European Spine Journal

Published by Springer Nature
Online ISSN: 1432-0932
Print ISSN: 0940-6719
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  • Yuqi YangYuqi Yang
  • Xiaoli HanXiaoli Han
  • Zhengquan ChenZhengquan Chen
  • [...]
  • Qing DuQing Du
Purpose: Osteoporosis is a risk factor for idiopathic scoliosis (IS) progression, but it is still unclear whether IS patients have bone mineral density (BMD) loss and a higher risk of osteoporosis than asymptomatic people. This systematic review aims to explore the differences in BMD and prevalence of osteoporosis between the IS group and the control group. Methods: We searched 5 health science-related databases. Studies that were published up to February 2022 and written in English and Chinese languages were included. The primary outcome measures consisted of BMD z score, the prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia, and areal and volumetric BMD. Bone morphometry, trabecular microarchitecture, and quantitative ultrasound measures were included in the secondary outcome measures. The odds ratio (OR) and the weighted mean difference (WMD) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to pool the data. Results: A total of 32 case-control studies were included. The pooled analysis revealed significant differences between the IS group and the control group in BMD z score (WMD -1.191; 95% CI - 1.651 to -0.732, p < 0.001). Subgroup analysis showed significance in both female (WMD -1.031; 95% CI -1.496 to -0.566, p < 0.001) and male participants (WMD -1.516; 95% CI -2.401 to -0.632, p = 0.001). The prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia in the group with IS was significantly higher than in the control group (OR = 6.813, 95% CI 2.815-16.489, p < 0.001; OR 1.879; 95% CI 1.548-2.281, p < 0.000). BMD measures by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and peripheral quantitative computed tomography showed a significant decrease in the IS group (all p < 0.05), but no significant difference was found in the speed of sound measured by quantitative ultrasound between the two groups (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Both the male and female IS patients had a generalized lower BMD and an increased prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis than the control group. Future research should focus on the validity of quantitative ultrasound in BMD screening. To control the risk of progression in IS patients, regular BMD scans and targeted intervention are necessary for IS patients during clinical practice.
 
  • Brian A. KaramianBrian A. Karamian
  • Gregory D. SchroederGregory D. Schroeder
  • Mark J. LambrechtsMark J. Lambrechts
  • [...]
  • Welege WimalachandraWelege Wimalachandra
Purpose To validate the AO Spine Subaxial Injury Classification System with participants of various experience levels, subspecialties, and geographic regions. Methods A live webinar was organized in 2020 for validation of the AO Spine Subaxial Injury Classification System. The validation consisted of 41 unique subaxial cervical spine injuries with associated computed tomography scans and key images. Intraobserver reproducibility and interobserver reliability of the AO Spine Subaxial Injury Classification System were calculated for injury morphology, injury subtype, and facet injury. The reliability and reproducibility of the classification system were categorized as slight ( ƙ = 0–0.20), fair ( ƙ = 0.21–0.40), moderate ( ƙ = 0.41–0.60), substantial ( ƙ = 0.61–0.80), or excellent ( ƙ = > 0.80) as determined by the Landis and Koch classification. Results A total of 203 AO Spine members participated in the AO Spine Subaxial Injury Classification System validation. The percent of participants accurately classifying each injury was over 90% for fracture morphology and fracture subtype on both assessments. The interobserver reliability for fracture morphology was excellent ( ƙ = 0.87), while fracture subtype ( ƙ = 0.80) and facet injury were substantial ( ƙ = 0.74). The intraobserver reproducibility for fracture morphology and subtype were excellent ( ƙ = 0.85, 0.88, respectively), while reproducibility for facet injuries was substantial ( ƙ = 0.76). Conclusion The AO Spine Subaxial Injury Classification System demonstrated excellent interobserver reliability and intraobserver reproducibility for fracture morphology, substantial reliability and reproducibility for facet injuries, and excellent reproducibility with substantial reliability for injury subtype.
 
Background: Traumatic Spinal Injuries (TSI) often follow high velocity injuries and frequently accompanied by polytrauma. While most studies have focussed on outcomes of spinal cord injuries, the incidence and risk factors that predict morbidity and mortality after TSI has not been well-defined. Methods: Data of consecutive patients of TSI (n = 2065) treated over a 5-year-period were evaluated for demographics, injury mechanisms, neurological status, associated injuries, timing of surgery and co-morbidities. The thirty-day incidence and risk factors for complications, length of stay and mortality were analysed. Results: The incidence of spinal trauma was 6.2%. Associated injuries were seen in 49.7% (n = 1028), and 33.5% (n = 692) patients had comorbidities. The 30-day mortality was 0.73% (n = 15). Associated chest injuries (p = 0.0001), cervical spine injury (p = 0.0001), ASIA-A neurology (p < 0.01) and ankylosing spondylitis (p = 0.01) correlated with higher mortality. Peri-operative morbidity was noted in 571 patients (27.7%) and were significantly associated with age > 60 (p = 0.043), ASIA-A neurology (p < 0.05), chest injuries (p = 0.042), cervical and thoracic spine injury (p < 0.0001). The mean length of stay in hospital was 8.87 days. Cervical spine injury (p < 0.0001), delay in surgery > 48 h (p = 0.011), Diabetes mellitus (p = 0.01), Ankylosing spondylitis (p = 0.009), associated injuries of chest, head, pelvis and face (p < 0.05) were independent risk factors for longer hospital stay. Conclusion: Key predictors of mortality after spinal trauma were cervical spine injury, complete neurological deficit, chest injuries and ankylosing spondylitis, while additionally higher age and thoracic injuries contributed to higher morbidity and prolonged hospitalisation. Notably multi-level injuries, higher age, co-morbidities and timing of surgery did not influence the mortality.
 
PurposeIn this meta-analysis, we analyzed the efficacy and safety of anterior vertebral body tethering in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.Methods We performed a literature search and analyzed the following data: baseline characteristics, efficacy measures (corrections of the main thoracic curve, proximal thoracic curve, and thoracolumbar curve, thoracic kyphosis, lumbosacral lordosis, rib hump, lumbar prominence and SRS-22 scores, and complications. Analyses were performed with Cochrane's Review Manager version 5.4.ResultsTwelve studies met the inclusion criteria. Significant corrections of the main thoracic (MD 22.51, 95% CI 12.93 to 32.09) proximal thoracic (MD 10.14°, 95% CI 7.25° to 13.02°), and thoracolumbar curve (MD 12.16, 95% CI 9.14 to 15.18) were found. No statistically significant corrections were observed on the sagittal plane assessed by thoracic kyphosis (MD − 0.60°, 95% CI − 2.45 to 1.26; participants = 622; studies = 4; I2 = 36%) and lumbosacral lordosis (MD 0.19°, 95% CI − 2.16° to 2.54°). Significant corrections were identified for rib hump (MD 5.26°, 95% CI 4.19° to 6.32°) and lumbar prominence (MD 1.20°, 95% CI 0.27° to 2.13°) at final follow-up. Significant improvements of total SRS-22 score (MD − 0.96, 95% CI − 1.10 to − 0.83) were achieved at final follow-up. The most common complication was overcorrection (8.0%) and tether breakage (5.9%), with a reoperation rate of 10.1%.Conclusions Anterior vertebral body tethering is effective to reduce the curve in the coronal plane and clinical deformity. Maximum correction is achieved at one year. The method should, however, be optimized to reduce the rate of complications.
 
PurposeOpioids are the primary analgesics used in patients undergoing spine surgery. Postoperative pain is common despite their liberal use and so are opioid-associated side effects. Non-opioid analgesics are gaining popularity as alternative to opioids in spine surgery. Methods This systematic review evaluated current evidence regarding opioid and non-opioid intraoperative analgesia and their influence on immediate postoperative pain and adverse events in spine surgery. ResultsA total of 10,459 records were obtained by searching Medline, EMBASE and Web of Science databases and six randomized controlled trials were included. Differences in postoperative pain scores between opioid and non-opioid groups were not significant at 1 h: 4 studies, mean difference (MD) = 0.65 units, 95% confidence intervals (CI) [−0.12 to 1.41], p = 0.10, but favored non-opioid at 24 h after surgery: 3 studies, MD = 0.75 units, 95%CI [0.03 to 1.46], p = 0.04. The time for first postoperative analgesic requirement was shorter (MD = −45.06 min, 95%CI [−72.50 to −17.62], p = 0.001), and morphine consumption during first 24 h after surgery was higher in opioid compared to non-opioid group (MD = 4.54 mg, 95%CI [3.26 to 5.82], p < 0.00001). Adverse effects of postoperative nausea and vomiting (Relative risk (RR) = 2.15, 95%CI [1.37 to 3.38], p = 0.0009) and shivering (RR = 2.52, 95%CI [1.08 to 5.89], p = 0.03) were higher and bradycardia was lower (RR = 0.35, 95%CI [0.17 to 0.71], p = 0.004) with opioid analgesia.Conclusion The certainty of evidence on GRADE assessment is low for studied outcomes. Available evidence supports intraoperative non-opioid analgesia for overall postoperative pain outcomes in spine surgery. More research is needed to find the best drug combination and dosing regimen.Prospero Registration: CRD42020209042.
 
Purpose To address the anatomical challenges facing complex and revision spinal surgery, patient-specific 3D-printed models (3D-PMs) have received growing attention worldwide, primarily in adults. We report the use of a 3D-PM in the treatment of a case of wound breakdown over a component of a VEPTR (Vertical Expandable Prosthetic Titanium Rib; DePuy-Synthes) system, requiring replacement of Dunn-McCarthy hook and sleeve with components contoured to a patient-specific 3D-PM of the spine. Method A two-year-old born with myelomeningocele (MMC), repaired at birth, developed progressive MMC-associated kyphoscoliosis. Elective insertion of a rib-to-pelvis ‘Eiffel Tower’ bilateral VEPTR growing rods construct was performed without initial complication. Prominence of the right VEPTR sleeve and Dunn-McCarthy hook side-to-side connector resulted in breakdown of overlying poor-quality soft tissues, necessitating washout, partial implant removal, intravenous antibiotic therapy and delayed primary wound closure. A patient-specific 3D-PM, utilising pre-operative CT spine and pelvis 3D-reconstructions, allowed pre-operative formation of a contoured implant, which was inserted without need for further revision. Results The patient underwent further VEPTR lengthening without recurrent infection, wound breakdown or implant failure at 24-month follow-up. Satisfactory control of the deformity has been achieved with continued improvement in sitting height and radiographic indices. Conclusion This case illustrates the possibility, in certain cases, of using 3D-PM to develop complex components of spinal implant systems pre-operatively, removing the time and difficulty of intra-operative contouring. Consequently, custom-contoured implants may be produced, sterilised and implanted. This technique may be an option, in infants, including MMC-associated kyphoscoliosis, where midline fixation is not possible.
 
PRISMA-ScR search strategy including PubMed, Ovid, Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases between January 1990 and August 2022. DLSS, degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis; ULBD; microscopic unilateral laminotomy for bilateral decompression
Microscopic ULBD. A Hypertrophied ligamentum flavum and LSS. B Following unilateral osteotomy, Kerrison punches made on ipsilateral side. C Operating table titled and microscope angled to visualise contralateral recess. D Increased spinal calibre
Background Microscopic unilateral laminotomy for bilateral decompression (ULBD) is a minimally invasive technique used in the treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis and could limit spinal instability and be associated with better clinical outcomes. However, there is ongoing debate regarding its utility compared to conventional laminectomy (CL). The primary objective was to collate and describe the current evidence base for ULBD, including perioperative parameters, functional outcomes, and complications. The secondary objective was to identify operative techniques. Methods A scoping review was conducted between January 1990 and August 2022 according to the PRISMA extension for scoping reviews (PRISMA-ScR) guidelines. Major databases were searched for full text English articles reporting on outcomes following microscopic unilateral laminotomy in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis. Results Seventeen articles met the inclusion criteria. Two studies were randomised controlled trials. Two studies were prospective data collection and the rest were retrospective analysis. Three studies compared ULBD with CL. ULBD preserves the osteoligamentous complex and may be associated with shorter operative time, less blood loss, and similar clinical outcomes when compared to CL. Conclusion This review highlights that ULBD aims to minimise disruption to the normal posterior spinal anatomy and may have acceptable clinical outcomes. It also highlights that it is difficult to draw valid conclusions given there are limited data available as most studies identified were retrospective or did not have a comparator group.
 
