European Scientific Journal

Print ISSN: 1857-7881
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Simple OCR system used with the TT.  
Machine and human responses to the sent CAPTCHAs.
Process of creating a CAPTCHA out of the random characters XXYH.  
Example of the proposed CAPTCHA.  
For the last ten years, CAPTCHAs have been widely used by websites to prevent their data being automatically updated by machines. By supposedly allowing only humans to do so, CAPTCHAs take advantage of the reverse Turing test (TT), knowing that humans are more intelligent than machines. Generally, CAPTCHAs have defeated machines, but things are changing rapidly as technology improves. Hence, advanced research into optical character recognition (OCR) is overtaking attempts to strengthen CAPTCHAs against machine-based attacks. This paper investigates the immunity of CAPTCHA, which was built on the failure of the TT. We show that some CAPTCHAs are easily broken using a simple OCR machine built for the purpose of this study. By reviewing other techniques, we show that even more difficult CAPTCHAs can be broken using advanced OCR machines. Current advances in OCR should enable machines to pass the TT in the image recognition domain, which is exactly where machines are seeking to overcome CAPTCHAs. We enhance traditional CAPTCHAs by employing not only characters, but also natural language and multiple objects within the same CAPTCHA. The proposed CAPTCHAs might be able to hold out against machines, at least until the advent of a machine that passes the TT completely.
 
13 C-NMR spectral data (ppm) for the ligand salt and complex
IR spectral data* (cm -1 ) for ligand salt and complexes.
One isomeric ligand, LB among three isomers (LA, LB and LC) of 2,9- C-meso-2,5,5,7,9,12,12,14-octamethyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecanes, differing in the orientation of methyl groups on the chiral carbon atoms) on interaction with vinyl acetate produces 2,9-C-meso-2,5,5,7,9,12,12,14- octamethyl-1,8-diaza-4,11-diazoniacyclotetradecane as its bis(acetate) trihydrate, [LBH2][OOCCH3]2.3H2O. This ligand salt trihydrate reacts with Zn(CH3COO)2.2H2O to produce square pyramidal monoacetatozinc(II) acetate complex [ZnLB(CH3COO)](CH3COO), which undergoes anion exchange reaction with NaClO4.6H2O to produce monoacetatozinc(II) perchlorate complex, [ZnLB(CH3COO)](ClO4). The complex, [ZnLB(CH3COO)](ClO4) undergoes axial substitution reactions with KSCN, NaNO2 and KNO3 to form the substitution products, [ZnLB(NCS)](NCS), [ZnLB(NO2)](ClO4) and [ZnLB(NO3)](ClO4) respectively where CH3COOis replaced by NCS- , NO3 - and NO2 - . All these complexes have been characterized on the basis of analytical, spectroscopic, conductometric and magnetochemical data. The antifungal and antibacterial activities of these compounds have been studied against some phytopathogenic fungi and bacteria.
 
In Libya, Construction and Demolition Waste materials (C&DW) are currently thrown in landfills or illegally dumped. In regions where the C&DW is not landfilled, insufficient C&DW management fails to take advantage of the full value of the materials that could be repurposed for road construction. This research aims to develop a sustainable C&DW management model appropriate to Libya and similar countries. Over 97% of construction in Libya uses cement; therefore, this study focuses on cement production and consumption and creates a simulation to model the parts of the construction industry. This study uses System Dynamics (SD), which is a tool used by stakeholders in policy planning to make better decisions about how to manage C&DW. This study models and predicts C&DW from 2008 until 2030, taking material cost, availability, recyclability and environmental, economic and social impacts into account. The model conforms to historical data from 2008 to 2016 and then becomes a predictive model until 2030; the years following 2011 are particularly critical due to the amount of destruction and the resulting rebuilding. The model shows that having a higher collection budget does not result in better environmental outcomes unless there is money allocated for C&DW recycling. The study quantifies the amount of material in Libya generated from demolition that is not reused; this data becomes a means of analyzing the value of the waste. The model output provides important data (e.g., cement consumption, GDP) for future resource management.
 
The wetlands are the integral element of the natural resource of Benin Republic. However, anthropic pressure on those “fragil” environments, contribute to the reducing of their surface and accordingly, to a loss their biodiversity. The target objective is to make cartography of land units from 1990 to 2014 in order to identify the various pressures upon the wet ecosystems. A 2014 Landsat 8 OLI-TIRS image and a 1990 map of Benin land cover were used to establish the cartography. We used the Maximum likelihood algorithm to execute the supervised classification of the landsat image in ERDAS. The mapping of the land’s units in the wetlands was then carried out in ArcGIS. The results revealed that the tree savana have completely disappeared. It represents 11.47 % of the landscape in 1990 against 0 % in 2014. The mosaics of fields and fallows under palm plantations have reduced to -30.42 % in 2014. They represent 66.63 % of the landscape. The land units which progressed are the mosaic of fields and fallow (12.06 %), the swamps (10.47 %), the plantations (5.26 %) and the agglomerations (2.71 %). This shows strong human pressure exerted on the natural vegetation of the wetlands in the Allada district. These results will provide the local authorities with a tool for decision support, for an efficient use and a sustainable management of these natural wet ecosystems.
 
The cultivated rubber clones are sensitive to latex harvesting regimes according to their laticiferous metabolism. Thus, in order to determine the best latex harvesting systems of clones with low or slow metabolism, six latex harvesting technologies are applied to them in a bulk statistical device from Fisher to four rehearsals. The rubber is tapped in downward half spiral stimulated or not for nine years after the opening of the tapping panel. The agronomic parameters (production, vegetative growth), the tapping panel dryness and those of the latex micro diagnosis were evaluated. The results indicate that these clones independently of the latex harvesting system have good rubber productivity (2310 kg.ha -1 .y-1 ) with good radial vegetative growth (2.9 cm.y -1 ). Their trees show a well-balanced physiological profile and an acceptable sensitivity to the tapping panel dryness (4.9%). However, the physiological index, the bark consumption and the sensitivity to the tapping panel dryness lead to retain the latex harvesting technologies "S/2 d3 6d/7 Pa1(1) ET2.5% 4/y, S/2 d4 6d/7 Pa1(1) ET2.5% 4/y and S/2 d4 6d/7 Pa1(1) ET2.5% 8/y” for the best. This index, favorably influencing the choice of technologies adapted to clones with active metabolism, contributes to the modern and efficient management of a rubber plantation.
 
This study aims to compare EuroFit test results of 11-17-year-old males and females in Kosovo. 742 students were included in the study. 347 females and 395 males were determined by random selection from the schools in urban and rural areas of all regions. Kosovo's general population rate (52% male 48% female) was considered when determining the proportion of male and female students. Anthropometric characteristics including height, weight, and Body Mass Index (BMI) of students and the motoric characteristics including the values obtained from the tests such as flamingo balance, plate tapping, sit and reach, standing broad jump, handgrip strength, sit-ups (30 sec), bent arm hang, 10x5m shuttle run and 20 m endurance were compared. As a result, there was no statistically significant difference between the anthropometric characteristics of male and female students in adolescence; however, it was observed that as the age increased, males became heavier and taller than females (p<0.05). In general, while there was no statistically significant difference between males and females in flamingo balance, plate tapping and sit and reach tests (p> 0.05), males were determined to be more successful than females in standing broad jump test, handgrip strength test, sit-ups (30 sec) and 20 m endurance tests (p<0.05). It is observed that students in Kosovo are more successful than the other countries regarding motoric tests such as the anthropometric characteristics, which are thought to be more related to genetics, and speed/agility of arms and legs. On the other hand, they are unsuccessful in comparison with other countries with regard to flexibility and endurance in tests which are thought to be influenced by factors such as lifestyle, nutrition, and training.
 
Isozyme patterns for aspartate amino transferase, alcohol dehydrogenase and superoxide dismutase were evaluated in 60 accessions of eleven Vicia taxa occurring in Algeria. The three enzymatic systems revealed 25 morphs of different frequency encoded by 7 loci. Similarity between species and accessions was estimated by Euclidean distances based on presence or absence of bands. The UPGMA method was utilized for the groupings and dendrogram construction. The dendrogram presented 2 major groups, each one corresponding to a taxonomic level where accessions of the same species grouped together. Taxa-specific bands were identified. In parallel, 12 physical seed properties namely: length, width, thickness, arithmetic diameter, geometric diameter, sphericity, surface area, volume, square mean diameter, equivalent diameter, seed aspect ratio and 1000 seed weight were calculated. By cluster analyses based upon them, the material has been classified into 2 major groups with no correspondence with the current taxonomy. A Principal Component Analysis was undertaken to distinguish physical properties which contribute the most to accessions distinction. Mantel test was used to assess correlation between the three enzymatic systems studied one side and between enzymes polymorphism and physical seed properties another side.
 
