Therefore we did not describe any case of ''en block'' carotid resection, which is obviously more complicated and unnecessary. Distal stenting position, which may cause difficult carotid clamping in the event of surgical rescue, is sometimes encountered, and in our series of 404 carotid stents performed in the last 3 years, it occurred in approximately 10% of cases, due to high carotid bifurcation, distal carotid plaque or inappropriate stent delivery. This possibility should therefore be taken into account if a surgical conversion becomes necessary.
Regression of the aneurysmal sac after endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an accepted indicator of aneurysm exclusion. This study evaluated the spontaneous decrease in sac diameter over a 10-year period in patients undergoing endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) with different stentgrafts.
1,450 patients (mean age 73.1 ± 7.7 years; 1,325 male) undergoing EVAR and with a minimum of 1-year computed tomography (CT) imaging were included. Different implanted stentgrafts (n = 622 [42.9%] Zenith, n = 236 [16.3%] AneuRx, n = 179 [12.3%] Talent, n = 83 [5.7%] Endurant, n = 236 [16.3%] Excluder, n = 36 [2.5%] Fortron, 53 [3.7%] Anaconda, n = 5 [0.3%] others) were employed. "Persisting shrinkage" was measured as ≥5 mm AAA diameter regression spontaneously persisting or increasing until the end of follow-up without reintervention. Persisting shrinkage among devices was compared with survival and Cox regression analyses.
During a median follow-up of 45 months (interquartile range, IQR, 21-79) persisting shrinkage was detected in 768 (53%) aneurysms. Kaplan-Meier estimates of persisting shrinkage were 25.8% at 1 year, 63% at 3 years and 72.6% at 10 years. Persisting shrinkage rates were significantly higher for Zenith (p < .0001), Endurant (p = .013) and new generation Excluder (p < .0001) devices. Cox analyses confirmed that persisting shrinkage rates were independently associated with Zenith (OR 1.33; 95% CI: 1.176-1.514) and Endurant (OR 1.52; 95% CI: 1.108-2.092) stentgrafts and negatively associated with the AneuRx (OR 0.57; 95% CI: 0.477-0.688) device. Survival rates were higher in the persisting shrinkage group: 84.1% vs. 77.8% at 3 years, and 53% vs. 38.1% at 10 years (p < .0001). Freedom from AAA-related-death rate was 100% at 3 years and 99.7% at 10 years in the persisting shrinkage group.
Aneurysm diameter shrinkage can be achieved in most current EVARs with persisting effect at 10 years from repair and indicates the benefit and safety of treatment. Last generation devices seem to be important factors in inducing aneurysm sac shrinkage with similar clinically relevant effects among single models.
previously we routinely performed endarterectomy of the external carotid artery (ECA) during carotid surgery. However, discouraging experience and lack of supportive data in the literature made us question its necessity. The present report describes our experience with a modified carotid endarterectomy (CEA) technique where the ECA is left undisturbed regardless of its degree of stenosis.
from January 1996 to June 2001, 1027 CEAs were performed in 905 patients with this technique at our institution. All operations were performed for at least 60% internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis. A preoperative carotid duplex scan was available for review in 990 cases (96%). Follow-up duplex scans were recovered from 0 to 1 months in 851 cases (83%) and from >1 month in 655 cases (64%). Seventy percent of these cases were performed for asymptomatic lesions.
the perioperative (30-day) mortality rate for the entire group of patients was 0.5% and the stroke rate was 0.7%. Mean follow-up was 18 months (range: 2-66 months). Only two ECAs occluded in the first postoperative month. During the follow-up period, 37 additional ECAs (5.6%) were found to progress from mild to severe (>75%) stenosis postoperatively. In addition, 7% of the cases were found to have worsened the degree of stenosis, 8% improved and 85% remained unchanged.
these data support sparing of the ECA during CEA.
The long-term outcome of catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) in patients with acute iliofemoral venous thrombosis (IFVT) is evaluated in this study.
Patients presenting for treatment with IFVT between June 1999 and May 2007 were considered for treatment using CDT. The following inclusion criteria were used: first episode of IFVT, age below 60 years, age of thrombus <14 days and open distal popliteal vein. Ultrasonography (US) was used to verify the diagnosis. The popliteal vein was punctured under local anaesthesia using US guidance, and a multi-side-hole catheter with tip occlusion was placed in the thrombus. A solution of r-TPA was infused either continuously or using the pulse spray technique together with heparin. Any occlusion or residual stenosis in the iliac vein system was treated by stenting. Compression stockings and anticoagulation treatment were given for at least 12 months. Patients with severe thrombophilias were treated for longer periods. The patients were assessed by colour-duplex US for assessment of patency and valve function after 6 weeks, 3, 6 and 12 months and afterwards on a yearly basis.
A total of 101 patients with 103 extremities affected by iliofemoral venous thrombosis were included (median age; 29 years, 78 women, and 79 had left-sided thrombosis). A stent was inserted in 57 limbs. The median follow-up time was 50 months (range 3 days-108 months). At 6 years, 82% of the limbs had patent veins with competent valves and without any skin changes or venous claudication.
Treatment with CDT for IFVT achieves good patency and vein function after 6 years of follow-up in this highly selected group of patients. We suggest that results from future studies should be presented as Kaplan-Meier plots using venous patency without reflux as the main outcome, since it is an early indicator of the clinical outcome.
