale juice. Sterilization of D. officinale juice by autoclaving for 40 min (ASDO40) could more effectively eliminate the D. officinale endophytes and decrease their interference on the gut microbiota. D. officinale juice could increase beneficial gut microbiota and metabolites including short-chain fatty acids. D. officinale endophytes Pseudomonas mosselii, Trichocladium asperum, Titata maxilliformis, Clonostachys epichloe, and Rhodotorula babjevae could colonize the intestinal tract of mice and modulate gut microbiota after oral administration of the juice for 28 days. Thus, the regulatory effect of D. officinale juice on gut microbiota was observed, which provides a basis for inferring that D. officinale endophytes might colonize the intestinal tract and participate in regulating gut microbiota to treat diseases. Thus, this study further provides a new approach for the treatment of diseases by colonizing plant endophytes in the intestinal tract and regulating gut microbiota.
 
Article
Background. Inflammatory responses are involved in ischemic injuries and cardiac repair after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Dectin-2 is a C-type lectin receptor that induces cytokine production and promotes local inflammatory responses. Methods. Sixty C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to a sham-surgery group, AMI group, or AMI + etanercept group, with 20 mice in each group. Programmed electrical stimulation (PES) was used to anesthetized mice to induce ventricular tachycardia. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blot analysis were adopted to determine the expression and distribution of dectin-2 in heart tissues. The tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-gamma (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL) 4, and IL-5 levels in the serum were determined using ELISAs. Results. The expression of dectin-2 and TNF-α was increased in the myocardium in AMI, and the susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmia (VA) was increased. The induction rate of VA was significantly decreased by etanercept. Compared with those in the sham-surgery group, the AMI group showed significantly higher serum TNF-α and IFN-γ levels and lower IL-4 and IL-5levels. Conclusion. Dectin-2 intensifies the activation of the TNF-α immune reaction through the Th1 differentiation, which may increase vulnerability to VA in AMI.
 
Article
Objective. To explore the efficacy of risperidone orally disintegrating tablets combined with oxazepam in the treatment of schizophrenia. Methods. From May 2019 to May 2021, 60 patients with schizophrenia treated in our hospital were recruited and assigned into an observation group (risperidone orally disintegrating tablets combined with oxazepam treatment) and a control group (alprazolam combined with chlorpromazine treatment) according to the random number table method. The positive and negative symptom score (PANSS), quality of life score (QOL-75), ability of daily living score (ADL), clinical efficacy, incidence of adverse reactions, and disease recurrence were compared between the two groups before and after treatment. Results. The PANSS scores were similar in the two groups before treatment ( P > 0.05 ). The two groups presented a declining trend in PANSS score after treatment, whereas a remarkable lower score in the observation group was observed ( P < 0.05 ). The QOL scores of the two groups of patients before treatment was not significantly different ( P > 0.05 ). Both groups witnessed improvements one month and three months after treatment, with considerable improvements being obtained in the observation group (all P < 0.05 ). The two groups did not differ in ADL scores before treatment ( P > 0.05 ). At 1 month and 3 months after treatment, the ADL scores of the two groups were improved, with a higher score in the observation group ( P < 0.05 ). The observation group had a markedly higher total effective rate as compared to the control group (X2 = 5.455, P = 0.020 ). Adverse reaction occurred in both groups, with milder results in the observation group. The recurrence rate of the two groups was not statistically different one month after treatment ( P > 0.05 ), while two and three months after treatment, they were lower than those of the control group (all P < 0.05 ). Conclusion. Risperidone orally disintegrating tablets combined with oxazepam shows potential in the treatment of schizophrenia by relieving patients’ mental symptoms, improving quality of life and activities of daily living, and minimizing the incidence of adverse reactions.
 
Article
Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of calcium carbonate-vitamin D3 in pregnant women for the prevention of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. Methods. Between April 2020 and June 2021, 60 pregnant women undergoing prenatal examinations in our hospital were recruited and assigned via the random number table method at a ratio of 1 : 1 to receive conventional pregnancy care (observation group) or conventional pregnancy care plus calcium carbonate-vitamin D3 administration (experimental group). Outcome measures included blood pressure, blood calcium, the occurrence of hypertensive disorders, and adverse events. Results. The diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) levels at delivery in the experimental group were significantly lower than those in the observation group ( P < 0.05 ). Pregnant women in the experimental group had significantly higher blood calcium levels at labor than those in the observation group ( P < 0.05 ). The administration of calcium carbonate-vitamin D3 resulted in a significantly lower incidence of hypertensive disorders and adverse events versus conventional pregnancy care ( P < 0.05 ). Conclusion. The effect of calcium carbonate-vitamin D3 administration during pregnancy for the prevention of hypertensive disorders is significant, which effectively improves the blood calcium level of pregnant women and reduces the occurrence of adverse events, so it is worthy of clinical promotion and application.
 
