European Review of Social Psychology

Published by Taylor & Francis (Routledge)
Online ISSN: 1479-277X
Publications
Article
The hindsight bias is the tendency for people to believe falsely that they would have predicted the outcome of an event, once the outcome is known. Although there is a rich literature on hindsight distortions, the underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood. The present paper addresses the question whether hindsight distiortions represent the result of memory impairment or biased reconstruction processes. The majority of studies presented support the biased reconstruction view. Nevertheless, memory impairment processes cannot be ruled out as an explanation of hindsight bias when certain conditions are met, such as an existing coherent knowledge structure.
 
Article
In this chapter, we trace the historical and intellectual origins of system justification theory, summarize the basic assumptions of the theory, and derive 18 specific hypotheses from a system justification perspective. We review and integrate empirical evidence addressing these hypotheses concerning the rationalization of the status quo, the internalization of inequality (outgroup favoritism and depressed entitlement), relations among ego, group, and system justification motives (including consequences for attitudinal ambivalence, self-esteem, and psychological well-being), and the reduction of ideological dissonance. Turning to the question of why people would engage in system justification—especially when it conflicts with other interests and motives— we propose that system justifying ideologies serve a palliative function in that they reduce anxiety, guilt, dissonance, discomfort, and uncertainty for those who are advantaged and disadvantaged.
 
Article
Focuses on the role of affect in attitudes and decision making. The authors discuss the role of affect in attitude-formation and -change processes and 2 issues that have played a role in this research: the distinction between affect-based and cognition-based attitudes and the effects of mood on persuasion. The authors focus on controlled information processing and continue with a discussion of the role of affect in expectancy-value models of behavior. It is argued that people anticipate post-behavioral affective consequences of their actions, and take these into account when deciding about their behavioral preferences. The inclusion of anticipated postbehavioral affective outcomes could improve the predictive validity of expectancy-value models. The authors also contrast research on affect and attitudes with research on behavioral decision making and specific affective determinants of behavior, such as anticipated regret. Antecedents of anticipated regret are discussed and the predictive validity of anticipated regret is tested. The authors show that it is easy to increase the salience of post-behavioral affective reactions such as regret and worry and that this salience has an impact on both behavioral intentions and self-reported behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
The present chapter examines the nature and consequences of forgiveness. First we provide an overview of studies suggesting that the level of forgiveness tends to be quite malleable, as indicated by a number of empirical findings demonstrating that situational cues can subtly influence an individual’s level of forgiveness. Extending the general view on forgiveness as a deliberative and intentional act, we review evidence indicating that forgiveness is at least partly determined by automatic and unconscious processes. In the second part of the chapter we provide an overview of studies demonstrating that, despite the notion that level of forgiveness can be malleable, seemingly small fluctuations in forgiveness can still have profound consequences both at the intrapersonal and interpersonal levels, and may have generalised effects on prosocial behaviour over people and situations. We conclude by proposing a model that not only summarises many of the findings reviewed in this chapter, but also may serve as a heuristic framework for testing predictions about the impact of forgiveness on individuals, relationships, and beyond. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
One of the most exciting developments in intergroup contact theory is the idea that a certain type of contact, cross-group friendship, might be particularly effective at reducing prejudice. In this chapter we review research on two types of cross-group friendship. Direct cross-group friendship refers to friendships that develop between members of different groups. Extended cross-group friendship, on the other hand, refers to vicarious experience of cross-group friendship, the mere knowledge that other ingroup members have cross-group friends. We consider the relationship between both types of cross-group friendship and prejudice and the processes that mediate and moderate these relationships. The research highlights the respective strengths and weaknesses of direct and extended cross-group friendship and illustrates how they might be practically combined in efforts to improve intergroup relations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Recent research demonstrates that goal pursuit can be instigated without conscious interventions when the mental accessibility of goal representations is enhanced by environmental cues. However, the mechanisms producing this non-conscious, motivational, goal-directed activity are not clearly addressed in the literature. In this chapter we present a framework within which the non-conscious activation of goal-directed behaviour can be understood. The framework departs from the idea that a goal is represented as a desired state and identifies three characteristics of this representation that render non-conscious goal pursuit more likely to occur: its mental accessibility, the discrepancy of the represented state with the actual state, and its association with positive affect. We present findings, largely established in our own labs, that demonstrate the crucial role of these three factors. We will close the chapter by showing how the framework can help to address some of the pressing issues in the research on non-conscious goal pursuit.
 
