In November 2003 the city of Edinburgh hosted the MTV Europe Music Awards. This article discusses the event's contribution to Edinburgh's reimaging and local involvement. After outlining links between cultural events and contemporary urban policy, an in-depth case study charts the evolution of the MTV Europe Awards Edinburgh 03 and how it became embroiled in local political realities. The event became politicized because MTV was given £750 thousand public subsidy to part-fund the show's temporary structure and the outside broadcast costs of a simultaneous live concert in Edinburgh's city center Princes Street Gardens. Officials argued that, beyond the local economic benefit—estimated initially at £4 million—this was justified as the event offered extensive local inclusion and unique promotional opportunities that would give the city's conservative image a contemporary edge. They believed Edinburgh's reimaging as an exciting short-break destination would occur because of the association with A-list celebrities and MTV's innovative marketing that connected with the global traveling, yet elusive, "MTV generation." MTV found Edinburgh an ideal city as its experienced events team eased production of their complex "live" television show, while its young people and iconic place features gave the show a distinctive narrative. The article's key finding is that MTV's desire for these place features to reimage their television show meant the event primarily benefited them and the local tourist industry. MTV happily fostered local involvement—creating memorable moments for participants—but their celebrity and place focus meant their voices were often marginalized. This was accentuated because the local newspaper, part of a group often critical of public sector organizers, emphasized: the event's cost and disruption, the inappropriate actions of public officials, and MTV's ticket allocation to corporate clients.
The hosting of mega-events such as the Olympic Games provides a short period of intense excitement for residents and enhances the long-term awareness of the host destination in tourism markets. However, unless the event is carefully and strategically planned with destination and community development in mind, it can be difficult to justify the large investments required. This article focuses on two examples (the 1988 Calgary Winter Olympics, and the Salt Lake City 2002 Games) in an attempt to demonstrate how legacy planning can help ensure that the hosting of a short-term mega-event such as the Olympics can contribute to the development and consolidation of facilities and programs that will benefit destination residents for many years.
While the Summer Olympics is arguably unparalleled in terms of its scale and the potential magnitude of its impacts on tourism in the host city/country, the amount of research aimed at evaluating those impacts is surprisingly limited. Some of the possible reasons for this are explored and the need for a more systematic approach to tourism impact evaluation is emphasized. Apart from accountability considerations associated with the need to demonstrate a dividend from public investment in the event, such research is critical for ensuring that lessons about approaches to more effectively leveraging tourism benefits from future events are derived from the Olympic experience. The Australian Cooperative Research Centre for Sustainable Tourism's Sydney Olympics Tourism Impacts Study aims to address this objective.
Tourism events are often recognized for their ability to generate significant economic benefits for the host destination. In an environment where research is predominantly concerned with measuring economic impacts, this study sought to examine the wider impacts and implications of hosting a special event, the America's Cup in 2000. This article evaluates the major impacts of hosting the America's Cup in the city of Auckland and finds a notable lack of available data that document the impacts of tourism events. It considers whether the costs invested in hosting an event are recovered as a direct result of staging the event. The study concludes that the economic agendas on which event management is often based need to be viewed in the context of the total impacts generated. Furthermore, while this type of overview is important for contextual purposes and identifying available data, more research attention needs to be directed towards understanding the social, physical, environmental, and tourism impacts associated with hosting events in their local context. The nature and extent of impacts can vary significantly between events and destinations and therefore the repeat hosting of the America's Cup in Auckland in 2003 provides a unique opportunity for longitudinal studies to increase the industry's understanding of the significance of event tourism.
Using an archive study and a survey, the authors have examined how the bid committees of the four finalist cities formulated and communicated their bids for selection as hosts to the 2002 Olympic Winter Games. The aim was to identify the bidders' views regarding the appropriateness of the messages and messengers chosen, the other actors involved, and the channels of communication selected in order to win. The response from the winner, Salt Lake City, indicated that messages with little or nothing to do with the organizing of the Olympic Winter Games were of almost equal importance to those describing the implementation of the proposed Games. Compared to the other bidders, Salt Lake City considered the nonverbal components consisting of messengers, other actors, and channels to be far more influential on the choices made by IOC members. Only one representative of a bidding committee thought that it was very important to the IOC members that the candidate cities followed the IOC's bidding rules.