To study early mortality and long-term survival of patients more than 80 years of age having elective open repair for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA).
Retrospective multicenter cohort study.
One hundred and five patients, 23 women and 82 men, with a median age of 82 years, operated at three Norwegian hospitals during the period 1983-2002.
Survival analyses were based on data from medical records and the Norwegian Registrar's Office of Births and Deaths. Expected survival was based on mortality rates of the general population, matched by age, sex, and calendar period. Relative survival was calculated as the ratio between the observed and the expected survival.
During the study period there has been a 10 fold increase in octogenarians treated with open operation for AAA. Early mortality (30-day) for the whole group of patients was 10.5% (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 5.3-18.0), and similar for both genders. The 5-year survival rate was 47% (95% CI 35.9-57.4), and not significantly different from that of a matched group in the general population. Patients aged 84 years or more had a median survival time of 35 months (95% CI 18.5-51.6).
The number of AAA operations in octogenarians has increased considerably during 20 years. Octogenarians operated electively for AAA has higher 30-day mortality as compared to younger patients. Their long-term survival appears similar to a matched control group. The benefit of surgery must be carefully considered against the perioperative risk, especially for the oldest octogenarians.
This study describes a new technique for treatment of Buerger's disease, developed to stimulate angiogenesis, using a Kirschner wire placed in the medullary canal of the tibia. The aim of the study was to evaluate clinical and radiological effects of this technique in patients where medical and surgical therapy had failed.
Eleven extremities (six patients) with Buerger's disease were treated with the intramedullary Kirschner wire technique. Inclusion criteria were chronic critical ischemia, Rutherford Grade II or III, with major arterial occlusion shown by Doppler examination and angiography; failure to respond to non-surgical and surgical treatment; and the need for strong analgesics.
The mean follow-up time was 19 months (range, 13-25 months). Satisfactory remission in each patient was obtained within 6 weeks of intervention. A significant improvement in clinical manifestations including reduced rest pain and increased claudication distance was observed. Foot ulcers completely healed after Kirschner wire intervention.
Despite short-term follow-up and small patient series, the intramedullary Kirschner wire technique can be expected to achieve relief of pain and a decrease in major amputations in patients with Buerger's disease in whom medical and surgical therapy had failed. However, comparative studies with longer follow-up should be done to confirm the benefits of this new treatment.
We have reviewed our management, of both ruptured and non-ruptured, abdominal and thoraco-abdominal mycotic aneurysms in order to determine the safety and efficacy of in situ and extra-anatomical prosthetic repairs.
Data regarding presenting symptoms, investigations, operative techniques and outcome, were collected on patients treated at a singe centre over 11 years.
There were 11 men and four women, with a median age of 70 years (range, 24-79). All but one patient were symptomatic and six had a contained leak on admission. In six patients no organisms were identified in either blood or tissue cultures. Pre-operative CT identified; four infra-renal, four juxta-renal, three (Crawford thoraco-abdominal) type IV, three type III and one type II, aortic aneurysms. Thirteen were repaired with in situ prostheses and two required axillo-femoral prosthetic grafts. There were four early deaths. All surviving patients have been followed-up for a median duration of 38 months (range 1/2-112 months). There were two late deaths at 3 months (juxta-renal) and at 2 years (type III), the latter relating to graft infection.
In the absence of uncontrolled sepsis, repair of mycotic aortic aneurysms using prosthetic grafts can achieve durable results.
The aim of this study was to compare the behaviour of mesothelial cells (MC) to that of endothelial cells (EC) when seeded onto a PTFE, prosthesis coated with a fibroblastic matrix. DESIGN, MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three study groups were examined: a control group (Control) of PTFE prostheses with a fibroblast matrix (n = 8); Group EC, PTFE prostheses seeded with EC on a fibroblastic matrix (n = 8); and Group MC, PTFE, prostheses seeded with MC on a fibroblastic matrix (n = 8). All cell types were labelled with 111In (100 microCi/ml) 24 h after seeding, when the cells had formed a monolayer on the prosthetic surface. Radioactive levels were measured at 2, 4, 6, and 24 h.
Both EC and MC showed optimal adherence. The MC had a better radioactive uptake and retention than the EC. The number of EC and MC cells that remained adherent to the matrix was large enough to ensure complete covering of the prosthetic surface.
The use of MC is therefore feasible as an optimal alternative for achieving a natural covering on vascular prostheses prepared with a fibroblastic matrix.
Use of platelet deposition to predict failure following angioplasty.
Prospective study of angioplasty patients in a 9 months surveillance period.
Thirty-eight successful angioplasty patients.
Autologous 111indium-labelled platelets were re-injected immediately after angioplasty. Gamma camera and probe measures of radioactivity were obtained daily for 2-4 days and compared to a reference site to obtain a radioactivity ratio. Patient follow up was with duplex and arteriography from day 0 to 9 months or at angioplasty failure.
Thirty-one patients remained asymptomatic; two developed acute occlusion and five developed restenosis. Platelet accumulation (increased mean radioactivity ratio) occurred at all angioplasty sites and was significantly higher after acute occlusion (camera: 2.93 and probe: 1.93) compared to asymptomatic patients (camera: 1.25 and probe: 1.15) and restenotic patients (camera: 1.31 and probe: 1.23). Radioactivity ratio was not different in patients who later developed restenosis.
111Indium platelet radioactivity effectively detected acute angioplasty reocclusions, but was unable to predict subsequent angioplasty restenosis.
