Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Published by Hindawi
Online ISSN: 1741-4288
Print ISSN: 1741-427X
Discipline: Alternative Medicine & Complementary Therapies
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Aims and scope

Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (eCAM) is an international, peer-reviewed journal that seeks to understand the sources and to encourage rigorous research in this new, yet ancient world of complementary and alternative medicine. The journal seeks to apply scientific rigor to the study of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) modalities, particularly traditional Asian healing systems. eCAM emphasizes health outcome, while documenting biological mechanisms of action. The journal is devoted to the advancement of science in the field of basic research, clinical studies, methodology or scientific theory in diverse areas of Biomedical Sciences. The journal does not consider articles on homeopathy.

Recent publications
Background: The regulation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) by genetic factors in T2DM and DFU still requires thorough investigation. Hence, the present study was aimed to investigate the association of VEGF +405 G/C in DFU subjects and correlate with its circulatory levels, infection severity and amputation rate. Materials & Methods:This study registered a total of 754 participants of which group I: Healthy controls (n = 297), group II: T2DM subjects (n = 242), group III: DFU subjects (n =215). Genotyping and levels of rs2010963 was analysed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) andELISA, respectively. Results:Results of the current study showed a clear decline in the circulatory VEGF-A levels in DFU subjects. VEGF-A was decreased in DFU subjects with mutant “CC” genotype. The mutant“CC” of VEGF +405G/C was also found to be more susceptible for ulcer grade (III & IV) and Major amputations. Conclusion:VEGF +405G/C SNP is associated with levels, infection severity and amputation amongst South Indian DFU patients. Key words: Circulatory VEGF, Diabetic Foot Ulcer, Genotyping, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms, South Indian Population, Biochemical Investigation and Gene Expression. Highlights of the study: 1). The mutant ‘CC’ genotype of VEGF +405G/C Ser338Phe (rs2010963) SNP exhibited a significant risk towards T2DM and DFU. 2). VEGF-A levels were significantly decreased among DFU subjects, when compared to T2DM. Further, VEGF-A was declined in DFU patients with mutant “CC” than the wild “GG” genotype. 3) The mutant genotype “CC” of VEGF +405G/C was found to be more susceptible for ulcer grade (III & IV) and Major amputations (Below and Above Knee amputations).
Gastric cancer (GC) is a common digestive tract tumor. Due to its complex pathogenesis, current diagnostic and therapeutic effects remain unsatisfactory. Studies have shown that KLF2, as a tumor suppressor, is downregulated in many human cancers, but its relationship and role with GC remain unclear. In the present study, KLF2 mRNA levels were significantly lower in GC compared to adjacent normal tissues, as analyzed by bioinformatics and RT-qPCR, and correlated with gene mutations. Tissue microarrays combined with immunohistochemical techniques showed downregulation of KLF2 protein expression in GC tissue, which was negatively correlated with patient age, T stage, and overall survival. Further functional experiments showed that knockdown of KLF2 significantly promoted the growth, proliferation, migration, and invasion of HGC-27 and AGS GC cells. In conclusion, low KLF2 expression in GC is associated with poor patient prognosis and contributes to the malignant biological behavior of GC cells. Therefore, KLF2 may serve as a prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target in GC.
The Acanthopanax senticosus has been shown to have a wide range of pharmacological activities, which are associated with health benefits, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic properties. A previous study has shown that the n-butanol fraction of A. senticosus extract had the strongest antioxidant effect in vitro. This study aimed to investigate the effects that the n-butanol fraction of A. senticosus extract could relieve oxidative stress damage through antioxidant and antiapoptotic in the H2O2-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages and the CCl4-induced liver injury. The result showed that the n-butanol fraction extract could relieve damage by increasing the intracellular antioxidant enzymes (SOD) level, decreasing intracellular ROS and MDA levels, and regulating antioxidant and antiapoptotic-related gene expression levels. The morphological observation of HE, TUNE, and immunohistochemistry staining of liver tissue verified that the n-butanol fraction extract is though anti-oxidative and antiapoptotic to alleviate cellular oxidative damage. The RT-PCR assay showed that the Keap1-Nrf2-ARE and the Bax/Bcl-2 signaling pathway were related to the molecular mechanism of action. The experimental results show that Acanthopanax senticosus extract has a good effect in treating liver injury and enhancing the antioxidant capacity of the body.
Objective: The aim of the study was to use a network pharmacological method and experimental validation to examine the mechanism of Scutellaria baicalensis (SB) against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: The traditional Chinese medicine systems pharmacology database and analysis platform (TCMSP) and GeneCards were used for screening of targets of SB for the treatment of HCC. Cytoscape (3.7.2) software was used to construct the "drug-compound-intersection target interaction" interaction network. The STING database was used to analyze the interactions of the previous intersecting targets. The results were visualized and processed by performing GO (Gene Ontology) enrichment analysis and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) signaling pathway enrichment analysis at the target sites. The core targets were docked with the active components by AutoDockTools-1.5.6 software. We used cellular experiments to validate the bioinformatics predictions. Results: A total of 92 chemical components and 3258 disease targets including 53 intersecting targets were discovered. The results showed that wogonin and baicalein, the main chemical components of SB, could inhibit the viability and proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cells, promote apoptosis through the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, and effectively act on AKT1, RELA, and JUN targets. Conclusion: SB has multiple components and targets in the treatment of HCC, providing possible potential targets for the treatment of HCC and providing a basis for further research.
The biochemical effects of swimming exercise and thymoquinone (5 mg/kg BW) against microcystin-LR (10 μg/kg BW/day) on inflammatory markers, Columns (means ± SD) with different superscripts show significant differences (p<0.05) between groups.
The protective effects of swimming exercise and thymoquinone (5 mg/kg BW) against microcystin-LR (10 μg/kg BW/day) on hepatic tissue MDA malondialdehyde, NO nitric oxide, GSH reduced glutathione, GSH-PX glutathione peroxidase, and SOD superoxide dismutase, CAT catalase. Columns (means ± SD) with different superscripts show significant differences (p<0.05) between groups.
The protective effects of swimming exercise and thymoquinone (5 mg/kg BW) against microcystin-LR (10 μg/kg BW/day) on renal tissue MDA malondialdehyde, NO nitric oxide, GSH reduced glutathione, GSH-PX glutathione peroxidase, SOD superoxide dismutase, and CAT catalase. Columns (means ± SD) with different superscripts show significant differences (p<0.05) between groups.
The protective effects of swimming exercise and thymoquinone (5 mg/kg BW) against microcystin-LR (10 μg/kg BW/day) on cardiac tissue MDA malondialdehyde, NO nitric oxide, GSH reduced glutathione, GSH-PX glutathione peroxidase, SOD superoxide dismutase, and CAT catalase. Columns (means ± SD) with different superscripts show significant differences (p<0.05) between groups.
A summary figure for the protective effects of swimming exercise and thymoquinone (5 mg/kg BW) against microcystin-LR(10 μg/kg BW/day).
Microcystin-leucine-arginine (MCLR) is the most abundant cyanotoxin produced by cyanobacteria. It induces potent cytotoxicity through oxidative stress and DNA damage. Thymoquinone (TQ) is a natural nutraceutical antioxidant derived from black cumin (Nigella sativa). Physical exercise (EX) improves whole-body metabolic homeostasis. Therefore, this study examined the protective role of swimming exercise and TQ against MC-induced toxicity in mice. Fifty-six healthy adult male albino mice (25–30 g) were randomized into seven groups; group (I) was the negative control and received oral physiological saline for 21 days; group (II) received water EX for 30 min daily; group (III) was intraperitoneally injected with TQ (5 mg/kg daily, for 21 days); group (IV) was intraperitoneally administered MC (10 μg/kg daily, for 14 days) and acted as the positive toxic control; group (V) was treated with MC and water EX; group (VI) was injected with MC and TQ; finally, group (VII) was treated with MC with TQ and water EX. In comparison with the control group, the results showed hepatic, renal, and cardiac toxicity in the MCLR-treated group, indicated by a significant increase ( p < 0.05 ) in serum levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT), cholesterol, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase-myocardial band (CK-MB), urea, creatinine, interleukin-6, interleukin -1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels. In addition, there were significant elevations ( p < 0.05 ) in malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) levels and a significant decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in hepatic, cardiac, and renal tissues. Treatment with either TQ or water EX significantly improved (p < 0.05) the MC-induced toxicity with superiority of the TQ group in the restoration of normal ranges; however, cotreatment with both TQ and swimming EX showed the most improvement and restoration to normal ranges as a result of increasing EX clinical efficacy by TQ.
Objective: TP73-AS1 can promote the occurrence and development of a variety of tumors, including colorectal cancer (CRC). The current study aimed to investigate the association between a potentially functional genetic polymorphism (rs3737589 T > C) on the TP73-AS1 gene and the susceptibility and clinical stage of CRC in a Chinese Han population. Methods: The polymorphic genotyping was performed by the SNaPshot method. The real-time quantitative PCR method and the luciferase assay were used separately to explore genotype-tissue expression and the function of the genetic polymorphism. Results: A total of 576 CRC patients and 896 healthy controls were included in the current study. The rs3737589 polymorphism was not associated with CRC susceptibility but was associated with the CRC stage (CC vs. TT: OR = 0.25, 95% CI = 0.12 - 0.54, P=0.0003; C vs. T: OR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.53-0.89, P=0.006; and CC vs. (TC + TT): OR = 0.26, 95% CI = 0.12-0.56, P=0.0004). CRC patients carrying the rs3737589 CC genotype or C allele were less likely to have stage III/IV tumors than those carrying the rs3737589 TT genotype or T allele. The expression of TP73-AS1 was lower in CRC tissues with the rs3737589 CC genotype compared to those with the TT genotype. Bioinformatics analysis and the luciferase assay revealed that the C allele could promote the binding of miR-3166 and miR-4771 to TP73-AS1. Conclusion: The TP73-AS1 gene rs3737589 polymorphism affecting miRNAs binding is associated with the CRC stage and may serve as a biomarker for predicting CRC progression.