The FIFA World Cup is a special event that has economic, cultural, and political impacts on host nations. Therefore, preparation requires careful attention to accommodation readiness because a huge volume of budget-conscious visitors stay for a specific period and leave after the event. Yogwans, Korean-style small inns, were used as an accommodation alternative to tourist hotels for the 1986 Asian Games and the 1988 Olympic Games and played an important role in the successful accommodation preparations for the 2002 World Cup. The important elements that made yogwan preparations successful were analyzed. They include owner concerns (profitability, understanding of information management systems, and foreign culture familiarity), information exchange (reservation interface, distribution of terminals, and training programs), and resource availability (room supply based on demand). This study concluded that Yogwans can be effectively utilized with improvements as an alternative type of accommodation in Korea for future special events.
By means of an empirical survey, this article analyzes the decision-making process of the members of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) in order to establish how they evaluated the bids to host the 2002 Olympic Winter Games. Three bid-winning models were identified. These consisted of offers from a total of seven bid-winning subjects: the Olympic village for accommodating the athletes, transportation facilities for all the visitors to the Games, the sports arenas, the finances of the Games, telecommunications, information technology, and the media center. Offers, which had little or nothing to do with the Olympic Winter Games, were on average graded important by the majority of the IOC members. However, offers that referred to the performance of the Games were considered, on average, more important than other offers. The individual IOC members did not share the interest of the IOC in bids offering cultural events, environmental care (opening, closing, and prize) ceremonies, a youth camp for young athletes, and accommodation for all the athletes in a single Olympic village. No bid messenger was considered very influential by a majority of the IOC members in their bid choices. The visits of the IOC members to the bid cities was the only channel for communicating bid offers that was perceived as very influential by a majority of the IOC members. Every fourth IOC member stated that it was not important to their bid selection that the bidders followed IOC's bidding rules. Fifteen bid offers (17%) were evaluated differently by the IOC members due to their cultural and demographic differences.
With the decline of traditional economic activities in postindustrial cities such as Manchester, mega-events linked with urban renewal programs are becoming increasingly important. The hosting of large international events is not only beneficial for the tourism industry but it is linked to all aspects of economic and social development. Manchester has actively sought a program of tourism and cultural events as a means of showcasing the city as well as accelerating the process of urban renewal. This article examines how the management structures, policies, and programs for the Manchester 2002 Commonwealth Games were linked with existing efforts to achieve long-term urban renewal.
The XVII Commonwealth Games in Manchester, from July 25 to August 4, 2002, was the largest Commonwealth Games (the Games) and multisporting event ever held in the UK and required the recruitment and training of the largest volunteer workforce in the UK in recent decades. While much has been written about volunteering within different contextual backgrounds, and in relation to large-scale events, little research has addressed the issue of expectations of volunteers and their attitude towards functional management during the run up to a major international event. Using a qualitative research approach with focus groups this study addresses these issues. In terms of expectations, a number of key factors were identified in relation to the recruitment, training, and other management dimensions of the Games that have implications for volunteer motivation, responses to the psychological contract, and the long-term impact of a major event.
The latest developments in information and communication technologies (ICT) revolutionize the way security, reliability, and efficiency of administration action is assured in large-scale events. This report draws from the experience of the 2004 Olympic Games and models the use of ICT for wireless group communications in the operations management. We examine (1) the structure and the information content of the communication routes for management, (2) the criteria for selection of a wireless telecommunications technology appropriate for the event, and (3) the reproducibility of important work parameters related to communications during typical operations or emergency conditions. We present data from the Athens Olympic Games, where the wireless communication systems successfully served the administration needs of the Olympics community, which included staff, organizations, and firms in the multinational events.