The aim of the article is to trace the emergence and the development of the early states of the Scandinavians, the Polabian and the Pomeranian Slavs and to investigate their main power centers. The author relies on previous research, uses theoretical achievements of historical anthropology and combines them with comparative methodology to study both archaeological and written sources. This approach allows to establish distinct political typologies in the region, namely various types of chiefdoms and principalities. The paper illuminates similar and mostly simultaneous trajectories of the evolution of those polities, emphasizes the role of central places in the respective political systems and in the governing mechanisms. During the late 8th – the early 11th centuries there had existed complex chiefdoms and chiefdom confederacies, which slowly declined towards the end of the period.
 
The cultivated rubber clones are sensitive to latex harvesting regimes according to their laticiferous metabolism. Thus, in order to determine the best latex harvesting systems of clones with active or rapid metabolism (IRCA 18, IRCA 130, PB 235, PB 260 and PB 330), six latex harvesting technologies are applied to them in a bulk statistical device from Fisher to four rehearsals. The rubber is tapped in downward half spiral stimulated or not for nine years after the opening of the tapping panel. The agronomic parameters (production, vegetative growth), the tapping panel dryness and those of the latex micro diagnosis were evaluated. The results indicate that these clones independently of the latex harvesting system have good rubber productivity (2310 kg.ha -1.y1) with good radial vegetative growth (2.9 cm.y-1). Their trees show a wellbalanced physiological profile and an acceptable sensitivity to the tapping panel dryness (4.9%). However, the physiological index, the bark consumption and the sensitivity to the tapping panel dryness lead to retain the latex harvesting technologies “ S/2 d3 6d/7 Pa1(1) ET2.5% 4/y and S/2 d4 6d/7 Pa1(1) ET2.5% 4/y ” for the best. This index, favorably influencing the choice of technologies adapted to clones with active metabolism, contributes to the modern and efficient management of a rubber plantation.
 
Since the end of the 19th century, cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) has been regarded as a public health problem in our country, Morocco. The aim of this study is to describe the clinical and epidemiological profile and posttherapeutic evolution of patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Ain Dfali’s health center. We carried out a study based on the use of records and the observation of patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis between January 2006 and December 2015. Also, we collected 132 cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis. The mean age of patients was 19.8 years with extremes from 6 months to 61 years. The sex ratio was 0.76 M / F. The mean duration of lesions was 1.6 months with extremes of 2 weeks to 10 months. Fall preponderance was noted (41.6%). The most frequent clinical appearance was that of a single ulcero-pulmonary nodule (61%) (71.9%) and was seated on the face (57.5%). The diagnosis was mentioned clinically and confirmed by direct parasitological examination. Glucantime® was the treatment of choice that was used intralesionally. The post-therapeutic evolution was favourable with almost a complete disappearance of lesions. This took place in a period varying from 3 to 8 weeks at the price of unsightly scars in 19 patients. Cutaneous leishmaniasis continues to pose a real public health problem in our country. The emergence of severe and resistant forms throughout the world should encourage the multiplication and strengthening of prophylactic measures.
 
The purpose of the current research was to determine the prevalence and risk factors linked to intestinal parasites in a population aged from 5 to 14 years who attend to public schools and high schools from Riobamba city, Riobamba-Chambo district. The prospection was carried out between October and November 2015. The population studied was identified and classified according to their age, gender, and educational institution they belong to. In addition, the relation of risk factors linked to the identified parasites was estimated. For this, it was necessary to apply a coprology examination to 2020 boys, girls and teenagers. The fecal samples collected were analyzed using the fresco technique with lugol and saline solution at 0.85%. The total intestine parasite prevalence found was 35.1%. The highest parasite prevalence was detected in groups aged 5 (12.84%), in groups aged 8 (11.71%) and in groups aged 11 (11.56%), while Combatientes de Tapi Educational Unit registered a 34% in both genders. Any significant parasite difference was found among p<0.05 ages. Nine parasite types were identified with Entamoeba coli prevalence (26%) Entamoeba histolytic (9.3%), Iodamoeba bütschlii (0.8%), Giardia lambia (4.3%), Chilomastix mesnilii (0.9%), Hymenolepis nana (1.4%), Ascaris lumbricoides (0.3%) Trichuris trichiura (0.5%), Endolimax nana (1.6%), from which protozoan were the predominant, some poly parasite samples were also found, it was determined that the sample studied reflects a high prevalence of intestinal parasites.
 
Abstract The potential for the firm to improve its resource use especially energy management by using Environmental Management Systems (EMS) like ISO 14001 has been shown to be possible. Yet, no in-depth research has been conducted to explore this possibility in Ghana. The implementation of EMS integrates the corporate environmental management strategies and management commitment to sustainable development but most of the organisations in developing countries of West Africa are slow to adopt the management system. The aim of this paper is to assess the drivers, the competitive advantages of ISO 14001 EMS certification and the environmental impact of ISO 14001 EMS certification, in terms of energy consumption. Before and after methods of evaluation were used to analyse the data collected. Purposive sampling technique was used to administer questionnaires and interview guides to employees of the cable manufacturing firm. A review was also made of annual data for electricity consumption before and after ISO 14001 EMS certification. The findings indicate that the main driver of the ISO 14001 EMS certification by the firm is to take advantage of certification to expand its market share. It was also found out that reduction in potential environmental liability risks is the main competitive advantage of ISO 14001 EMS certification. In terms of energy consumption, the findings show that the firm is saving a lot of energy thus cost. It is recommended that more efforts should be made by the energy commission of Ghana through the provision of funds to firms who want to implement environmental management systems.
 
Proliferated pineapple calli on MSB5 medium containing different sources Of carbon at 30 g/L. (A) Galactose: Brownish callus; (B) Saccharose: Greenish callus; (C) Mannitol: Brownish callus; (D) Glucose: Greenish callus; (E) Maltose: Greenish callus; (F) Fructose: Greenish callus 
Evaluation of carbon source effect on callus proliferation in pineapple
The improvement of pineapple (Ananas comosus var. Smooth Cayenne) by means of in vitro culture is less studied in Côte d'Ivoire despite the importance of this plant for this country’s economy. Our work consisted in highlighting nature and concentration effects of carbohydrates on the proliferation of calli in pineapple as a prelude to efficient embryogenesis. Callus proliferation was carried out from the base of pineapple vitroplants leaves. Thirty (30) explants were cultured on the tested culture medium. MS medium (micro- and macro elements of Murashige and Skoog) supplemented with vitamin Gamborg B5 was used as base medium to which were added 0.05 mg/L BAP, 3 mg/L picloram, 2 mg/L glycine, 1,000 mg/L glutamine, 100 mg/L casein hydrolyzate and 30 g/L carbohydrate. Sucrose was tested at different concentrations (20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 g/L). The results revealed that callus proliferation is strongly influenced (p ˂ 0.0001) by nature and concentration of carbohydrate. Sucrose with the highest dry matter content (61.34 mg) has a higher callogenic potential than the other studied carbohydrates. The concentration of 30 g/L sucrose significantly improved the calli proliferation in pineapple. Galactose and maltose were less favorable to proliferation.
 
Les fractures du calcanéum sont peu fréquentes et s’accompagnent souvent des séquelles graves. Nous rapportons une série de 16 cas, tous traités par clou verrouillé dans le service de traumatologie orthopédie du centre hospitalier de Bayonne (France). L’objectif de ce travail rétrospectif continu était d’évaluer les résultats cliniques, fonctionnel et radiologique du traitement chirurgical des fractures articulaires du calcanéum, à travers notre série de 16 patients opérés et suivis sur une période de 5 ans, et les comparer aux données de la littérature. L’âge moyen dans notre série était de 43 ans, tous nos patients avaient bénéficié d’une réduction à foyer fermé par distraction et une ostéosynthèse par clou verrouillé. Le recul moyen était de 18 mois et les résultats fonctionnels ont été évalués selon le score de Kitaoka, excellant dans 68,75%, Bon 18,75%, moyen 6,25% un mauvais cas 6,25%. Calcaneal fractures are infrequent and often have serious sequelae. We report a series of 16 cases all treated with a locked nail in the orthopedic traumatology department of the Bayonne hospital center (France). The objective of this continuous retrospective work was to evaluate the clinical, functional and radiological results of the surgical treatment of articular fractures of the calcaneus, through our series of 16 patients operated and followed over a period of 5 years, and to compare them with the data. of literature. The mean age in our series was 43 years, all of our patients had undergone distraction, closed reduction and locked nail osteosynthesis. The mean follow-up was 18 months and the functional results were evaluated according to the Kitaoka score, excelling in 68.75%, Good 18.75%, average 6.25% a bad case 6.25%.
 
This manuscript deals with the exploitation of oysters, Crassostrea gasar, specie highly presented in Lake Nokoue, south of Benin Republic. This study aims to characterize this exploitation through the sociodemographic parameters of oyster farmers, the characteristics of different collection sites, the importance and economic characteristics of the exploitation. Socio-demographic and economic information was collected on the basis of a survey of the operators. The physico-chemical data and on the type of substrate used to characterize the sites were collected on the stations Agbato and Atchakpanoukpa. A total of 65 farmers were surveyed. In general, women dominate the people who exploit the oysters (67.7%). Harvesting and trading are two components of the exploitation of oysters. Harvesting is an essentially masculine activity while trading is reserved to women. The stations Agbato, Donoukpa, Jesuko, Togbigba and Atchakpanoukpa near to Cotonou channel are the harvest sites characterized by high salinity (24.057.70 g / L). The oysters’ exploitation in Lake Nokoue is realized at march to september of each year by 60% of populations surveyed. The oysters’ exploitation weekly generates incomes of F CFA 30 150.77 to the collectors, F CFA 29 703.57 to fishmongers and F CFA 28 763.33 to whom lead the two activities. Oysters’ exploitation is intense at Lake Nokoue and constitutes important source of incomes to the operators.
 