Paclitaxel is a primary chemotherapy agent that displays antitumor activity against a variety of solid tumors. However, the clinical efectiveness of the drug is hampered by its nephrotoxic and cardiotoxic side efects. Tus, this investigation aimed at assessing the protective efects of rutin, hesperidin, and their combination to alleviate nephrotoxicity caused by paclitaxel (Taxol), cardiotoxicity in male Wistar rats, as well as oxidative stress. Rutin (10 mg/kg body weight), hesperidin (10 mg/kg body weight), and their mixture were given orally every other day for six weeks. Rats received intraperitoneal injections of paclitaxel twice weekly, on the second and ffth days of the week, at a dose of 2 mg/kg body weight. In paclitaxel-treated rats, the treatment of rutin and hesperidin decreased the elevated serum levels of creatinine, urea, and uric acid, indicating a recovery of kidney functions. Te cardiac dysfunction in paclitaxel-treated rats that got rutin and hesperidin treatment also diminished, as shown by a substantial reduction in elevated CK-MB and LDH activity. Following paclitaxel administration, the severity of the kidney and the heart's histo-pathological fndings and lesion scores were markedly decreased by rutin and hesperidin administration. Moreover, these treatments signifcantly reduced renal and cardiac lipid peroxidation while markedly increased GSH content and SOD and GPx activities. Tus, paclitaxel likely induces toxicity in the kidney and the heart by producing oxidative stress. Te treatments likely countered renal and cardiac dysfunction and histopathological changes by suppressing oxidative stress and augmenting the antioxidant defenses. Rutin and hesperidin combination was most efcacious in rescuing renal and cardiac function as well as histological integrity in paclitaxel-administered rats.
Background: The role of Corydalis decumbens (CD) in macrophage activation remains unclear, particularly in the Ras homolog family member A (RhoA) signaling pathway. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of CD on the viability, proliferation, morphological changes, migration, phagocytosis, differentiation, and release of inflammatory factors and signaling pathways in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Methods: Cell counting kit-8 and water-soluble tetrazolium salt assays were used to evaluate the viability and proliferation of RAW264.7 macrophages. A transwell assay was examined to assess cell migration. The ingestion of lumisphere assay was employed to detect the phagocytic capacity of macrophages. Phalloidin staining was performed to observe morphological changes in the macrophages. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to quantify inflammation-related cytokines in cell culture supernatants. Cellular immunofluorescence and western blotting were adopted to show the expression of inflammation-related factors, biomarkers of M1/M2 subset macrophages, and factors of the RhoA signaling pathway. Results: We found that CD increased the viability and proliferation of RAW264.7 macrophages. CD also impaired the migration and phagocytic capacity of macrophages, induced anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage polarization, such as M2-like morphological changes, and upregulated M2 macrophage biomarkers and anti-inflammatory factors. We also observed that CD inactivated the RhoA signaling pathway. Conclusions: CD mediates the activation of LPS-stimulated macrophages, alleviates the inflammatory responses of macrophages, and activates related signaling pathways induced by LPS.
This study investigated changes in neurotransmitters induced by the application of electroacupuncture (EA) at Zusanli (ST36) and Neiguan (PC6). A total of 30 rats were divided into five groups: sham, ST (EA at bilateral ST36 and ST37), ScT (ST plus previous neurectomy of the bilateral sciatic nerves), ScS (sham plus previous neurectomy of the bilateral sciatic nerve), and PC (EA at bilateral PC6 and PC7). The P2X2 receptor expression was stronger in the sham group than in the ST and PC groups (both p<0.05) but similar between the sham and ScT groups p>0.05. Dopamine levels in the extracellular fluid surrounding the acupoints were higher in the PC group than in the sham and ST groups during the postacupuncture period (both p<0.05). Glutamate levels in the extracellular fluid surrounding the acupoints were higher in the ST group than in the sham group during the acupuncture period p<0.05 and higher in the ST group than in the sham and PC groups during the postacupuncture period (both p<0.05). Serum adrenaline and noradrenaline levels were higher in the PC group than in the sham, ST, and ScT groups (all p<0.05). Glutamate levels in the CSF were higher in the ST group than in the sham, ScS, and PC groups (all p<0.05). GABA levels in the CSF were higher in the ST group than in the sham, ScT, and PC groups (all p<0.05). EA at ST36 and ST37 and PC6 and PC7 exerted an analgesic effect, EA at PC6 and PC7 can enhance heart function, and EA at ST36 and ST37 modulates the cerebral cortex. However, the study needs an evaluation of direct pain behavior, heart function, and brain function in the future.
Background: Negative regional lymph nodes do not indicate a lack of distant metastasis. A considerable number of patients with negative regional lymph node pancreatic cancer will skip the step of regional lymph node metastasis and directly develop distant metastasis. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the clinicopathological characteristics of patients with negative regional lymph node pancreatic cancer and distant metastasis in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database from 2010 to 2015. Multivariate logistic analysis and Cox analysis were used to determine the independent risk factors that promoted distant metastasis and the 1-, 2-, and 3-year cancer-specific survival in this subgroup. Results: Sex, age, pathological grade, surgery, radiotherapy, race, tumor location, and tumor size were significantly correlated with distant metastasis (P < 0.05). Among these factors, pathological grade II and above, tumor site other than the pancreatic head, and tumor size >40 mm were independent risk factors for distant metastasis; age ≥60 years, tumor size ≤21 mm, surgery, and radiation were protective factors against distant metastasis. Age, pathological grade, surgery, chemotherapy, and metastasis site were identified as predictors of survival. Among them, age ≥40 years, pathological grade II and above, and multiple distant metastasis were considered independent risk factors for cancer-specific survival. Surgery and chemotherapy were considered protective factors for cancer-specific survival. The prediction performance of the nomogram was significantly better than that of the traditional American Joint Committee on Cancer tumor, node, metastasis staging system. We also established an online dynamic nomogram calculator, which can predict the survival rate of patients at different follow-up time points. Conclusion: Pathological grade, tumor location, and tumor size were independent risk factors for distant metastasis in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma with negative regional lymph nodes. Older age, smaller tumor size, surgery, and radiotherapy were protective factors against distant metastasis. A new nomogram that was constructed could effectively predict cancer-specific survival in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma with negative regional lymph nodes and distant metastasis. Furthermore, an online dynamic nomogram calculator was established.
Objective: To assess the clinical efficacy of Huangkui capsule plus methylprednisolone for immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy and its effect on renal function and serum inflammatory factors. Methods: A total of 80 patients with IgA nephropathy admitted to our hospital from April 2019 to December 2021 were recruited and assigned (1 : 1) to receive either conventional drugs + methylprednisolone tablets (observation group) or conventional drugs + methylprednisolone tablets + Huangkui capsules (experimental group), with 40 patients in each group. Outcome measures included clinical efficacy, renal function indices, serum inflammatory factor levels, and adverse events. Results: The experimental group showed a significantly higher clinical efficacy versus the observation group (P < 0.05). Patients in the experimental group had significantly lower serum creatinine, serum urea nitrogen, fibrinogen, and 24 h urine protein levels than those in the observation group after treatment (P < 0.05). After treatment, the experimental group showed lower levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) than the observation group (P < 0.05). The differences in the adverse events between the two groups did not come up to the statistical standard (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Huangkui capsule + methylprednisolone provides a feasible therapeutic option for IgA nephropathy by considerably boosting patients' renal function, successfully lowering the inflammatory response, and producing a good safety profile.
Xuelian, as a traditional Chinese ethnodrug, plays an important role in anti-inflammation, immunoregulation, promoting blood circulation, and other physiological functions. It has been prepared into different traditional Chinese medicine preparations for clinical use, with xuelian koufuye (XL) being widely used to treat rheumatoid arthritis. However, whether XL can relieve inflammatory pain and its analgesic molecular mechanism are still unknown. The present study explored the palliative effect of XL on inflammatory pain and its analgesic molecular mechanism. In complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammatory joint pain, oral XL dose-dependently improved the mechanical withdrawal threshold of inflammatory pain from an average value of 17.8 g to 26.6 g (P<0.05) and high doses of XL significantly reduced inflammation-induced ankle swelling from an average value of 3.1 cm to 2.3 cm compared to the model group (P<0.05). In addition, in carrageenan-induced inflammatory muscle pain rat models, oral XL dose-dependently improved the mechanical withdrawal threshold of inflammatory pain from an average value of 34.3 g to 40.8 g (P<0.05). The phosphorylated p65 was inhibited in LPS-induced BV-2 microglia and spinal cord of mice in CFA-induced inflammatory joint pain within a value of 75% (P<0.001) and 52% reduction (P<0.05) on average, respectively. In addition, the results showed that XL could effectively inhibit the expression and secretion of IL-6 from an average value of 2.5 ng/ml to 0.5 ng/ml (P<0.001) and TNF-α from 3.6 mg/ml to 1.8 ng/ml with IC50 value of 20.15 μg/mL and 112 μg/mL respectively, by activating the NF-κB signaling pathway in BV-2 microglia (P<0.001). The above-given results provide a clear understanding of the analgesic activity and mechanism of action not found in XL. Considering the significant effects of XL, it can be evaluated as a novel drug candidate for inflammatory pain, which establishes a new experimental basis for expanding the indications of XL in clinical treatment and suggests a feasible strategy to develop natural analgesic drugs.