To evaluate a new imaging technique, for diagnosis of prosthetic vascular graft infection. Avidin is a protein which accumulates nonspecifically at sites of inflammation or infection. Due to its extremely low dissociation constant with biotin sites of infection can be imaged, using avidin as a pre-target, followed by injection of 111In-labelled biotin. This technique is much simpler than the common scintigraphic methods which employ labelling of blood components and its target-to-background ratio is greater than the methods employing radiolabelled proteins.
Prospective clinical study.
A single department of vascular surgery and one of nuclear medicine of a Northern Italian hospital.
Between May 1993 and May 1994, 31 grafts in 26 patients were studied; the series included 23 men and three women with a mean age of 65.5 years (range 54-76 years). The prosthetic graft (Dacron -16, ePTFE -15) were: aortoaortic 5, aortobifemoral 15, aortoiliac 1, and femoropopliteal 10. Sixteen patients were suspected of having a vascular graft infection (Group A), the other 10 patients served as controls (Group B). 20 mg of Avidin were injected iv, followed 24 h later by i.v. injection of 500 micrograms of Biotin labelled with 74 MBq of 111In.
Whole-body imaging was performed at 10 min and 2 h post-injection, along with SPECT imaging when indicated. Scan results were correlated with the traditional imaging modalities and the clinical outcome of the patients.
In Group A: two patients (three grafts) were excluded from the study, there were six true-positives, one false-positive and 11 true-negatives. Results in Group B: 10 true-negatives. The overall sensitivity was 100%, the specificity 95%, the accuracy 96%, the positive predictive value 86% and the negative predictive value 100%.
These data suggest that Avidin/111In-labelled Biotin scintigraphy is a useful non invasive diagnostic method for early diagnosis of suspected prosthetic vascular graft infection.
Re : Emboli rate during an early after carotid endarterectomy after a single preoperative dose of 120 mg acetylsalicylic acid--a prospective double-blind placebo controlled randomized trial by Tytgat et al. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2005;29:156-161.
To investigate whether a single pre-operative dose of 120 mg acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) decreased either (1) emboli rate, as detected by transcranial Doppler (TCD), during and early after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and (2) clinical intra- and post-operative signs suggestive of embolism or increased bleeding tendency.
Prospective, double-blind placebo controlled trial.
One-hundred consecutive patients were randomised to receive either 120 mg ASA (n = 48) or placebo (n = 49) by suppository on the night before CEA; three patients were excluded. Emboli were counted and expressed as emboli rate (ER). The incidence of bleeding complications was assessed. Surgeons were asked to indicate which patients had received ASA or placebo.
There were no significant differences between the ASA and placebo groups in ER in the intraoperative and postoperative periods. ER higher than 0.9 min(-1) was associated with a significantly increased risk of complications (26 vs. 0%, P < 0.01). No extra bleeding complications were observed in the ASA group. Surgeon assessment of whether or not ASA had been administered had a sensitivity of 42% and a specificity of 70%.
A single pre-operative dose of ASA (120 mg) did not reduce significantly the emboli rate during and after CEA and surgeons could not correctly identify whether or not ASA had been administered.
To analyse the early and mid-term outcomes of endovascular repair of Stanford type B aortic dissection (B-AD) and to compare the outcomes between acute type B aortic dissection (AAD) and chronic type B aortic dissection (CAD).
The cohort included 121 consecutive patients undergoing endovascular repair for AAD (group A, n=72) and CAD (group B, n=49) between January 2001 and December 2006. Follow-up with clinical examinations and computed tomography (CT) was performed post-intervention at 1, 6 and 12 months, and then yearly thereafter.
In groups A and B, respectively, the procedure success rates were 88.9% and 77.6%; the rates of postoperative endoleak were 11.1% and 22.4%; the 30-day mortality rates were 1.4% and 8.2%; and the 30-day stroke rates were 4.2% and 2.0%. No postoperative spinal cord ischaemia (SCI) was observed. The mean follow-up periods for groups A and B were 14.4+/-11.0 months and 22.1+/-20.8 months, respectively. Late mortality was 1.5% in group A and 4.8% in group B. In group A, the rates of complete false lumen (FL) thrombosis at 1 month, 1 year and 2 years postoperatively were 32.3%, 51.4% and 53.8%, respectively, and in group B, 26.2%, 44.8%, and 50.0%, respectively.
Endovascular repair is feasible for both AAD and CAD, with favourable short- and mid-term outcomes.
The ENGAGE registry was undertaken to examine the real-world outcome after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair (EVAR) with the Endurant Stent Graft in a large, contemporary, global series of patients.
From March 2009 to April 2011, 1262 AAA patients (89.6% men; mean age 73.1 years, range 43-93 years) were enrolled from 79 sites in 30 countries and treated with Endurant. Results are described following the reporting standards for EVAR. Follow-up data were tabulated for all 1262 patients at a 30-day follow-up and for the first 500 patients at a 1-year follow-up.
Intra-operative technical success was achieved in 99.0% of cases. Within 30 days, adverse events were reported in 3.9% of patients, including a 1.3% mortality rate. Type-I or -III endoleaks were identified in 1.5% of cases. Estimated overall survival, aneurysm-related survival and freedom from secondary interventions at 1 year were 91.6%, 98.6% and 95.1%, respectively. At 1 year, aneurysm size increased ≥5 mm in 2.8% and decreased ≥5 mm in 41.3% of cases.