Chloroscombrus chrysurus is a pelagic fish species that belongs to the Carangidae family. It has a fairly high level of exploitation in Côte d'Ivoire. This paper focuses on the study of the maturity scale, the differentiation, and the histology of hepatopancreas. The methodological approach consisted of a macroscopic description of the hepatopancreas according to the six stages of sexual maturity. The microscopic study consisted of fixing the hepatopancreas, dehydrating them, impregnating them, including them, and making the sections that will be stained for optical microscopic observation. Macroscopic analysis has established six stages of sexual maturity in the species during which the growth and differentiation of hepatopancreas occur. From the juvenile to the adult stage, the size and color of the hepatopancreas vary. On the other hand, its aspect and shape remain unchanged. The hepatopancreas consists of two unequal lobes. The left hepatic lobe is always more developed than the right. On the microscopical level, among the female gender, the hepatopancreas is a mixed organ which constituted the hepatic parenchyme and pancreas. The pancreas differs in the hepatic parenchyma which is composed mainly of polygonal hepatocytes and blood vessels. The hepatocytes are arranged in sinusoidal cords around the capillaries. The pancreas is composed of islets of Langerhans (endocrine pancreas) and serous acini Pancreatic (exocrine pancreas). Both structures progressively invade the hepatic parenchyma. The hepatopancreas is an essential organ in the physiology of fish.
 
This study was conducted in two sides of Bingerville (Abatta and Anna) in southern Côte d'Ivoire. The objective was to inventory the entomofauna of poultry farms in order to verify the presence of Alphitobius diaperinus (Coleoptera: Tenebionidae) in Côte d'Ivoire. It also aimed to establish correlation between Alphitobius diaperinus density in livestock buildings and the loss on poultry production. Thirty (30) poultry buildings were investigated during 3 months. A survey questionnaire on farm characteristics, diseases and mortality was submitted to farmers. The poultry litter was collected, transported to the laboratory and excavated. Insects were determined and counted. A total of 19661 insects were collected on both sites. Alphitobius diaperinus accounts for 96.63% of collected insects. The statistical comparison showed that A. diaperinus is the most representative insect (P <0.0001). This insect is unevenly distributed in chicken farms (n = 89, F = 3.67, and P ˂ 0.00001). Out of 18998 Alphitobius diaperinus collected, a total of 14362 (75.60%) were recorded in the column of feeders and waterers, and only, 4636 (24.40%) off feeders and waterers’. The study also revealed a strong correlation (R = +0.88) between the density of A diaperinus and the loss on chicken production due to avian diseases such as Gumboro, Newcastle, and Mareck. This insect is suspected to be the vector of these aggressive diseases of poultry. Our results reveal for the first time, the effective presence of Alphitobius diaperinus in poultry farms in Côte d'Ivoire.
 
Malnutrition and Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquire Immunodeciency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) are public health problems. HIV/AIDS continues to have severe consequences for the nutrition, food security, and other socioeconomic aspects of HIV-infected individuals. The objective of our study is to evaluate the correlation between HIV infection, malnutrition, and thyroid disorders in malnourished people living with HIV/AIDS followed at Notre Dame des Apôtres Hospital in Sarh/Chad. The study included 36 malnourished people living with HIV/AIDS over 18 years of age, followed at the People Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (PLWHIV) ward. Our study population consisted of females with 75 percent of cases with a sex ratio (M/F) of 0.33. The most represented age group was between 32 and 59 years. We performed a thyroid assessment of each patient by measuring biochemical parameters such as Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH), Tri-iodothyronin (T3) and Tetra-iodothyronin (T4). The results obtained showed 61.76 percent of thyroid dysfunction prevalence with 11.76 percent primary hypothyroidism, 2.94 percent subclinical hypothyroidism, 5.88 percent TSH-mediated hyperthyroidism, and 41.18 percent central hypothyroidism. As a result, the cases of thyroid dysfunction were high noticed in the age group between 32 and 45 years. Furthermore, the assessment showed that 67 percent of the cases were women. From these results, we can conclude that the combination of the two conditions, malnutrition and HIV infection, weakens the immune system, thus giving way to other opportunistic diseases.
 
In this study, the seasonal variation in sex ratio, macroscopic stages of sexual maturity, gonado-somatic ratio, hepatostatic ratio, condition factor, and size-weight relationship in Auxis thazard from Gulf of Guinea were studied from January to December 2016. Sex ratio observed was in favor of males (1: 0,78; X² observed = 20,16 ˃ theoretical X² = 3,84 ; p ˂ 0,05). The variation of maturity stages associated with GSI, HSI, and K during different seasons of the year showed that this specie spawns throughout the year. Length-weight relationship was W = 0,0039 L 3, 4108 (R2 = 0,93 ; N = 291) for males, W = 0,0036 L 3, 4376 (R2 = 0,91 ; N = 227) for females, and W = 0,004 L 3, 4118 (R2 = 0,92 ; N = 519) for the combined sexes. The b value was significantly higher than the theoretical value of 3 for males (t-test, t = 233,218, p ˂ 0,05), for females (t-test, t = 227,776, p ˂ 0,05), and for all individuals (t-test, t = 315,821, p ˂ 0,05). This situation however indicates a faster increase of the fish in weight rather than in length.
 
Situation géographique du bassin de la Bagoué (Côte d'Ivoire) et des sites d'échantillonnage
Production annuelle (en kg) de Synodontis membranaceus en fonction des stations dans le bassin de la Bagoué d'Août 2018 à juillet 2020
Probabilité de capture de Synodontis membranaceus en fonction de la taille des individus dans la rivière Bagoué d'août 2018 à juillet 2020
L’étude vise à connaître l’état de la pêche après plus d’une décennie de crise dans la rivière Bagoué. Les campagnes ont lieu d’août 2018 à juillet 2020. Les données ont été collectées à l’aide de questionnaires administrés aux pêcheurs. La taille de première maturité sexuelle (LS50) et la taille de première capture (Lc50) ont été déterminées respectivement à partir de la fonction logistique de régression non linéaire et de l’équation générale de Von Bertalanffy incorporée au logiciel FISAT II. A l’issue de ces enquêtes, 141 pêcheurs ont été recensés sur l’ensemble des sites visités. Ils financent sur fond propre leur activité. La pêche est dominée par les ivoiriens (88,65 %) et elle est plus importante dans les villages Samôgôs qui concentrent 68,08 % des pêcheurs. Les pêcheurs sont tous des illettrés et pour la plupart des adultes (44,68 %). Les Bozos, avec 5,67 %, sont des pêcheurs professionnels. Les autres effectuent des activités annexes. Les engins de pêche sont pareils à ceux utilisés dans les pêcheries en Côte d’Ivoire mais, les filets maillants sont les plus utilisés (55%). Les embarcations sont des pirogues en planches clouées. Les engins de prédilection pour la capture de Synodontis membranaceus sont les filets maillants dont les mailles varient de 10 mm à 60 mm. Les captures de cette espèce s’élèvent respectivement à 2200,25 kg et 2465,67 kg la première et deuxième année d’échantillonnage. Les tailles de première maturité (LS50) sont inférieures aux tailles de première capture (Lc50). Ce qui suggère que les poissons atteignent la maturité sexuelle avant d’être pêcher. Cette pêche est menacée par l’orpaillage artisanal dans les localités de Zanikaha et de Kanakono. En outre, le manque d’organisation professionnel et de formations ainsi que le non-respect des maillages des filets peuvent entraver la gestion durable de l’activité de pêche. This study aims to know the state of the fishery after more than a decade of crisis in the Bagoué River. The campaigns take place from August 2018 to July 2020. Data were collected using questionnaires administered to fishermen. Size of first sexual maturity (LS50) and size of first capture (Lc50) were determined from the non-linear regression logistic function and the general Von Bertalanffy equation incorporated into the FISAT II software, respectively. At the end of these surveys, 141 fishermen were identified on all the sites visited. They finance their activity from their own funds. Fishing is dominated by Ivorians (88.65%) and is more important in the Samôgô villages, where 68.08% of the fishermen live. The fishermen are all illiterate and mostly adults (44.68%). The Bozos, with 5.67 percent, are the professional fishermen. The other fishermen carry out secondary activities. The fishing gear is similar to that used in the fisheries of Côte d'Ivoire, but gillnets are the most commonly used (55%). The boats are only pirogues made of nailed boards. The preferred gear for the capture of S. membranaceus is gillnets. The catches of this species amounted to 2200.25 kg and 2465.67 kg in the first and second years of sampling, respectively. The sizes at first maturity (LS50) are smaller than the sizes at first capture (Lc50). This suggests that the fish reach sexual maturity before being caught. This fishery is threatened by artisanal gold panning in the localities of Zanikaha and Kanakono. In addition, the lack of professional organization and training, as well as the lack of respect for the mesh size of the nets, may hinder the sustainable management of the fishery.
 