PRISMA 2020 flow diagram for new systematic reviews which included searches of databases and registers only
PurposePatients undergoing spinal fusion are prone to develop persisting spinal pain that may be related to pre-existent psychological factors. The aim of this review was to summarize the existing evidence about perioperative psychological interventions and to analyze their effect on postoperative pain, disability, and quality of life in adult patients undergoing complex surgery for spinal disorders. Studies investigating any kind of psychological intervention explicitly targeting patients undergoing a surgical fusion on the spine were included.Methods We included articles that analyzed the effects of perioperative psychological interventions on either pain, disability, and/or quality of life in adult patients with a primary diagnosis of degenerative or neoplastic spinal disease, undergoing surgical fusion of the spine. We focused on interventions that had a clearly defined psychological component. Two independent reviewers used the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) to perform a systematic review on different databases. Risk of bias was evaluated using the Downs and Black checklist. Given study differences in outcome measures and interventions administered, a meta-analysis was not performed. Instead, a qualitative synthesis of main results of included papers was obtained.ResultsThirteen studies, conducted between 2004 and 2017, were included. The majority were randomized-controlled trials (85%) and most patients underwent lumbar fusion (92%). Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) was used in nine studies (69%). CBT in the perioperative period may lead to a postoperative reduction in pain and disability in the short-term follow-up compared to care as usual. There was less evidence for an additional effect of CBT at intermediate and long-term follow-up.Conclusion The existing evidence suggests that a reduction in pain and disability in the short-term, starting from immediately after surgery to 3 months, is likely to be obtained when a CBT approach is used. However, there is inconclusive evidence regarding the long-term effect of a perioperative psychological intervention after spinal fusion surgery. Further research is necessary to better define the frequency, intensity, and timing of such an approach in relation to the surgical intervention, to be able to maximize its effect and be beneficial to patients.
 
a Vertebral bone destruction rate (%) was measured as the percentage of the height of bone destruction area (B) to normal vertebral height (A) in the lumbar spine CT sagittal plane image. b Abscess cavity index was measured as the percentage of the height of the abscess cavity (B), which is the height of the abscess cavity that shows a high-signal area on T2-weighted lumbar sagittal MRI images, to the height of the infected disc spinal unit (A + B + C), which is the height of the abscess cavity (B) plus the height of the vertebral body on the cephalocaudal side (A, C)
Flow diagram of posterolateral full-endoscopic drainage and irrigation (PEDI) postoperative course
C-reactive protein (CRP; standard/normal value is less than 0.3 mg/dL) level and low back pain visual analog scale (LBP VAS; 0–100 mm, with higher scores representing worse pain) before and after surgery. Values are in mean ± standard error (CRP), mean ± standard deviation (VAS)
Purpose: To determine the efficacy and poor prognostic factors of posterolateral full-endoscopic debridement and irrigation (PEDI) surgery for thoraco-lumbar pyogenic spondylodiscitis. Methods: We included 64 patients (46 men, 18 women; average age: 63.7 years) with thoracic/lumbar pyogenic spondylodiscitis who had undergone PEDI treatment and were followed up for more than 2 years. Clinical outcomes after PEDI surgery were retrospectively investigated to analyze the incidence and risk factors for prolonged and recurrent infection. Results: Of 64 patients, 53 (82.8%) were cured of infection after PEDI surgery, and nine (17.2%) had prolonged or recurrent infection. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that significant risk factors for poor prognosis included a large intervertebral abscess cavity (P = 0.02) and multilevel intervertebral infections (P < 0.05). Conclusion: PEDI treatment is an effective, minimally invasive procedure for pyogenic spondylodiscitis. However, a large intervertebral abscess space could cause instability at the infected spinal column, leading to prolonged or recurrent infection after PEDI. In cases with a large abscess cavity with or without vertebral bone destruction, endoscopic drainage alone may have a poor prognosis, and spinal fixation surgery could be considered.
 
Background Thoracic ossification of ligamentum flavum (TOLF) can be asymptomatic and progress insidiously. But, long-term follow-up results of clinical progression of TOLF are still unknown.Methods The clinical progression of 81 patients with TOLF at our center, followed for 10 to 11 (mean, 10.3) years from May 2010 to November 2021, were analyzed. Among them, 51 patients with thoracic myelopathy were caused by single- or multi-segment TOLF, and received partial TOLF resection (30 patients) or total TOLF resection (21 patients). The remaining 30 patients showed TOLF on imaging examinations, but TOLF was not the responsible compressing factor causing myelopathy and with no TOLF resection. The mJOA score (total 11 scores) and spinal operation were used to evaluate the clinical progression at follow-up.ResultsDuring the 10- to 11-year follow-up of 81 TOLF patients, 71 (87.7%) had no deterioration of neurological function, and 10 (12.3%) patients had deterioration of neurological function and had another spinal operation, including only 4 (4.9%) suffered thoracic myelopathy caused by the progression of TOLF; 6 (7.4%) for other spinal diseases: 2 (2.5%) had fall damage and acute spinal cord injury at the TOLF level; 2 (2.5%) had thoracic myelopathy caused by ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL); 2 (2.5%) had cervical spondylosis and received cervical operation.Conclusions Most TOLF (87.7%) patients had no clinical progression and received no reoperations for TOLF in the ten-year dimension (mean, 10.3 years). Narrow spinal canal for TOLF increases the risk of traumatic paraplegia.
 
Drawings illustrating clinical measurement of C1-2 axial rotation during the flexion-rotation test
The technique for measuring the C1-2 angle on MRI slices. Green-line: midsagittal plane. α = right mROTC1; α′ = right mROTC2; β = left mROTC1; β′ = left mROTC2; Separation angle C1-2 right side = α—α′. Vice versa for the left side. Total axial rotation of C1-2 is defined by the net sum of both separation angles
Results of the motion analysis
Purpose Measurement of neck rotation is currently reliant on radiologic imaging. Given the radiation exposure for CT imaging and the additional inconvenience for the patients, an alternative assessment is needed. Goniometers are comfortably to use and easy to access, also for private consulting. The aim of this study was the assessment of whether a handheld goniometer can be used for accurately measuring the rotation of C1-C2. Methods Clinical measurement of rotation was taken in flexed position of the neck. As comparison functional MRI was used. The measured rotation of C1-C2 was compared to identify the accuracy of the goniometer, in comparison to functional MRI scan. Results Analysis of accuracy using a goniometer and dynamic MRI to assess C1-2 axial rotation showed significant differences for absolute values, but not regarding the percentage of rotation compared to total neck rotation. Conclusion The goniometer is exact to impartially determine the percentage contribution of C1-2 rotation to total neck rotation.
 
Spinal and brain magnetic resonance imaging. a A sagittal T2-weighted image shows only mild lumbar herniation and no severe stenosis of the lumbar spinal canal. b–d An axial T2-weighted image reveals no abnormal findings in the lumbar cord (b), sacral cord (c), or cauda equina (d). (e) A diffusion-weighted image shows multiple hyperintensities in the thalamus, striatum, white matter
Antemortem sural nerve biopsy findings. a, b Sural nerve biopsy specimens show vasculitis involving small vessels within the epineurium (a) and severe axonal loss with myeline ovoid (b). a: haematoxylin–eosin staining; b: toluidine blue staining. Scale bars: a, b (50 μm)
Post-mortem neuropathological findings of the spinal cord. a The cauda equina displays partial dark purple discoloration (arrowheads). In contrast, the proximal portion of the lumbar cord roots appear normal (arrows). b, c Klüver–Barrera staining (b) and anti-phosphorylated neurofilament immunohistochemistry (c) show a multifocal loss of myelin sheaths and axons in the cauda equina, respectively. d Small vessels in the cauda equina demonstrate inflammatory infiltration and luminal stenosis. e The nerve roots of the lumbar cords are preserved, in marked contrast with those of the cauda equina shown in panel b. f Vessel wall destruction with fibrinoid necrosis is observed in the subarachnoid space of the lumbar spinal cord. g Central chromatolysis of the lower motor neurons was restricted to the L4 segment of the lumbar cord. b, e: Klüver–Barrera staining; c: anti-phosphorylated neurofilament immunohistochemistry (SMI31); d, f, g: haematoxylin–eosin staining. Scale bars: a (5 mm); b, c (10 μm); d–g (20 μm)
Post-mortem neuropathological findings of the brain. a A coronal section of the cerebrum shows small lesions in the thalamus (arrowheads). b Inflammatory infiltration and vessel wall destruction are observed in the subarachnoid space of the medulla oblongata. c The thalamus shows perivascular lymphocytic infiltration and ischaemic changes. b, c: Haematoxylin–eosin staining. Scale bars: a (5 mm); b (50 μm); c (20 μm)
PurposeIntermittent claudication (IC) refers to leg pain that is induced by walking and relieved by rest. Neurogenic IC is usually associated with lumbar canal stenosis (LCS). We present rare findings from an autopsied patient who had neurogenic IC caused by vasculitis in the cauda equina.Methods We performed antemortem neurological and electrophysiological assessments, sural nerve biopsy, and post-mortem examination of the spinal cord and brain.ResultsA 61-year-old man noted sudden-onset leg pain that was not associated with any traumatic trigger. His leg pain consistently appeared when the patient walked and quickly faded on stopping. Spine surgery and cardiovascular departments both made a diagnosis of IC. However, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) did not show LCS, and all ankle-brachial pressure indices were normal. He subsequently developed diffuse muscle weakness of the legs a month after disease onset. Myeloperoxidase antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody was seropositive (140 IU/mL), and a sural nerve biopsy revealed axonal injury and angiitis. MRI showed multiple cerebral infarctions. He was diagnosed with microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) and underwent corticosteroid therapy. He died from complications two months after the onset. A post-mortem study revealed vasculitis in the subarachnoid space of the cauda equina, spinal cord, and brain parenchyma. The cauda equina showed a combined loss of small and large axonal fibres. The lumbar cord displayed central chromatolysis of the lower motor neurons.ConclusionMPA is a rare cause of neurogenic IC when the symptom is acute and multimodal. Small-vessel vasculitis affecting the cauda equina may underlie MPA-associated IC.
 
Purpose To describe the incidence of complications associated with cervical spine surgery and post-operative physical therapy (PT), and to identify if the timing of initiation of post-operative PT impacts the incidence rates. Methods MOrtho PearlDiver database was queried using billing codes to identify patients who had undergone Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion (ACDF), Posterior Cervical Fusion (PCF), or Cervical Foraminotomy and post-operative PT from 2010–2019. For each surgical procedure, patients were divided into three 12-week increments for post-operative PT (starting at post-operative weeks 2, 8, 12) and then matched based upon age, gender, and Charlson Comorbidity Index score. Each group was queried to determine complication rates and chi-square analysis with adjusted odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals, and p-values were used. Results Following matching, 3,609 patients who underwent cervical spine surgery at one or more levels and had post-operative PT (ACDF:1784, PCF:1593, and cervical foraminotomy:232). The most frequent complications were new onset cervicalgia (2–14 weeks, 8–20 weeks, 12–24 weeks): ACDF (15.0%, 14.0%, 13.0%), PCF (18.8%, 18.0%, 19.9%), cervical foraminotomy (16.8%, 16.4%, 19.4%); revision: ADCF (7.9%, 8.2%, 7.4%), PCF (9.3%, 10.6%, 10.2%), cervical foraminotomy (11.6%, 10.8% and 13.4%); wound infection: ACDF (3.3%, 3.4%, 3.1%), PCF (8.3%, 8.0%,7.7%), cervical foraminotomy (5.2%, 6.5%, < 4.7%). None of the comparisons were statistically significant. Conclusion The most common post-operative complications included new onset cervicalgia, revision and wound infection. Complications rates were not impacted by the timing of initiation of PT whether at 2, 8, or 12 weeks post-operatively.
 