Stroke is currently the second largest contributor to disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in developing countries, and it is the third largest contributor to DALYs in developed countries. It requires a large number of resources from the health care system every year, which places a great burden on society, families, and individuals. The treatment of traditional Chinese medicine exercise therapy (TCMET) during stroke recovery has become a hot topic of current research due to its few adverse events and high efficiency. This article sorts out the latest progress of TCMET on the recovery of stroke through the review method and explores its role and mechanism based on existing clinical and experimental studies. TCMET treatment of stroke recovery mainly includes Tai Chi, Baduanjin, Daoyin, Yi Jin Jing, five-fowl play, and six-character tips, which can effectively improve motor function, balance and coordination ability, cognitive dysfunction, nerve function, depression or emotional state, daily living ability, and so on after stroke. The mechanisms of stroke treated by TCMET are discussed, and deficiencies in the literature are discussed and analyzed. It is hoped that some guiding suggestions will be provided for future clinical treatment and experimental studies.
Terminalia brownii is widely used in folklore medicine and has diverse biological activities. However, its effect on the immune system is yet to be studied. Therefore, our study evaluated the immunomodulatory effect of T. brownii on nonspecific immunity. Innate immunity is the initial defence phase against pathogens or injuries. Dichloromethane plant extracts were tested on female Swiss albino mice and Wister rats. The effect of the extract on innate immunity was assessed via total and differential leukocyte counts, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and nitric oxide production by mouse macrophages. The 3-(4, 5-dimethyl thiazolyl-2)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was employed for viability testing. Phytochemical profiling was carried out using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, while toxicity studies were carried out following the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development guidelines. Our results demonstrated that administration of T. brownii stem bark dichloromethane extract to pyrogallol-immuno compromised mice significantly ( p < 0.05 ) increased total and differential leukocyte counts compared with the control. The extract showed no adverse effect on the viability of Vero cells and macrophages and significantly ( p < 0.05 ) augmented tumor necrosis factor-alpha and nitric oxide production. Hexadecanoic acid, linoleic acid, octadecanoic acid, squalene, campesterol, stigmasterol, and β-sitosterol, all of which stimulate, were identified in the extract. The extract did not cause any death or toxic signs in rats. In conclusion, T. brownii dichloromethane extract has an immunoenhancing effect on innate immune responses and is not toxic. The observed immunoenhancing impact of the extract was attributed to the presence of the identified compounds. The results of this study provide crucial ethnopharmacological leads towards the development of novel immunomodulators for managing immune-related disorders.
Peritoneal adhesions (PAs) occur and develop after abdominal surgery. Abdominal adhesions are common and often develop after abdominal surgery. Currently, there are no effective targeted pharmacotherapies for treating adhesive disease. In this regard, ginger is wildly used in traditional medicine because of its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects and has been investigated for peritoneal adhesion treatment. This study analyzed ginger ethanolic extraction via HPLC to have a 6-gingerol concentration. Four groups induced peritoneal adhesion to evaluate ginger’s effects on peritoneal adhesion. Then, ginger extract (50, 150, and 450 mg/kg) was administered by gavage in various groups of male Wistar rats (220 ± 20 g, 6–8 weeks). After scarifying the animals for biological assessment, macroscopic and microscopic parameters were determined via scoring systems and immunoassays in the peritoneal lavage fluid. Next, the adhesion scores and interleukin IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-(TNF-) α, transforming growth factor-(TGF-) β1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were elevated in the control group. The results showed that ginger extract (450 mg/kg) notably decreased inflammatory (IL-6 and TNF-α), fibrosis (TGF-β1), anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10), angiogenesis (VEGF), and oxidative (MDA) factors, while increased antioxidant factor glutathione (GSH), compared to the control group. These findings suggest that a hydro-alcoholic extract of ginger is a potentially novel therapeutic strategy for inhibiting adhesion formation. Also, it might be considered a beneficial anti-inflammatory or antifibrosis herbal medicine in clinical trials. However, further clinical studies are required to approve the effectiveness of ginger.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) which is associated with cognitive dysfunction and memory lapse has become a health concern. Various targets and pathways have been involved in AD’s progress, such as deficit of acetylcholine (ACh), oxidative stress, inflammation, β-amyloid (Aβ) deposits, and biometal dyshomeostasis. Multiple pieces of evidence indicate that stress oxidative participation in an early stage of AD and the generated ROS could enable neurodegenerative disease leading to neuronal cell death. Hence, antioxidant therapies are applied in treating AD as a beneficial strategy. This review refers to the development and use of antioxidant compounds based on natural products, hybrid designs, and synthetic compounds. The results of using these antioxidant compounds were discussed with the given examples, and future directions for the development of antioxidants were evaluated.
Background: Xiezhuo Huayu Yiqi Tongluo Formula (XHYTF) consists of 14 Chinese herbal medicines. In this study, we investigated the potential mechanism of XHYTF in the treatment of uric acid nephropathy (UAN) through network pharmacology, molecular docking, and in vivo methods. Methods: Using various pharmacological databases and analysis platforms, information on the active ingredients and targets of Chinese herbal medicine was collected, and UAN disease targets were retrieved using OMIM, Gene Cards, and NCBI. Then common target proteins were integrated. A Drug-Component-Target (D-C-T) map was constructed to screen core compounds and build a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. Further, Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis were performed for common targets, and a Drug-Component-Target-Pathway (D-C-T-P) network diagram was constructed. The molecular docking simulation was performed to verify the binding affinity between core components and hub targets. Subsequently, the UAN rat model was established, followed by the collection of serum and renal tissues. The expression levels of indicators in the serum were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The pathological changes of renal tissues were detected using H & E staining and Masson staining. The expression of related proteins in renal tissue was detected by western blot. Results: In the study, 216 active ingredients and 439 targets in XHYTF were screened, and 868 targets were identified as being related to UAN. Among them, 115 were common targets. Based on the D-C-T network, quercetin, luteolin, β-sitosterol, and stigmasterol were observed to be the key active ingredients of XHYTF that were effective against UAN. The analysis of the PPI network revealed TNF, IL6, AKT1, PPARG, and IL1β as the 5 key targets. GO enrichment analysis revealed that the pathways were mainly concentrated in cell killing, regulation of signaling receptor activity, and other activities. Subsequently, KEGG pathway analysis revealed that multiple signaling pathways, including the HIF-1, PI3K-Akt, IL-17, and other signaling pathways, were closely related to the action of XHYTF. All 5 key targets were confirmed to interact with all core active ingredients. In vivo experiments indicated that XHYTF significantly reduced blood uric acid and creatinine levels, alleviated inflammatory cell infiltration in kidney tissues, reduced the levels of serum inflammatory factors such as TNF-α and IL1β, and ameliorated renal fibrosis in rats with UAN. Finally, western blot revealed decreased levels of PI3K and AKT1 proteins in the kidney, which confirmed the hypothesis. Conclusion: Collectively, our observations demonstrated that XHYTF significantly protects kidney function, including alleviation of inflammation and renal fibrosis via multiple pathways. This study provided novel insights into the treatment of UAN using traditional Chinese medicines.
Background: Endothelium-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) is a process of phenotypic and functional transition from activated endothelial cells to mesenchymal cells. Recently, EndMT has been proved to be one of the main pathological mechanisms of pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH). However, the molecular mechanism is not clear. Methods: Primary rat pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (rPAECs) were isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats and verified by CD31 immunofluorescence staining. rPAECs were exposed to hypoxic conditions to induce EndMT. RNA and protein levels in cells were detected by RT-qPCR and Western blot. The migration ability was verified by the transwell assay. The RIP experiment was used to test the m6A modification of TRPC6 mRNA and the binding relationship between TRPC6 and METTL3. Calcineurin/NFAT signaling was measured by using commercial kits. Results: METTL3 was found to be highly expressed by hypoxia treatment in a time-dependent manner. Knockdown of METTL3 significantly suppressed cell migration, downregulated the levels of interstitial cell-related markers like α-SMA and vimentin, and increased the levels of endothelial cell markers including CD31 and VE-cadherin. Mechanistically, METTL3 increased TRPC6 expression by enhancing the m6A modification of TRPC6 mRNA, thus activating calcineurin/NFAT signaling. Our experiments showed that METTL3 silencing mediated the inhibitory roles in the hypoxia-mediated EndMT process, which were significantly reversed by TRPC6/calcineurin/NFAT signaling activation. Conclusion: Our results elucidated that METTL3 knockdown inhibited the hypoxia-mediated EndMT process by inactivating TRPC6/calcineurin/NFAT signaling.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a global health issue that lacks effective treatments. Dysfunction and/or death of pancreatic β-cells (PBCs) are considered a major cause of T2DM. Therefore, elucidating the mechanisms underlying the death of PBCs might be helpful to develop novel strategies to treat T2DM. Ferroptosis is a newly identified form of cell death that has distinct features. However, knowledge regarding the role of ferroptosis in the death of PBCs remains limited. In the current study, we used high glucose (10 mM) (HG) levels to induce ferroptosis in PBC. We also observed that hispidin, a polyphenol compound that can be isolated from Phellinus linteus, could attenuate ferroptosis induced by HG in PBCs. Mechanistic investigations showed that hispidin led to the upregulation of miR-15b-5p, which directly inhibits the expression of glutaminase (GLS2) which plays an essential role in the glutamine metabolism. In addition, we found that overexpression of GLS2 could abrogate the protective effect of hispidin against ferroptosis caused by HG in PBCs. Therefore, our study provides novel insights into the mechanisms that regulate the death of PBCs.