Localisation géographique des stations d'Aboisso (T1 et T2) et de Biaka (T3 et T4). 
Courbes de croissance obtenues à partir des histogrammes de fréquences de taille des spécimens de Atya scabra dans la localité d'Aboisso (A) et de Biaka (B) Paramètres de mortalité Les courbes de capture fondées sur les longueurs des crevettes provenant d'Aboisso et de Biaka sont représentées par la figure 3. A Aboisso, la mortalité totale déterminée est Z= 2,51 an-1 pour les mâles, Z= 2,38 an-1 pour les femelles et Z= 5,72 an-1 pour les sexes combinés. Pour une température moyenne de 28,45 o C, un coefficient de mortalité naturelle M = 1,19 an-1 a été obtenu. Une valeur de mortalité par pêche F = 1,32 an-1 et un taux d'exploitation E = 0,53 chez les mâles ont été déterminés. Chez les femelles, les valeurs estimées sont: M = 1,17 an-1 , F = 1,21 an-1 et E = 0,51. Pour les sexes mis en ensemble, les coefficients obtenus sont: M = 1,48 an-1 , F = 4,24 an-1 et E = 0,74. Dans la localité de Biaka, les mortalités totales estimées respectivement chez les mâles, femelles et sexes combinés sont respectivement de Z = 0,89 an-1 , Z = 0,96 an-1 et de Z = 1,52 an-1. Les valeurs obtenues pour une température moyenne de 28,5 o C sont de M = 0,86 an-1 , F= 0,03 an-1 et de E = 0,04 chez les mâles. Chez les femelles, elles sont de M = 0,81 an-1 , F = 0,15 an-1 et de E = 0,16. Les résultats obtenus par la
The parameters of growth, mortality, the exploitation and the recruitment of Atya scabra (Leach, 1815) as traditionally fished in the Bia river, were studied. These parameters were determined from the size frequencies by the FiSAT II software. The results obtained at the specimens of Aboisso were:= 156,45 mm, K = 1,50 year -1, Φ' = 4,56, Z = 5,72 year -1, M = 1,48 year -1, F = 4,24 year -1 and E = 0,74 year -1. In Biaka, theestimated values were: L = 140,7 mm, K = 0,68 year -1, Φ' = 4,13, Z = 1,52year -1, M = 0,91 year -1, F = 0,61 year -1 and E = 0,40 year -1 . Aboisso specimens have a higher growth performance index (Φ') than Biaka's and a weak longevity (tmax = 2 years) compared to Biaka (tmax = 4.41 years). Shrimps are under exploited in the locality of Biaka (E 0.5). Total mortality is higher in Aboisso than in Biaka. However, the survival rate recorded in Aboisso (S = 0.003 years) is lower than that of Biaka (S = 0.22 years). Recruitment is continuous throughout the year, with two peaks (a major peak in September and a minor peak in February) in Aboisso. As for Biaka, the presence of a normal distribution indicates that recruitment is single. These results will serve as a database for rational management of A. scabra.
 
This study consists in looking for an improvement of Archachatina margina reproductions performances by amendment of the breeding substrates. As a result, five types of substrate were prepared by soil amendment at different rates (0%, 10%, 20%, 30% et 40%) with chicken egg shell powder. On these substrates, snails were raised from spat stage until they were laid. Reproductive parameters such as: age of first laying, the number of annual laying per animal, the number of eggs per laying on the different substrates were recorded. Overall, snail laying performances improved with increasing rate of substrate amendment. However, beyond a rate of 20%, the weight of eggs laid began to decline. The chicken egg shell powder is suitable for the amendment of the breeding substrate of snails Archachatina marginata in view of an improvement in their reproductive performance. The rate of amendment recommended to this effect is 20%.
 
This Special Edition of the European Scientific Journal - ESJ results from the speeches that were held at the online Multidisciplinary Conference on May 17. The Conference had several Special Sessions and I had the honor to chair the session on Medical and Health communication, especially during a pandemic.
 
El 31 de diciembre de 2019, la Comisión Municipal de Salud de Wuhan (provincia de Hubei, China), notifica acerca de un conglomerado de casos de neumonía en la ciudad. Posteriormente, se determina que son causados por un nuevo coronavirus. En respuesta y después de arduas investigaciones, la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) estipula, en su evaluación del 11 de marzo del 2020, que COVID-19 puede caracterizarse como una pandemia en razón de la alta letalidad del SARS-CoV-2 y su rápida propagación en el ámbito mundial. A partir de entonces, los esfuerzos de la comunidad científica se han orientado a determinar, por un lado, el origen del virus causante de COVID-19 y, por otro, a explicar la alta disparidad de contagios y decesos en diversas zonas geográficas. Una de las hipótesis más actuales en el campo de la epidemiología, a fin de explicar esta disparidad, refiere a una posible reacción cruzada en zonas endémicas o con incidencia de malaria y/o dengue que podría estar generando inmunidad contra COVID-19. El trabajo tiene dos objetivos 1. presentar el panorama contextual y analítico clínico en el que ha cobrado relevancia esta hipótesis 2. Someter a prueba la hipótesis de la inmunidad cruzada en el Estado de Quintana Roo, México, entidad que comparte condiciones climáticas y sanitarias con regiones endoepidémicas de África y América Latina, donde se realizaron los estudios pioneros sobre inmunidad cruzada. Metodología: para el logro del primer objetivo se realizó un estudio basado en una revisión bibliográfica especializada; para el alcance del segundo se siguió una metodología observacional y ecológica para analizar las tendencias epidemiológicas de COVID Y DENGUE, utilizando los datos oficiales disponibles al público en el sitio de vigilancia epidemiológica del Estado de Quintana Roo (www.sinave.gob.mx) Se incluyeron en la base de datos todos los casos de COVID notificados y confirmados mediante pruebas (RT-PCR) y los acumulados las de Dengue (DNG) y Dengue No grave (DNG). En 2019-2020 y se procedió a la elaboración de gráficos para la presentación de los resultados. On December 31, 2019, the Wuhan Municipal Health Commission (Hubei Province, China) reports a cluster of pneumonia cases in the city. Subsequently, it is determined that they are caused by a new coronavirus. In response and after arduous investigations, the World Health Organization (WHO) stipulates, in its evaluation of March 11, 2020, that COVID-19 can be characterized as a pandemic due to the high lethality of SARS-CoV-2 and its rapid spread worldwide. Since then, the efforts of the scientific community have been aimed at determining, on the one hand, the origin of the virus that causes COVID-19 and, on the other, to explain the high disparity in infections and deaths in various geographical areas. One of the most current hypotheses in the field of epidemiology, in order to explain this disparity, refers to a possible cross-reaction in endemic areas or areas with incidence of malaria and/or dengue that could be developing immunities against COVID-19. The work has two objectives: 1. to present the clinical contextual and analytical panorama in which this hypothesis has become relevant 2. To test the hypothesis of cross-immunity in the State of Quintana Roo, Mexico, an entity that shares climatic and sanitary conditions with endo-epidemic regions of Africa and Latin America, where the pioneering studies on cross-immunity were carried out. Methodology: to achieve the first objective, a study was carried out based on a specialized bibliographical review; For the scope of the second, an observational and ecological methodology was followed to analyze the epidemiological trends of COVID AND DENGUE, using the official data available to the public on the epidemiological surveillance site of the State of Quintana Roo (www.sinave.gob.mx). All COVID cases notified and confirmed by tests (RT-PCR) and the accumulated cases of Dengue (DNG) and Non-severe Dengue (DNG) were included in the database. In 2019-2020 and graphs were prepared for the presentation of the results.
 
This paper focuses on contributing to the ongoing discourse regarding the global perspectives on the role of faith and spirituality in a post-COVID-19 national and community recovery with reference to the pandemic in Nigeria. The year 2020 saw a lot of faith organisations like churches introduce and apply new initiatives of spirituality-based elements in helping people to recover from the pandemic. These elements are embodied in their programs and fellowships to their members and the general society. A vast majority of the members acknowledge a reliance on God for solutions against mental, emotional, physical, material, and financial challenges caused by the pandemic. An analytical methodology through the Integrated Critical Analysis method was used with data collected from available literature as tools of research for this study. The research findings of this study show that the value and benefit of faith includes its efficacy on the behaviours and attitude displayed in the engagement or non-engagement of people. This is to the extent of the people’s faith, religious and spiritual beliefs, along with the support that they find in their being members of faith communities. Although people may have at one time or the other had negative experiences in the past, however, studies show that faith and spirituality plays a significant role in preventing further negative effects and risk in the recovery process. The study concludes that the value that spirituality and faith-oriented approaches bring to the prevention and recovery process is a necessity.
 