Article
Research suggests that the motivation to perform specific behaviours can originate in the unconscious. This implicit motivation can generally be traced to two basic sources: Deprivation of essential resources and positive affect attached to the specific behaviour. Yet, whereas previous research has increased our understanding of the emergence of implicit motivation, there is little theoretical analysis and empirical research that addresses how these sources interact in producing motivation. This chapter presents a framework for the comprehension of implicitly motivated behaviour resulting from deprivation and positive affect. The framework consists of two essential components. First, it proposes that mental representations of behaviour direct and prepare individuals to engage in behaviour. Second, it suggests that a reward signal either emanating from deprivation or positive affect acts upon behaviour representations to produce motivated behaviour. We present several findings supporting the framework and discuss these findings in the context of non-conscious goal pursuit and needs.
 
Histogram plots of IAT scores for 6 of the 17 domains. Black shading indicates a preference or stereotype described in Table 1, grey shading indicates the opposing preference or stereotype. White bars indicate jDj 5 .15.
Implicit and explicit attitudes and stereotypes by gender for 17 topics IAT Self-report
Article
http://implicit.harvard.edu/ was created to provide experience with the Implicit Association Test (IAT), a procedure designed to measure social knowledge that may operate outside awareness or control. Significant by-products of the website's existence are large datasets contributed to by the site's many visitors. This article summarises data from more than 2.5 million completed IATs and self-reports across 17 topics obtained between July 2000 and May 2006. In addition to reinforcing several published findings with a heterogeneous sample, the data help to establish that: (a) implicit preferences and stereotypes are pervasive across demographic groups and topics, (b) as with self-report, there is substantial inter-individual variability in implicit attitudes and stereotypes, (c) variations in gender, ethnicity, age, and political orientation predict variation in implicit and explicit measures, and (d) implicit and explicit attitudes and stereotypes are related, but distinct. Psychology Accepted Manuscript
 
Article
Results of social distance research suggest the existence of consensual ethnic hierarchies in social distance in Western societies. The phenomenon comprises an ingroup bias and a pattern of cumulative intergroup biases on which majority and minority groups appear to agree. In this chapter an explanation is sought for this phenomenon. Realistic conflict theory and social identity theory seem to be able to explain certain aspects of it, such as ingroup bias and the ethnic hierarchies of subordinate ethnic groups, but not the ethnic hierarchy of dominant ethnic groups and intergroup consensus. These aspects may be explained by a model about the different functionality of stereotypes for dominant and subordinate ethnic groups. In order to test these explanations, the generality of ingroup bias, the cumulative structure of intergroup bias and the existence of intergroup consensus on the ethnic hierarchy are investigated in different societies.
 
Three ways in which bias can cause racial disparities in health.  
Article
Around the world, members of racial/ethnic minority groups typically experience poorer health than members of racial/ethnic majority groups. The core premise of this article is that thoughts, feelings, and behaviors related to race and ethnicity play a critical role in healthcare disparities. Social psychological theories of the origins and consequences of these thoughts, feelings, and behaviors offer critical insights into the processes responsible for these disparities and suggest interventions to address them. We present a multilevel model that explains how societal, intrapersonal, and interpersonal factors can influence ethnic/racial health disparities. We focus our literature review, including our own research, and conceptual analysis at the intrapersonal (the race-related thoughts and feelings of minority patients and non-minority physicians) and interpersonal levels (intergroup processes that affect medical interactions between minority patients and non-minority physicians). At both levels of analysis, we use theories of social categorization, social identity, contemporary forms of racial bias, stereotype activation, stigma, and other social psychological processes to identify and understand potential causes and processes of health and healthcare disparities. In the final section, we identify theory-based interventions that might reduce ethnic/racial disparities in health and healthcare.
 
Article
A motivational extension of social identity theory is proposed: the uncertainty reduction hypothesis. Building on social identity theory and self-categorization theory, a subjective uncertainty reduction model of motivation associated with social identity process and group and intergroup behavior is developed and described. Contextually generated subjective uncertainty about important, usually self-conceptually relevant, matters motivates uncertainty reduction. The processes of self-categorization and prototypical depersonalization responsible for social identification and group behaviors are well suited to subjective uncertainty reduction; they contextually assimilate self to a prescriptive prototype that guides and consensually validates perception, cognition, affect and behavior. Group membership, social category-based self-conceptualization, group behavior, and intergroup relations are motivated by uncertainty reduction. Contextual uncertainty can be reduced by group membership and group action. This model integrates self-enhancement and self-evaluative motives into a single motivational framework for social identity processes. Derivation and explanation of the model recruits literatures on social identity, self-categorization, uncertainty, social comparison processes, self-motives, self-esteem, uncertainty related motives. sociostructural motivations, intragroup processes, intergroup relations, extremism, prototypicality, entitativity. social influence, and social change. Some direct tests of the uncertainty reduction hypothesis are described.
 