Objective: Naringin is a flavonoid derived from Chinese herbs. According to earlier studies, naringin may have the potential to alleviate aging-induced cognitive dysfunction. Therefore, this study attempted to explore the protective effect and underlying mechanism of naringin on aging rats with cognitive dysfunction. Methods: After the construction of a model of aging rats with cognitive dysfunction through subcutaneous injection of D-galactose (D-gal; 150 mg/kg), intragastric administration of naringin (100 mg/kg) was performed for treatment. Behavioral tests, including Morris water maze test (MWM), novel object recognition test (NORT), and fear conditioning test, were used to measure the cognitive function; ELISA and biochemical tests were used to determine the levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in the hippocampus of rats in each group, respectively; H&E staining was used to observe the pathological changes in the hippocampus; Western blot was used to examine the expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/NF-κB pathway-related proteins and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related proteins in the hippocampus. Results: The model was successfully constructed by subcutaneous injection of D-gal (150 mg/kg). The behavioral test results showed that naringin could ameliorate the cognitive dysfunction and alleviate the histopathological damage of hippocampus. Moreover, naringin significantly improve the inflammatory response (the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and MCP-1 were decreased), oxidative stress response (MDA level was increased while GSH-Px activity was decreased), and ER stress (the expression of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), C/-EBP homologous protein (CHOP), and transcription factor 6 (ATF6) expression was downregulated), and increased the levels of neurotrophic factors BDNF and NGF in D-gal rats. Besides, further mechanistic studies revealed the downregulation of naringin on TLR4/NF-κB pathway activity. Conclusion: Naringin may inhibit inflammatory response, oxidative stress, and ER stress by downregulating TLR4/NF-κB pathway activity, thereby improving cognitive dysfunction and alleviating histopathological damage of hippocampus in aging rats. Briefly, naringin is an effective drug for the treatment of cognitive dysfunction.
Objective: The aim of the present study is to investigate the rules and characteristics of the clinical administration of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) using data mining methods. Method: Medical cases of well-known contemporary TCM doctors treating PCOS were collected from the China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese Biomedical Literature Service System, Wanfang, Chinese Scientific Journals Database, and PubMed; the data were then characterized, and a standardized database of medical cases was built. This database was used to (1) count the frequency of syndrome types and the herbs used in medical cases by data mining methods and (2) analyze drug association rules and systematic clustering methods. Results: A total of 330 papers were included, involving 382 patients and a total of 1,427 consultations. The most common syndrome type was kidney deficiency; sputum stasis was the core pathological product and causative factor. A total of 364 herbs were used. Among them, 22 herbs were used >300 times, including Danggui (Angelicae Sinensis Radix), Tusizi (Semen Cuscutae), Fuling (Poria), Xiangfu (Nutgrass Galingale Rhizome), and Baizhu (Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma). Additionally, 22 binomial associations were obtained from the analysis of association rules; five clustering formulae were obtained via the analysis of high-frequency drug clusters; and 27 core combinations were obtained by k-means clustering of formula. Conclusion: In the treatment of PCOS, TCM is primarily employed as a combination approach involving tonifying the kidneys, strengthening the spleen, eliminating damp and dissolving phlegm, activating blood circulation, and resolving blood stasis. The core prescription is primarily a compound intervention based on the Cangfu Daotan pill, Liuwei Dihuang pill, and Taohong Siwu decoction.
Flowchart of inclusion criteria.
Association between Lianhua Qingwen use and in-hospital mortality.
As a traditional Chinese medicine, Lianhua Qingwen capsules have been widely used to treat Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study was aimed to demonstrate the association between treatment with Lianhua Qingwen capsules and the clinical outcomes of hospitalized patients with COVID-19. This retrospective study was conducted at four hospitals in Central China. Data of hospitalized COVID-19 patients were collected between December 19, 2019 and April 26, 2020. Based on whether Lianhua Qingwen capsules were used, patients were classified into Lianhua Qingwen and non-Lianhua Qingwen (control) groups. To control for confounding factors, we used conditional logistic regression in a propensity-score matched (PSM) cohort (1 : 1 balanced), as well as logistic regression without matching as sensitivity analysis. A total of 4918 patients were included, 2760 of whom received Lianhua Qingwen capsules and 2158 of whom did not. In the PSM model, after adjusting for confounders, the in-hospital mortality was similar between the Lianhua Qingwen group and the control group (6.8% vs. 3.3%, adjusted OR, 0.66 [95% CI, 0.38-1.15], p = 0.138 ). The negative conversion rate of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection was higher in the Lianhua Qingwen group (88.3% vs. 96.1%, adjusted OR, 4.02 [95% CI, 2.58-6.25], p < 0.001 ). The incidence of acute liver injury was comparable between the two groups (14.0% vs. 11.5%, adjusted OR: 0.85 [95% CI, 0.71-1.02], p = 0.083 ), and the incidence of acute kidney injury was lower in the Lianhua Qingwen group (5.3% vs. 3.0%, adjusted OR: 0.71 [95% CI, 0.50-1.00], p = 0.048 ). Treatment with Lianhua Qingwen capsules was not significantly associated with in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients. In the Lianhua Qingwen group, the negative conversion rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection was higher and the incidence of acute kidney injury was lower than in the control group.
Analyses of cardiovascular death according to sex. (a) Data for male patients are shown. (b) Data for female patients are shown. Each stratification was adjusted for all factors in Model 4, except for the stratification factor. Abbreviation: ACEI = angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB = angiotensin receptor; NYHA = New York Heart Association; CCB = calcium channel clockers; WC = waist circumference.
Analyses of cardiovascular death according to sex. (a) Data for male patients are shown. (b) Data for female patients are shown. Each stratification was adjusted for all factors in Model 4, except for the stratification factor. Abbreviation: ACEI = angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB = angiotensin receptor; NYHA = New York Heart Association; CCB = calcium channel clockers; WC = waist circumference.
Analyses of all-cause mortality according to sex. (a) Data for male patients are shown. (b) Data for female patients are shown. Each stratification was adjusted for all factors in Model 4, except for the stratification factor. Abbreviation: ACEI = angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB = angiotensin receptor; NYHA = New York Heart Association; CCB = calcium channel clockers; WC = waist circumference.
Analyses of all-cause mortality according to sex. (a) Data for male patients are shown. (b) Data for female patients are shown. Each stratification was adjusted for all factors in Model 4, except for the stratification factor. Abbreviation: ACEI = angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB = angiotensin receptor; NYHA = New York Heart Association; CCB = calcium channel clockers; WC = waist circumference.
Objectives: This study aims to investigate the association between waist circumference (WC) and cardiovascular death in patients with permanent pacemakers (PPMs). Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study that enrolled patients who underwent PPM implantation in Fuwai Hospital from May 2010 to April 2014, according to the BIOTRONIK Home Monitoring database. The WC was treated as sex-specific quartiles, and patients were divided into three groups according to body mass index (BMI): normal (≤22.9 kg/m2), overweight (23-24.9 kg/m2), and obese (≥25 kg/m2). Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for cardiovascular death according to WC and BMI in patients. Results: 492 patients with PPMs implantation were analyzed (mean age: 71.9 ± 10.8 years; 55.1% men (n = 271)). Data showed that after a mean follow-up 67.2 ± 17.5 months, 24 (4.9%) patients had experienced cardiovascular death and 71 (14.4%) were cases of all-cause mortality. Men in the third quartile of WC had an HR of 10.67 (Model 4, 95% CI: 1.00-115.21, p trend = 0.04) for cardiovascular death. However, the association disappeared in female patients (Model 4, HR = 3.99, 95% CI: 0.37-42.87, p trend = 0.25). There was no association between BMI and cardiovascular death or all-cause mortality in both male and female patients. Conclusions: Abdominal obesity was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular death in patients with PPMs, and this relationship was only in male patients.
Objective: In view of network pharmacology and molecular docking technology, to explore the targets as well as effect mechanism of the Huanglian Jiangtang formula (including Coptis chinensis, Anemarrhena asphodeloides, rhubarb wine, Cortex Moutan, Rehmannia glutinosa, and dried ginger) in the type II diabetes therapy. Methods: TCMSP and Batman database (DB) were used to retrieve the chemical components and action targets of drugs; GeneCards, OMIM, TTD, DrugBank, and other databases were applied to screen the disease targets. We used the UniProt DB to annotate the targets before building the drug-compound-target network with Cytoscape 3.9.1. We also exploited the String DB to construct the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. In addition, the targets for the treatment of type II diabetes were searched in the DrugBank, OMIM, GeneCards, and TTD database; then, we utilized Venn to intersect the key targets for the therapy of type II diabetes and active ingredient targets to obtain common targets. Furthermore, we exploited the common targets using GO and KEGG enrichment analysis method. The common targets and core components were analyzed by molecular docking using the AutoDock software. Results: A total of 61 effective components of this compound were screened out; drugs and type II diabetes have 278 common targets; the PPI network screened core target proteins such as CDKN1A, CDK2, and E2F1 with the help of molecular docking technology; the three main compounds including quercetin, kaempferol, and gamma-aminobutyric acid were obtained. Besides, the key target proteins had excellent binding properties with the main components. The signal pathways of six compound interventions in type II diabetes were mostly related to cancer, cocaine addiction, aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, glycine, serine, threonine metabolism, platinum drug resistance, and other pathways, according to the KEGG enrichment analysis method. Conclusion: In the treatment of diabetes, the Huanglian Jiangtang formula has sorts of properties especially in the aspects of composition, target, and pathway. Its molecular target and mechanism of action may be related to pathways in cancer, cocaine addiction, aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, glycine, serine, threonine metabolism, platinum drug resistance, and other pathways. This conclusion can provide theoretical support and science for further research.