Debido al confinamiento se ha evidenciado un incremento de los niveles de estrés en la población que repercute directamente en su salud mental. El presente estudio propone identificar manifestaciones depresivas y diferencia de proporción en dos muestras de estudiantes universitarios en pandemia por COVID-19. Se aplicó el cuestionario auto aplicable Inventario de Depresión de Beck en un total de 82 estudiantes, previo consentimiento. De acuerdo al semestre donde se encontraban inscritos se establecieron dos muestras independientes, para identificar diferencias de proporciones de las manifestaciones depresivas. Se encontraron manifestaciones depresivas mínimas en ambas muestras independientes, 75% en segundo ciclo y 71.42% en octavo; manifestaciones depresivas leves 15% en segundo y 11.91% en octavo; depresión moderada en 10% de segundo y 4.76% de octavo; depresión severa sólo en 11.91% de octavo. Conclusión: es evidente la presencia de depresión en diferentes grados en ambas muestras, con especial atención en la severidad del grupo de octavo semestre. Confinement has shown an increase in stress levels in the population that directly affects their mental health. The present study proposes to identify depressive manifestations and difference in proportion in two samples of university students in pandemic by COVID-19. The self-applicable Beck Depression Inventory questionnaire was applied to a total of 82 students, with prior consent. According to the semester where they were registered, two independent samples were established, to identify differences in proportions of depressive manifestations. Minimal depressive manifestations were found in both independent samples, 75% in the second cycle and 71.42% in the eighth; mild depressive manifestations 15% in the second and 11.91% in the eighth; moderate depression in 10% in the second and 4.76% in the eighth; Severe depression only at 11.91% of eighth grade. Conclusion: it is evident the presence of depression in different degrees in both samples, with special attention to the severity of the group of eighth semester.
 
Health is a common issue for all human beings. As a consequence, everyone in the world has in some way to cope with the language of medicine. This is true now more than ever due to the global health crisis caused by the current COVID-19 pandemic, which has introduced a great amount of terms, previously mostly used by epidemiologists and statisticians, but which now have entered the daily lexicon of many languages. As the medium of international scientific communication, English is the language of worldwide information about the pandemic, and the main source of terms and expressions for other languages. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on English lexicon has been so deep that the Oxford English Dictionary Online (OED) released special updates in 2020 to fulfil the need to document the phenomenon. However, previous studies (Khan et al. 2020; Deang and Salazar 2021) have highlighted the important question concerning the existence of several ethnic minorities who have Limited English Proficiency (LEP) and therefore do not receive sufficient and appropriate information to defend themselves adequately against SARS-CoV-2, the virus we have all been fighting for more than one year now. The aim of this study is to highlight the importance of language and translation as essential components to provide all demographic groups/communities with access to COVID-19-related information in languages other than English and enable them to follow official health key rules. The main websites of Italian governmental and nongovernmental institutions were investigated, and the analysis focused on the availability and type of content of the multilingual material, as well as on information accessibility and clarity. The results showed important differences in the number of available languages and, even more, in the level of intelligibility of COVID-19 material in the English language. In this respect, this study intends to foster the use of plain English in the dissemination material provided by the websites of the main healthcare public institutions in Italy, a country with an ever-increasing number of registered foreigners, the majority born in non-EU countries.
 
After the Cold War, global governance emerged as an umbrella to address transnational challenges. However, this concept is still somewhat ambiguous, and so is the contemporary world order, where a significant power shift has occurred from the nation-State to the "new actors". On the other hand, it is now over a year since a global threat emerged, affecting millions of people. The COVID-19 challenge revealed several flaws in the contemporary world order, the United Nations system, and the international organizations' role. Therefore, it is imperative that we ask ourselves about the nation-State’s ability to face the COVID-19 challenge on its own, as an introduction to raise the topic of facing future transnational challenges. In this setting, the objective of this study is to shed light on the aforementioned flaws, the contemporary challenges, and the way we tackle new threats as human beings. This article uses a qualitative methodological approach based on analysis of secondary data. Following deductive reasoning, it highlights the importance of global governance in facing contemporary challenges in general before addressing the COVID-19 issue in particular. Study findings show that states, international organizations, and unofficial actors need to update the traditional approach to transnational challenges towards global governance. In this context, international conferences are a necessary tool to tackle new challenges related to human security.
 
Crecimiento de Comercio Electrónico a nivel mundial. Fuente: Orozco, D. (2020a)
México, País con mayor crecimiento. Fuente: Orozco, D (2020a)
Crecimiento de Comercio Electrónico en México Fuente: Elaboración propia, a partir de Torres, Y. (2020)
Actividades esenciales ante la Pandemia COVID -19 Fuente: The Competitive Intelligence Unit, 2020; tomado de Forbes México, 2020
El presente artículo tiene como finalidad estudiar las tendencias de compra en línea dadas las condiciones actuales de aislamiento que se establecieron por la pandemia COVID-19; por lo que se realiza un análisis cualitativo basado en la metodología de la Teoría Fundamentada, con la identificación y categorización de variables sobre los hábitos de consumo y la experiencia de la compra por Comercio Electrónico (eCommerce). Para la construcción de este trabajo se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas a consumidores en la ciudad de Pachuca, Hidalgo; quienes hicieron compras por comercio electrónico en el periodo comprendido de marzo a agosto del año 2020, durante el confinamiento. Los resultados obtenidos en esta primera etapa proporcionan información para la incorporación del eCommerce como parte de las estrategias de exposición y venta de productos para el cambio en los hábitos de consumo dada la “nueva normalidad”.
 
Estimation of the working hours and employment lost in 2020
Employees who became unemployed since the onset of the pandemic, by country (%)
This study explores the impact of Covid-19 on labor relations and public labor relations policies. Focus is given to the worldwide effects of the pandemic on employment, the impact of Covid-19 on the European labor landscape, the impact of the pandemic on the Greek labor context, and the main labor policies and measures adopted in Greece during Covid-19. The analysis of the effects of the pandemic on employment is based on published research material from ILO, Eurofound and the database of the Greek Ministry of Labor. The section concerning the impact of Covid-19 on the labor relations policies and the measures adopted in the Greek context is based on the analysis of the Greek institutional framework and the related legislative acts. The main employment policy responses to Covid-19 pandemic are ensuring workers’ safety, maintaining adequate paid sick leave, upholding support for workers with caring needs, adapting job retention schemes, ensuring adequate income protection, expanding employment services and training and giving the young people the support they need. Planning and implementing effective labor policies is a demanding goal that requires cooperation and synergies among economic, research, innovation and lifelong education policies.
 
Réseaux sociaux préférentiels des étudiants Source : données de l'enquête
Temps en moyenne passé sur les réseaux sociaux par les participants avant la pandémie Source : données de l'enquête La figure 2 révèle que 37% des participants font moins d'une heure sur les réseaux sociaux soit 11 participants sur 30 ; environ 17% font entre une et trois c heures sur les réseaux sociaux soit un total de 5 participants ; 30% des participants passent en moyenne trois à six heures sur les réseaux sociaux ; 16% des participants sont présents sur les réseaux sociaux en moyenne six à huit heures de temps.
Face à la psychose liée à la COVID-19 dans le monde, les individus et les institutions ont mobilisé divers mécanismes de résilience. A l’Université Alassane Ouattara (UAO) durant le confinement, des innovations pédagogiques, à savoir les enseignements par visioconférences, des cours en ligne et à distance à travers les mails sont entrepris. Plusieurs plateformes et espaces d’échange entre enseignants et étudiants ainsi qu’entre pairs étudiants sont créés. Toutefois, peu d’études ont été conduites pour renseigner avec exactitude sur les usages réels de ces réseaux sociaux par les étudiants durant le temps du confinement. L’objectif de cette étude est de déterminer les différents usages que font les étudiants du département de socio-anthropologie de l’UAO des réseaux sociaux en période de COVID-19. L’étude porte sur trente (30) sujets choisis de façon empirique dans les différents groupes sociaux (Facebook, Instagram, Telegram, WhatsApp, etc.). L’ancrage théorique de cette étude est la théorie de l’action raisonnée de Fishbein et Ajzen (1975). L’étude est qualitative, notamment phénoménologique. L’observation, la recherche documentaire et l’entretien semi-directif ont été utilisés comme techniques de recueils des données. Selon les résultats le facteur principal de l’utilisation des réseaux sociaux est l’anxiété suivie des activités lucratives et des besoins d’étude. En ce qui concerne, l’ordre de préférence des réseaux sociaux les plus visités WhatsApp vient en tête, suivi de Facebook, ensuite YouTube et enfin d’Instagram.
 