Article
The present paper introduces a novel approach to understanding failures of self-regulation in chronic dieters. Traditional approaches to this problem have focused on consciously controlled processes of eating regulation, such as the realisation that one has overeaten, or the experience of food cravings. We argue, however, that dieters' problem might rather lie in their sensitivity to the hedonic aspects of food and the resulting inhibition of their dieting goal. We present a goal-conflict model that integrates recent findings on hedonic sensitivity in eating regulation with social cognition research on nonconscious goal pursuit. We show that the perception of attractive food triggers hedonic thoughts about food in chronic dieters and leads to the inhibition of their dieting goal. These processes make subsequent overeating more likely, while bypassing dieters' conscious awareness. We discuss how our model can accommodate earlier research findings in this area, and we consider its implications for dieting behaviour and for our attempts to resist temptations more generally.
 
Article
Criticism of a group can be a catalyst for reform and positive change. Despite this, group-directed criticisms can sometimes face high levels of defensiveness, and can do so even if the comments have objective merit. In this article I review research on group-directed criticism and formulate a model designed to predict when and why people will express defensiveness in the face of criticisms of their group. I argue that, when deciding how to respond to group criticism, people weigh up three independent sets of considerations: (1) attributions about the motives and agenda of the critic ("why would they say that?"), (2) questions about whether the critic had obeyed identity-related rules in the timing and delivery of their criticism ("was it appropriate for them to say that?"), and (3) questions about whether it is in the long-term interests of the individual and the group for them to express support for the criticisms ("strategically, what is the best way for me to respond?"). Practical implications of the model for promoting positive and open communication within and between groups are discussed.
 
Article
In this article we examine the relationship between perceptions of intergroup distinctiveness and intergroup differentiation. Research in this area has highlighted two contrasting hypotheses: high distinctiveness is predicted to lead to increased intergroup differentiation (self-categorisation theory), while low distinctiveness or too much similarity can also underlie positive differentiation (social identity theory). We argue for a theoretical integration of these predictions and outline their domains of applicability. In addition to empirical studies from our own laboratory, support for these hypotheses in the literature is examined meta-analytically, and we assess the power of a number of moderators of the distinctiveness - differentiation relation. We focus on group identification and salience of the superordinate category as the most powerful moderators of this relation. We report evidence that low group distinctiveness leads to more differentiation for high identifiers, while high group distinctiveness leads to more differentiation for low identifiers. In addition, our meta-analysis revealed that when the superordinate category was not salient, low distinctiveness tended to lead to differentiation (albeit not significantly so) while high distinctiveness led to differentiation when the salience of the superordinate category was high. A model is proposed integrating our predictions concerning moderators of the distinctiveness - differentiation relation. Theoretical implications of these findings are discussed and we suggest directions for future research
 
Article
The study of inter-group relations has seen a renewed emphasis on emotion. Various frameworks converge on the general conceptualisation of group-level emotions, with respect to their antecedent appraisals and implications for inter-group relations. However, specific points of divergence remain unresolved regarding terminology and operationalisation, as well as the role of self-relevance (e.g., self-categorisation, in-group identification) in moderating the strength of emotion that individuals feel about groups and their inter-relations. In this chapter we first present a typology of group-level emotions in order to classify current conceptual and empirical approaches, differentiating them along the dimensions of the (individual or group) subject and object of emotion. The second section reviews evidence for the claim that individuals feel stronger group-level emotions about things that are relevant to their self-concept, with emphasis on three indicators of self-relevance: domain relevance, self-categorisation as an in-group member, and in-group identification. Implications for, and future directions in, the study of emotion in inter-group relations are discussed.
 