Article
Objective. To observe the protective effect of gynostemma glycosides on retinal ganglion cells in rats with chronically high intraocular pressure. Materials and Methods. A total of 60 rats were randomly divided into group A (the blank group, 10 rats) and chronic high IOP model group (50 rats). The IOP model group (IOP above 22 mmHg) was then randomly divided into an additional 5 groups (10 rats per group): group B (negative control group) treated with normal saline; group C treated with gynostemma glycosides 25 mg/(kg-d); group D treated with gynostemma glycosides 50 mg/(kg-d); group E treated with gynostemma glycosides 100 mg/(kg-d); and group F (positive control group) treated with VitB1 and VitB12. The eyes of each rat were monitored from day 1 to 14 (D1–D14). On day 14, rats were euthanized, after which retinal tissue and optic nerve were examined using real-time PCR, western blot, HE staining, LFB staining, and TUNEL assay. Results. Groups A, C, D, E, and F had significantly lower expression of CD11b, GFAP, Brn3α, and more TUNEL cells than in group B (all P < 0.05 ). Moreover, the relative expression of STAT3 mRNA and JAK2 (mRNA and protein) in groups A, C, D, E, and F was significantly lower than in group B ( P < 0.05 ), while in group E, the expression was lower than in group D ( P < 0.05 ). Conclusion. Gynostemma glycosides protect retinal ganglion cells in rats with chronically high intraocular pressure possibly associated with the STAT3/JAK2 signaling pathway.
 
Article
Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a serious health problem associated with an increase in risk factors for hepatic steatosis, which is the most common liver disease today. e goal of this study was to investigate the protective e ects of resveratrol against metabolic alterations associated with a high-fat high-fructose diet (HFFD). irty-two male rats were randomly divided into four equal groups: control (cont.), metabolic syndrome (MS), resveratrol (Res), and metabolic syndrome treated with resveratrol (MS + Res). Resveratrol was administrated orally at a dose of 30 mg/kg·bw, daily. After 10 weeks, body weight, serum biochemical parameters, hepatic oxidative stress, in ammatory markers, as well as mRNA levels of hepatic genes related to lipid metabolism and insulin signaling were measured. In addition, the liver was examined histopathologically to detect lipid deposition. Increased body weight, hepatic dysfunction, dyslipidemia, hepatic insulin resistance, hepatic oxidative and in ammatory stress conditions, upregulation of mRNA expression level of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1-c (SREBP1-c), and downregulation of mRNA expression levels of peroxisome proliferated activated receptor alpha (PPARα) and insulin receptor substrate-2 (IR-S2) were all observed in the MS rats. Hepatic steatosis was con rmed by hematoxylin and eosin and Oil Red O staining. Administration of resveratrol reduced liver steatosis, oxidative stress, and in ammatory state. Also, it improved lipid pro le as well as insulin sensitivity and reverted alterations in hepatic mRNA expression levels of the tested genes. Based on these ndings, resveratrol could be proposed as a therapeutic approach for MS prevention.
 
Article
Objective. To summarize the commonalities and particularities of comfort care interventions for neurology and general surgery patients. Methods. The development of comfort care and its practical application in neurology and general surgery were discussed and summarized by searching the current literature on comfort care interventions for neurology and general surgery patients, including case reports, clinical studies, and systematic reviews. Results. Comfort nursing intervention is a kind of nursing intervention with integrity and creativity. In addition to its uniqueness, the comfort nursing model also has strong effectiveness. Clinical holistic nursing has been significantly improved through the application of comfort nursing intervention theory, and its nursing mode has enhanced the connotation of clinical nursing. Conclusion. Comfort nursing intervention for neurology and general surgery patients can help patients recover and deserves further promotion.
 