PRISMA flow diagram of the study selection process
Risk-of-bias summary Green color indicates low risk, whereas yellow color denotes unknown risk
Impact of шгe surgical approach (anteroposterior vs anterior) on the rates of neurological improvement A, mean change in the postoperative neurological function B, complication rates C, rates of revise surgery D, and rates of dead in group E, rates of neurological deficits in upper cervical spine(C0-C4) and lower cervical spine(C5-C8) F. IV = inverse variance; M-H = Mantel–Haenszel test
Impact of the surgical approach (anteroposterior vs posterior) on the rates of neurological improvement A, mean change in the postoperative neurological function B,complication rates C,rates of revise surgery D,and rates of dead in the group E; rates of neurological deficits in upper cervical spine(C0-C4) and lower cervical spine(C5-C8) F. IV = inverse variance; M-H = Mantel–Haenszel test
The number of patients with ASIA grade A who use the combined approach is more than anterior or posterior approach. The number of patients with the ASIA grade is D or E accepting anterior or posterior approach is more than combined
Objective Cervical fractures with ankylosing spondylitis (CAS) are a specific type of spinal fracture with poor stability, low healing rate, and high disability rate. Its treatment is mainly surgical, predominantly through the anterior approach, posterior approach, and the anterior–posterior approach. Although many clinical studies have been conducted on various surgical approaches, controversy still exists concerning the choice of these surgical approaches by surgeons. The authors present here a systematic evaluation and meta-analysis exploring the utility of the anterior–posterior approach versus the anterior approach and the posterior approach. Methods After a comprehensive literature search of PubMed, Cochrane, Web of Science, and Embase databases, 12 clinical studies were included in the final qualitative analysis and 8 in the final quantitative analysis. Of these studies, 11 conducted a comparison between the anterior–posterior approach and the anterior approach and posterior approaches, while one examined only the anterior–posterior approach. Where appropriate, statistical advantage ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results The present meta-analysis of postoperative neurological improvement showed no statistical difference in the overall neurological improvement rate between the anterior–posterior approach and anterior approach (OR 1.70, 95% CI 0.61 to 4.75; p = 0.31). However, the mean change in postoperative neurological function was lower in patients who received the anterior approach than in those who received the anterior–posterior approach (MD 0.17, 95% CI -0.02 to 0.36; p = 0.08). There was an identical trend between the anterior–posterior approach and posterior approach, with no statistically significant difference in the overall rate of neurological improvement (OR 1.37, 95% CI 0.70 to 2.56; p = 0.38). Nevertheless, the mean change in neurological function was smaller in patients receiving the anterior–posterior approach compared with the posterior approach, but there was no statistically significant difference between the two (MD 0.17, 95% CI -0.02 to 0.36; p = 0.08). Conclusions The results of this review and meta-analysis suggest that the benefits of the anterior–posterior approach are different from those of the anterior and posterior approaches in the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis-related cervical fractures. In a word, there is no significant difference between the cervical surgical approach and the neurological functional improvement. Therefore, surgeons should pay more attention to the type of cervical fracture, the displacement degree of cervical fracture, the spinal cord injury, the balance of cervical spine and other aspects to comprehensively consider the selection of appropriate surgical methods.
 
Study population
Characteristics of the fusion mass taken at 6 and ≥ 36 months after surgery fusion mass of E.BMP-2 group (A-D) and AIBG group (E-H) taken by X-ray or CT at each time point. The remaining HA carrier granules of the E.BMP-2 group at 6 months (B) became trabeculated mature bones at > 36 months (D). At ≥ 36 months, the width of the fusion mass in the E.BMP-2 group (D) was more expansive than in the AIBG group (H). AIBG, autogenous iliac bone graft; E.BMP-2, Escherichia coli-derived recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2; HA, hydroxyapatite.
Purpose This study aimed to evaluate the mid-term efficacy and safety of Escherichia coli -derived bone morphogenetic protein-2 (E.BMP-2)/hydroxyapatite (HA) in lumbar posterolateral fusion (PLF). Methods This multicenter, evaluator-blinded, observational study utilized prospectively collected clinical data. We enrolled 74 patients who underwent lumbar PLF and had previously participated in the BA06-CP01 clinical study, which compared the short-term outcomes of E.BMP-2 with an auto-iliac bone graft (AIBG). Radiographs and CT scans were analyzed to evaluate fusion grade at 12, 24, and 36 months. Visual analog scale (VAS), Oswestry disability index (ODI), and Short Form-36 (SF-36) scores were measured preoperatively and at 36 months after surgery. All adverse events in this study were assessed for its relationship with E.BMP-2. Results The fusion grade of the E.BMP-2 group (4.91 ± 0.41) was superior to that of the AIBG group (4.25 ± 1.26) in CT scans at 36 months after surgery ( p = 0.007). Non-union cases were 4.3% in the E.BMP-2 and 16.7% in the AIBG. Both groups showed improvement in pain VAS, ODI, and SF-36 scores when compared to the baseline values, and there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups. No treatment-related serious adverse reactions were observed in either group. No neoplasm-related adverse events occurred in the E.BMP-2 group. Conclusions The fusion quality of E.BMP-2/HA was superior to that of AIBG. E.BMP-2/HA showed comparable mid-term outcomes to that of AIBG in terms of efficacy and safety in one-level lumbar PLF surgery.
 
Study flow diagram for inclusion. RCTs, randomized clinical trials
Comparison of the number of bowel sounds at different time points among the three groups. Compared with group A, *P < 0.05; compared with preoperation, #P < 0.05
Comparison of VAS scores at rest at six different time points among the three groups. Compared with group A, *P < 0.05
PurposePostoperative gastrointestinal dysfunction is one of the common complications of surgery, especially after surgery for a thoracolumbar spinal fracture. Intravenous lidocaine is a potential method to improve postoperative gastrointestinal function in surgical patients, reduce opioid use and shorten hospital stays. The purpose of this study is to explore the effect of intravenous lidocaine on the recovery of gastrointestinal function in patients after thoracolumbar surgery.Methods In this study, 48 eligible patients undergoing elective thoracolumbar spine fractures resection and internal fixation surgery were enrolled to receive intravenous injections of lidocaine in different concentrations during the perioperative period. Patients were randomly divided into three groups: control group (group A), low concentration of lidocaine group (group B) and high concentration of lidocaine group (group C), 16 patients in each group. First postoperative exhaust time, numbers of bowel sound at preoperative and postoperative 3, 6, 12, 24 h, pain scores at postoperative 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 h, total sufentanil use in PACU and perioperative periods, postoperative hospital stay and analgesic remedy within postoperative 48 h were recorded and compared. The primary endpoints include: the time of first flatus passage after the operation, the number of bowel sounds per minute counted with stethoscope at 30 min before anesthesia induction and at 3, 6, 12 and 24 h postoperative. The secondary endpoints included: the pain scores at PACU (after entering into PACU), 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h postoperative, the amount of sufentanil administrated by intravenous push during operation and the numbers of patients needed rescuing sufentanil in PACU, and the numbers of patients needed administration of gastric motility drugs or non-steroidal analgesics at ward within 48 h postoperation, length of hospital stay (from the first day after surgery to discharge from hospital) and the incidence of adverse reactions.ResultsCompared with group A, the first postoperative exhaust time in group B and C occurred much earlier (23.3 ± 11.0 h vs. 16.0 ± 6.6 h, 16.6 ± 5.1 h, P < 0.05). Compared with preoperation, the numbers of bowel sound significantly increased at 24 h postoperatively in group B, while group B at 6 h and group C at 6 and 24 h postoperatively had significantly more active bowel sounds compared to group A (P < 0.05). There were no remarkable differences in VAS scores within 12 h postoperatively among three groups, and however, significantly lower VAS scores were found at 12, 24 and 48 h postoperatively in group C when comparing to Group A (p < 0.05). There was no statistical significance in the incidence of postoperative flatulence and nausea and vomiting, the number of patients needed rescuing sufentanil in PACU, the length of postoperative hospital stay and the number of patients requiring non-steroidal analgesics at ward within 48 h postoperation.Conclusions Intravenous lidocaine infusion together with patient-controlled analgesia of sufentanil expedited the early recovery of gastrointestinal function and improved analgesic quality of sefentanyl in patients undergoing thoracolumbar surgeries.
 
Preoperative coronal (A) and cross-sectional (B) computed tomography (CT) shows the relationship between the tumor and T8-T11. Preoperative cross-sectional (C) and coronal (D) CT show the changes in the tumor after denosumab treatment. Preoperative sagittal (E) and cross-sectional (F) MRI showed the relationship between the tumor and T11. Preoperative sagittal (G) and cross-sectional (H) MRI showed the changes in the tumor after denosumab treatment. CT angiography reveals the slight compression of the abdominal aorta by the tumor (I)
A and B show en bloc resection of the posterior structures of T11 through the posterior approach. C shows the complete removal of the tumor through the lateral approach. Tumor gross specimen is shown in (D). E shows the actual 3D customized prostheses. The anteroposterior and lateral radiograph of the thoracic spine (F), obtained 5 years after the operation, shows no instrumentation failing. CT obtained 5 years after the operation shows new bone growing around the 3D prosthesis (G)
The local disease-free survival for all surgical patients
Multivariate results derived from Cox-regression analysis evaluating variables possibly associated with local recurrence over a 10-year period following surgery
Purpose To compare total en bloc spondylectomy with marginal margins against piecemeal spondylectomy with intralesional margins in the surgical treatment of Enneking stage III spinal giant cell tumor (GCT) in terms of local recurrence. Methods A retrospective survival analysis of patients with Enneking stage III GCT who underwent TES with marginal margins or total piecemeal spondylectomy with intralesional margins was performed between January 2006 and April 2020. Local recurrence-free survival (LRFS) was the time between the date of surgery and recurrence. Factors with p -values < 0.05 in the univariate analysis were included in the multivariate analysis using proportional hazard analysis. Results Sixty patients (25 men and 35 women) with a mean age of 35.6 (range 11–71) years were included. The mean follow-up duration was 93 (range 24–198) months. Two patients were lost to follow-up 6 and 14 years after the procedure. Over a 10-year period, the recurrence rate was 13.3%. The 2-, 5-, and 10-year LRFS rates were 95%, 88%, and 78%, respectively. Univariate analysis identified total piecemeal spondylectomy and no adjuvant radiotherapy as prognostic factors for LRFS. Multivariate Cox‐regression models showed a significant association between local recurrence and total piecemeal spondylectomy and no adjuvant radiotherapy. Conclusion TES with marginal margins is better than total piecemeal spondylectomy with intralesional margins owing to its lower postoperative recurrence rate. Adjuvant radiotherapy should be administered to reduce postoperative recurrence rates.
 