Article
Questions of multiculturalism give rise to lively and important debates in many countries and in many spheres of life. Diversity is considered desirable and necessary for the development of secure ethnic identities and positive self-feelings, but is also challenged for being inequitable and a threat to social cohesion. It is argued that the social identity perspective offers a useful framework for examining some of the key social psychological correlates and consequences of multicultural recognition. This perspective draws attention to status positions, ingroup identification, beliefs about the nature of ethnic groups, and perceptions of the social system. The first empirical section deals with the endorsement of multiculturalism in relation to majority – minority group status and the perceived nature of minority groups. Subsequently, the endorsement of multiculturalism is examined in relation to perceived structural discrimination, and the importance of social cohesion and stability. In the third empirical part the focus is on consequences of multicultural recognition for ingroup identification and self-esteem. As a set, the various empirical and theoretical arguments suggest that there is not one best approach to managing cultural diversity. Rather, it is important to concentrate on when and why specific effects occur, which means that more systematic attention should be paid to forms of multiculturalism, different groups, and to various conditions and circumstances.
 
Article
Based on an evolutionary analysis of reciprocal altruism, it is argued that humans have developed innate mechanisms to expect reciprocity in interpersonal relationships and that a lack of reciprocity is accompanied by negative affect. The authors present an overview of their own research programme documenting the importance of reciprocity in a wide variety of relationships, including marital relationships, lesbian relationships, extradyadic sexual relationships, friendships, professional and informal helping relationships, relationships with colleagues and supervisors at work, and relationships with the organization in which one is employed. In view of this broad range of relationships that seem to be governed by similar principles of reciprocity, it seems that a basic psychological mechanism is at work, and we suggest that this is rooted in evolution.
 
Article
In the current chapter, the authors explore the relation between social standing and procedural justice. Standing is an important construct in procedural justice theories and tends to be broadly defined as the position that people have in social groups. It is argued that the standing construct suffers from conceptual ambiguity: In procedural justice literature two distinct interpretations of standing can be distinguished, one defining standing as intragroup status and one defining standing as the extent to which people are included in social groups. Furthermore, it is argued that research findings on the relation between standing and procedural justice are not conclusive. The authors review recent empirical findings that address these concerns, and conceptually integrate these findings. In closing, the authors outline avenues for future research that the procedural justice field may want to take, and discuss implications of the work reviewed here.
 
Cell means and standard deviations for the four experimental conditions, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) results for the instruction autonomy-supportiveness effects.
The cell means and SDs for controlling and autonomy-supportive conditions and results of MANOVA follow-up analyses in Weinstein et al. 2020.
Motivational and smoking cessation outcomes in community care and SDT intervention groups in Williams et al. 2006.
Main results from the two meta-analyses (Gillison et al., 2019; Ntoumanis et al., 2020) on the effectiveness of SDT-based interventions on key motivational and beha- vioural outcomes.
Article
An effective response to crises like the COVID-19 pandemic is dependent on the public voluntarily adhering to governmental rules and guidelines. How the guidelines are communicated can significantly affect whether people will experience a sense of self-initiation and volition, protecting compliance from eroding. From the perspective of Self-Determination Theory, a broad theory on human motivation and its interpersonal determinants, effective communication involves the delicate combination of providing rules and structure in a caring and autonomy-supportive way. Research in applied domains from public messaging to education and health has shown that when social agents set limits in more autonomy-supportive, caring, and competence-fostering ways, it predicts autonomous forms of compliance, which in turn predict greater adherence and long-term persistence. Building on SDT, integrated with insights from social identity theory, we derive a practice-focused checklist with key communication guidelines to foster voluntary compliance in national crises such as the prevention of COVID-19 spread.
 
Article
This article addresses the role of linguistic abstraction in the achievement of symbolic and practical goals. Reviewing evidence from laboratory studies, we first elaborate on the power of language as a means of ingroup enhancement or outgroup derogation under different intergroup conditions. We then report several experimental and archival studies that showed how language serves the achievement of different practical goals such as initiating, maintaining, and ending romantic relations, accounting for individual and group decisions, maintaining or obtaining political and gender power, and persuading others. The analysis of open-ended language measures—which represents a methodological thread of the reviewed studies—shows how language is strategically moulded according to individual and group goals in laboratory as well as in real-life contexts. The implications of the interplay among language, cognition, and action are addressed.
 
Article
Children of immigrants are at risk of underachieving in school with long-lasting consequences for future life-chances. Our research contextualises the achievement gap by examining minority acculturation experiences in daily intergroup contact across different intergroup contexts. Acculturation researchers often find an adaptive advantage for minority youth with an integration-orientation (combining both cultures). But findings from Europe are inconclusive. Looking beyond individual differences in acculturation-orientations, this review shifts focus to the intergroup context of minority acculturation and achievement. We discuss longitudinal, multi-group, multi-level and experimental evidence of the up- and downsides of integration for minority inclusion and success in European societies. Our studies show that both (1) intergroup contact experiences and (2) intergroup ideologies affect achievement – either directly or through the interplay of (3) acculturation-norms, defined as shared views on acculturation in social groups, with individual acculturation-orientations. The findings suggest how schools can reduce achievement gaps through improving intergroup relations.
 