Carrera
¿Has recibido formación sobre Web 2.0 o Software social?
BLOQUE II: Competencias de uso de las TICS para la búsqueda y tratamiento de la información
BLOQUE III: Competencias interpersonales en el uso de las TICS en el contexto universitario
El presente trabajo de investigación tiene como finalidad obtener una caracterización y descripción de grupos, determinando el nivel de desarrollo de las competencias digitales en una institución superior tecnológica ecuatoriana, teniendo relación con la importancia y uso de la utilización de las TICS por parte del aprendizaje, haciendo contexto de la educación superior del siglo 21. Para ello, la encuesta realizada a los estudiantes del Instituto Técnico Superior Juan Bautista Aguirre consistieron en Competencias Digitales Básicas (COBADI®) y variables categóricas, participaron 1.408 estudiantes de carreras técnicas y tecnológicas, la metodología que se utilizó en el presente estudio es mixta, ya que se realizó un análisis descriptivo, con un enfoque cuantitativo, donde las etapas se basan principalmente en un proceso de análisis de datos, los resultados del estudio evidencian independientemente del sexo y rango de edad de los estudiantes, determina que existen cuatro grupos claramente diferenciados o formas de uso y consumo de las TICS de diferentes manera para realizar actividades, tanto personales como académicas, los cuales ayudan a identificar diferentes desarrollos de competencias digitales. Este estudio ayuda y permite determinar una línea de base que sirva para poder trabajar posteriormente en el desarrollo de las competencias digitales que sean necesarias en los institutos, las cuales deben ser realizadas por los estudiantes. The purpose of this research work is to obtain a characterization and description of groups, determining the level of development of digital competences in an Ecuadorian higher technological institution, having relation to the importance and use of the use of ICT by learning, making context of 21st century higher education. For this, the survey carried out to the students of the Juan Bautista Aguirre Higher Technical Institute consisted of Basic Digital Competences (COBADI®) and categorical variables, 1,408 students of technical and technological careers participated, the methodology that was used in the present study is mixed, since a descriptive analysis was carried out, with a quantitative approach, where the stages are mainly based on a data analysis process, the results of the study are evidenced regardless of the sex and age range of students, determines that there are four groups clearly differentiated or forms of use and consumption of ICT in different ways to carry out activities, both personal and academic, which help to identify different developments of digital skills. This study helps and allows to determine a baseline that serves to be able to work later in the development of the digital skills that are necessary in the institutes, which must be carried out by the students.
 
Introducción. El COVID-19 es una enfermedad que ha causado problemas nacionales e internacionales de salud pública, afectando a las áreas sanitaria, económica y social. Objetivo. Analizar los factores pronósticos de la saturación de oxígeno según la gasometría arterial en pacientes con COVID-19 atendidos en la unidad de cuidados intensivos. Metodología. Estudio transversal llevado a cabo en el Hospital General de Querétaro, México en el área de terapia intensiva con pacientes positivos a COVID-19 del periodo del 4 de mayo del 2020 al 24 de mayo del 2021, considerando un total de 165 pacientes; el tipo de muestro fue no probabilistico según criterio. Resultados. Son capaces de predecir la saturación de oxígeno la presión arterial de oxigeno entre la fracción inspirada de oxígeno, la glucosa capilar y las plaquetas. Conclusiones. Los datos analizados sugieren la posibilidad de considerar su aplicación en áreas hospitalarias para prevenir la gravedad en pacientes con COVID-19; es necesario continuar documentando más resultados. Introduction. COVID-19 is a disease that has caused national and international public health problems, affecting health, economic and social areas. Objective. To analyze the prognostic factors of oxygen saturation according to arterial blood gases in patients with COVID-19 attended in the intensive care unit. Methodology. Cross-sectional study carried out at the General Hospital of Queretaro, Mexico in the intensive care area with COVID-19 positive patients from May 4, 2020 to May 24, 2021, considering a total of 165 patients; the type of sampling was non-probabilistic according to criteria. Results. Are able to predict oxygen saturation arterial oxygen pressure between inspired oxygen fraction, capillary glucose and platelets. Conclusions. The data analyzed suggest the possibility of considering its application in hospital areas to prevent severity in patients with COVID-19; it is necessary to continue documenting more results.
 
There is no doubt at this stage of the solid evolving global relevance of universal human rights in a complex global scenario like everyone faces today. The COVID-19 pandemic and lockdowns have produced, and are still causing, an overwhelmingly negative impact on the standard citizens’ lives. As drastic as it is, such affirmation is sustained in the serious deterioration in a considerable number of democracies around the world, but especially reflected in Latin America, a region of six hundred (600) million inhabitants (Werthein & Abrantes, 2021). This research aims to assess the scope of the violation of individuals’ basic human rights caused by the COVID-19 pandemic administration in Latin American countries. Unreasonably extended lockdowns and other misleading and inappropriate measures implemented by different Latin American administrations have had unsurmountable and dramatic consequences for the region's inhabitants. Many Latin American governments have inadvertently put in place two (2) excluding options for their populations affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. It had to be either healthcare and fight against COVID-19, on the one side, or economic sustainability, on the other, but not the two (2) simultaneously. Losses of thousands of lives, economic devastation, thousands of business shutdowns, millions of job losses, and educational catastrophes have all affected essential freedoms and individuals’ basic universal human rights recognized by modern constitutions, including those in Latin America. As discussed, these are the resulting consequences of governments’ failure to build up necessary resources, be readily prepared to face catastrophes of this sort, and act with integrity and transparency in managing public funds. Both quantitative (i.e.numbers and statistics) and qualitative (i.e., secondary data) methodologies have been used to arrive at very relevant conclusions. Sustainable results of this research reflect how mismanagement of the pandemic, including corruption practices by certain Latin American governments, has led to catastrophic consequences in healthcare and the economic field.
 
Cette étude s’est assignée pour but de discuter les fondements économiques et sociaux des décisions politiques face à la pandémie de Corona virus. Il en a découlé les objectifs spécifiques d’identifier l’importance accordée à l’économie et au social à travers les décisions politiques face à la pandémie de COVID-19; relever l’interprétation de ces décisions politiques par la population dans la ville de Bukavu en RD Congo; et enfin, expliquer l’enjeu de la primauté accordée à l’économie au détriment du social dans le processus de lutte contre la propagation de la pandémie de COVID-19 à Bukavu. Au plan méthodologique, la collecte des données a été axée principalement sur l’entretien libre et la discussion en groupe. Sur la base de l’échantillonnage occasionnel, 93 personnes ont été enquêtées individuellement et 35 intellectuels ont participé aux discussions de groupe. Les données ont été analysées au moyen des outils d’analyse qualitative. En rapport avec les objectifs lui assignés, l’étude a abouti aux résultats qui montrent qu’en RDC, les décisions politiques consistant à la fermeture des écoles, églises, espaces culturels et récréatifs à l’exception des activités marchandes ou commerciales ont accordé plus d’importance à l’économie qu’au social. Bien plus, ces mesures sont interprétées par les enquêtés comme relevant de l’injustice, parce qu’elles sont restrictives des libertés et inégalitaires ou sélectives. Enfin, l’analyse révèle que l’enjeu de la primauté accordée à l’économie à travers ces décisions a été non seulement de protéger la population contre la pandémie mais aussi et surtout de permettre à l’État de maintenir sa capacité extractive (poursuite de la mobilisation des ressources en vue de répondre aux exigences sociales) en dépit de la crise sanitaire. Néanmoins, l’État est critiqué de n’avoir pas témoigné la solidarité à travers une politique de distribution dans ce contexte de crise sanitaire. Il est taxé d’avoir lui-même renforcé les inégalités sociales.
 
Last few years, SARS-coronavirus 2 is sweeping the globe and millions of people are being infected and died. In this situation, citizens and health-care workers would be put in danger if there is a lack of consciousness, knowledge and preparation during this crisis. At the same time, a vast amount of potentially damaging misinformation is spreading at a faster rate than the virus itself. The most of these false rumours are spread via social media. This paper focuses on the COVID-19 linked huge rumour, stigma and conspiracy theories disseminating on the social media during pandemic in Bangladesh perspective. An internet-based interview and primary data was quantitatively analyzed for survey of this paper. The findings demonstrate that social media plays a crucial role in the diffusion of information about the COVID-19 outbreak in Bangladesh, including bewilderment, anxiety and panic. This study also revealed that Bangladeshi youth society has the higher levels of stress especially among those who followed the news of pandemic in social networks compared to the rest of the population. Another noteworthy finding is that social media was particularly helpful in reducing anxiety and alienation by allowing the general people to stay in touch with friends, family and others via audio-visual group chat. Different aspects of social networking sites use are also described.
 