Early results from this real world, global experience are promising and indicate that endovascular AAA repair with the Endurant Stent Graft is safe and effective across different geographies and standards of practice. Longer-term follow-up is necessary to assess durability of these results.
Patients undergoing carotid endoluminal intervention are at risk of embolic stroke even with the use of distal protection devices. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated as a causal factor in plaque instability leading to spontaneous embolisation. We investigated whether plasma MMP levels correlated with the embolisation during carotid endoluminal intervention.
Thirty circumferentially intact carotid endarterectomy specimens were subjected to a standardised angioplasty procedure in a pulsatile ex vivo model. Emboli collected in a series of distal filters were counted and sized. Plasma samples were collected pre-operatively and analysed for MMP-7 and MMP-8 levels using Western immunoblotting. MMP-1 and MMP-13 levels were determined using ELISA. Emboli number and maximum size were correlated with plasma levels of the MMPs using Spearmans rank.
Total MMP-8 levels were related to maximum embolus size (r=0.442, p=0.005) but not emboli number (r=0.342, p=0.052). MMP-1, -7 and -13 were not correlated with either emboli number or with maximum embolus size.
Pre-operative plasma MMP-8 levels are related to the size of emboli from plaques during carotid endovascular intervention. Further in vivo studies need to be performed to assess the importance of this finding. There is potential for development of plasma markers to identify those patients at greater risk of embolic stroke during carotid endoluminal intervention.
The radiocephalic arteriovenous fistula remains the method of choice for haemodialysis access. In order to assess their suitability for fistula formation, the radial arteries and cephalic veins were examined preoperatively by ultrasound colour flow scanner in conjunction with a pulse-generated run-off system. Intraoperative blood flow was measured after construction of the fistulae. Post-operative follow-up was performed at various intervals to monitor the development of the fistulae. Radial artery and cephalic vein diameter less than 1.6 mm was associated with early fistula failure. The intraoperative fistula blood flow did not correlate with the outcome of the operation probably due to vessel spasm from manipulation. However, blood flow velocities measured non-invasively 1 day after the operation were significantly lower in fistulae that failed early compared with those that were adequate for haemodialysis. Most of the increase in fistula diameter and blood flow occur within the first 2 weeks of surgery.
To assess changing trends of abdominal aortic aneurysms 1979-1991.
Retrospective study from the Leicestershire Health Authority.
727 patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm were treated. Of these 56.4% were admitted for elective repair and 43.6% presented with rupture. There was a significant increase in the number of ruptured aortic aneurysms over this period despite an increase in the number of elective repairs. The overall 30-day mortality of elective repair (including patients with symptomatic but non-ruptured aneurysms) was 8.8%. The overall 30-day mortality of ruptured aneurysms (including patients who were deemed medically too unfit for surgery) was 57.7%. There has been no significant change in elective and ruptured mortality over the study period. There was a significant increase in the median age of patients (69.5 yrs in 1979 to 74 yrs in 1991).
The increasing incidence of abdominal aortic aneurysms may reflect better diagnostic methods, greater clinical awareness of the condition and increase in the proportion of elderly people in the population.
to define the incidence of technical defects and the impact of technical errors on ipsilateral carotid occlusion, ipsilateral stroke, and early restenosis rates, we analysed 1305 patients undergoing carotid completion procedures.
prospective multicentre study.
adequacy of CEA was assessed intraoperatively by angiography in 1004 (77%), by angioscopy in 299 (22%), and by duplex scan in two patients (1%). Arteriograms and angioscopic findings were interpreted at the time of the procedure by the operating surgeon, who also established the need for immediate surgical revision.
perioperatively, 13 major strokes (0.9%, all ipsilateral) and six deaths (0.4%) were recorded. Overall, 112 defects (9%) were identified intraoperatively: 81 (72%) were located in the common carotid artery (CCA) or internal carotid artery (ICA), and 31 (28%) in the external carotid artery. In 48 patients (4%) the defects were revised. Logistic regression analysis revealed that carotid plaque extension >2 cm on the ICA was a positive independent predictor of CEA defects (odds ratio (OR) 1.5p=0.03). A significant association was found between the incidence of revised defects of the CCA and ICA and perioperative ipsilateral stroke (OR 11.5p=0.0002). In contrast, patients with minor non-revised defects had an ipsilateral stroke rate comparable to that of patients with no defects (p=0.4). No significant association was found between revised or non-revised defects and occurrence of restenosis/occlusion at 6-month follow-up.
the incidence of major technical defects during CEA is low, yet the perioperative neurological prognosis of patients with major defects warranting revision is poor. Completion angiography or angioscopy and possible correction of defects did not protect per se from an unfavourable early outcome after CEA. Therefore, surgical excellence is mandatory to achieve satisfactory results after CEA.
Several studies indicate that high-volume hospitals have better results in open repair of unruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). Up to now no studies had addressed this question in German hospitals.
Post-hoc-analysis from a prospective physician-led registry.
Since 1999, the German Society for Vascular Surgery has conducted a prospective registry for open and endovascular repair of AAAs. This study includes 131 hospitals who conducted n=10163 elective open repairs for unruptured AAA between 1999 to 2004. All perioperative variables including annual volume as a continuous variable were analysed in a step-wise logistic regression model. In order to define a threshold annual volume an additional logistic regression analysis was performed by use of annual volume groups (0-9, 10-19, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50 or more). The relationship between annual volume and further outcome parameters (length of procedure, blood transfusion, length of stay) were also analyzed.