Article
Based on over 25 years of research on hidden profiles and information sharing in groups, and particularly our own work in this area, we outline a general model of how groups can achieve better decisions in a hidden profile situation than their individual members would have been capable of (i.e., synergy). At its core the model defines intensity and bias as the two key parameters that have to be optimised with regard to both the discussion of information and the processing of information in order to ensure synergy in group decision making. We review the empirical literature on information sharing and group decision making in the hidden profile paradigm (with a particular focus on our own studies) to illustrate how group decision quality can be enhanced by increasing intensity and decreasing bias in the discussion and processing of information. Finally we also outline why we think that the lessons learned from research using the hidden profile paradigm can be generalised to group decision-making research in general, and how these lessons can stimulate studies in other fields of group decision-making and group performance research.
 
Article
Collective action refers to any action that individuals undertake as group members to pursue group goals such as social change. In this chapter, we further extend the Social Identity Model of Collective Action (SIMCA) by including not just (politicised) identity but also moral motivations into its core, effectively integrating who “we” are with what “we” (will not) stand for. Conceptually, we utilise self-categorisation theory’s notion of normative fit to elaborate this special relationship between the moral and identity motivations for collective action. Empirically, we review two research projects (the experimental and survey-based Value-Identity Fit Project and the longitudinal Politicisation Project) that both suggest that the SIMCA needs to be extended to include, both conceptually and empirically, a broader range of (violated) moral beliefs and a focus on identity content. We discuss key implications of expanding the core of the SIMCA for the social psychology of collective action and social change, and suggest new directions for future theorising and research in this field.
 
Article
Whether exposure to violence in the virtual reality of the media has an impact on users’ aggressive behaviour has been a controversial issue in academic as well as public debate. This article summarises a programme of research conducted with adolescents in Germany that presents cross-sectional and longitudinal evidence for the association between violent media use and aggression. It provides experimental evidence in support of mediating variables, such as hostile attributional style, increased normative acceptance of aggression, and emotional desensitisation, which might explain the pathways from media violence use to aggression. In addition it presents the development and experimental evaluation of a theory-based intervention designed to reduce media violence use and decrease its link with aggressive behaviour. The findings are discussed in the context of a large international body of research that points to the causal role of violent media use as a risk factor for aggressive behaviour.
 
Mean level of SDO and RWA as a function of profile membership. 
Figure adapted from Sibley and colleagues (2017). All pairwise comparisons within an issue were significantly different from one another (p < .01), noting the following exceptions: willingness to go to war did not differ between (a) Milds and Authoritarian Leaders (χ 2 = 0.869, p = .351), nor (b) Moderates and Authoritarian Followers (χ 2 = 0.002, p = .962). 
Figures adapted from Weber and Federico (2013). 
Article
Whether it be those who are “high” on right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) and social dominance orientation (SDO), or a mixture of “low” on explicit, but “high” on implicit, bias, many social psychological theories predict the existence of distinct “types” of people. These assumptions are, however, untestable using variable-centred analyses. Accordingly, we argue that the time has come to utilise person-centred analyses that enable us to test these key assumptions. We open by demonstrating how to implement – and interpret – latent profile analysis (a type of person-centred analysis), using RWA and SDO as an example. We then discuss the debate over the dimensionality of political ideology to highlight the need for person-centred analyses. Next, we review person-centred approaches to political ideology and highlight recent work using person-centred analyses to assess key assumptions of ambivalent sexism and relative deprivation. We conclude by discussing limitations to person-centred approaches and by providing suggestions for future research.
 