Article
Background. Asthma is a disease with airway hyperresponsive and airway inflammation. Platycodin D is a triterpenoid saponin extracted from Platycodon grandiflorus root, which has various pharmacological activities. The study mainly explored the effects of platycodin D3 (PD3) in airway remodeling and inflammation of asthma. Methods. The ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma mice were given PD3 (20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg, and 80 mg/kg) in different groups. The asthma mice administrated with dexamethasone (DXM) were enrolled as the positive control group, and the normal control mice and asthma model mice separately received the same volume of saline. Mouse airway lung dynamic compliance (Cdyn) and total airway resistance (RL) were measured by the EMKA animal lung function analysis system. The inflammation factor levels were estimated by ELISA. Histopathological changes were tested by HE and PAS staining. The protein and phosphorylation levels of NF-κBp65, p38, ERK1/2, and JNK1/2 were detected by Western blot. Results. In asthmatic mice, PD3 enhanced the airway Cdyn and decreased RL to improve the airway hyperreactivity and alleviated the pathological injury of lung tissues. In addition, PD3 could reduce the infiltration of inflammatory cells in BALF and suppress the levels of eotaxin, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, IFN-γ, and IgE. Furthermore, PD3 treatment inhibited the phosphorylation of NF-κBp65, p38, ERK1/2, and JNK1/2 proteins in asthma mice. Conclusion. PD3 treatment alleviated the airway remodeling and inflammation in asthmatic mice, which might be related to downregulating the phosphorylated proteins in the MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathway.
 
Article
Objective. To evaluate the diagnostic value of combined detection of color Doppler flow imaging (CDFI) and serum C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels for neonatal pneumonia. Methods. In this prospective study, 30 newborns with pneumonia and 30 healthy newborns in our hospital from January 2019 to January 2020 were recruited. The healthy newborns were assigned to the control group, and the newborns with pneumonia were assigned to the experimental group. All subjects underwent CDFI and measurement of the levels of serum CRP, PCT, and IL-6. The serum indices and imaging results of the two groups were analyzed, and the specificity and sensitivity of different detection methods in the diagnosis of neonatal pneumonia were calculated and analyzed. Results. The levels of serum CRP, PCT, and IL-6 in the experimental group were significantly higher than those in the control group ( P < 0.001 ). Combined detection had a larger detection area, higher sensitivity, and a superior overall detection outcome than single detection ( P < 0.05 ). The diagnostic results of combined detection and clinical diagnosis in 30 newborns with pneumonia were similar ( P > 0.05 ). Conclusion. The combined detection of CDFI and serum CRP, PCT, and IL-6 levels in the diagnosis of neonatal pneumonia shows a promising diagnostic outcome, so it is worthy of clinical application.
 
Article
Exosomes derived from human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) play potential protective roles in asthma. However, the underlying mechanisms remain not fully elucidated. Herein, exosomes were isolated from BMSCs, and the morphology, particle size, and exosome marker proteins were identified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), and Western blot, respectively. Then airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) were treated with transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) to construct a proliferation model and then incubated with BMSCs-derived exosomes. We found that exosome incubation increased miR-221-3p expression and inhibited proliferation, migration, and the levels of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins including fibronectin and collagen III. Moreover, FGF2 was identified as a target gene of miR-221-3p. FGF2 overexpression reversed the inhibitory effects of exosomal miR-221-3p on ASMC progression. Besides, the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) is inhibited by exosomal miR-221-3p, which was reversed by FGF2 overexpression. And ERK1/2 signaling activator reversed the effects of exosomal miR-221-3p on ASMC progression. Additionally, an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthmatic mice model was established, and exosome treatment alleviated airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR), histopathological damage, and ECM deposition in asthmatic mice. Taken together, our findings indicated that exosomal miR-221-3p derived from BMSCs inhibited FGF2 expression and the ERK1/2 signaling, thus attenuating proliferation, migration, and ECM deposition in ASMCs and alleviating asthma progression in OVA-induced asthmatic mice. Our findings may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for asthma.
 
Journal metrics
17 days
Submission to first decision
84 days
Submission to final decision
21 days
Acceptance to publication
25%
Acceptance rate
$2,550
APC
2.650 (2021)
Journal Impact Factor™
3.2 (2021)
CiteScore
Top-cited authors
Gerhard Litscher
  • Medical University of Graz
Jie Wang
Edwin L. Cooper
  • University of California, Los Angeles
Kam-Ming Ko
  • The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
Fabio Firenzuoli
  • University of Florence