Background: Lung cancer is one of the malignant tumors with the highest morbidity and mortality in my country and the world. Among them, non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for about 80%. For patients who are diagnosed with NSCLC and have epidermal growth factor receptor, EGFR gene-sensitive mutations The treatment is particularly important. Aims: To investigate the efficacy and prognosis of 3DCRT combined with local SBRT in patients with EGFR mutation oligometastatic NSCLC. Materials and methods: Eighty patients with EGFR mutation oligometastatic NSCLC were selected by random remainder grouping method. 3DCRT combined with SBRT is effective and safer in patients with EGFR-mutant oligometastatic NSCLC, and significantly improves the patient's immune and tumor marker levels. It has a certain reference value in the clinical treatment of EGFR-mutant oligometastatic NSCLC.
Qing-Fei-Shen-Shi decoction (QFSS) consists of Prunus armeniaca L., Gypsum Fibrosum, Smilax glabra Roxb., Coix lacryma-jobi L., Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn., Plantago asiatica L., Pyrrosia lingua (Thunb.) Farw., Houttuynia cordata Thunb., Fritillaria thunbergii Miq., Cicadae Periostracum, and Glycyrrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma Praeparata Cum Melle. QFSS shows significant clinical efficacy in the treatment of asthma. However, the specific mechanism of QFSS on asthma remains unclear. Recently, multiomics techniques are widely used in elucidating the mechanisms of Chinese herbal formulas. The use of multiomics techniques can better illuminate the multicomponents and multitargets of Chinese herbal formulas. In this study, ovalbumin (OVA) was first employed to induce an asthmatic mouse model, followed by a gavage of QFSS. First, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of QFSS on the asthmatic model mice. Second, we investigated the mechanism of QFSS in treating asthma by using an integrated 16S rRNA sequencing technology and untargeted metabolomics. Our results showed that QFSS treatment ameliorated asthma in mice. In addition, QFSS treatment affected the relative abundances of gut microbiota including Lactobacillus, Dubosiella, Lachnospiraceae_NK4A136_group, and Helicobacter. Untargeted metabolomics results showed that QFSS treatment regulated the metabolites such as 2-(acetylamino)-3-[4-(acetylamino) phenyl] acrylic acid, D-raffinose, LysoPC (15 : 1), methyl 10-undecenoate, PE (18 : 1/20 : 4), and D-glucose6-phosphate. These metabolites are associated with arginine and proline metabolism, arginine biosynthesis, pyrimidine metabolism, and glycerophospholipid metabolism. Correlation analysis indicated that arginine and proline metabolism and pyrimidine metabolism metabolic pathways were identified as the common metabolic pathways of 16s rRNA sequencing and untargeted metabolomics. In conclusion, our results showed that QFSS could ameliorate asthma in mice. The possible mechanism of QFSS on asthma may be associated with regulating the gut microbiota and arginine and proline metabolism and pyrimidine metabolism. Our study may be useful for researchers to study the integrative mechanisms of Chinese herbal formulas based on modulating gut microbiota and metabolism.
The objective of the present study was to determine the acute and subacute toxicity profile of a polyherbal formulation called “Goubion” in addition to the in vivo antihyperuricemic study using fructose-induced hyperuricemia. Goubion is a combination of Colchicum autumnale (tuber), Tribulus terresteris (fruit), Vitex negundo (leaves), Smilax chinensis (root), Glycyrrhiza glabra (root), and Curcuma amada (rhizome). The acute toxicity study revealed no signs of mortality and morbidity at a single dose of 2000 mg/kg. Similarly, the results of the subacute repeated dose toxicity study exhibited no signs of mortality at any of the doses. However, significant changes in hematological, biochemical, and renal parameters were recorded at the dose of 60 mg/kg. Antihyperuricemic activity was tested at the dose of 15 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg of Goubion, respectively against 5 mg/kg Allopurinol. Based on the antihyperuricemic study, we infer that the Goubion has a significant hypouricemic action, as it remarkably decreased the elevated uric acid levels. The results also suggest the potential inhibitory capability of Goubion on xanthine oxidase dehydrogenase might be the mechanism behind the hypouricemic effect.
Acute gouty arthritis (AGA) is an acute inflammatory disease, whose occurrence and development mechanism are associated with inflammatory reaction of joint tissue. This study investigated the role of neoisoastilbin (NIA) in the treatment of AGA and explored the underlying mechanisms. C57BL/6 mice underwent intraarticular injection of monosodium urate (MSU) to establish an AGA model in vivo. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, histopathological hematoxylin-eosin staining, western blotting, and other methods were used to observe the therapeutic effects of NIA on AGA and investigate the role of the NF-κB/NLRP3 pathway in the treatment. We found that NIA effectively reduced MSU-induced joint swelling and inflammatory cell infiltration in a concentration-dependent manner. NIA also significantly reduced interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels as compared with the respective values in the model mice group. In addition, administration of NIA significantly mitigated the phosphorylation of NF-κB-related proteins (IKKα, NF-κB, and IκBα) and the expression of NLRP3-related proteins (NLRP3, caspase-1, and ASC) in MSU-induced joint tissues. In conclusion, our research indicated that NIA significantly improved AGA, and its underlying mechanism was achieved by simultaneously inhibiting the NF-κB/NLRP3 pathway and the expression of inflammatory factors. This research preliminarily suggested the potential role of NIA in the treatment of AGA.
Over the last decade, researchers have paid more and more attention to the natural compound curcumin for its potential application in anticancer therapy. However, the application of curcumin has been limited owing to its rapid metabolism in the body. HO-3867, a stable curcumin analog, shows potent antitumor activities against various tumor cells. Yet, information on HO-3867’s impact on non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells is lacking. Herein, we evaluated the cytotoxicity of HO-3867 in NSCLC cells. We discovered that HO-3867 suppressed the viability of NSCLC cells containing wild-type p53. In NSCLC cells, HO-3867 promotes both apoptosis and ferroptosis, the latter of which is a newly discovered mode of cell death. Mechanically, HO-3867-induced apoptosis relied on the inhibition of Mcl-1 and Bcl-2 and the upregulation of Bax. Moreover, NSCLC cells undergo ferroptosis when treated with HO-3867 via activating the p53-DMT1 axis and suppressing GPX4. Additionally, HO-3867 caused an accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in NSCLC in a way that was dependent on the presence of iron. Our findings point to the possibility that HO-3867 might be employed as a therapeutic agent for treating NSCLC.
Myocardial fibrosis is a critical factor in the development of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Linggui Qihua decoction (LGQHD) is an experienced formula, which has been proven to be effective on HFpEF in clinical and in experiments. Objective. This study aimed to observe the effect of LGQHD on HFpEF and its underlying mechanism. Methods. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were induced with high-glucose and high-fat to establish HFpEF models and were treated with LGQHD for 8 weeks. The heart structure was detected by echocardiography, and the histopathological changes of the myocardium were observed by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and Masson staining. Reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and western blot were used to detect mRNA and protein expression of the target gene in rat myocardium. Results. In this study, LGQHD improved cardiac morphology and atrial fibrosis in HfpEF rats, decreased tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) mRNA expression, up-regulated matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) mRNA expression, and inhibited the expression of angiotensin II (Ang II), angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1), transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), Smad2/3 mRNA, and protein in myocardial tissue of HFpEF rats. Conclusion. LGQHD can suppress atrial fibrosis in HFpEF by modulating the TGF-β1/Smad2/3 pathway.
Objective: To predict and determine the mechanism through which Tiao-Bu-Fei-Shen (TBFS) formula improves glucocorticoid resistance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), using network pharmacology, molecular docking technology, and in vitro studies. Methods: The main active components and associated targets of TBFS were screened using the systems pharmacology database of traditional Chinese medicine database (TCMSP). The main COPD targets were retrieved from the Human Gene (GeneCards) and DrugBank databases. A protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed using the protein interaction platform STRING and Cytoscape 3.6.1. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome Pathway (KEGG) analyses were performed using the biological information annotation database Metascape. Molecular docking was performed using the AutoDock Vina software. THP-1 monocytes were treated with TBFS-containing serum and cigarette smoke extract (CSE) for 48 h, and cell proliferation in each group was determined using cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8). A COPD cell model was constructed by stimulating THP-1 monocytes with CSE for 12 h. A lentivirus vector for RNA interference of histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) gene was constructed and transfected into the THP-1 monocytes, and the transfection efficiency was verified using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western blotting (WB). The expression of HDAC2 in each group of cells was detected using qPCR, and the expression of HDAC2, phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) p85α, glucocorticoid receptor α (GRα), and P-AKT1 in each group of cells was detected through WB. Results: A total of 344 TBFS active components, 249 related drug targets, 1,171 COPD target proteins, and 138 drug and disease intersection targets were obtained. Visual analysis of the PPI network map revealed that the core COPD targets of TBFS were AKT1, IL-6, TNF, TP53, and IL1-β. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis resulted in the identification of 20 signaling pathways as the main pathways involved in the action of TBFS against COPD, including the PI3K-Akt, TNF, and IL-17 signaling pathways. Molecular docking experiments revealed a strong binding capacity of kaempferol, luteolin, and quercetin to the ATK1 protein in TBFS, with quercetin performing the best. PCR results showed that treatment with TBFS significantly increased the expression levels of HDAC2 in the COPD model. WB results showed that TBFS treatment significantly increased the expression levels of GRα and HDAC2 in the COPD model, while reducing the expression levels of P-AKT1. Conclusion: TBFS treatment improves glucocorticoid resistance observed in COPD through downregulation of the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and promotion of GRα expression.