Article
This chapter reviews a research programme on the effects of humour in advertising on positive and negative brand associations and brand choice, and integrates the findings into a single overarching model. Based on the Associative and Propositional Processes Model of Evaluation (Gawronski & Bodenhausen, 2006, 2007, 2011), we propose that repeated pairings of a novel brand with brand-unrelated humour forms positive brand associations, which mediate spontaneous brand choice. This associative process was found to be independent from the level of distraction posed by humour and from awareness of the stimulus pairings. In fact the distraction posed by humour benefits persuasion by preventing negative brand associations. Previous marketing research, which mainly viewed humour as a cue in peripheral processing, was rather pessimistic about the persuasive impact of humour. In contrast, this research programme suggests that a repeated pairing of a brand with humour affects the brand’s underlying associative structure, which may lead to stable attitude changes that guide overt spontaneous brand choice. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
 
Article
Many studies have investigated the relationship between ideological attitudes and aggressive tendencies. The present meta-analytic integration of research on this relationship included data of 177 samples (total N = 47,933 participants). The results revealed that this relationship was substantial, r =.31, 95% CI [.27 to.35], p <.001. Such a relationship emerged for both attitudes towards violence and behavioural indicators, although the former relationship was stronger. Moreover, with respect to the different types of attitudes towards violence, we obtained equally strong relationships for attitudes towards war and military action, intergroup hostility and aggression, punitive attitudes, and intimate violence. Among the behavioural measures, context-specific aggression bore out a stronger effect size than chronic aggressive behaviour. Finally, type of right-wing attitude did not moderate the relationship under study. In the discussion, we argue that the pattern of results indicates that the greater aggressive tendencies among right-wing individuals are manifested both attitudinally and behaviourally.
 
Article
Objectification occurs when people are seen and treated similarly to things. Research on this topic has been dominated by an interest in the content of impressions people form of targets, but much less is known about the processes involved in the objectification of others. To fill this gap, this paper reviews a recent line of research that investigates the cognitive objectification of others (i.e., the processes – early visual processing, attention and memory – through which a person is no longer perceived as a global physical entity, thereby reduced to its parts akin to objects). We consider research that examined when and why this cognitive objectification occurs using methods borrowed from cognitive psychology and neuroscience. In doing so, we provide information for the sequential ordering of cognitive objectification processes that may occur during person perception. We finally propose a novel process-oriented model aimed at understanding the antecedents and outcomes of cognitive objectification.
 
Effects of moralisation on message persuasiveness depending on message condi- tion from Luttrell and Petty (2021; Study 1).
Article
COVID-19 mitigation strategies have largely relied on persuading populations to adopt behavioural changes, so it is critical to understand how such persuasive efforts can be made more effective. The Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) of persuasion allows for the integration of a variety of seemingly disparate effects into one overarching framework. This allows for prediction of which effects are more likely to lead to subsequent behaviour change than others and for generation of novel predictions. We review several recent investigations into persuasive effects of variables related to the source of a persuasive message, features of the message itself, the recipient, and interactive effects between variables across these categories. Each investigation is situated within the ELM framework, and future directions derived from the ELM perspective are discussed. Finally, the implications of each piece of research for COVID-19 persuasive messaging are unpacked and evidence-based recommendations are made.
 
Article
The mnemic neglect model predicts and accounts for selective memory for social feedback as a function of various feedback properties. At the heart of the model is the mnemic neglect effect (MNE), defined as inferior recall for self-threatening feedback compared to other kinds of feedback. The effect emerges both in mundane realism and minimal feedback settings. The effect is presumed to occur in the service of self-protection motivation. Mnemic neglect is pronounced when the feedback poses high levels of self-threat (i.e., can detect accurately one’s weakness), but is lost when self-threat is averted via a self-affirmation manipulation. Mnemic neglect is caused by self-threatening feedback being processed shallowly and in ways that separate it from stored (positive) self-knowledge. The emergence of mnemic neglect is qualified by situational moderators (extent to which one considers their self-conceptions modifiable, receives feedback from a close source, or is primed with improvement-related constructs) and individual differences moderators (anxiety, dysphoria, or defensive pessimism). Finally, the MNE is present in recall, but absent in recognition. Output interference cannot explain this disparity in results, but an inhibitory repression account (e.g., experiential avoidance) can: Repressors show enhanced mnemic neglect. The findings advance research on memory, motivation, and the self.
 