Appelée « virus chinois » au début de sa propagation, la maladie à coronavirus 2019 (Covid-19) a bouleversé la planète terre à cause de son ampleur sanitaire, socio-économique, culturelle, géopolitique, etc. Au moment où les pays occidentaux et autres contrées du monde, en l’occurrence l’Amérique Latine et quelques pays asiatiques comme la Chine et l’Inde, comptent leurs milliers de morts et millions d’infectés par cette maladie, en Afrique subsaharienne particulièrement au Niger la Covid-19 a eu très peu d’impact sanitaire sur la population. Mais pour des mesures préventives, les gouvernants nigériens ont pris des dispositifs coercitifs semblables à ceux des pays fortement touchés par la pandémie du coronavirus. Ainsi, il est à constater le confinement d’une importante partie de la population et l’instauration d’un couvre-feu nocturne qui restreint ipso facto les libertés individuelles fondamentales. Cette restriction n’a pas été sans conséquence sur le climat social, provoquant ainsi des remous sociaux, des vives contestations voire la désobéissance civile résultant par des violences policières hors normes surtout à Niamey dans la capitale nigérienne. Cette étude est essentiellement basée sur la méthode qualitative à travers l’usage de la grille d’observation et du guide d’entretien semi-dirigé comme outils d’enquête pour analyser les impacts du confinement contre la Covid-19 sur les personnes victimes et témoins des effets du couvre-feu et/ou des violences policières à Niamey. Leurs perceptions déterminent des comportements qui banalisent ou non les gestes barrières contre le coronavirus. Quant aux résultats de l’étude, ils montrent que les violences policières reflètent le caractère conflictuel de la gestion de cette pandémie et freinent l’adhésion pacifique et totale de la population aux mesures préventives contre la Covid-19. Ces résultats montrent aussi que l’absence des mesures d’accompagnement conséquentes des autorités politiques a considérablement contribué à l’inobservance desdites mesures par la population de Niamey. Some people name it "Chinese virus" as it spreads. The 2019 coronavirus disease (Covid-19) disrupts our planet earth because of its health, socio-economic, cultural, geopolitical scale, etc. At a time when Western countries and other parts of the world, in this case Latin America and some Asian countries such as China and India, count their thousands of deaths and millions infected by this disease, in Sub-Saharan Africa particularly in Niger, Covid-19 has very little health impact on the population. But, for preventive measures, nigérien rulers have taken coercive measures similar to those in countries strongly affected by the coronavirus pandemic. Thus, it is to be noted that locking down a large part of the population and setting of a night curfew which ipso facto restrict fundamental individual freedoms. Indeed, this restriction has consequences on social scale by causing for instance social unrest, strong protests and even civil disobedience resulting in extraordinary police violence, especially in Niamey, the capital City of Niger. This study is essentially based on the qualitative method through the use of observation grid and semi-structured interview guide as survey tools to analyze the impacts of locking down against Covid-19 of people who are victims and witnesses of the curfew effects and/or police violence in Niamey. Their perceptions determine behaviors that may or may not trivialize barrier gestures against coronavirus. As for the outcomes of our study, they show that police violence reflects conflictual nature of management of this pandemic and hinders the peaceful and total support of the population for preventive measures against Covid-19. These results also show the absence of subsequent additional measures from political authorities leading considerably to the nonobservance of these measures by the population of Niamey.
 
This paper demonstrates the Global economic outlook resulted by COVID-19 pandemic and provides an analysis of the direct and indirect impact on Global Container shipping industry. It also discussed sequential interdependence among Pandemic, Global Economic downturn, and Challenges in Global Containerized cargo flows. The paper analysis actual results and the features of the economic crisis caused by COVID-19 pandemic on Global Container shipping industry. While Identifying key determinants of accelerating challenges for Containerized Cargo flows during the global pandemic, the paper concludes short and long terms expectations that might be defined for Future development in the global container Shipping industry.
 
In this paper, an in-depth quantitative and qualitative analysis of the “emergency” regulation in Greece over the years of acute economic crisis and up to the COVID-19 public health crisis is performed, to examine if this kind of regulation has been too extended and whether it undermined any effective policy design. According to our working hypothesis, the “fast-track” legislation highlights the fragmented and somewhat erratic way of policymaking in Greece, while it also affirms the country’s limited capacity to properly initiate and implement reforms. Thus, the paper focuses on the collection and evaluation of the legislative corpus during the 2009-2021 period; its objective being, on the one hand, to evaluate whether and how much each government resorted to the invocation of urgency and on the other hand to examine the documentation and description of the legislative process vis-àvis the imperatives and quality criteria of Better Regulation and EvidenceBased Policy Making. At the same time, the article focuses on legislative texts of the 2020-2021 COVID-19 health crisis period. It will showcase the latter as an additional trigger aggravating the “urgency” element of regulation, transforming it into a persistent feature of Greek policymaking. Ergo, we examine methods and practices at the international level, focusing especially on the Evidence-Based Policy Making paradigm. Based on the analysis of the crisis regulation and international EBPM best practices, the paper concludes with key recommendations for an effective policymaking procedure, dependent on the establishment of an integrated Center of Government in Greece.
 
In 1942, the sociologist Pitirim Sorokin, a survivor of the post-WorldWar I pandemic, published "Man and Society in Calamity," a comparative study of the human response (including political responses) to four recurrent mass-death events. One was "pestilence." Sorokin reached many general conclusions. In Fall of 2020, the author of this paper (Wilkinson) held a seminar whose students attempted to re-evaluate Sorokin's conclusions, based upon their own experiences, observations, and mutual dialogue. In general, the seminar found that Sorokin's conclusions were mostly still applicable, but that his social theory of pestilence needed drastic changes as concerned (a) the gendered, class-based, ethnic and national distribution of pestilence and its consequences of pestilence, (b) the much-changed capacity (from 1942) for the scientific and technological response to pestilence, and (c) the much changed capacity (again, since 1942) for international-organizational response to pestilence. With these updates, Sorokin's theory of the human social response to pestilence can serve as guidance both for study and for policy in regard not only to the current pandemic, but for epidemics and pandemics yet to come.
 
Localisation de la zone d'étude
évolution de l'incidence de la COVID-19 en Côte d'Ivoire
évolution de l'incidence de la Covid-19 dans les districts sanitaires en Côte d'Ivoire
Evolution des décès dû à la COVID-19 dans les districts sanitaires en Côte d'Ivoire
répartition des malades du Covid-19 dans le Grand Abidjan au 01 Avril 2020
Face à la forte mobilisation de toutes les couches de la société, la prise en compte de la dimension spatiale dans l’étude épidémiologique de la Covid19, une maladie due à un coronavirus dénommé SARS-COV 2, pour une prise de décision efficace, n’est pas assez mise en avant. Elle constitue tout l’intérêt de notre étude dont l’objectif est d’abord d’évaluer la situation sanitaire et épidémique actuelle en Côte d’Ivoire avant de comprendre la dynamique spatiale de transmission du virus pouvant expliquer la propagation et/ou la persistance de la maladie, ensuite de déterminer les besoins et les actions à mettre en œuvre pour aider à la prise de décision dans le cadre de la surveillance épidémiologique de la Covid-19. Cet article en utilisant les Outils tels les Système d’Information Géographique (SIG), rend compte de l’importance de l’espace dans la structuration des phénomènes de contagionsdiffusion des maladies telles que la covid-19. La recherche documentaire, l’observation directe et l’exécution d’entretien avec les spécialistes de santé publique ont été les principales techniques de collecte de l’information. Les données concernant cette maladie montrent que la situation est en phase de plateau évoluant en dent de scie avec un taux de positivité de 7,76% au 20 février 2021. L’épicentre de la maladie en Côte d’Ivoire est la zone du grand Abidjan avec un nombre plus élevé de personnes infectées dans le district de Cocody-Bingerville. La combinaison de l’analyse spatiale et de l’épidémiologie permettra aux décideurs de relever le défi de la lutte contre la Covid-19.
 
The disease COVID-19 caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2 has initially disrupted the Chinese economy after the first cases were reported in December 2019 in Wuhan city in Hubei province of China. The virus continued to spread throughout the rest of the world. This spread of the virus led to the official designation of the COVID-19 pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) in late February 2020, which resulted in the disruption of these economies due to the stringent lockdowns and restrictions in travel disease's evolution. The disruptive economic impact is highly uncertain, making it difficult for policymakers to craft an appropriate policy response to these macroeconomic disruptions. To better understand possible economic outcomes, this paper explores the use of the machine learning approach LSTM to assess the economic forecast in some selected countries. The empirical results from this paper demonstrate that there are temporary disruptions in macroeconomics in the short run and these economies rebound. The recovery of each selected country may be different as the forecast would imply.
 
Background: The distribution of healthcare resources across local and global communities has triggered alarms throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. Injustice and inefficiency in the transfer of lifesaving medical supplies are magnified by the urgency of the public health crisis, ramified through pre-existing socioeconomic tensions, and further aggravated by frictions that plague international cooperation and global governance. Aim: This article explores the ethical and economic dimensions of medical supplies, from the microcosm of distributive algorithms to the macroscope of medical trade. Methods: It first analyses the performance, strategy, and social responsibility of ventilator-suppliers through a series of case studies. Then, the authors seek to redress the need-insensitivity of existing distributive models with a new price-based and need-conscious algorithm. Next, the paper empirically traces the exchange of medical supplies across borders, examines the effect of trade disputes on medical reliance and pandemic preparedness, and makes a game-theoretical case for sharing critical resources with foreign communities. Conclusion: The authors argue that the equitable allocation of medical supplies must consider the contexts and conditions of need; that political barriers to medical transfers undermine a government’s capacity to contain the contagion by reducing channels of access to medical goods; and that self-interested public policies often turn out to be counterproductive geopolitical strategies. In the post-pandemic world, the prospect of medical justice demands a balanced ethical and economic approach that cuts across the borders of nation-states and the bounds of the private sector and the public sphere.
 