The overall mortality rate was 3.2%. The stepwise logistic regression model identified the following predictors of an increased perioperative mortality: age (OR 1.084, 95% CI 1.066-1.102), AAA diameter (OR 1.008, 95% CI 1.001-1.016), length of procedure (OR 1.008, 95% CI 1.006-1.009), ASA-Score (OR 2.636, 95% CI 2.129-3.264), suprarenal clamping (OR 1.447, 95% CI 1.008-2,078), blood transfusion (OR 1.786, 95% CI 1.268-2.514). Annual volume was moderately predictive (OR 1.003, 95% CI 1-1.006) but failed to reach statistical significance (p=0.07). The analysis of volume groups identified a significantly higher risk for hospitals with an annual volume of 1-9 AAA-repairs by comparison to hospitals with an annual volume of 50 or more AAA-repairs (OR 1.903, 95% CI 1.124-3.222). Operations at low volume hospitals were also longer (p<0.001), with an extended postoperative stay (p<0.001) and a higher transfusion rate (p<0.001).
Patient's age, ASA classification, AAA diameter, length of procedure, suprarenal clamping and blood transfusion are predictive variables for an increased perioperative mortality in elective open AAA repair. Mortality is also increased by a low annual volume. Further studies are needed to examine whether these data are applicable to all German hospitals.
Despite similar disease patterns and treatment, there is great variation in clinical outcome between venous ulcer patients. The aim of this study was to identify independent risk factors for venous ulcer healing and recurrence.
Consecutive patients assessed by a specialist nurse-led leg ulcer service between January 1998 and July 2003 with an ABPI>0.85 were included in this study. Independent risk factors for healing and recurrence were identified from routinely assessed variables using a Cox regression proportional hazards model.
A total of 1324 legs in 1186 patients were studied. The 24-week healing rate was 76% and 1 year recurrence rate was 17% (Kaplan-Meier life table analysis). Patient age (p <0.001, HR per year 0.989, 95% CI 0.984-0.995) and ulcer chronicity (p =0.019, HR per month 0.996, 95% CI 0.993-0.999) were independent risk factors for delayed ulcer healing. Ulcer healing time (p <0.001, HR per week 1.016, 95% CI 1.007-1.026) and superficial venous reflux not treated with surgery (p =0.015, HR 2.218, 95% CI 1.166-4.218) were independent risk factors for ulcer recurrence.
Elderly patients with longstanding ulcers should be targeted for further research and may benefit from adjunctive treatments to improve clinical outcomes. Patients not treated with superficial venous surgery were at increased risk of leg ulcer recurrence.
The management of thoracic and abdominal aortic endograft infection is complex and associated with high mortality. Cases are rare: a recent systematic review identified 117 reported cases; the largest reported series comprises 12 infected endografts.
We report 22 consecutive patients with infected abdominal or thoracic aortic endovascular devices implanted from 1998 to 2012. Management included extension with new devices, aneurysm sac drainage of pus/irrigation with antibiotics, endograft explantation, and axillo-(bi)femoral reconstruction.
Twenty-two patients (16 men) were identified. Median age was 71 years (range, 43-88 years). Index devices were infra-renal endovascular repair (n = 13), and thoracic endovascular repair (n = 9) all for aneurysmal or pseudoaneurysmal disease. Seven (32%) had prior aortic surgery. Follow-up was complete in all cases; in survivors follow-up was a median of 29 (range, 12-45) months. The mortality from explantation of ten infra-renal devices was 1/10 (10%) on-table and a further 2/10 (20%) within 30 days. Device retention led to disease progression and death in all patients with infected endografts. Sac drainage/irrigation provided only temporary control of sepsis. Device extension can treat rupture, but additional devices became infected.
Abdominal endograft explantation is high risk but may be curative. Appropriate selection of patients for infected endograft explantation remains a major challenge.
To assess real long-term varicose vein recurrence and patient satisfaction following surgical intervention with combined subfascial endoscopic perforator surgery (SEPS) and superficial venous surgery.
Prospective consecutive case study (C3-C4). Patients were included March 1993 to September 1998 and 83/104 legs of 80/100 patients were re-assessed 2008; 71 legs underwent duplex ultrasound scanning (DUS).
The median follow up was 12 years (range 10-14). Twelve patients/legs had undergone additional vein surgery during follow-up. Incompetent lower leg perforators were noted in 18/71 limbs (25%). Following groin surgery 23/51 (45%) showed a duplex detected groin recurrence, neovascularization dominated 18/23. In legs where primary great saphenous vein (GSV) surgery had been performed, groin recurrence was found in 14/37 (38%). Previously unknown deep vein incompetence was detected in 14/71 legs (20%), six had axial reflux. The correlation between DUS-detected recurrence and remaining symptoms and cosmetic result was low. The overall satisfaction was high, 70/82 (85%). Patient satisfaction did not deteriorate over time (p < .557).
Despite a fair number of DUS-detected recurrences, the overall long-term result, from the patients' point of view was surprisingly favorable. Technically well performed open venous surgery seems to result in a durable long-term outcome.