ASIA and NRS scores (mean ± SE) recorded from ATCCS patients in both early (blank) and delayed (oblique line) surgical treatment groups before, 3 days and 2 years after operation. At the preoperative assessment, there were differences in both NRS and ASIA motor scales between the early and delayed surgical treatment groups. At the preoperative 2-year assessment, NRS scores in the early surgical ATCCS patients were lower than those in the delayed surgical patients. Compared with the preoperative assessments, the ATCCS patients in both surgical treatment groups showed reduced NRS scores 3 days or 2 years after operation. In the early surgical treatment group, there were differences in the ASIA motor and sensory scales before and 3 days after operation. In both surgical treatment groups, there were differences in ASIA motor and sensory scales before and 2 years after operation. *: Significant differences between the early and delayed surgical treatment groups, *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, and ***P < 0.001; #: Significant differences between the preoperative and postoperative assessments, #P < 0.05, ##P < 0.01, and ###P < 0.001; ATCCS: acute traumatic central cord syndrome; NRS: numerical pain rating scale; ASIA: American spinal injury association
Postoperative clinical function and psychosocial measures between the early and delayed surgical treatment groups. BDI scores were similar between the early and delayed surgical treatment groups. The DASH, PCS and BAI scores recorded in the delayed surgical patients were mildly higher than those recorded in the early surgical patients (C). DASH: disabilities of arm, shoulder and hand; PCS: Pain Catastrophizing Scale; BDI: Beck Depression Index; BAI: Beck Anxiety Inventory; Delayed G.: delayed surgical treatment group; *: Significant differences between the early and delayed surgical treatment groups, *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, and ***P < 0.001
PurposeTo investigate the impact of early versus delayed surgery on sensory abnormalities in acute traumatic central cord syndrome (ATCCS).Methods Pressure pain threshold (PPT), temporal summation (TS), conditioned pain modulation (CPM) and pain assessments were performed in 72 ATCCS patients (early vs. delayed surgical treatment: 32 vs. 40) and 72 healthy subjects in this ambispective cohort study. These examinations, along with mechanical detection threshold (MDT) and disabilities of arm, shoulder and hand (DASH), were assessed at 2 years postoperatively. ResultsPreoperatively, more delayed surgical patients had neuropathic pain below level compared with early surgical patients (P < 0.05). Both early and delayed surgical patients showed reduced PPT in common painful areas and increased TS, while reduced CPM only existed in the latter (P < 0.05). Reduced PPT in all tested areas, along with abnormalities in TS and CPM, was observed in patients with durations over 3 months. Both incidences and intensities of pain and pain sensitivities in common painful areas were reduced in both treatment groups postoperatively, but only early surgical treatment improved the CPM and TS. Follow-up analysis demonstrated a higher MDT and lower PPT in hand, greater TS, greater DASH, lower pain intensities and higher incidence of dissatisfaction involving sensory symptoms in delayed surgical patients than in early surgical patients (P < 0.05).Conclusions Central hypersensitivity may be involved in the persistence of sensory symptoms in ATCCS, and this augmented central processing may commence in the early stage. Early surgical treatment may reverse dysfunction of endogenous pain modulation, thus reducing the risk of central sensitization and alleviating sensory symptoms.
 
Purpose The low back pain of professional drivers could be linked to excessive lumbar load. This study aims at developing a musculoskeletal model to study the lumbar spinal loads and lumbar muscle forces of the human body in driving posture, so as to contribute to a better understanding of low back pain and to improve the design of vehicle seats. Methods A standing musculoskeletal model, including limbs, head and neck, that can reflect several activities of daily living was established based on the Christophy spine model. The model was then validated by comparing the calculated lumbar loads and muscle forces to the experimental data in the previous studies. Referring to radiology studies, the musculoskeletal model was adjusted into different driving postures with several different lumbar supports (0, 2 and 4 cm) and inclinations of the backrest (from 23° to 33°, by 2° intervals). The lumbar biomechanical load with various lumbar supports and backrest inclination angles was calculated. Results The results showed that the overall lumbar spinal load and lumbar muscle force with 4 cm lumbar support were reduced by 11.30 and 26.24%. The lumbar spinal loads and lumbar muscle forces increased first and then decreased with the increase in backrest inclination angles from 23° to 33°. The lumbar biomechanical load varied slightly with the backrest inclination angles from 29° to 33°. Conclusions There are two findings: (i) the lumbar spinal loads at the L3–L4, L4–L5 and L5–S1, and lumbar muscle forces decreased obviously with the 4 cm lumbar support, while the seat cushion inclination angle was set to 10°. (ii) The recommended backrest inclination angles are 29° to 33° with a 10° seat cushion to the horizontal, which can keep a low level of the lumbar spinal loads and lumbar muscle forces. This study could be used to explain the association between drivers’ sitting posture and the lumbar load change, and provide a reference for the prevention of low back pain.
 
Spinopelvic parameters and whole-body sagittal alignment parameters
Correlation among whole-body sagittal alignment parameters
Purpose To investigate the age-specific normative values of whole-body sagittal alignment (WBSA) including global balance parameters in healthy adults and to clarify the correlations among parameters based on the data from three international multicenter. Methods Three hundred and seventeen healthy subjects (range: 20–84 y.o., mean: 43.8 ± 14.7 y.o.) were included and underwent whole-body biplanar X-ray imaging system. Spinopelvic parameters and knee flexion (KF), the center of acoustic meatus (CAM)-hip axis (HA), and C2 dentiform apophyse (OD)-HA, the cranial center (Cr)-HA were evaluated radiologically. Sub-analysis for correlation analysis between age and parameters and among parameters was performed to investigate age-specific change and compensatory mechanisms. Results For age-related change, C2-7 angle (r = .326 for male/.355 for female), KF (r = .427/.429), and SVA (r = .234/.507) increased with age in both male and female group. For global parameters related to the center of the gravity, correlations with age were not significant (r = .120/.161 for OD-HA, r = .163/.275 for Cr-HA, r = .149/.262 for CAM-HA). Knee flexion (KF) has correlation with global parameters (i.e., SVA, OD-HA, Cr-HA, CAM-HA) and does not have correlations with local spinopelvic alignment. Conclusion While several local alignment changes with age were found, changes in global parameters related to the center of gravity were kept relatively mild by the chain of compensation mechanisms including the lower limbs. We showed the normative values for a comprehensive WBSA in standing posture from large international healthy subjects’ database.
 
Sonographic anatomy of the erector spinae plane (A, longitudinal; C, transverse) and erector spinae plane block (B, out-of-plane approach longitudinally; D, in-plane approach transversely). The area within the white line indicates local anesthetic (LA) spreading deep to the erector spinae muscle. ESM, erector spinae muscle; TP, transverse process; MP, mammillary process; SP, spinous process
Flow diagram
Cumulative sufentanil equivalent dose (A), pain intensity at rest (B), pain intensity with movement (C), and the number of demanded PCA bolus (D) at 2, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after spinal surgery. Pain intensity was assessed with the numeric rating scale, an 11-point scale where 0 indicates no pain or the best sleep and 10 indicates the worst pain or the worst sleep. The box and whisker plots show medians, interquartile ranges and outer ranges; individual points indicate mild outliers (○, outside 1.5 times of interquartile range) and extreme outliers (*, outside 3 times of interquartile range). P < 0.01 was considered statistically significant after Bonferroni correction. Also see Supplemental Table 2
Purpose Both erector spinae plane block and wound infiltration are used to improve analgesia following spinal fusion surgery. Herein, we compared the analgesic effect of bilateral erector spinae plane block with wound infiltration in this patient population. Methods In this randomized trial, 60 patients scheduled for elective open posterior lumbar interbody fusion surgery were randomized to receive either ultrasound-guided bilateral erector spinae plane block before incision (n = 30) or wound infiltration at the end of surgery (n = 30). Both groups received standardized general anesthesia and postoperative analgesia, including patient-controlled analgesia with sufentanil and no background infusion. Opioid consumption and pain intensity were assessed at 2, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after surgery. The primary outcome was cumulative opioid consumption within 24 h after surgery. Results All 60 patients were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. The equivalent dose of sufentanil consumption within 24 h was significantly lower in patients given erector spinae plane block (median 11 μg, interquartile range 5–16) than in those given wound infiltration (20 μg, 10 to 43; median difference − 10 μg, 95% CI − 18 to − 3, P = 0.007). The cumulative number of demanded PCA boluses was significantly lower with erector spinae plane block at 6 h (median difference − 2, 95% CI − 3 to 0, P = 0.006), 12 h (− 3, 95% CI − 6 to − 1, P = 0.002), and 24 h (− 5, 95% CI − 8 to − 2, P = 0.005) postoperatively. The proportion given rescue analgesia was also significantly lower in patients given erector spinae plane block group within 48 h (relative risk 0.27, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.96, P = 0.037). There were no statistical differences in pain intensity at any timepoints between groups. No procedure-related adverse events occurred. Conclusions Compared with wound infiltration, bilateral ultrasound-guided erector spinae plane block decreases short-term opioid consumption while providing similar analgesia in patients following lumbar spinal fusion surgery. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR2100053008.
 
PurposeLung cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors. Most patients develop spinal metastases during the course of cancer and suffer skeletal-related events. Currently, no consensus has been reached on the prognostic factors in patients undergoing surgeries. This study aimed to answer two questions: (1) what are the effects of surgical intervention, and (2) what are the factors associated with postoperative survival.Methods Searches were performed on electronic databases including PubMed, Ovid/MEDLINE, Cochrane, and Scopus for articles published before February of 2022, involving the survival factors of patients with spinal metastasis. Multiple data items were considered, such as baseline demographics, surgical details, clinical outcome, and prognostic factors. The analysis was performed in Review Manager (RevMan) 5.5. The prognostic factors of survival were analyzed with univariate and multivariate cox regression analysis.ResultsFinally, 14 studies with 813 patients were identified. Their 6, 12, and 24 months survival rates ranged from 18 to 58%, 18 to 22.4%, and 0 to 58.5%, respectively. The pooled hazard ratio of preoperative ambulatory status and the number of involved vertebrae demonstrated statistical significance, while no significant prognostic effect on the overall survival was found for targeted therapy, visceral metastases, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or postoperative ambulatory status.Conclusion Overall, surgical intervention could achieve significant pain relief and neurological function improvements. For patients receiving surgery for spinal metastasis from lung cancer, preoperative ambulatory status and the number of involved vertebrae were significant prognostic factors associated with their survival.
 
Purpose Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is believed to be caused by genetic, neurological, osseous growth anomalies, histological variables including muscle fiber percentage and core structure changes, metabolic and hormonal dysfunction, vestibular dysfunction, and platelet microarchitecture. The objective of this study was to contribute to the determination of the cause of AIS by analyzing the changes in pineal gland volume in AIS cases. Methods Study (AIS) and control group were each comprised of 26 patients who met the inclusion requirements. Scoliosis radiograph and MRI of the pineal glands were used for radiological examinations. The distribution of age, gender, Risser grading for skeletal radiological development, and sexual maturation according to Tanner categorization were uniform and statistically insignificant between groups. Results When the pineal gland volumes of the cases were evaluated according to age, the AIS group was found to have significantly reduced pineal gland volumes in all age groups. The pineal gland volume was found to be 38.1% lower in the AIS group compared to the control group (p˂0.001). In the AIS group, patients aged 13 years had the lowest pineal gland volume (77.2 ± 13.86 mm³), while patients aged 15 years had the highest volume (97.9 ± 16.47 mm³). Conclusion Changes in pineal gland volume support the role of the pineal gland in the etiopathogenesis of AIS.
 
Age distribution of absolute SCI occurrence in 5-year intervals
Annual morbidity and incidence of SCI per million in Germany
Incidence per million above and below the age of 60
a Change in SCI occurrence by year and age. b Change in SCI incidence per million by year and age
Purpose The goal of this study was to provide recent data on incidence of spinal cord injuries (SCI) in Germany. Methods The source of information was data collected via the mandatory submission of ICD-10 GM Codes by German public hospitals after patient discharge. Data from 2013 to 2020 were retrieved from the databases of the Federal Bureau of Statistics. ICD-10 Codes for acute SCI were identified. Statistical analysis was performed using Jamovi and Excel. Results A total of 10,360 patients were reported, of whom 58.7% suffered from a cervical, 30.8% a thoracic and 10.4% a lumbar lesion. Two peaks in incidence were observed at approximately 30 and 70 years old. A population-size-adjusted overall incidence of 15.73 (SD 0.77) per million per year was calculated. We calculated the incidences in several subpopulations and discovered significantly higher incidences among males and among those over the age of 60. We discovered that differences in age groups mainly concerned injuries of the upper spine, with the incidence in the lumbar spine being similar among age groups. In addition, we found that while the probability of suffering from SCI increases with age, the relative risk of suffering from a complete injury decreases. Conclusions This study closes a long-lasting gap in epidemiological data regarding SCI in Germany, specifically by updating the incidence rates. We found that incidence depends on age, gender and type of lesion. We also provide some new angles for future research, especially considering the relative reduction in complete injuries among the elderly.
 