Food is always subjected to microbial infection and lipid peroxidation, which frequently leads to serious food intoxications. In the present study, essential oils (EOs) extracted from Lavandula dentata Moroccan species and its major component (linalool) were chemically characterized and their antioxidant potential and antibacterial properties against foodborne pathogenic bacteria were examined. EOs phytochemical profile was carried out using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis (GC-MS). The antioxidant potential was evaluated, in vitro, by use of the β-carotene discoloration assay and in silico vs. NADPH oxidase enzymatic complex as an antioxidant marker. The antibacterial proprieties were assessed by use of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and disc diffusion methods, against Gram (−) bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica, and Escherichia coli) and Gram (+) bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus). Linalool (49.71%) was the major component among the eighteen components identified in Lavandula dentate EO, followed by camphor (14.36%) and borneol (8.21%). The studied EO and linalool compounds showed important antioxidant activity through the β-carotene discoloration test with IC50 values of 35.72 ± 1.21 mg/mL and 30.32 ± 1.23 mg/mL, respectively. Among all the analyzed compounds of lavender EOs, thymol, carvacrol, and α-terpineol were the most active compounds against NADPH oxidase with a glide score of −6.483, −6.17, and −4.728 kcal/mol, respectively. 2D and 3D views showed the formation of hydrogen bonds between the most active compounds and the active site of NADPH oxidase. The antibacterial data showed a significant activity of Lavandula dentata essences against tested foodborne pathogenic bacteria, especially against S. aureus and B. subtilis. Linalool proved active toward the same bacteria and had closer activity to that of lavender essential oil. In light of the obtained findings, the essential oil of Lavandula dentata Moroccan species can be used in the packaging sector as a promising natural food conservative to limit lipid oxidation and treat foodborne infections.
Background. Diabetic microvascular complications are the main causes of organ dysfunction and even death in diabetic patients. Our previous studies confirmed the beneficial effects of Yiqi Jiedu Huayu Decoction (YJHD) on diabetic cardiomyopathy and diabetic nephropathy. It is not clear whether YJHD can treat multiple diabetic microvascular complications including diabetic retinopathy, diabetic cardiomyopathy, and diabetic nephropathy through some common mechanisms. Methods. TCMSP, SymMap, STITCH, Swiss Target Prediction, and SEA databases were used to collect and analyze the components and targets of YJHD. GeneCards, DrugBank, DisGeNET, OMIM, and GEO databases were used to obtain target genes for diabetic retinopathy, diabetic cardiomyopathy, and diabetic nephropathy. The GO and KEGG enrichment analyses were performed on the DAVID and STRING platforms. Molecular docking was used to evaluate the binding sites and affinities of compounds and target proteins. Animal experiments were designed to validate the network pharmacology results. Results. Through network pharmacological analysis, oxidative stress, inflammatory response, and apoptosis were identified as key pathological phenotypes for the treatment of diabetic microvascular complications with YJHD. In addition, JNK, p38, and ERK1/2 were predicted as key targets of YJHD in regulating the abovementioned pathological phenotypes. The results of animal experiments showed that YJHD could ameliorate retinal pathological changes of diabetes rats. YJHD can inhibit oxidative stress and inflammation in heart and kidney of diabetic rats. Molecular docking showed strong binding between compounds and JNK, p38, and ERK1/2. Berlambine may play a key role in the treatment process and is considered as a promising regulator of MAPK protein family. The regulatory effects of YJHD on JNK, p38, and ERK1/2 were demonstrated in animal experiments. Conclusions. YJHD may play a therapeutic role in diabetic microvascular complications by regulating oxidative stress, inflammatory response, and apoptosis. The regulation of JNK, p38, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation may be the key to its therapeutic effect.
Obesity is known to be one of the severe health issues worldwide, as its prevalence continues to rise as well as its association with other chronic diseases worsens. Even though various approaches have been underway to prevent or treat obesity, alternative approaches are in need to combat this chronic condition because of the unsatisfactory effectiveness and adverse side effects of the existing approaches. Dolichos biflorus L. seeds have been employed as a weight-loss treatment in folk medicine. Considering the necessity to develop a safe alternative remedy to rising obesity, the current investigation has been set up to assess the antiobesity potential and the mode of action of the aqueous seed extract of D. biflorus (ASEDB) in a cell line (3T3-L1) and high-fat diet (HFD)-induced rats. For in-vitro studies, 3T3-L1 cell lines were cultured in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle medium (DMEM) augmented with adipogenic-inducing medium and the influence of the extract (10 µg/mL–500 µg/mL) on 3T3-L1 adipocyte viability, adipogenesis, and lipolysis was assessed. An in-vitro study revealed maintenance of cell viability, reduced triglycerides (TG) accumulation, and promoted lipolysis in 3T3-L1 cells by ASEDB. Following in-vitro analysis, the HFD-induced obese rats were treated with ASEDB at different concentrations (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 300 mg/kg) for 60 days and the effect was evaluated through various anthropometric and biochemical parameters. The findings revealed a significant decrement in total body weight, organ weights, fat pad weights, and restoration of abnormal levels of glucose, leptin, insulin, lipid markers, and antioxidant system to normal by ASEDB treatment. Also, pancreatic lipase inhibition analysis of ASEDB revealed a modest level of inhibition with an IC50 value of 213.3 µg/mL. All these findings exposed that ASEDB possesses pronounced antiobesity potential and exhibits its protective effect by suppressing food intake, reducing fat digestion and absorption, limiting adipogenesis, enhancing lipolysis, and alleviating oxidative stress.
With a 30-fold increase in incidence over the previous 50 years, dengue fever is now the most widespread viral disease transmitted by mosquitoes in the world. The intricate interaction of the human defense system, hereditary predisposition, and specific bitterness elements is more likely to be the pathogenesis of dengue. There are presently no viable treatments for dengue. Synthetic drugs which are used against this ailment also show major side effects. There must be a deeper understanding of the underlying mechanism generating severe symptoms to develop auguring markers, cutting-edge diagnostics, and treatments and finally a well-rounded and secure antiserum. Hence, the aim is to search for safer and more potent drugs derived from plants. Plants or herbs are mainly targeting replication or its enzyme or specific stereotypes, though an exact mechanism of phytoconstituents interfering with the viral replication is still undiscovered. The present attempt provided the update with the objective to bringing up forward pathophysiological eventualities involved in dengue virus along with the naturally derived treatment relevant to provide the impregnable therapy by evading the noxious symptoms for dengue fever. Governor’s plum, Cryptocarya chartacea, magnolia berry, and Chinese ginger are such plants exhibiting many effective phytoconstituents against DENV and can be further explored for novel drug discovery by medicinal scientists.
Esculentosides include a group of plant-derived compounds with tremendous pharmacological potential. The antiproliferative effects of esculentoside A against different colorectal cancer cells were evaluated. We found that the proliferation of all the colorectal cancer cells was halted by esculentoside A. The IC50 of esculentoside A ranged from 16 to 24 μM against different colorectal cancer cells. Investigation of the underlying molecular mechanism revealed that esculentoside A caused an increase in the colorectal cancer cells at the G1 phase of the cell cycle, indicative of G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. The percentage of G1 cells increased from 22.68% in control to 54.23% at 16 μM esculentoside A. We also found that the colony formation of HT-29 cells was inhibited by 59% at 24 μM esculentoside A. Finally, effects of esculentoside A on the motility of HT-29 colorectal cancer cells were investigated, and it was found that esculentoside A caused a significant decline in HT-29 colorectal cancer cell migration and invasion. The migration and invasion of esculentoside A-treated HT-29 cells were 45% and 51% higher, respectively, than those of untreated cells. Summing up, these results suggest that esculentoside A exhibits antiproliferative effects against human colorectal cancer cells.
Introduction: Recent studies suggest the involvement of ferroptosis in the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease (PD). δ-Opioid receptors (DORs) have neuroprotective effects in PD. It is not known whether the neuroprotective effects of DORs in PD are attributable to the inhibition of ferroptosis. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the role of DORs in ferroptosis in MPTP-induced PD models. Methods: To identify the influence of DORs on ferroptosis in MPTP-induced PD models, we measured the malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) levels, analyzed the levels of ferroptosis-related proteins (GXP4 and SLC7a11) and Nrf2 expression by using western blotting, and assessed mitochondrial dysfunction by using JC-1 staining and transmission electron microscopy. Results: DOR activation reduced the 4-HNE and MDA levels, increased the GXP4 and SLC7a11 levels, and ameliorated mitochondrial dysfunction in MPTP-induced PD models. These neuroprotective effects of DORs could be blocked by Nrf2-siRNA. Thus, the effects of DORs on ferroptosis in PD models were partially controlled by Nrf2, which regulated GXP4 and SLC7a11 synthesis. Conclusion: DORs exert neuroprotective effects in PD models by inhibiting ferroptosis partially via activating the Nrf2 pathway.
Plausible mechanisms for antiviral activity of medicinal plants, which may interrupt the coronavirus replication cycle.
Beneficial effects of medicinal plants recommended by Persian medicine for respiratory disorders and some of their reported mechanisms.
Introduction: Many medicinal plants have been introduced in Persian medicine references for various respiratory disorders. Considering the growing interest in herbal medicines, this review aimed to introduce medicinal herbs recommended by Persian Medicine (PM) references for respiratory diseases and to discuss their activity against respiratory viruses. Methods: The medicinal plants recommended for respiratory disorders were extracted from the main PM textbooks. Subsequently, their activity against respiratory viruses was systematically investigated via queries of scientific databases. Results: Searching PM references for medicinal plants used in the management of respiratory disorders yielded 45 results. Of them, 18 possess antiviral activity against respiratory viruses. There were 29 in vitro studies (including studies on human cell lines) and 5 in vivo studies. Conclusion: This research demonstrated that many of the medicinal plants mentioned for the respiratory diseases in PM have considerable activity against respiratory viruses. However, human studies regarding the reported medicinal plants are scarce.