The purpose of the study was to validate the revised Volunteer Motivations Scale for International Sporting Events (VMS-ISE) and to identify subgroup differences in the motives for volunteering using a volunteer sample from the Athens 2004 Olympic Games. Two hundred and six volunteers (144 males and 62 females) for the Athens 2004 Olympic Games participated in the study and completed the 29-item scale. Results of the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) provided support for the applicability of the volunteers' motivation questionnaire in the context of the Olympic Games, with the addition of the Love of Sport factor. The results of both validity (convergent and discriminant) and reliability (internal consistency) analyses were satisfactory. Results also indicated that gender and marital status had a significant effect on specific motivational dimensions. These findings suggest that the revised VMS-ISE can be a useful tool in measuring volunteer motives in international sporting events, as well as provide a better understanding of subgroup differences on volunteer motivation.
The European Cities/Capitals of Culture initiative (subsequently referred to as ECOC) was originally set up in 1985 to celebrate European cultural diversity. Conceptualized by researchers as a major cultural event, a growing academic literature on the subject now argues that the ECOC has lost sight of its original cultural aims and is being increasingly used to further city-branding, image creation and tourism revenue generation agendas. This article reports the findings of a study that examined how the regular workings of a city's permanent cultural sector can be affected by this transient, large-scale cultural event. The ECOC studied Cork 2005. The study's findings point to a number of ways in which the ECOC constituted a boost for the sector in terms of strengthening capacity, building relationships, and enhancing well-being. It further points to a number of shortcomings in how the “process” or developmental potential of the event was fostered. A number of questions for future research are raised. Core among these include investigating how the needs of the cultural sector are recognized and managed amidst competing calls from other stakeholders, and how tensions/compromises attend the competing agendas that seek to capitalize on the ECOC.
Case studies involving actual situations and events have long been recognized as a valuable learning tool, providing instructors with methods for promoting mental inquiry (Knowles, Holton, & Swanson, 1998) and students with real-life examples to analyze, synthesize, and evaluate. This article proposes the use of the Event Management Body of Knowledge (EMBOK) as an analytical tool to support case studies, as well as other teaching methods, because of its potential as a structure for deconstructing and analyzing an event. In the realm of events, there is arguably no better example to study than the Olympic Games due to its global recognition and hallmark status. This article uses the opening ceremonies of the 2006 Winter Olympic Games as the subject of an analysis using the Design Knowledge Domain of the EMBOK to illustrate the value of the EMBOK as a logical framework for analysis in a learning environment.
World Youth Day 2008 (WYD08) held during July was the fourth mega-event to be held in Sydney in the past decade. All mega-events, such as WYD08, attract considerable media attention in the lead up to, during, and after the event. In the lead up to WYD08, media reports, particularly those in the Australian written press, were predominately negative. These reports gave the impression that there was little, if any, support for holding the event among the residents of Sydney. Data were collected through a combination of document analysis and host community interviews, in the lead up to, during, and immediately following the event. The document analysis included two local Sydney newspapers and one national newspaper. The findings show that printed media reports were not an accurate reflection of community support. Given that media is believed to be not only influenced by public opinion, but also capable of influencing public opinion, why was there such disparity between media reports and other sources of evidence regarding community support for this event? There is a call for more research investigating if what is reflected in the media is a fair approximation of community response to events.
The Formula 1 Grand Prix was held in Singapore for the first time in September 2008. While Singapore had previous experience hosting international events, nothing in the past could be compared to this inaugural event because it brought with it a unique set of impacts, as evidenced by past research into car races held elsewhere. For this reason, this study explores how this major motor sport event impacted its host residents through their perceptions of social-cultural aspects. This is important because it can affect the well-being and quality of the life of local residents, two necessary antecedents for their continued support of the car race in the future. A survey of 96 residents was conducted to elicit responses to host residents' perceptions of social-cultural impacts of the F1. Chi-square analysis was used to explore relationships between different types of respondents and their perceived social-cultural impacts. Residents were largely homogenous with regard to attitudes toward the positive and negative impacts, although there were more discrepancies associated with the negative issues. Results were compared to previous studies of car race events and social exchange and social representation theories were used to help contextualize the data. While residents largely supported the F1 event suggestions were provided so as to better manage the social-cultural impacts.