Schematic representation of the derotative effect of the sublaminar band. The traction vector (straight red arrow) is directed posteriorly and outward, and runs from the lamina (point of application of force on the vertebra) to the rod (point of traction, gray). Since the vertebra is anchored through the discs to the upper and lower vertebrae that act as a hinge, the traction generates a force moment that results in rotatory movement around the vertebral center of rotation (black dot) that is slightly posterior to the centroid of the vertebral body [34]
EOS derived diagrams of the vertebral vectors for a case-example. The green circles represent the femoral heads, while the arrows are each individual vertebral vectors as described by Illes et al. The axial rotation for each vertebra is calculated as the angle between the line perpendicular to the patient’s plane, i.e. the plane passing from the femoral heads, and the vertebral vector
Pre (A, B) and Postoperative (C,D) X-rays of a 15 y.o. female patient presenting with a Lenke 1CN Curve
PurposeHybrid constructs with sublaminar bands have recently regained popularity as an alternative to all-screw construct for correction of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). The aim of this study is to evaluate the ability of hybrid constructs with sublaminar bands to achieve a tridimensional correction of the scoliotic deformity. Our hypothesis is that hybrid construct with sublaminar bands are able to achieve a substantial derotation of the apical vertebrae, while preserving the thoracic kyphosis. MethodsA prospective evaluation of 50 consecutive cases (41 F, 9 M, mean age 14.7 ± 2 years) of AIS correction with hybrid construct was performed. In all cases, sublaminar bands were used at the apex of the main curve on concave side. All patients underwent pre and postoperative X-rays with EOS System, with full 3D reconstruction. Spinopelvic parameters and axial rotation of the vertebrae were measured pre and postoperatively.Results2.7 ± 0.9 mean sublaminar bands were used per patient. Mean correction of deformity was 50 ± 9.5%. on the coronal plane. The mean axial rotation of the apical vertebra went from 18° ± 11.5° preoperatively to 9.4° ± 7.2° postoperatively (p < 0.001) with a mean derotation of 47.7%. Thoracic kyphosis went from 32.1° ± 18° preoperatively to 37.3° ± 13.1° postoperatively (p < 0.05). No intraoperative complications due to sublaminar bands were recorded.Conclusions Hybrid construct with sublaminar band have been showed to be safe and effective in deformity correction and in maintaining or restoring thoracic kyphosis. This study showed that with sublaminar bands applied at the curve apex a substantial derotation of the apical vertebrae can be achieved.
 
Visually detectable side difference in a patient with right leg pain following operation for lumbar disc herniation. Transaxial cerebral image indicating higher FDG uptake in the left than the right thalamus as also found quantitatively. Due to the rather small side differences, however, a visually detectable side difference was not present in all cases with recorded quantitative side difference
PurposeWe hypothesized that unilateral leg pain following surgical treatment of lumbar disc herniation (LDH) is associated with an increase in the glucose metabolism of the contralateral thalamus.Methods Patients scheduled for surgery due to LDH underwent 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography less than two weeks prior to surgery. Their thalamic FDG uptake was measured and expressed as the mean and partial volume corrected mean standardized uptake values (SUVmean and cSUVmean). These measures were compared with patient-related outcome measures collected pre- and 1-year post-operatively: back and leg pain on a 0–100 VAS scale and health-related quality of life as measured by the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D).ResultsTwenty-six patients (ten females) aged 49.7 ± 7.4 (mean ± SD) years were included. There was a significant correlation between painful body side and increased contralateral thalamic uptake of FDG, with regard to cSUVmean values. Correlation analyses including clinical parameters and cSUVmean indicated some association with 1-year change in EQ-5D.Conclusion These preliminary data sustain the hypothesis that unilateral pain in patients with LDH is associated with increased glucose metabolism in the contralateral thalamus, suggesting a central role of thalamus in chronic pain perception.
 
PurposeTo investigate the incidence and risk factors of lumbar plexus injury (LPI) after oblique lumbar interbody fusion (OLIF) surgery.MethodsA total of 110 patients who underwent OLIF surgery between January 2017 and January 2021 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups: the group with LPI (LPI group) and the group without LPI (non-LPI group). The baseline demographic data, surgical variables and radiographic parameters were compared and analyzed between these two groups.ResultsAmong all participants, 13 (8.5%) had LPI-related symptoms postoperatively (short-term), and 6 (5.5%) did not fully recover after one year (long-term). Statistically, there were no significant differences in the baseline demographic data, surgery duration, intraoperative blood loss, preoperative diagnosis, surgical procedures used and incision length. Compared with the non-LPI group, patients in the LPI group had a narrower OLIF channel space. In LPI group, the anterior edge of left psoas major muscle overpasses the anterior edge of surgical intervertebral disk (IVD) on axial MRI. Logistic regression analysis revealed that narrow OLIF channel space and the anterior edge of left psoas major muscle overpassing the anterior edge of surgical IVD on axial MRI were independently associated with both short-term and long-term LPI.Conclusion Narrow OLIF channel space and the anterior edge of left psoas major muscle overpassing the anterior edge of surgical IVD are significant risk factors of OLIF surgery-related LPI. Surgeons should use preoperative imaging to adequately assess these risk factors to reduce the occurrence of LPI.
 
Radiographs of a 13-year-old patient with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis Lenke type 2. a Posterior-anterior (PA) standing radiograph demonstrating the coronal curve of the spine preoperatively. b Lateral radiograph demonstrating the sagittal curve of the spine preoperatively. c Lateral radiograph demonstrating the plan for thoracic hypokyphosis correction: best-fit smooth line is represented by the line through the center of vertebral bodies, line posterior to vertebrae represents the rod shape and length, and black wedges represent locations of opening and closing wedges. d, e Lateral and PA radiographs taken 36 months postoperatively, respectively, and demonstrating TK restoration and location of the 3 apical sublaminar bands
Radiographs of a 16-year-old patient with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis Lenke type 1A(−). a Posterior-anterior (PA) standing radiograph demonstrating the coronal curve of the spine preoperatively. b Lateral radiograph demonstrating preoperative sagittal parameters: thoracic kyphosis (TK) = 9°, pelvic incidence (PI) = 44°, lumbar lordosis (LL) = − 39°, thoracolumbar junction (TL, T10-L2) = − 12°, and PI-LL mismatch =  + 7°. c Lateral radiograph of the planned sagittal parameters: TK = 30°, LL = − 50°, TL = 0°, and PI-LL mismatch = − 6°. d Lateral radiograph of the 24-months postoperative sagittal parameters: TK = 28°, PI = 44°, LL = − 48°, TL = − 5°, and PI-LL mismatch = − 4°
Superior-posterior view of apical thoracic vertebra. a Image shows sublaminar bands passed bilaterally. b, c Once bands are passed, posteromedial translation of the vertebra is achieved by increasing tension on the concave bands (connected via blue LigaPASS connector); simultaneous cantilever translation is achieved by increasing tension on the convex bands (connected via purple LigaPASS connector). d Final correction maneuver is performed by tightening the concave connector to the rod, increasing tension on both bands, and then tightening the convex connector to the rod
LigaPASS connector designs. The blue connector is the concave connector (lateral band point of entry), and the purple connector is the convex connector (medial band point of entry). The red arrows demonstrate the direction the sublaminar bands are pulled to correct the spine. The concave connector has a more lateral port of entry for the bands compared to the medial port of entry for the convex connector
Radiographs of 17-year-old female with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis Lenke type 1 with patient-specific rods plan. a Posterior-anterior (PA) radiograph demonstrating coronal curve of the spine preoperatively. b Lateral radiograph demonstrating the sagittal curve of the spine preoperatively with the best-fit smooth line demonstrating sagittal alignment. c Lateral radiograph demonstrating the plan for thoracic hypokyphosis correction: best-fit smooth line is represented by the line through the center of vertebral bodies, line posterior to vertebrae represents the rod shape and length, and black wedges represent locations of opening and closing wedge osteotomies. d, e Lateral and PA radiographs taken 25 months postoperatively, respectively, and demonstrating levels where sublaminar apical bands are used. f Best-fit smooth lines demonstrating sagittal alignment at preoperative, planned, and postoperative stages with adjacent rod shape at planned and postoperative stages
Purpose To determine if the planned sagittal profile for thoracic kyphosis (TK) restoration was achieved after adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) surgery using a novel hybrid construct with apical double bands and precontoured patient-specific rods (PSR) made according to the detailed surgical plan for the desired sagittal plane. Methods AIS patients with a Lenke type 1–4 primary right thoracic curve who underwent corrective surgery by a single surgeon and had minimum 24-month follow-up were analyzed retrospectively from a prospective database. All patients underwent simultaneous translation on two rods with apical double bands and PSR. Clinical outcomes in terms of sagittal 2D TK (T4–T12), lumbar lordosis (LL), sagittal vertical axis (SVA), pelvic incidence (PI), pelvic tilt (PT), sacral slope (SS), PI–LL mismatch, rod angle, and rod deflection were compared between preoperative, planned, and 24-month data, while 3D apical rotation, 3D TK (T5–T12), sagittal thoracolumbar angle, degree of curvature at L1–L4 and L4–S1, proximal junctional angle, and distal junctional angle were compared at baseline and at 6 and 24 months postoperatively. SRS-22 questionnaire scores were obtained at baseline and 24 months postoperatively. Results Forty-eight patients were included. Study patients had a median coronal thoracic curve of 62.7° preoperatively and 22.4° at 24-month follow-up (p < 0.001). Median TK gain was 6.5° for the entire cohort (n = 48) and 19.1° in the Lenke type 1 and 2 hypokyphotic subgroup (n = 14). Both groups had no significant changes between planned and 24-month TK (p = 0.068 and p = 0.943, respectively), rod angle (p = 0.776 and p = 0.548, respectively), or rod deflection (p = 0.661 and p = 0.850, respectively). For the overall study cohort, median LL gain was 7.0° (p < 0.001), 3D apical derotation was 10.7° (p < 0.001), and change in 3D TK was 36° (p < 0.001). No instance of proximal junctional kyphosis was observed. SRS-22 scores for pain, self-image, and satisfaction differed significantly between the preoperative and 24-month follow-up time-points. Conclusions With sagittal plane planning, desired TK, improved reciprocal changes in LL, and minimal changes in rod shape can be achieved in patients with AIS.
 
Purpose We aimed to estimate the incidence, prevalence and years lived with disability (YLDs) of spinal cord injury (SCI) in China in 2019 and temporal trends from 1990 to 2019. Methods The Global Burden of Disease Study 2019 was used to obtain data. Outcome measures included age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR), prevalence rate (ASPR) and YLDs rate (ASYR). A Bayesian meta-regression tool, DisMod-MR 2.1, was used to produce the estimates of each value after adjustments. Results In 2019, there were 234.19 [95% uncertainty interval (UI) 171.84–312.87] thousand incident cases of SCI in China, with an ASIR of 13.87 (95% UI 10.15–18.66) per 100,000. ASIR and ASYR increased by 40.81% (95% UI 32.92–49.14%) and 11.44% (95% UI 5.16–17.29%) compared with 1990, individually. Males had higher ASIR and ASYR in each year from 1990 to 2019, but the incidence and YLDs rates of females exceeded males after 70 years old. Incidence and YLDs rates both ascended with age. SCI at neck level had slightly higher incidence rate but much higher YLDs rate than that below neck level. The average incidence age increased from 38.97 in 1990 to 54.59 in 2019. Falls were the leading cause of SCI. Conclusion The incidence and burden of SCI in China increased significantly during the past three decades. The age structure of SCI patients showed a shift from the young to the elderly as population aging. Urgent efforts are needed to relieve the health pressure from SCI.
 