The herbal pairing of Huangqi and Dangshen (HD) is traditional Chinese herbal medicine and has been widely used in China, especially to treat myasthenia gravis (MG). However, the mechanism of HD on MG is unclear. Aim of the Study. This study aims to investigate HD’s possible role in MG treatment. Materials and Methods. The TCMSP database was used to identify the active chemicals and their targets. The GeneCards, DisGeNET, and OMIM databases were used to search for MG-related targets. The STRING database was employed in order to identify the common PPI network targets. We next utilised Cytoscape 3.8.2 for target identification and the DAVID database for gene ontology (GO) function analysis as well as Encyclopaedia of Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis on the selected targets. The AutoDock Vina software was used to test the affinity of essential components with the hub gene before concluding that the primary targets were corrected through molecular docking. Results. 41 active compounds were screened from HD, and the number of putative-identified target genes screened from HD was 112. There were 21 target genes that overlapped with the targets of MG, which were postulated to be potential treatment targets. Through further analysis, the results showed that the active compounds from HD (such as 7-methoxy-2-methylisoflavone, quercetin, luteolin, Kaempferol, and isorhamnetin) may achieve the purpose of treating MG by acting on some core targets and related pathways (such as EGFR, FOS, ESR2, MYC, ESR1, CASP3, and IL-6). Molecular docking findings demonstrated that these active molecules have a near-perfect ability to attach to the primary targets. Conclusion. Through network pharmacology, the findings in this study provide light on the coordinated action of several HD formula components, targets, and pathways. It provided a theoretical basis for further study of HD pharmacological action.
Background: Drug resistance is currently possible anywhere in the world. Due to the discovery of antimicrobials, medicine, and health have made tremendous advances over the past several decades. Aim: This research evaluated the antimicrobial and cytotoxicity effects of green synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) on Lactobacillus acidophilus and human embryonic kidney 293 cells (HEK). Method and Materials. Propolis was sampled and extracted. Green synthesis of CuO NPs was synthesized and characterized using SEM, TEM, DLS, BET, and zeta potential methods. L. acidophilus (ATCC 4356) was used, and the antimicrobial tests were carried out at different concentrations (10≥ mg/ml). Moreover, the cytotoxicity was evaluated using an MTT assay on human embryonic kidney 293 cells (HEK). Results: Synthesized CuO NPs using propolis extracts from Khalkhal (sample 1) and Gillan (sample 2) showed -13.2 and -14.4 mV, respectively. The hydrodynamic sizes of well-dispersed samples 1 and 2 were 3124.9 nm and 1726.7 nm, respectively. According to BET analysis, samples 1 and 2 had 5.37 and 8.45 m2/g surface area, respectively. The surface area was decreased due to the addition of propolis extract, and the pore size was increased. CuO NPs of samples 1 and 2 were visible on SEM images with diameters ranging from 75 to 145 nm and 120 to 155 nm, respectively. Based on TEM analysis, the size of CuO particles was increased in samples 1 and 2. CuO NPs particles had narrow size distributions with evenly dispersed NPs on all sides. The cell viability of the CuO NPs of samples 1 and 2 after 24, 48, and 72 hours was greater than 50%. As a result of the MIC and MBC tests, it was determined that samples 1 and 2 had the same effect against L. acidophilus (0.0024 mg/ml). Biofilm formation and degradation of sample 1 were more efficient against L. acidophilus. Conclusion: There was no evidence of cytotoxicity in the samples. In addition, results showed that the green synthesized CuO NPs from Khalkhal propolis were effective against L. acidophilus. Thus, the green synthesized CuO NPs from Khalkhal propolis were the best candidates for clinical application.
Characterization of “canela-guaicá” bark extract (CGBE) by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) ((a), redline), derivative thermogravimetric analysis (DTG) ((a), blackline), rheological analysis (b), and fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum (c).
Characterization of “canela-guaicá” bark extract (CGBE) by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) ((a), redline), derivative thermogravimetric analysis (DTG) ((a), blackline), rheological analysis (b), and fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum (c).
Characterization of “canela-guaicá” bark extract (CGBE) by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) ((a), redline), derivative thermogravimetric analysis (DTG) ((a), blackline), rheological analysis (b), and fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum (c).
Macroscopic aspect of wounds for experimental groups at different time intervals. Images are representative of wounds in Wistar rats using a standard photography apparatus. Note: CGBE – “canela-guaicá” bark extract.
Microscopic aspect of wounds throughout the experiment according to such criteria: inflammatory response, angiogenesis, and neocollagenesis for experimental groups at different time intervals. Circles areas reveals a increased presence of inflammatory cells (poly and mononuclear). Arrows indicate new vessels. Several microphotographs were taken using a × 200 magnification and the images are representative of the experimental results. Note: CGBE – “canela-guaicá” bark extract.
Background: "Canela-guaicá," "guaicá," or "canela-sebo" [Ocotea puberula (Rich.) Nees] is a native species that is traditionally used by Kaingang indigenous groups for wound healing in southern Brazil. The aim of this study was to extract the mucilage from O. puberula barks, perform its phytochemical and physicochemical characterization, and investigate its healing potential. Methods: A murine wound model was used as a preclinical trial for authentication of the traditional knowledge from Kaingang indigenous communities. Results: Alkaloids and polysaccharides were identified by usual qualitative reactions and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. This natural product showed thermal stability and pseudoplastic properties that were considered suitable for the intended use. A higher initial exacerbation of inflammatory response after 7 days, an improved angiogenesis after 14 days, and an increased wound shrinkage after 21 days were statistically significant for the "canela-guaicá" bark extract in the preclinical trial when compared to the silver calcium alginate dressing (positive control). Conclusion: The healing potential of the "canela-guaicá" bark extract, traditionally used by the Kaingang indigenous community from southern Brazil, was preclinically validated. This study paves the way for designing novel wound dressings containing this natural product in order to treat acute and chronic wounds.
In the context of the increasing number of patients with hypertension, exercise intervention is an excellent alternative or adjunctive treatment for hypertension. Traditional Chinese exercises are excellent physical and mental exercise methods. Although some studies have reviewed the effects of Chinese traditional exercise on patients with hypertension, most of the reviews only involved a single category of traditional exercise. Furthermore, few studies have conducted in-depth analysis of the combined intervention methods of traditional Chinese exercise, and there are high heterogeneity. This study evaluates the current clinical evidence of Chinese traditional exercises in the treatment of essential hypertension. A total of 49 randomized controlled trials with 4207 hypertensive patients were selected according to the inclusion criteria by searching all relevant studies from the establishment of six electronic databases until September 10, 2022. Among them, 24 used tai chi and 25 used Qigong, including Yijinjing, Wuqinxi, Liuzijue, Baduanjin, and Guolin Qigong. This study divided four subgroups according to the type of intervention to explore the source of heterogeneity among studies and found that traditional Chinese exercises can assist or even may replace traditional treatments. The results of meta-analysis showed that compared with the use of antihypertensive drugs alone or in health education, the addition of Chinese traditional exercises showed significant effects in regulating the systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure in hypertensive patients. Although the results show that traditional Chinese exercise are effective, the clinical evidence will be affected by the low quality of most randomized controlled trials. More rigorously designed trials are needed in the future to further validate it.
This study computationally screened three key compounds (vanillin (VAN), oxophoebine (OPB), and dihydrochalcone (DHC)) derived from Xylopia aethiopica (Guinea pepper), a medicinal plant with known antiviral activity, against key druggable measles virus (MV) proteins (fusion protein (FUP), haemagglutinin protein (HMG), and phosphoprotein (PSP)). Each molecular species was subjected to a 100 ns molecular dynamics (MD) simulation following docking, and a range of postdynamic parameters including free binding energy and pharmacokinetic properties were determined. The docking scores of the resulting OPB-FUP (−5.4 kcal/mol), OPB-HMG (−8.1 kcal/mol), and OPB-PSP (−8.0 kcal/mol) complexes were consistent with their respective binding energy values (−25.37, −28.74, and −40.68 kcal/mol), and higher than that of the reference standard, ribavirin (RBV) in each case. Furthermore, all the investigated compounds were thermodynamically compact and stable, especially HMG of MV, and this observation could be attributed to the resulting intermolecular interactions in each system. Overall, OPB may possess inhibitory properties against MV glycoproteins (FUP and HMG) and PSP that play important roles in the replication of MV and measles pathogenesis. While OPB could serve as a scaffold for the development of novel MV fusion and entry inhibitors, further in vitro and in vivo evaluation is highly recommended.
Objective: Evidence-based research methods were applied to assess the efficacy of faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for the treatment of autism in children. Methods: We searched the Chinese Biomedical Literature, CNKI, Wanfang, PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library databases to collect randomised controlled trials on faecal microbiota transplantation for the treatment of autism in children. The search included studies published from the creation of the respective database to 5 April 2022. Literature screening, data extraction, and quality evaluation were implemented by three investigators according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The meta-analysis was performed using the RevMan 5.1 software. Results: Nine studies with population-based subjects and four studies with animal-based subjects were included. Five papers were screened for the meta-analysis. The results showed that FMT markedly reduced Autism Behaviour Checklist (ABC) scores in children with autism spectrum disorder (weighted mean difference (WMD) = -14.96; 95% confidence intervals (CI), -21.68 to -8.24; P < 0.001; I 2 = 0%). FMT also reduced Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) scores (WMD = -6.95; 95% CI, -8.76 to -5.14; P < 0.001; I 2 = 28.1%). Conclusion: Our results indicate that FMT can benefit children with autism by reducing ABC and CARS scores, but more high-quality studies are needed to verify these results.