With the FDA approval of thoracic endografts, extra-anatomic reconstruction of the aortic arch has allowed for more suitable proximal landing zones and increased applicability of thoracic endovascular procedures. We evaluated our short term and long term results of extra-anatomic reconstruction of the carotid and subclavian vessels.
One hundred and forty three (143) procedures were performed for extra-anatomic carotid and subclavian reconstruction. Of these 143 operations: 85 were carotid subclavian reconstructions, 22 were carotid crossover bypasses, 30 were subclavian carotid reconstructions and 6 were carotid subclavian transpositions. Sixty (42%) were male, 20 (14%) were diabetic, and 63 (44%) were current smokers. Mean age was 63 (SD +/- 12.3). Indication for surgery was primarily for occlusive or embolic disease (97%). In those patients undergoing bypass graft, prosthetic (ePTFE) was used in 93%. Follow-up was performed at 3 and 6 month intervals by ultrasound and pulse volume recordings where indicated. Life table analyses were used to analyze patency.
Of the 143 reconstructions operative mortality was 1 (0.7%). Non-fatal complications included 3 (2.1%) for bleeding, 1 (0.7%) wound infection, 2 (1.4%) TIA, 1 (0.7%) suffered a non-fatal stroke, 2 (1.4%) had postoperative myocardial infarctions, and 6 (4.3%) late (>30-day) occlusions. Follow-up was 1 to 124 months (mean: 39 months). Primary patency at 1 year was 98%, 3 years 96%, and 5 years was 92%.
Extra-anatomic arch reconstruction can be performed safely and appears to be durable over long term follow-up. Its use with endovascular grafting should provide a durable reconstruction for patients who require aortic "debranching" prior endovascular thoracic aortic aneurysm repair.
EVLA has proven to be very successful, but the optimum methods for energy delivery have still not been clarified. A better understanding of the mechanism of action may contribute to achieving a consensus on the best laser method and the most effective use of laser parameters, resulting in optimal clinical outcomes, maintaining high success rates with minimal adverse events. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of wavelength, pullback speed and power level on the endovenous temperature profile in an experimental setting.
In an experimental setting, temperature measurements were performed using thermocouples. The experimental set-up consisted of a transparent box in which a glass tube was fixed. Different laser parameters (wavelength and power) and 2 different pullback speeds (2 and 5 mm/s) were used. Thermocouples were placed at different distances from the fiber tip. Validity of the experimental setting was assessed by performing the same temperature measurements using a stripped varicose vein. The maximal temperature rise and the time span that the temperature was above collagen denaturation temperature were measured.
The experiments showed that decreasing the pullback speed (2 mm/s) and increasing the power (up to 14 W) both cause higher maximal temperature and a longer time above the temperature for collagen denaturation. The use of different laser wavelengths (940 or 1470 nm) did not influence the temperature profile.
The results of our experiments show that wavelength on its own has not been demonstrated to be an important parameter to influence the temperature profile.
The aim of this study is to compare efficacy, early postoperative morbidity and patient comfort of two laser wavelengths and fibre types in treatment of great saphenous vein (GSV) incompetence resulting in varicosities of the lower limb.
Prospective randomised clinical trial.
Sixty patients (106 limbs) were randomised into two groups. They were treated with bare-tip fibres and a 980 nm laser in group 1 and radial fibres and 1470 nm laser in group 2 in order to ablate the GSV. Local pain, ecchymosis, induration and paraesthesia in treated regions, distance from skin, vein diameter, treated vein length, tumescent anaesthesia volume, delivered energy and patient satisfaction were recorded. Follow-up visits were planned on the 2nd postoperative day, 7th day, 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 6th months.
Mean GSV diameters at saphenofemoral junction and knee levels were 12.1 S.D. 4.3 mm and 8.2 S.D. 2.4 mm, and 11.8 S.D. 4.1 mm and 7.9 S.D. 2.6 mm respectively in groups 1 and 2. There were 14 patients with induration, 13 with ecchymosis and nine minimal paraesthesia in group 1 and no or minimal local pain, minimum ecchymosis or induration in group 2. Duration of pain and need for analgesia was also lower in group 2 (p < 0.05). There was significant difference on postoperative day 2, day 7 and 1st month control in favour of group 2 in venous clinical severity scores (VCSS).
Treatment of the GSV by endovenous laser ablation using a 1470 nm laser and a radial fibre resulted in less postoperative pain and better VCSS scores in the first month than treatment with a 980 nm laser and a bare-tip fibre.
The technique of subintimal angioplasty has been attempted on 200 consecutive femoropopliteal artery occlusions of median (range) length 11 (2-37) cm. The principle of the technique is to traverse the occlusion in the subintimal plane and recanalise by inflating the angioplasty balloon within the subintimal space. The technical success rate was 159/200 (80%) and was not significantly different for occlusions <10 cm (81%, n = 73), 11-20 cm (83%, n = 63) or >20 cm (68%, n = 23), p = 0.20. There were no deaths nor limb loss resulting from the procedure. The median (range) ankle-brachial pressure index increased from 0.61 (0.21-1.0) preangioplasty to 0.90 (0.26-1.50) postangioplasty. The actuarial haemodynamic patencies of technically successful procedures at 12 and 36 months were 71% and 58% respectively, the symptomatic patencies were 73% and 61%. A multiple regression analysis showed that smoking multiplied the risk of reocclusion by 2.70 (p < 0.001), each additional run-off vessel reduced the risk by 0.54 (p < 0.001) and the risk increased by 1.73 (p = 0.020) for every 10 cm of occlusion length. In conclusion, the technical success rate (80%) of subintimal angioplasty for femoropopliteal occlusions is unrelated to occlusion length and for all procedures, including technical failures, cumulative symptomatic and haemodynamic patencies of 46 and 48% can be achieved at 3 years. The factors influencing long-term patency were smoking, the number of calf run-off vessels and occlusion length.