Measurements of spinopelvic sagittal parameters
Preoperative (a, b) and postoperative (c, d) standing-sitting spinopelvic alignment for patients with LSS undertook lumbar fusion
Postoperative standing and sitting radiographs in patients with lumbosacral fusion. A 40-year-old male patient had a larger postoperative ∆PT with a relatively low LSDI (a). A 69-year-old female patient had a smaller postoperative ∆PT with a relatively high LSDI (b)
Purpose To investigate the impact of lumbar fusion on spinopelvic sagittal alignment from standing to sitting position and the influencing factors of postoperative functional limitations due to lumbar stiffness. Methods A total of 107 patients who undertook posterior lumbar interbody fusion were included. Patients were divided into two groups: Group A (lumbosacral fusion; n = 43) and Group B (floating fusion; n = 64). Spinopelvic parameters in standing and sitting position including pelvic incidence (PI), pelvic tilt (PT), sacral slope (SS), lumbar lordosis (LL), fusion segment lordosis (FSL), upper residual lordosis (URL), lower residual lordosis (LRL), thoracic kyphosis (TK), thoracolumbar kyphosis (TLK), sagittal vertical axis (SVA) and T1 pelvic angle (TPA) were measured before and after lumbar fusion. The Lumbar Stiffness Disability Index (LSDI) was used to assess functional limitations due to lumbar stiffness. Results Accompanied by increased postoperative LSDI, the values of changes from standing to sitting (∆) were reduced in some parameters compared with the preoperative values. ∆PT and ∆SS significantly decreased in both two groups. In Group A, ∆LL significantly decreased with increased ∆URL. In Group B, ∆LL, ∆URL and ∆LRL showed no significant difference before and after surgery. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that age and ∆PT independently influenced the postoperative LSDI in Group A. Conclusion After lumbar fusion, changes of lumbopelvic sagittal parameters from standing to sitting would be restricted. Adjacent segment lordosis could partially compensate for this restriction. For patients with lumbosacral fusion, postoperative functional limitations due to lumbar stiffness were related to age and the postoperative ∆PT from standing to sitting.
 
Purpose Anterior lumbar spine arthrodesis has been increasingly prescribed. In order to obtain better exposure of the intervertebral discs, it is necessary to identify vascular structures depending on the level to be approached. Systematic ligation of the iliolumbar vein has been suggested for access to the L4–L5 level, which may be technically challenging. The goal of the present study was to determine a safe limit for separating the iliolumbar vein safely without the need for its ligation. Methods In total, 2284 patients involving the topography of the iliolumbar vein were included. If this vein was up to 5 mm distant from the inferior border of the L4–L5 intervertebral disc, its ligature was performed. In cases that the distance was greater than 5 mm, only the retraction was performed without ligature. Results A total of 115 ligatures were necessary (5% of cases). Among the 2169 cases with no ligature, bleeding due to ruptures occurred during traction in only 55 patients (3% of cases). The time taken for ligation ranged from five minutes to thirty-two minutes, with an average of 18.3 min per ligature. In cases in which ligatures were needed (distance less than 5 mm), there was loosening of the ligatures leading to bleeding in 23 cases (20% of ligatures). Conclusions Systematic ligature is not necessary for accessing the anterior route to the L4–L5 level, leading to a reduction in the time of surgery and avoiding serious vascular injuries that can occur.
 
Regression plots (with 95% CIs for slope and residuals) showing relationship between COMI and ODI scores at baseline A and 1-yr FU B and between the change-scores for each from baseline to 1y FU C (plots not shown for ODI predicting COMI, but regression equations can be found in Table 3)
IntroductionThe Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and the Core Outcome Measures Index (COMI) are two commonly used self-rating outcome instruments in patients with lumbar spinal disorders. No formal crosswalk between them exists that would otherwise allow the scores of one to be interpreted in terms of the other. We aimed to create such a mapping function.Methods We performed a secondary analysis of ODI and COMI data previously collected from 3324 patients (57 ± 17y; 60.3% female) at baseline and 1y after surgical or conservative treatment. Correlations between scores and Cohen’s kappa for agreement (κ) regarding achievement of the minimal clinically important change (MCIC) score on each instrument (ODI, 12.8 points; COMI, 2.2 points) were calculated, and regression models were built. The latter were tested for accuracy in an independent set of registry data from 634 patients (60 ± 15y; 56.8% female).ResultsAll pairs of measures were significantly positively correlated (baseline, 0.73; 1y follow-up (FU), 0.84; change-scores, 0.73). MCIC for COMI was achieved in 53.9% patients and for ODI, in 52.4%, with 78% agreement on an individual basis (κ = 0.56). Standard errors for the regression slopes and intercepts were low, indicating excellent prediction at the group level, but root mean square residuals (reflecting individual error) were relatively high. ODI was predicted as COMI × 7.13–4.20 (at baseline), COMI × 6.34 + 2.67 (at FU) and COMI × 5.18 + 1.92 (for change-score); COMI was predicted as ODI × 0.075 + 3.64 (baseline), ODI × 0.113 + 0.96 (FU), and ODI × 0.102 + 1.10 (change-score). ICCs were 0.63–0.87 for derived versus actual scores.Conclusion Predictions at the group level were very good and met standards justifying the pooling of data. However, we caution against using individual values for treatment decisions, e.g. attempting to monitor patients over time, first with one instrument and then with the other, due to the lower statistical precision at the individual level. The ability to convert scores via the developed mapping function should open up more centres/registries for collaboration and facilitate the combining of data in meta-analyses.
 
SPINE20 recommendations to G20 countries, 2021
Purpose Globally, spine disorders are the leading cause of disability, affecting more than half a billion individuals. However, less than 50% of G20 countries specifically identify spine health within their public policy priorities. Therefore, it is crucial to raise awareness among policy makers of the disabling effect of spine disorders and their impact on the economic welfare of G20 nations. In 2019, SPINE20 was established as the leading advocacy group to bring global attention to spine disorders. Methods Recommendations were developed through two Delphi methods with international and multi-professional panels. Results In 2022, seven recommendations were delivered to the leaders of G20 countries, urging them to: Develop action plans to provide universal access to evidence-based spine care that incorporates the needs of minorities and vulnerable populations. Invest in the development of sustainable human resource capacity, through multisectoral and inter-professional competency-based education and training to promote evidence-based approaches to spine care, and to build an appropriate healthcare working environment that optimizes the delivery of safe health services. Develop policies using the best available evidence to properly manage spine disorders and to prolong functional healthy life expectancy in the era of an aging population. Create a competent workforce and improve the healthcare infrastructure/facilities including equipment to provide evidence-based inter-professional rehabilitation services to patients with spinal cord injury throughout their continuum of care. Build collaborative and innovative translational research capacity within national, regional, and global healthcare systems for state-of-the-art and cost-effective spine care across the healthcare continuum ensuring equality, diversity, and inclusion of all stakeholders. Develop international consensus statements on patient outcomes and how they can be used to define and develop pathways for value-based care. Recognize that intervening on determinants of health including physical activity, nutrition, physical and psychosocial workplace environment, and smoking-free lifestyle can reduce the burden of spine disabilities and improve the health status and wellness of the population. At the third SPINE20 summit 2022 which took place in Bali, Indonesia, in August 2022, 17 associations endorsed its recommendations. Conclusion SPINE20 advocacy efforts focus on developing public policy recommendations to improve the health, welfare, and wellness of all who suffer from spinal pain and disability. We propose that focusing on facilitating access to systems that prioritize value-based care delivered by a competent healthcare workforce will reduce disability and improve the productivity of the G20 nations.
 
PRISMA flow diagram describing article selection for inclusion
Forest plot of studies comparing epidural steroid injections within 30 days to control
Funnel plot of studies comparing epidural steroid injections within 30 days to control following initial sensitivity analysis
Forest plot of studies comparing any history of epidural steroid injections to control following sensitivity analysis
Purpose Epidural corticosteroid injections (ESI) are a mainstay of nonoperative treatment for patients with lumbar spine pathology. Recent literature evaluating infection risk following ESI after elective orthopedic surgery has produced conflicting evidence. Our primary objective was to review the literature and provide a larger meta-analysis analyzing the temporal effects of steroid injections on the risk of infection following lumbar spine surgery. Methods We conducted a query of the PubMed, Embase, and Scopus databases from inception until April 1, 2022 for studies evaluating the risk of infection in the setting of prior spinal steroid injections in patients undergoing lumbar spine decompression or fusion. Three meta-analyses were conducted, (1) comparing ESI within 30-days of surgery to control, (2) comparing ESI within 30-days to ESI between 1 and 3 months preoperatively, and (3) comparing any history of ESI prior to surgery to control. Tests of proportions were utilized for all comparisons between groups. Study heterogeneity was assessed via forest plots, and publication bias was assessed quantiatively via funnel plots and qualitatively with the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale. Results Nine total studies were included, five of which demonstrated an association between ESI and postoperative infection, while four found no association. Comparison of weighted means demonstrated no significant difference in infection rates between the 30-days ESI group and control group (2.67% vs. 1.69%, p = 0.144), 30-days ESI group and the > 30-days ESI group (2.34% vs. 1.66%, p = 0.1655), or total ESI group and the control group (1.99% vs. 1.70%, p = 0.544). Heterogeneity was low for all comparisons following sensitivity analyses. Conclusion Current evidence does not implicate preoperative ESI in postoperative infection rates following lumbar fusion or decompression. Operative treatment should not be delayed due to preoperative steroid injections based on current evidence. There remains a paucity of high-quality data in the literature evaluating the impact of preoperative ESI on postoperative infection rates. Level of evidence II.
 
A 10-year-old male, with C4–C5 herniation and C4–C5 ALLC. a A radiograph of calcification of the C4–C5 disc. b CT of the calcification of the C4–C5 disc. c Total resolution of the calcification 4 years later
An 8-year-old female, with C2–C3 PIDC. a CT of the C2–C3 herniation to the spinal cord. b The compression of the spinal cord on MRI. c Resolution of the calcification 3 months after the MRI
A 6-year-old female, with C2–C3, C4–C5 disc calcification and herniation to the spinal cord; the cord was compressed. a CT of the calcification of the C2–C3 and C4–C5 discs. b MRI of C2–C3 herniation to the spinal cord and compression of the cord
Purpose Paediatric intervertebral disc calcification (PIDC) is a rare disease, and its aetiology remains unknown. This study aimed to analyse the characteristics and clinical outcomes of patients with PIDC. Methods After applying the exclusion and inclusion criteria, 159 children diagnosed with PIDC were analysed at our hospital between January 2010 and November 2020. Patients’ demographic and clinical data were collected, such as sex, pain, duration time, physical examination, white blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, and radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging findings. Patients were followed up for at least 6 months, and radiography or symptoms were evaluated. Fisher’s exact test or χ²-test was used for statistical analyses. Results One hundred and fifty-nine patients were ultimately followed up with for about 12.5 ± 5.8 months. There were 103 male and 56 female, with an average age of 6.08 ± 2.62 years (2 months to 12 years). A total of 109 patients had only one PIDC, 29 patients had two PIDCs, and 21 patients had multiple PIDCs. Thirty patients were found incidentally and were asymptomatic. A total of 106 patients had neck torticollis. Sixteen patients had IDC herniations, fifteen patients had posterior longitudinal ligament calcification, two patients had anterior longitudinal ligament calcification, and 17 patients had herniation of the vertebral canal. All patients underwent conservative treatment, and none underwent surgery. All patients’ symptoms resolved after either collar fixation or neck traction. Conclusion PIDC can be treated conservatively, even when accompanied by herniation, longitudinal ligament calcification, or clinical neck symptoms. Level of Evidence IV.
 