Aim: The aim of the research is to evidence the potential role of lactoferrin (LF) and heparin in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Moreover, we discuss and underline the mechanisms involved in this possible association. Methods: PubMed and Scopus databases were used to conduct the literature search. Findings and Conclusion: Studies have widely proven the principal activity of LF, in the inflammatory process, as an anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory glycoprotein. Evidence shows that LF has important antibacterial and antiviral effects against human and animal pathogens. Heparin and LF could reduce viral entry by preventing the attachment of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) as a result of competitive binding to heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs). Clinical studies are necessary to specify LF and heparin mechanisms of action and the therapeutical dose in patient affected with COVID-19.
 
The overall purpose of this study is the effects of lockdown within Italian museums caused by the Coronavirus disease-19 (Covid-19) emergency. During the pandemic, the museums are being closed, and the use of digital content and social networks seems to have been the solution to overcome the closure problem. The study analyzes the role of digital content and tools in communication to manage the shock due to Covid-19. The basic design of the research recurs to the crisis management model used to analyze three stages crossed by museums as preparedness, reaction, and recovery. The study involved several Italian museums grouped according to the art collection, governance, and funding sources. A semi-structured questionnaire was sent to them. The main findings show the presence of digital as a strategy already adopted by museums before the outbreak. However, the results reveal the absence of a preventive phase as requested by the model of crisis management. At the same time, it has emerged the need to adapt the digital content to guarantee the mission of fruition for the public.
 
Le modèle du « garbage can » a fait l’objet de plusieurs études, il est associé aux organisations de type anarchie organisée, à l’image des hôpitaux. Cet article s’intéresse à l’influence des parties prenantes externes sur ce modèle décisionnel, sujet de recherche qui a été peu abordé par la littérature. Compte tenu du contexte d’interaction des hôpitaux avec des parties intéressées externes, nous visons à comprendre les articulations exactes se déroulant dans le processus de décision au sein de ces structures de santé. La crise sanitaire mondiale due au COVID-19 a mis les hôpitaux au centre des opérations, et a été marquée par une multitude d’interventions d’acteurs externes, cette situation va constituer notre contexte d’étude. Pour réaliser cette recherche une étude longitudinale de trois hôpitaux en Algérie qui s’appuie sur cinquante-trois entretiens permet de dresser un cadre théorique explicatif. Nous apportons une description processuelle en situation de crise, en considérant le rôle des acteurs en présence. Le processus de décision est décrit en deux phases : (1) une phase d’intelligence où se déroule une coproduction des séquences de décisions entre les hôpitaux et les parties prenantes de l’autorité publique ;(2) une deuxième phase d’interaction où le processus se déroule selon le modèle de la poubelle. Nous identifions aussi les rationalités mises en jeu dans une approche holistique du processus étudié : la rationalité limitée et la rationalité contextuelle. The garbage can model has been the subject of several studies; it is associated with organizations of the organized anarchy type, such as hospitals. This article focuses on the influence of external stakeholders on this decisionmaking model, a research topic that has been little addressed in the literature. Given the context of the interaction of hospitals with external interested parties, we aim to understand the exact articulations taking place in the decision-making process within these health structures. The global health crisis due to COVID-19 has put hospitals at the center of operations and has been marked by a multitude of interventions by external actors, this situation will constitute our context of the study. To carry out this research, a longitudinal study of three hospitals in Algeria which is based on fifty-three interviews makes it possible to draw up an explanatory theoretical framework. We provide a procedural description of a crisis situation, considering the role of the actors involved. The decision-making process is described in two phases: (1) an intelligence phase where a co-production of decision sequences takes place between hospitals and public authority stakeholders; (2) a second interaction phase where the process takes place according to the model of the garbage can. We also identify the nationalities involved in a holistic approach to the process studied: limited rationality and contextual rationality.
 
Academic discourse on religion and inter-group relations over the years has been trending in Nigeria. This is due to several cases of inter-ethnic and inter-religious conflicts witnessed in multi-cultural and ethnic Nigeria. The paper argues that despite the escalating ethnic and religious crisis the Islamic religion had played significant roles in the lives of the people of the Auchi kingdom since 1914. It also affirms the view that, as far as Islam is concerned, there were transformative roles the religion played in the lives of the people since 1914 till date. A high level of cordial inter-group relations has been achieved between the Auchi Kingdom and neighbouring communities, owing to inter-communal mechanisms of the same religion and similar culture over the years of interaction. The Islamic religion, which preaches peace, has become interwoven with the cultural practices of the people of the Auchi Kingdom This paper relies heavily on primary and secondary sources. Consulted written sources were cross examined.
 
Key Performance Indicators of the Agriculture Transformation Agenda
Administration and Agricultural Policies/Programmes in Nigeria since Independence (1960-2014)
A Qualitative Analysis of the Agricultural Policy Dynamics and the Nigerian Economy: 1960-2015 Dr Patrick Ohunmah Igudia (PhD) Department of Business Administration, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma Email: poigudia@yahoo.co.uk ABSTRACT Historically, the agricultural sector constitutes one of the most important sectors of most countries including the highly industrialised ones like the USA, Japan, and England. In Nigeria, agriculture has been the engine of growth of its economy. However, this role has not been optimally exploited by successive administrations to develop strategic growth path for Nigeria as has been achieved by the aforementioned industrialised countries and some emerging ones like China and Brazil. Nigeria has a rich agricultural resource endowment and an avalanche of laudable agricultural policies that could turn her into an industrialised economy and reduce the incidence of poverty. The last in the series of laudable agricultural policies meant to entrench Nigeria’s economic growth within the agricultural framework was the transformation agenda. The agricultural transformation agenda of the last administration (2011-2015) was intended to re-enact once again agriculture as the main driver of Nigeria’s economic growth as in the 1960s and 1970s. Earlier attempts underperformed due principally to the ineffective implementation or complete abandonment of such policies. The result has been a fall in foreign exchange earnings, low GDP level and lack of sectoral linkages. This study made several recommendations including the need for a consistent increase in government budgetary allocation to the sector so as to redress this enigma and bring back the old post-independence glory of the sector. Keywords: Agriculture, Agricultural Policies, Economic growth, Nigerian economy
 
Carte du lac de Taabo 16
Evolution spatio-temporaire du RGS de S. punctifer au lac de Taabo de 2016 à 2017 (GSS : Grande Saison Sèche, GSP : Grande Saison de Pluies, PSS : Petite Saison Sèche, PSP : Petite Saison de Pluies)
Evolution spatio-temporaire du RHS de S. punctifer au lac de Taabo de 2016 à 2017 (GSS : Grande Saison Sèche, GSP : Grande Saison de Pluies, PSS : Petite Saison Sèche, PSP : Petite Saison de Pluies) Facteur de condition (K) : La figure 7 montre l'évolution du K des S. punctifer en amont et en aval du lac de Taabo. K moyen obtenu en amont (1,70± 0,32) est supérieur à celui de l'aval (1,56 ±0,10). Le facteur de condition des deux populations est significativement différent (test t de Student, p=0,007˂ 0,05). En amont tout comme en aval, K présente une évolution en dents de scie avec des
Histogramme des diamètres ovocytaires de S. punctifer au lac de Taabo de 2016 à 2017
A study of Synodontis punctifer (family: Mochokidae) of Taabo Lake was conducted from October 2015 to September 2016. This was carried out so as to evaluate its quantity (biomass) caught by fishing and also its morphological characteristics. The fish were caught using gillnets at 4 sites of the lake and different measurements were made. The fishing effort was 23 to 11 fishermen / day in Taabo city, 17 to 11 fishermen / day in Courandjourou, 13 to 5 fishermen / day in Ahondo, and 8 to 3 fishermen / day in Taabo village. The catch per unit effort (CPUE) ranged from 17.7 to 3.7 g / fisherman / day, 9.2 to 1.2 g / fisherman / day, 8.3 to 0.7 g / fisherman /day, 8 to 1g / fisherman / day at Ahondo, Courandjourou, Taabo city and Taabo village, respectively. The overall annual production was estimated at 2199.3 kg, i.e. 817 kg (40%) at Ahondo, 788.3 kg (35%) at Courandjourou, 462.5 kg (20%) at Taabo, and 131.5 kg (5%) in Taabo village. The overall sex ratio (1: 1.33) was in favor of females. Individuals have negative allometric growth at all sites with values ranging from 1.72 to 2.89. The condition factor does not vary significantly between different categories of individuals (ANOVA, F = 2.79, p ˃ 0.05). A significant difference was observed between the average sizes of the individuals of the different sites (test, p˂0,05). The large size specimens were captured at Ahondo, mean (avg = 15.38 ± 1.68 cm FL). In Courandjourou, the sizes were intermediate (avg = 13.63 ± 1.64 cm LF). Smalls sizes have been observed in Taabo city (mean= 12.37 ± 1.24 cm FL) and Taabo village (mean= 15.58 ± 1.58 cm FL).
 
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