To evaluate treatment of the small saphenous vein (SSV) by endovenous laser ablation.
A cohort study, occlusion of the vein and safety of the procedure was analysed prospectively.
150 consecutive patients (169 limbs) were treated between August 2006 and January 2008 in an outpatient clinic setting. The average age was 57 years (range 23-87); 82% female; 31% had serious varicose disease (CEAP 3-6). Treated length averaged 23 cm (range 6-53 cm).
All patients underwent a standardised assessment comprising digital questionnaire, physical examination and duplex ultrasonography. The SSV was cannulated percutaneously under ultrasound control and perivascular local anaesthesia (tumescent) was injected. An 810 nm diode laser was used, delivering 70 J/cm. Three months post-treatment all patients received a duplex ultrasound of the treated vessel.
Complete occlusion of the SSV after 3 months was achieved in 98% of the cases. Two patients (1.3%) had sural nerve paraesthesia. Six patients developed superficial thrombophlebitis. Serious complications did not occur.
Endovenous laser ablation for treating the incompetent small saphenous vein is a safe, effective and technically feasible technique.
This study investigated the importance of iliac fixation to secure endograft fixation.
Computed tomography (CT) scans of patients who underwent endovascular aneurysm repair with an endoprosthesis of great columnar strength (Talent stent graft) were analysed retrospectively. Patients were enrolled consecutively between June 2000 and January 2007 and prospectively followed up with serial CT imaging. The superior mesenteric artery was used as a reference point to determine endograft migration (centerline endograft displacement of >or=10mm). Proximal and distal fixation lengths were defined as the length of the endograft that was in full apposition to the aortic neck or common iliac arteries, respectively.
Proximal endograft migration occurred in 32 of 154 patients (21%) at a follow-up duration of 32+/-14 months; 13 migrations required treatment (8%). Migration was more frequent in patients treated with aorto-uniiliac devices than bifurcation devices (p<0.008). The migrator and non-migrator groups had similar demographic and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) characteristics. The migrator group had significantly shorter proximal (30+/-12 mm vs. 41+/-13 mm, P<0.001) and distal endograft fixation lengths (31+/-18 mm vs. 47+/-15 mm, P<0.001). By multivariate regression analysis, proximal and distal endograft fixations were significant predictors for endograft migration at follow-up (P<0.001).
Iliac endograft fixation, along with proximal fixation, is a significant predictor for endograft migration.
Endovascular repair (ER) of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a new technique, and reported rates of endoleak, conversion to open repair, rupture and mortality vary widely. The aim of this study was to estimate these rates from the published data, and examine how this has changed as more patients have undergone ER.
A systematic review and meta-analysis of publications identified through searches of the electronic databases EMBASE and Medline. All publications quoting endoleak, conversion to open repair, rupture and mortality rates for a series of patients undergoing ER were included.
163 studies pertaining to 28,862 patients undergoing ER were identified as relevant for the review and meta-analysis. The pooled estimate for operative mortality was 3.3% (95% confidence interval 2.9 to 3.6%). The pooled estimate for type 1 endoleaks was 10.5% (95% confidence interval 9.0 to 12.1%), with an annual rate of 8.4% (95% confidence interval 5.7% to 12.2%). The pooled estimate of type 2,3 and 4 endoleaks was 13.7% (95% confidence interval 12.3 to 15.3%), with an annual rate of 10.2% (95% confidence interval 7.4% to 14.1%). The pooled estimate for primary conversion to open repair was 3.8% (95% confidence interval 3.2 to 4.4%), and for secondary conversion to open repair 3.4% (95% confidence interval 2.8 to 4.2%). The pooled estimate for post-operative rupture was 1.3% (95% confidence interval 1.1 to 1.7%), with an annual rupture rate of 0.6% (95% confidence interval 0.5% to 0.8%). Multivariate meta-regression analysis showed that rates of operative mortality, post-operative rupture and total number of endoleaks all fell significantly (p<0.05) over time.
This study demonstrates a low mortality and a gradual reduction in vascular morbidity and mortality associated with endovascular repair since it was first introduced.
To investigate the impact of pre and peri-operative renal impairment on outcome, and the need for renal replacement therapy, in a multicenter study of patients undergoing a variety of surgical and radiological arterial procedures.
A six month prospective multi-centre study of 1,559 consecutive patients undergoing arterial interventions was performed. The primary outcome measures were the development of renal impairment, 30 day mortality and the need for renal replacement therapy. CRI was defined as an admission serum Creatinine>125 micromol/l. ARI was defined as a rise in serum Creatinine of >50% above pre-operative levels, excluding patients in whom the post operative level remained <125 micromol/l. A multivariate logistic regression model was constructed to identify independent risk factors for the development of ARI and mortality.