Purpose Symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis can be treated with decompression surgery. A recent review reported that, after decompression surgery, 1.6–32.0% of patients develop postoperative symptomatic spondylolisthesis and may therefore be indicated for lumbar fusion surgery. The latter can be more challenging due to the altered anatomy and scar tissue. It remains unclear why some patients get recurrent neurological complaints due to postoperative symptomatic spondylolisthesis, though some associations have been suggested. This study explores the association between key demographic, biological and radiological factors and postoperative symptomatic spondylolisthesis after lumbar decompression. Methods This retrospective cohort study included patients who had undergone lumbar spinal decompression surgery between January 2014 and December 2016 at one of two Spine Centres in the Netherlands or Switzerland and had a follow-up of two years. Patient characteristics, details of the surgical procedure and recurrent neurological complaints were retrieved from patient files. Preoperative MRI scans and conventional radiograms (CRs) of the lumbar spine were evaluated for multiple morphological characteristics. Postoperative spondylolisthesis was evaluated on postoperative MRI scans. For variables assessed on a whole patient basis, patients with and without postoperative symptomatic spondylolisthesis were compared. For variables assessed on the basis of the operated segment(s), surgical levels that did or did not develop postoperative spondylolisthesis were compared. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to identify associations with postoperative symptomatic spondylolisthesis. Results Seven hundred and sixteen patients with 1094 surgical levels were included in the analyses. (In total, 300 patients had undergone multilevel surgery.) ICCs for intraobserver and interobserver reliability of CR and MRI variables ranged between 0.81 and 0.99 and 0.67 and 0.97, respectively. In total, 66 of 716 included patients suffered from postoperative symptomatic spondylolisthesis (9.2%). Multivariable regression analyses of patient-basis variables showed that being female [odds ratio (OR) 1.2, 95%CI 1.07–3.09] was associated with postoperative symptomatic spondylolisthesis. Higher BMI (OR 0.93, 95%CI 0.88–0.99) was associated with a lower probability of having postoperative symptomatic spondylolisthesis. Multivariable regression analyses of surgical level-basis variables showed that levels with preoperative spondylolisthesis (OR 17.30, 95%CI 10.27–29.07) and the level of surgery, most importantly level L4L5 compared with levels L1L3 (OR 2.80, 95%CI 0.78–10.08), were associated with postoperative symptomatic spondylolisthesis; greater facet joint angles (i.e. less sagittal-oriented facets) were associated with a lower probability of postoperative symptomatic spondylolisthesis (OR 0.97, 95%CI 0.95–0.99). Conclusion Being female was associated with a higher probability of having postoperative symptomatic spondylolisthesis, while having a higher BMI was associated with a lower probability. When looking at factors related to postoperative symptomatic spondylolisthesis at the surgical level, preoperative spondylolisthesis, more sagittal orientated facet angles and surgical level (most significantly level L4L5 compared to levels L1L3) showed significant associations. These associations could be used as a basis for devising patient selection criteria, stratifying patients or performing subgroup analyses in future studies regarding decompression surgery with or without fusion.
 
Purpose Multiple diverse factors contribute to musculoskeletal pain, a major cause of physical dysfunction and health-related costs worldwide. Rapidly growing evidence demonstrates that the gut microbiome has overarching influences on human health and the body’s homeostasis and resilience to internal and external perturbations. This broad role of the gut microbiome is potentially relevant and connected to musculoskeletal pain, though the literature on the topic is limited. Thus, the literature on the topic of musculoskeletal pain and gut microbiome was explored. Methods This narrative review explores the vast array of reported metabolites associated with inflammation and immune-metabolic response, which are known contributors to musculoskeletal pain. Moreover, it covers known modifiable (e.g., diet, lifestyle choices, exposure to prescription drugs, pollutants, and chemicals) and non-modifiable factors (e.g., gut architecture, genetics, age, birth history, and early feeding patterns) that are known to contribute to changes to the gut microbiome. Particular attention is devoted to modifiable factors, as the ultimate goal of researching this topic is to implement gut microbiome health interventions into clinical practice. Results Overall, numerous associations exist in the literature that could converge on the gut microbiome’s pivotal role in musculoskeletal health. Particularly, a variety of metabolites that are either directly produced or indirectly modulated by the gut microbiome have been highlighted. Conclusion The review highlights noticeable connections between the gut and musculoskeletal health, thus warranting future research to focus on the gut microbiome’s role in musculoskeletal conditions.
 
An intraoperative image of the PSG attached to the vertebra
Distribution of accurately positioned and malpositioned PSs according to thoracic vertebral levels
A T8 left pedicle, laterally breached by less than 2 mm—GR grade 1 A and a T7 right pedicle with a medial breach between 2 and 4 mm—GR grade 2 B
ROC and precision-recall curves demonstrating the learning curve for the technique
Purpose Pedicle screw (PS) placement in thoracic scoliotic deformities can be challenging due to altered vertebral anatomy; malposition can result in severe functional disability or inferior construct stability. Three-dimensional (3D) printed patient�specifc guides (PSGs) have been recently used to supplement other PS placement techniques. We conducted a single-center, retrospective observational study to assess the accuracy of PS placement using PSGs in a consecutive case series of pediatric and adult patients with thoracic scoliosis. Methods We analyzed the data of patients with thoracic scoliosis who underwent PS placement using 3D-printed PSG as a vertebral cannulation aid between June 2013 and July 2018. PS positions were determined via Gertzbein–Robbins (GR) and Heary classifcations on computed tomography images. We determined the concordance of actual and preoperatively planned PS positions and defned the technique learning curve using a receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results We performed 362 thoracic PS placement procedures in 39 consecutive patients. We classifed 352 (97.2%), 2 (0.6%), and 8 (2.2%) screws as GR grades 0 (optimal placement), I, and II, respectively. The average instrumented PS entry point ofsets on the X- and Y-axes were both 0.8 mm, and the average diferences in trajectory between the planned and the actual screw placements on the oblique sagittal and oblique transverse planes were 2.0° and 2.4°, respectively. The learning process was ongoing until the frst 12 PSs were placed. Conclusions The accuracy of PS placement using patient-specifc 3D templates in our case series exceeds the accuracies of established thoracic PS placement techniques.
 
The CVT/NSL, O–C2, and C2–C7 sagittal angles in the neutral position were measured on the lateral view
An 8-year-old girl undergoing atlantoaxial fusion due to transverse ligament disruption. A The preoperative CVT/NSLa and ΔO–C2a were 95° and 11˚, respectively, on the plain lateral radiograph. B The postoperative CVT/NSLa and ΔO–C2a were 91° and 16°, respectively, on plain lateral radiograph one-month postoperative lateral X-ray
Purpose C1 pedicle screw technique showed further advantages since it avoids the negative results from the sacrificed range of motion of the atlantooccipital joint compared to the occipitocervical fusion. However, some intractable complications are unavoidable. In the pediatric population, dysphagia after the atlantoaxial fixation can be accidentally serious. We aimed to determine the incidence of dysphagia in the pediatric population's cohort and its radiological predictor. Methods Between January 2010 and August 2018, this retrospective study included 42 pediatric patients with atlantoaxial dislocation due to trauma. They were followed up with an average duration of 8 years (range 5–18 years). Twenty-seven were males and 15 females with a mean age of 8.2 years (range 5–15 years) when undergoing operations. Patients were classified according to the presence of postoperative dysphagia according to the Bazaz dysphagia grading scale. The measurements, including pre- and postoperative CVT/NSL, O–C2, and C2–C7 sagittal angles, were performed. Results 26.2% of the patients (11/42) experienced postoperative dysphagia. A significant difference in the postoperative CVT/NSL (115.2 ± 13.2 vs.134.8 ± 17.3, P = 0.002), ΔCVT/NSL (7.0 ± 11.2 vs. 20.3 ± 10.5, P = 0.001), ΔO–C2 (− 3.2 ± 5.8 vs. 2.1 ± 5.1, P = 0.026), postoperative nPAS (9.4 ± 3.7 vs. 12.6 ± 4.2, P = 0.031) and ΔPAS (− 1.5 ± 4.1 vs. 2.0 ± 3.5, P = 0.010) between dysphagia group and non-dysphagia group were found. Adjustment for age, gender, and BMI, the multivariate logistic analysis showed that ΔCVT/NSL < 8.35° (OR = 5.23; 95% CI 4.97–5.50; P = 0.001) and ΔO–C2 (OR = 3.34; 95% CI 3.17–3.51; P = 0.001) remained associated with the occurrence of the swallowing problems. Conclusion In comparison with ΔO–C2, ΔCVT/NSL might better predict postoperative dysphagia in children. Level of evidence I Diagnostic: individual cross-sectional studies with consistently applied reference standard and blinding.
 
Images of ossification for the posterior longitudinal ligament: a radiograph (A), digital tomosynthesis (B), and computed tomography (C) representative of those used in the study are shown
Purpose The diagnosis and classification of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) can be difficult with radiography alone; therefore, computed tomography (CT) is also usually performed. There are many reports on the usefulness of digital tomosynthesis (DTS) for image analysis in orthopedics. This study aimed to compare the accuracy of DTS with radiography and CT for the diagnosis and classification of cervical OPLL (C-OPLL). Materials and methods We included 31 patients with OPLL and 30 with cervical spondylotic myelopathy. The patients' cervical spine radiography, DTS, and CT images were each evaluated twice by three specialists and three residents. Results In the intra-observer reliability study, there was one observer with a fair level of kappa values for radiography and DTS among three residents. The kappa values for CT were the best for all observers. In the inter-observer reliability study, the interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) values were high for both diagnosis and classification by specialists at the almost perfect level for all three imaging modalities. On the other hand, the ICC values for both diagnosis and classification for radiography by the residents were lower than those for DTS and CT. Conclusions This study revealed that DTS may be an alternative to CT for the diagnosis and classification of C-OPLL by specialists. Caution should be exercised in diagnosing and classifying C-OPLL using radiography and DTS by residents, and the use of CT is recommended.
 
Purpose The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and the Neck Disability Index (NDI) scoring algorithms used by the Swedish spine register (Swespine) until April 2022 handled missing items somewhat differently than the original algorithms. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate possible differences in the ODI and NDI scores between the Swespine and the original scoring algorithms. Methods Patients surgically treated for degenerative conditions of the lumbar or cervical spine between 2003–2019 (lumbar) and 2006–2019 (cervical) were identified in Swespine. Preoperative and 1-year postoperative ODI/NDI data were used to evaluate differences between the Swespine and the original ODI/NDI algorithms with adjustment for at most 1 or 2 missing items using mean imputation. Results The preoperative as well as the 1-year postoperative ODI/NDI were approximately 1 unit out of 100 smaller for the Swespine algorithm, irrespective of adjustment model. The differences between preoperative and postoperative ODI/NDI scores were similar between the Swespine and the original scoring algorithms. There were occasional statistically significant differences between the preoperative–postoperative differences due to large sample sizes. Conclusions The Swespine algorithms, used until April 2022, underestimated the ODI and NDI by approximately 1 out of 100 units compared with the original algorithms. In addition, there were no statistically significant differences between the original algorithms when adjusting for at most 1 or 2 missing items. The algorithm has now been changed, also for historical data.
 
Study flow chart
MRI observations in the acute phase (A) High-signal change on T2 weighted image was observed at the fractured vertebral body. (B) Diffuse low-signal change on T2 weighted image was observed at the fractured vertebral body
Decision tree for this study, which aids the analysis to yield the best prediction. Classification results for nonunion and union are highlighted in blue and orange, respectively. Smaller values of the Gini index correspond to darker colors. BMI: Body mass index; VAS: Visual analog scale
Variance importance plot. (A) Variance importance plot for the RF model. (B) Variance importance plot for the XGBoost model. T2WI: T2 weighted image; BMI: Body mass index; VAS: Visual analog scale
Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve for nonunion prediction. AUC: area under the curve
Purpose An osteoporotic vertebral fracture (OVF) is a common disease that causes disabilities in elderly patients. In particular, patients with nonunion following an OVF often experience severe back pain and require surgical intervention. However, nonunion diagnosis generally takes more than six months. Although several studies have advocated the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) observations as predictive factors, they exhibit insufficient accuracy. The purpose of this study was to create a predictive model for OVF nonunion using machine learning (ML). Methods We used datasets from two prospective cohort studies for OVF nonunion prediction based on conservative treatment. Among 573 patients with acute OVFs exceeding 65 years in age enrolled in this study, 505 were analyzed. The demographic data, fracture type, and MRI observations of both studies were analyzed using ML. The ML architecture utilized in this study included a logistic regression model, decision tree, extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost), and random forest (RF). The datasets were processed using Python. Results The two ML algorithms, XGBoost and RF, exhibited higher area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) than the logistic regression and decision tree models (AUC = 0.860 and 0.845 for RF and XGBoost, respectively). The present study found that MRI findings, anterior height ratio, kyphotic angle, BMI, VAS, age, posterior wall injury, fracture level, and smoking habit ranked as important features in the ML algorithms. Conclusion ML-based algorithms might be more effective than conventional methods for nonunion prediction following OVFs.
 