Objective: We used network pharmacology, molecular docking, and cellular analysis to explore the pharmacodynamic components and action mechanism of Alpinia officinarum Hance (A. officinarum) in improving type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, Gene Ontology (GO), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analyses were performed to predict the potential targets and mechanism of A. officinarum toward improving T2DM. The first 9 core targets and potential active compounds were docked using Discovery Studio 2019. Finally, IR-HepG2 cells and qPCR were applied to determine the mRNA expression of the top 6 core targets of the PPI network. Results: A total of 29 active ingredients and 607 targets of A. officinarum were obtained. T2DM-related targets overlapped with 176 targets. The core targets of the PPI network were identified as AKT serine/threonine kinase 1 (AKT1), an activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), tumor protein p53 (TP53), SRC proto-oncogene, nonreceptor tyrosine kinase (SRC), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), albumin (ALB), mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG). A. officinarum performs an antidiabetic role via the AGE-RAGE signaling pathway, the HIF-1 signaling pathway, the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway, and others, according to GO and KEGG enrichment analyses. Molecular docking revealed that the binding ability of diarylheptanoid active components in A. officinarum to core target protein was higher than that of flavonoids. The cell experiments confirmed that the A. officinarum extracts improved the glucose uptake of IR-HepG2 cells and AKT expression while inhibiting the STAT3, TNF, TP53, SRC, and EGFR mRNA expression. Conclusion: A. officinarum Hance improves T2DM by acting on numerous components, multiple targets, and several pathways. Our results lay the groundwork for the subsequent research and broaden the clinical application of A. officinarum Hance.
Objective: Magnoliae officinalis cortex (MOC) is one of the most frequently used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for the treatment of acute pancreatitis (AP). Magnolia volatile oil (MVO) is considered to be one of the main active ingredients in MOC for AP treatment. However, the underlying mechanism of MVO in AP therapy is unknown. Methods: An integrated strategy of gas chromatography-mass spectrum (GC-MS), network pharmacology, and molecular docking simulation was employed to predict underlying mechanism of MVO in AP treatment. First, the compounds of MVO were identified by GC-MS, and the targets of the identified characteristic compounds were collected from several databases, as well as AP-related targets. Next, Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis were carried out to obtain the mechanism. Moreover, the binding activity between core therapeutic targets and their corresponding compounds was evaluated by molecular docking simulation. Results: GC-MS results showed a total of 35 compounds that appeared in at least 18 out of 20 chromatograms were considered as characteristic compounds of MVO, and 33 compounds of those were identified. Network analysis demonstrated that 33 compounds regulated 142 AP-related targets. Of those, 8 compounds (α-eudesmol, γ-eudesmol, (-)-terpinen-4-ol, terpineol, hinesol, linalool, borneol, and β-eudesmol) and 8 targets (TNF, IL-1β, PPARγ, PPARα, PTGS2, NCOA1, CNR1, and ESR1) have a close relationship with AP treatment and were recognized as the key active compounds and the core therapeutic targets, respectively. The 142 targets were involved in both inflammation and calcium overload-related biological pathways, such as neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, estrogen, MAPK, and calcium signaling pathway. Moreover, molecular docking simulation indicated that the 8 core therapeutic targets strongly interacted with their corresponding compounds. Conclusions: In summary, the present study elucidated that the efficacy of MVO in AP treatment might be attributed to anti-inflammation and inhibition of calcium overload through multicomponents and multitargets.
Adverse reactions in the ipratropium bromide group and combined intervention group.
Recently, most scholars have advocated multidisciplinary comprehensive intervention measures for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to improve lung function, relieve symptoms of dyspnea, and improve quality of life. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has rich experience in the treatment of various respiratory system diseases and the rehabilitation of their syndrome differentiation. In this study, total 68 patients with COPD from November 2019 to November 2021 in the hospitals were divided into the control group, ipratropium bromide (IB)-treated group, and IB + TCM-treated group for clinical efficacy observation and to explore the effect of IB combined with TCM on the pulmonary function and psychological status of COPD patients. Patients in the control group were subjected to routine oxygen inhalation, cough and expectorant, and antiviral treatments, while the patients in the IB-treated group were treated with IB and those received in the control group. Patients in the IB + TCM-treated group were treated with IB and TCM intervention. All patients were treated for a month. The results showed that after different interventions, the levels of FEV1, FEV1% pred, FVC, and PEF ( P < 0.05) were significantly increased in all the groups, while levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, and CRP in serum as well as Hamilton Anxiety Scale and Hamilton Depression scores were significantly decreased. Compared with the control group and IB-treated group, the IB + TCM-treated group presented the greatest changes on all abovementioned indicators and the lowest total incidence of adverse reactions, indicating the biggest improvement of IB + TCM on the symptoms of COPD patients. Therefore, the combination of IB and TCM intervention effectively improved the pulmonary function and psychological status of COPD patients and could be used as an important adjunct for COPD treatment.
ICIQ score and ESS before and after treatment with Bryophyllum 50% tablets. * � statistically signiicant.
Nocturia is a pathologic condition that significantly affects the quality of sleep. The aetiology of nocturia is multifactorial, and the evidence available on its management remains limited. Besides behavioural measures, validated pharmaceutical treatment options exist but are, however, associated with marked side effects. Prospective clinical studies with tablets prepared from the leaf press juice of the plant Bryophyllum pinnatum revealed a tendency towards reduction of micturition in patients with overactive bladder (OAB) and several improvements in sleep quality. These observations are in part supported by in vitro and in vivo data. In the present study, we investigated the effectiveness of Bryophyllum 50% chewable tablets in the treatment of nocturia and associated sleep disorders. Altogether, 49 women with idiopathic OAB and nocturia of ≥2 voids/night were treated with Bryophyllum 50% tablets for 3 weeks (350 mg chewable tablets, dosage 0-0-2-2 oral tablets; WELEDA AG, Arlesheim, Switzerland). Nocturia, voiding volumes at night (ml), quality of life, sleep quality, and daily sleepiness were assessed before and after treatment with a 3-day micturition diary, the International Consultation on Incontinence evaluating overactive bladder and related impact on quality of life (QoL) [ICIQ-OAB], the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), respectively. The age of the study population was 68.5 ± 11.6 y. After treatment, nocturia diminished from 3.2 ± 1.4 to 2.3 ± 1.3 (P
Objective: To investigate the effect of garlic extract (GE) on the proliferation and apoptosis of cell lines A549 and H1299 in lung cancer (LC). Methods: A549 and H1299 cells with well-developed logarithmic growth were added with GE at a concentration of 0 μg/ml, 25 μg/ml, 50 μg/M, 75 μg/ml, and 100 μg/ml, respectively. The inhibition of A549 cell proliferation was detected using CCK-8 after cultured for 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h. The apoptosis of A549 cells was analyzed via flow cytometry (FCM) after 24 h of cultivation. In vitro migration of A549 and H1299 cells was determined by cell wound scratch assay after 0 h and 24 h culture. The caspase-3 and caspase-9 protein expression levels in A549 and H1299 cells were evaluated through western blot after 24 h of cultivation. Results: Colony formation and EdU assays revealed that Z-ajoene could inhibit cell viability and cell proliferation in NSCLC cells. After 24 h culture, there was no significant difference in the proliferation rate of A549 and H1299 cells with different GE concentrations (P > 0.05). A remarkable proliferation rate difference emerged between A549 and H1299 cells with different GE concentrations after 48 and 72 hours of cultivation. The proliferation rate of A549 and H1299 cells in the experiment group was significantly lower than that in the control group. With an elevated level of GE concentration, the proliferation rate of A549 and H1299 cells decreased (P < 0.05) while the apoptotic rate increased continuously. Conclusion: GE could exert toxic effects on A549 and H1299 cells, inhibit cell proliferation, promote apoptosis, and attenuate cell migration. Meanwhile, it might induce apoptosis of A549 and H1299 cells through the caspase signal pathway, which is positively correlated with the mass action concentration and is expected to be a new drug for LC treatment.
The relationship between AH grading and pepsin expression.
Number of acid reflux episodes in LPR (+) and LPR (−) groups.
Total quantity of reflux episodes in LPR (+) and LPR (−) groups.
Sensitivity and speciicity of RSI, RFS, and RSI combined with RFS in diagnosing pharyngeal reeux.
Objectives: This prospective randomized controlled analysis aimed to assess the changes in laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) in children with adenoid hypertrophy (AH). Study design: a prospective, randomized, and controlled analysis. Methods: The reflux symptom index (RSI) and the reflux finding score (RFS) scores were used to evaluate the laryngopharyngeal reflux changes in children diagnosed with adenoid hypertrophy. The pepsin concentration in salivary samples was examined, and the positive pepsin was used to assess the sensitivity and specificity of RSI, RFS, and RSI combined with RFS in forecasting LPR. Results: In 43 children with AH, the sensitivity of the RSI and RFS scale (used alone or in combination) in diagnosing pharyngeal reflux in children with adenoid hypertrophy was lower. Pepsin expression was identified in 43 items of salivary samples, with a total positive rate of 69.77%, most of which were optimistic. The expression level of pepsin was positively correlated with the grade of adenoid hypertrophy (r = 0.576, P < 0.01). Based on the positive rate of pepsin, we found that the sensitivity and specificity of RSI and RFS were 5.77%, 35.03%, and 91.74%, 55.89%. Moreover, there was a noticeable distinction in the number of acid reflux episodes between the LPR-positive and LPR-negative groups. Conclusion: There is a special connection between LPR change and children's AH. LPR exerts a crucial role in the progression of children's AH. Because of the low sensitivity of RSI and RFS, it is not suitable for LPR children to choose AH.
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Top-cited authors
Gerhard Litscher
  • Medical University of Graz
Jie Wang
Kam-Ming Ko
  • The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
Edwin L. Cooper
  • University of California, Los Angeles
Si-Yuan Pan
  • Beijing University of Chinese Medicine and Pharmacology