There was a significantly increased 30 day mortality in those patients who developed ARI (29/90 - 32%) or who had CRI (43/269 - 16%) when compared with those whose creatinine remained normal throughout (44/1200 - 4%) (p<0.0001 - Chi-square test). One thousand two hundred and ninety patients had normal pre operative renal function and 269 patients had CRI. Seven percent (90/1290) of the patients with normal pre-operative creatinine developed ARI. Operation type, emergency presentation, and chronic renal impairment were independent predictors of both acute renal impairment (p<0.01) and mortality (p<0.001). Sixteen patients (1%) required temporary haemofiltration (in 9 patients this developed in the context of multiple organ failure) with only 1 requiring long term support. Eleven of these patients died (30 day mortality 69%).
Renal failure following arterial intervention is associated with significant mortality. Renal replacement therapy is necessary mainly in the setting of multiple organ failure on intensive care units with few patients surviving to require long term renal replacement therapy. The identification of the 'at risk' patient is most strongly associated with age, raised preoperative creatinine, emergency procedures and thoraco-abdominal aneurysm.
to evaluate clinical and functional long-term outcomes following pregnancy-related medically treated iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis (DVT).
retrospective follow-up of patients identified through a registry search.
twenty-five women underwent clinical examination, colour duplex ultrasound and computerised strain-gauge plethysmography on two occasions a mean of nine and 16 years after DVT.
40% of the patients were completely asymptomatic and 52% had no clinical signs of venous disease after a mean follow-up of 16 years. The clinical signs were in general mild, and none of the 25 patients had skin changes or ulcers. Deep venous reflux was found in 36% of the patients; the same percentage at nine- and 16-years follow-up, and 24% had normal ultrasonographic appearance of all deep veins. None of the patients had plethysmographic evidence of outflow obstruction. There was a significant relationship between measures of venous reflux and the presence of leg swelling, but there was no clear relation between functional abnormalities and the extent of the initial DVT.
even after 16 years there are relatively mild symptoms and signs of venous disease in women with medically treated pregnancy-related iliofemoral DVT. Our results do not support earlier stated opinions that these patients represent a particular risk group for developing post-thrombotic syndrome.
Inadvertent intra-arterial injection of flunitrazepam tablets intended for intravenous use by drug abusers has devastating effects. We report here on the clinical outcome of 16 drug abusers developing critical limb ischaemia after flunitrazepam injection.
Treatment combined immediate analgesia and anticoagulation, long-lasting local thrombolysis and vasodilatation, antibiotic prophylaxis, and physical mobilization. The immediate bolus injection of 5,000 IU heparin was followed by a continuous heparin infusion up to the target partial thromboplastin time. Under arteriographic control local intra-arterial infusion with alternating 4-h cycles of 5 mg recombinant tissue plasminogen activator followed by 5 μg prostaglandinE1 (PGE1) was performed for 24-48 hours. Subsequently, 60 μg PGE1 was applied once daily.
Drug abusers, having been injected with 4-30 mg flunitrazepam, were treated 3-72 hours after the accident, with six of them not being treated until after 24 hours. All showed a high tissue ischaemia score. At the time of being discharged from hospital 13 patients had a normal extremity. In one patient, first receiving treatment 72 hours after injection, minor amputation of fingers was necessary. The life of the patient who injected 30 mg flunitrazepam in the leg was saved after hip disarticulation. One patient developed neurological dysfunction in the affected toes.
Intensive treatment after inadvertent intra-arterial drug injection normalized the affected extremity in most drug abusers, even after the late onset of therapy.
We hypothesised that over the past decade, the nation-wide outcome of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair has improved with the introduction of endovascular treatment. The aim of the study was to identify endovascularly-treated patients in a national registry and to assess the impact on in-hospital mortality of non-ruptured AAA repair, if any, after the introduction of endovascular repair.
We retrospectively studied the nation-wide outcome of non-ruptured AAA repair over the past decade. Variables studied were age and gender of the patients, hospital size and type and the year in which treatment was performed and the outcome on in-hospital mortality. The in-hospital mortality of non-ruptured AAA repair in 16,446 patients in the 10-year period from 1991 to 2000 was 7.3% (6.2-8.2%). In the 15,589 (95%) patients that underwent conventional treatment, in-hospital mortality was 7.6% (7.0-8.1%), whereas in the endovascular group it was 1.9% (0.6-3.5%). In the multivariate analysis, age and endovascular repair were the most important independent predictors of in-hospital mortality.
With the limitations of a national registry aside, the introduction of endovascular aneurysm repair seems to have had a small but significant impact on in-hospital mortality following infrarenal AAA repair.
To report a multi-center experience with the novel Hemodialysis Reliable Outflow (HeRO) vascular access graft.
Four centers conducted a retrospective review of end stage renal disease patients who received the HeRO device from implant to last available follow-up. Data is available on 164 patients with an accumulated 2092.1 HeRO implant months.
At 6 months, HeRO primary and secondary patency is 60% and 90.8%, respectively and at 12 months, 48.8% and 90.8%, respectively. At 24 months, HeRO had a primary patency of 42.9% and secondary patency was 86.7%. Interventions to maintain or re-establish patency have been required in 71.3% of patients (117/164) resulting in an intervention rate of 1.5/year. Access related infections have been reported in 4.3% patients resulting in a rate of 0.14/1000 implant days.
In our experience the HeRO device has performed comparably to standard AVGs and has proven superior to TDCs in terms of patency, intervention, and infection rates when compared to the peer-reviewed literature. As an alternative to catheter dependence as a means for hemodialysis access, this graft could reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with TDCs and have a profound impact on the costs associated with catheter related infections and interventions.