Purpose To explore the characteristics of spontaneous facet joint fusion (SFJF) in patients after oblique lateral lumbar interbody fusion combined with lateral single screw-rod fixation (OLIF-LSRF). Methods We randomly selected 300 patients from 723 patients treated with OLIF-LSRF into a cross-sectional study based on the pilot study results. A novel fusion classification system was designed to evaluate the fusion status of the facet joints at three time points. Ultimately, the prevalence, characteristics, and significance of SFJF were analyzed. Results A total of 265 (333 levels) qualified cases were included in our study. The novel classification for SFJF has excellent reliability (kappa > 0.75). The rate of SFJF was 15.20% (45/296 levels) at 3 months postoperatively, 31.34% (89/284 levels) at 6 months postoperatively, and 33.63% (112/333 levels) at the last follow-up. The circumferential fusion rate was 31.53% (105/333 levels) at the last follow-up. The location of SFJF was mostly on the right facet joint (P < 0.001), and the rate of SFJF increased significantly from 3 to 6 months after the operation (P < 0.001). The average age of patients with SFJF was older than that of patients without SFJF (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in Visual Analog Scale or Oswestry Disability Index scores between patients with and without SFJF. Conclusion In the OLIF-LSRF procedure, SFJF occurs mostly at 3–6 months postoperatively, especially in elderly patients and at the right facet joint. OLIF-LSRF has the potential for circumferential fusion.
 
Trend from period A to C on after-hours spine cases. A After-hours cases, total operative time, average case time. B Number of cases according to the emergency status (E1, E2 and E3). C Number of cases according to the type of procedure (decompressions and fusions), after-hours spine cases with IONM (intraoperative neuromonitoing). Comparisons performed with one-way ANOVA; asterisk (*) indicates p < 0.05
Purpose “After-hours” non-elective spine surgery is associated with increased morbidity. Decision-making may be enhanced by collaborative input from experienced local colleagues. At our center, we implemented routine use of a cross-platform messaging system (CPMS; WhatsApp Inc., Mountain View, California) to facilitate quality care discussions and collaborative surgical decision-making between spine surgeons prior to booking cases with the operating room. Our aim is to determine whether encrypted text messaging for shared decision-making between spine surgeons affects the number or type of after-hours spine procedures. Methods We retrospectively compared the number, type and length of after-hours spine surgery over three time periods: (A) June 1, 2016–May 31, 2017 (baseline control); (B) June 1, 2017–May 31, 2018 (implementation of retrospective quality care spine rounds); and (C) June 1, 2018–May 31, 2019 (implementation of CPMS). A qualitative analysis of the CPMS transcripts was also performed to assess the rate of between-surgeon agreement for timing and type of procedure. Results The mean number of after-hours spine surgeries/month over the three study periods (A, B, C) was 10.83, 9.75 and 7.58 (p = 0.014); length of surgery was 41.82, 33.14 and 25.37 h/month (p = 0.001). Group agreement with the attending spine surgeon plan was 74.3% overall and was highest for the most urgent and least urgent types of indications. Conclusions Prospective (i.e., prior to booking surgery) quality care discussion for joint decision-making among spine surgeons using CPMS may reduce both the number and complexity of after-hours procedures.
 
Flow diagram of the search process in this meta-analysis
Forest plot and the overall estimated of the incidence of SSEH by random-effects model
Funnel plot of the citations referring to the incidence of SSEH
Purpose This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the incidence of symptomatic spinal epidural hematoma (SSEH) following spine surgery. Methods We systematically searched for all relevant articles that mentioned the incidence of SSEH following the spine surgery published in the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases through March 2022 and manually searched the reference lists of included studies. The Newcastle–Ottawa quality assessment scale (NOS) was used to assess the quality of the included studies. A fixed-effects or random-effects model was performed to calculate the pooled incidence of the totality and subgroups based on the heterogeneity. The potential publication bias was assessed by Egger's linear regression and a funnel plot. Sensitivity analysis was also conducted. Results A total of 40 studies were included in our meta-analysis based on our inclusion and exclusion criteria. The overall pooled incidence of SSEH was 0.52% (95% CI 0.004–0.007). In the subgroup analysis, the pooled incidence of SSEH in males and females was 0.86% (95% CI 0.004–0.023) and 0.68% (95% CI 0.003–0.017). Among the different indications, a higher incidence (2.9%, 95% CI 0.006–0.084) was found in patients with deformity than degeneration (1.12%, 95% CI 0.006–0.020) and tumor (0.30%, 95% CI 0.006–0.084). For different surgical sites, the incidences of SSEH in cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine were 0.32% (95% CI 0.002–0.005), 0.84% (95% CI 0.004–0.017) and 0.63% (95% CI 0.004–0.010), respectively. The incidences of SSEH in anterior and posterior approach were 0.24% (95% CI 0.001–0.006) and 0.70% (95% CI 0.004–0.011), respectively. The pooled incidence of SSEH was five times higher with minimally invasive surgery (1.94%, 95% CI 0.009–0.043) than with open surgery (0.42%, 95% CI 0.003–0.006). Delayed onset of SSEH had a lower incidence of 0.16% (95% CI 0.001–0.002) than early onset. There were no significant variations in the incidence of SSEH between patients who received perioperative anticoagulation therapy and those who did not or did not report getting chemopreventive therapy (0.44%, 95% CI 0.006–0.084 versus 0.42%, 95% CI 0.003–0.006). Conclusion We evaluated the overall incidence proportion of SSEH after spine surgery and performed stratified analysis, including sex, surgical indication, site, approach, minimally invasive surgery, and delayed onset of SSEH. Our research would be helpful for patients to be accurately informed of their risk and for spinal surgeons to estimate the probability of SSEH after spine surgery.
 
Flowchart of the individuals with idiopathic scoliosis in the study
SRS-22r: comparisons based on curve severity. Mean values are plotted
Purpose To describe health-related quality of life in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis and controls. Methods This cross-sectional study analysed data from 307 individuals with idiopathic scoliosis and 80 controls without scoliosis (mean age 15.5 ± 2.1 and 14.0 ± 2.2 years, respectively). Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was assessed using EuroQol 5-dimensions (EQ-5D) questionnaire, and the scoliosis specific Scoliosis Research Society-22r questionnaire (SRS-22r). HRQoL data in individuals with scoliosis were compared to controls, between treatment groups (untreated, ongoing brace, previously braced and surgically treated) and stratified according to curve size. Results Adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis had reduced HRQoL compared with controls, observed through lower SRS-22r subscore (respective means 4.16 and 4.68, p < 0.001) and lower EQ-5D index (respective means 0.92 and 0.95, p = 0.032). No differences in SRS-22r subscore or EQ-5D index were detected when comparing different scoliosis treatment groups. Within the SRS-22r function domain the surgically treated group scored 4.40, significantly lower compared to the untreated (4.65) and ongoing brace groups (4.68, p = 0.005). The surgically treated and untreated group were more affected by pain, compared to the ongoing brace group (p = 0.01) with the surgically treated group scoring lowest. Non-surgically treated scoliosis individuals with larger curves (> 30 degrees) had a lower SRS-22r subscore (4.08) compared to those with smaller curves (4.31, p = 0.001). Conclusion Adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis had a reduced HRQoL compared to healthy controls. Minor differences were detected when comparing between idiopathic scoliosis treatment groups. Non-surgically treated scoliosis patients with larger curves had a lower HRQoL shown by lower SRS-22r values.
 
Flow diagram of patient enrolment
Evaluation of atlantoaxial osteoarthritis and atlantodens osteoarthritis. Representative computed tomography scans of none-to-mild (left), moderate (middle), and severe (right) cases in the coronal plane
Evaluation of an intraosseous cyst within the odontoid process and calcific synovitis. Representative computed tomography scans of the odontoid process in the sagittal plane: intraosseous cyst (left) and calcific synovitis (right)
Prevalence of atlantoaxial osteoarthritis among the age and sex groups. Overall atlantoaxial osteoarthritis was identified in 2.2% of the cases (moderate, 1.9%; severe, 0.3%). The prevalence was significantly higher in women patients aged > 70 years than in their men counterparts (* p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01)
Prevalence of atlantodens osteoarthritis with age. Overall, atlantodens osteoarthritis was identified in 33.3% of cases (moderate, 30.1%; severe, 3.2%)
Purpose Atlantodens osteoarthritis and atlantoaxial osteoarthritis cause neck pain and suboccipital headaches. Currently, knowledge on the risk factors for atlantoaxial osteoarthritis is lacking. This study aimed to investigate the factors related to the increased risk of atlantoaxial osteoarthritis. Methods We analyzed computed tomography (CT) images of the upper cervical spine of 1266 adult trauma patients for whom upper cervical spine CT was performed at our hospital between 2014 and 2019. The degree of atlantoaxial osteoarthritis was quantified as none-to-mild (not having osteoarthritis) or moderate-to-severe (having osteoarthritis). Risk factors associated with atlantoaxial osteoarthritis were identified using univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses. Results The study group included 69.4% men, and the overall average age of the study population was 54.9 ± 20.4 years. The following factors were independently and significantly associated with atlantoaxial osteoarthritis in the multivariable logistic regression analysis: age in the sixth decade or older (odds ratio [OR], 20.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 6.2‒67.2, p < 0.001), having calcific synovitis (OR, 4.9; 95% CI, 2.4‒9.9, p < 0.001), women sex (OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.9‒5.7, p = 0.002), and not having atlantodens osteoarthritis (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.2‒3.8, p = 0.014). Conclusion In the multivariable logistic regression analysis, age in the sixth decade or older, calcification of the transverse ligament, being women, and not having atlantodens osteoarthritis were found to be significantly associated with atlantoaxial osteoarthritis. Delayed diagnosis and treatment can be avoided by focusing on these risk factors.
 
Purpose In this meta-analysis, we aim to compare ketamine use versus a control group (saline solution) during induction of anesthesia in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients undergoing fusion surgery in terms of postoperative opioid consumption, pain control, and side effects. Methods A PubMed search of studies published over the last 20 years using the descriptor/terms “ketamine AND scoliosis” was performed. Baseline characteristics of each article were obtained and efficacy measures analyzed (morphine equivalent treatment at 24, 48, and 72 h postoperatively, complications (vomiting/nausea and pruritus), length of hospital stay (days); and pain score (VAS)) (Review Manager 5.4 software package). Results Five randomized clinical trials were included. Morphine administration showed statistically significant differences at 24 and 48 h (MD − 0.15, 95% CI − 0.18 to − 0.12) and (MD − 0.26, 95% CI − 0.31 to − 0.21) between the ketamine and control (saline solution), respectively. No intergroup differences were found regarding nausea/vomiting and pruritus (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.35 to 1.67) and (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.31 to 1.62), respectively, same as for the pain score (MD − 0.75, 95% CI − 1.71 to 0.20). Conclusions The use intraoperative and postoperative continuous low doses of ketamine significantly reduces opioid use throughout the first 48 h in patients with AIS who undergo posterior spinal fusion.
 
Top-cited authors
Maurits van Tulder
  • Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
Bart W Koes
  • Erasmus MC
Chris G Maher
  • The University of Sydney
Raymond W Ostelo
  • Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
Jean-Charles Lehuec