Tests Meeting Inclusion Criteria for Meta-Analysis 1
Summary Results for the Basic Generalisation Effect and all Moderating Variables for the Provided Information
Summary Results for Quantity of Information Provided
Tests Meeting Inclusion Criteria for Meta-Analysis 2
Article
Through individual-to-group generalisation, information about individual members of stigmatised social groups changes the outgroup judgment. This article reports meta-analytic reviews of over 30 years of experimental, lab-based research on individual-to-group generalisation (107 independent tests; 5,393 participants). In a first meta-analysis, a positive, medium-size generalisation effect was detected (r = .28, p < .001), reflecting significant generalisation of outgroup exemplar information to the outgroup judgment. This effect was moderated by the number of exemplars and exemplar typicality, with more moderately atypical exemplars maximising generalisation effects. Several other design parameters – including type of control condition, generalisation measures, mode of information provision, type of target outgroup and origin of study – did not moderate the positive generalisation effect. A second meta-analysis investigated the interplay between metacognitions and generalisation and found assimilation effects with metacognitive triggers encouraging exemplar inclusion, and contrast effects with metacognitive cues encouraging exemplar exclusion. These results demonstrate that the same outgroup exemplar can lead to bias reduction or bias exacerbation, depending on available meta-cognitive cues. Findings are discussed in terms of implications for intergroup psychology, generalisation theory, and bias reduction interventions.
 
Article
Current controversies in social psychology have sparked the promotion of new rules for evidence in the field. This “crisis of evidence” echoes prior concerns from the 1970s about a so-called “crisis of social psychology”, with such issues as replication and statistical significance once more under examination. I argue that parallel concerns about the relevance of our research, raised but not completely resolved in the 1970s crisis, also deserve a fresh look. In particular, the advances made in the current crisis of evidence came about because of changes in academic career incentives, particularly publishing. Today, many voices in psychology urge greater respect for relevance in topics, methods and communication, but the lack of clear and concrete incentives to do so has stood in the way of answers. I diagnose the current incentive structures, propose partial solutions that are within the reach of journal editors and professional societies, and conclude by discussing the links between relevance and evidence, as well as special challenges to the relevance of social psychology post-2016.
 
Integrated model of national identity conceptions on: (a) majority group members ’ attitudes, behaviour, and inclusion of ethnic minorities and immigrants in the nation; and (b) minority group members ’ well-being and self-conceptions. 
Implicit beliefs about the prototypical American predict willingness to hire East Asian American candidates for a national security job vs. private corporation job. © 2010 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc. Reproduced from Yogeeswaran and Dasgupta (2010) with permission of << SAGE Publications Ltd.>>/<< SAGE Publications, Inc.>>., All rights reserved. Permission to reuse must be obtained from the rightsholder. 
Effect of emphasising ethnic minorities' fit with civic vs. ethnic national identity on implicit exclusion of Hispanic Americans from the nation state. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Reproduced from Yogeeswaran et al. (2012) with permission of John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., All rights reserved.
Implicit beliefs about the prototypical American predict evaluations of an immigration policy proposed by a White vs. East Asian American policy-writer. © 2010 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc. Reproduced from Yogeeswaran and Dasgupta (2010) with permission of << SAGE Publications Ltd.>>/<< SAGE Publications, Inc.>>., All rights reserved. Permission to reuse must be obtained from the rightsholder. 
Conceptual diagram on the indirect effect of abstract vs. concrete multiculturalism construals on prejudice and social distancing from ethnic minorities via symbolic threat to national identity. © 2014 American Psychological Association. Reproduced from Yogeeswaran and Dasgupta (2014) by permission of the American Psychological Association. Permission to reuse must be obtained from the rightsholder. The use of APA information does not imply endorsement by APA.
Article
The emergence of nation states is a relatively recent phenomenon in human history. Yet its impact on everyday life is ubiquitous. The purpose of the present article is to synthesise research from several social science disciplines to identify similarities and differences between legal and structural definitions of nation states studied by political scientists and historians and psychological conceptions of nation states studied by social psychologists. Using a social psychological lens, we investigate how nation states as political institutions influence psychological conceptions of national identity and how these construals have unique effects on perceivers’ attitudes, behaviour, and inclusion of diverse ethnic groups within the nation. Four research questions guide this article. First, how do modern nation states define citizenship legally and to what extent do these definitions fit psychological conceptions of nationality that individuals report explicitly or implicitly? Second, to what extent do these implicit and explicit conceptions of national identity influence majority group members’ actions and decisions in both positive and negative directions? Third, what types of perceiver characteristics (e.g., national identification, political ideology, status, social dominance) influence attitudes, behaviour, and inclusion of ethnic minorities and immigrants? And finally, in what ways do conceptions of nationality impact the self-concept and well-being of ethnic minorities and immigrants within a nation? We summarise extant research that addresses each question and conclude by identifying unanswered questions and avenues for future work.
 