Olympic Games often require organizing committees to construct major sports venues. As private entities not clearly accountable to the public, these organizing committees or "Olympic Corporations" have been accused of bypassing normal planning protocols, and in the process transforming the nature of host cities with little stakeholder consultation. This article traces the evolution of relationships between Vancouver 2010's Olympic Corporation and stakeholders concerned with Cypress Olympic Venue (COV) development. It suggests that because a balance of power existed between the Olympic Corporation and stakeholder groups, the relationship transformed from being primarily antagonistic to a more constructive configuration through successive interactions. While the Olympic Corporation's stakeholder engagement strategies appear successful at the COV, stakeholder respondents still exhibit skepticism about Olympic organizers. This article emphasizes the importance of crafting a "social license to operate" in the Olympic planning context and uncovers some essential prerequisites for the development of corporate-community relationships.
When London won the bid to host the Games, the vision was underpinned by key themes, one of which was to leave a legacy of benefiting the community through regeneration. The regeneration of the Lower Lea Valley was promised to be for the direct benefit of everyone who lives and works there, involving significant social and economic advancement. However, Mace, Hall, and Gallent draw parallels through the previous urban regeneration projects in major cities and they argue that for regeneration to work it has to be for the benefit of the existing communities and not “new” communities who inhabit the area post the Games. Could this happen in East London and, despite Government plans, the developments lead to an extension of the Docklands renaissance, inhabited instead by mostly middle class workers? This article explores the difference between regeneration and gentrification in the context of London 2012 and other Olympic Games. Much of the published literature regarding London's legacy of urban regeneration has a positive slant, yet, through the analysis of documentation from previous Games and through in-depth interviews with key stakeholders, the research highlights a number of issues that London 2012 will need to address.
This article explores the linkages between community events and a rise in community social capital by analyzing a case study of the Up Helly Aa fire festival in Lerwick, Shetland. Through ritually repeated action that now translates as tradition, Up Helly Aa interprets and reinterprets what it means to be a Shetlander. It relies on personal donations and local businesses for funding, and this financial self-reliance can be seen to permit exclusionary actions towards visitors and reaffirm notions of traditionally constructed gender roles. This article examines the complex negotiations that take place during the festival surrounding gender, identity, heritage, tourism, and belonging to a place. It concludes that given the physical and social landscape in which the festival occurs, the reutilization of community celebration and fostering of community identity cannot be discounted despite Up Helly Aa's less than politically correct approaches to inclusionary participation and tourism development.
The city of Potchefstroom in South Africa hosts the annual Aardklop National Arts Festival. The first festival in 1998 attracted 25,000 visitors, increasing to 60,000 in its second year and to over 100,000 by 2001. This festival is one of 79 festivals held in South Africa annually. As visitors can attend other national and international festivals, the goals of the study included determining the motivational factors that push and pull the local residents of Potchefstroom to attend and participate in the festival, the festival activities they enjoy most, and also the situational inhibitors discouraging them from attending the festival. A nonrandom sampling methodquota samplingwas used for selecting local residents, using a map of Potchefstroom to identify all of its residential areas. Households were randomly selected. The quota sample contained an equal number of respondents from the high and lower socioeconomic areas, and equal numbers of men and women in three age groups (screening questions excluded those who did not fit the criteria). As little research has been done so far on the pull factors motivating local residents, the findings may assist festival organizers with strategies for marketing and communication, and in considering the needs of the host community that plays such a pivotal role in the sustainability of a festival.
The Aardklop National Arts Festival is one of the most popular arts festivals in South Africa and, given the economic value of the festival, an understanding of expenditure patterns and the determinants influencing spending behavior is vital to the festival marketers/organizers—especially from a sustainability point of view. Therefore, the aim of this article is to investigate the sociodemographic and behavioral determinants that influence visitor expenditure at Aardklop, based on visitor surveys conducted at the festival in 2008. Regression analysis was applied to establish the most significant determinants and results indicate that higher income, occupation, age, people paid for, tickets purchased, and attendance of other festivals are significant determinants influencing the amount of money spent by visitors at the festival. These findings will not only generate strategic insights on marketing for the festival, but knowledge of these determinants can also lead to a greater economic impact, as well as a competitive advantage.
Festivals and events have assumed a prominent place in the social and economic fabric of Edinburgh, to a point where it now enjoys a reputation as a leading festival and event destination. In Edinburgh, as in other festival destinations, most of the research and evaluation effort has been concerned with "proving" the economic benefits of individual events. The limitations of focusing on narrow economic outcomes are now widely recognized in terms of the comparability, reliability, and utility of the estimates produced. While the attention of stakeholders has been on economic benefits, the very important cultural, community, and social benefits have been overlooked. Important issues such as engagement with the arts, community, cultural, social, and stakeholder benefits and disbenefits produced have yet to be researched in any systematic way. This article offers a comprehensive research agenda for key festivals in Edinburgh and acts an introduction to this special issue. The research agenda is based on published articles (inclusive of those in this volume), existing strategies and documentation, and the editors' knowledge of and engagement with the Edinburgh festival community. The agenda will be of interest to the numerous festivals and events stakeholders in Edinburgh as well as other destinations that are seeking to understand the social and cultural, as well the economic, dimensions of festivals.
People with disabilities have a right to access the full range of social activities and services available in a society. Nonetheless, the way that built and social environments are often constructed serves to restrict access of this group to a wide range of activities and hence compromise their rights as citizens. This article looks at how those engaged in the organization of events can facilitate the involvement of people with disabilities in the conferences, festivals, sporting, and other events that they conduct. The article begins by providing a brief overview of selected statistics and legislation associated with disability in Australia. It then looks at the operationalization of event disability planning in Australia through a review of complaint cases made under the Disability Discrimination Act, 1992. The review provides an insight into the current discriminatory practices employed by event and venue managers. The article then presents a best practice case study of the Sydney 2000 Olympic and Paralympic Games to show how disability and access issues were incorporated into the event planning and operations processes. The article concludes with some suggestions as to how event and venue managers can better incorporate people with disabilities into their programs.
The issue of service quality and standards has become increasingly prominent in events tourism, yet professional standards remain difficult to implement at the event operational level. O'Neill, Getz, and Carlsen (1999) found that there is a nexus between service quality at events and visitor satisfaction, which has implications for repeat visitation and therefore viability of recurrent events. The management of service quality at events is a difficult task, due to the temporary and intangible nature of the event experience for visitors and the reliance on volunteers and subcontractors by event managers.
This study aims to explore the effect of attending events on young residents' place attachment levels. Events generate a wide range of social outcomes but it is not known whether they influence feelings towards the place where the event is held. After examining the motivations of event attendees, a survey of young residents in Adelaide, Australia found that there was no correlation between the events attended and place attachment. However, it was found that the motivations for event attendance did correlate with place identity. The other variable that was found to effect place identity was length of residence. The results indicate that these variables have a bearing on the effective bonds that develop between a person and a place, which in this case is the place of residence.
During the course of the past two decades, special events have proliferated and diversified. However, the rapid growth in the supply of such events is threatened by a diminishing consumer demand for this type of recreational activity. Thus, for festivals that wish to survive, there is a need to improve their products constantly and to market them successfully to their visitors. Paradoxically, relatively little research has focused on special events from a marketing perspective. One notable exception to this observation is a study by Mayfield and Crompton that examined how a sample of event organizers embraces the marketing concept. Likewise, the current investigation aims to make a modest contribution to this issue. Its aim is twofold: first, to operationalize the concept of “market orientation” and, second, to discover whether small-scale community-run festivals adopt this concept. For the purposes of this inquiry, qualitative telephone interviews were conducted with 13 festival organizers in Norway, selected according to a purposeful sampling strategy. The information obtained from the transcripts was then computer analyzed. The interpretation of the data indicates that none of the festivals has been able to adopt the concept of market orientation as their management philosophy. The most common and main reason for this is that the festivals lack a sufficient budget necessary to provide skilled personnel and time needed to carry out market orientation activities (e.g., visitor research).