The interaction between apology and identi fi cation as a Canadian on avoidance of Americans. 
The interaction between apology and identi fi cation as a Canadian on revenge against Americans. 
Effects of apology: Experiment 2, Philpot & Hornsey (2008)
Effects of apology and advocacy: Experiment 3, Philpot & Hornsey (2008)
Forgiveness as a function of the emotional content of the apology and its method of delivery.
Article
It is widely assumed that official apologies for historical transgressions lay the groundwork for intergroup forgiveness. Surprisingly, however, evidence for a causal relationship between intergroup apologies and forgiveness is limited. In this chapter we review a series of studies examining the conditions under which intergroup apologies appear to promote intergroup forgiveness, the conditions under which they have no observable effect on intergroup forgiveness, and the conditions under which they appear to undermine intergroup forgiveness. The research identifies hidden pitfalls of intergroup apologies for victims, insights that speak to broader themes of trust and reconciliation between groups. A trust-based model is described outlining the conditions that might moderate the apology–forgiveness link.
 
Intracultural appropriation theory of non-state agent's secret power.
Basic model of Omertà, adapted from Travaglino et al. (2014a).
Article
Criminal organisations have the ability to exert secret power – governance over the community and inhibition of opposition (omertà). Traditionally, omertà has been attributed to fear or passivity. Here, a model grounded in different premises, Intracultural Appropriation Theory (ICAT), stresses the central role of culture in sustaining relations of domination between groups. Specifically, ICAT contends that non-state agents achieve legitimacy among people by claiming to embody cultural values shared within the community. In the case of Italian organised crime, criminal organisations’ adherence to values of masculine honour bestows legitimacy on their actions, enabling them to exert secret power. We report evidence in support of this proposition, and derive a new formulation of omertà focussing on social identity, emotions and social change beliefs. We suggest that the theory contributes to a new perspective for the analysis of culture, political action, and honour, and that it should generalise in other contexts and countries.
 
Article
Attitude and belief similarity have long stood as topics of inquiry for social psychology. Recent research suggests that there might be meaningful differences across people in the extent to which they perceive and actually share others’ attitudes and beliefs. I outline research examining the relationship between political ideology and the perception and reality of attitude similarity. Specifically, I review research documenting that (a) conservatives perceive greater ingroup similarity than do liberals, (b) conservatives overestimate and liberals underestimate ingroup similarity, (c) liberals and conservatives both underestimate similarity to outgroup members, and (d) liberals possess more actual ingroup similarity than do conservatives on a national level. Collectively, this review contributes to understanding how political ideology relates to (perceived) attitude similarity.
 
Article
We review work from persuasion science relevant to reducing prejudiced attitudes. We begin by introducing the idea that the thoughts people generate – their number and valence – are critical for understanding when responding to persuasive attempts will result in egalitarian attitudes. A focus on thinking highlights the importance of understanding short and long-term attitude change in promoting diversity. How much people think is also consequential for spreading of initial change to more distal attitudes and generalization of change to other judgments. The second section describes a process of thought validation that emphasizes the importance of considering what people think and feel about their own thoughts. This meta-cognitive process is shown to make a difference in producing consequential changes in reducing prejudiced attitudes toward African Americans, immigrants, refugees, individuals with disabilities, and beyond. The conditions under which variables such as minority status and stigmatized sources affect elaboration and validation are also specified. The fourth section explores how these two processes are relevant for understanding explicit and implicit ambivalence and change in the domain of prejudiced attitudes. We highlight the utility of a process-oriented approach for designing future research and promoting more inclusive attitudes and actions.
 
Article
This article provides an overview of the “behavioural immune system” – a suite of psychological mechanisms that complements immunological defences by motivating pre-emptive behavioural responses to infection threats – and summarises research documenting its implications for social attitudes and social behaviour. This summary focuses on four domains of phenomena: interpersonal interactions, stigma and prejudice, conformity, and political attitudes. Then, drawing on this conceptual and empirical background, the article discusses consequences that disease outbreaks (such as the COVID-19 pandemic) may have for individuals’ attitudes and actions, and the further consequences that these attitudes and actions might plausibly have for population-level epidemiological and public health outcomes.
 
Article
Outgroup dehumanisation, the denial of full humanity to outgroups relative to ingroups, is pervasive in many contemporary societies. The aim of the present work is to review effective strategies aimed at fostering outgroup humanity attribution. After presenting the main models of humanity attribution, we differentiate two types of strategies. Outgroup-specific strategies are focused on a target outgroup, therefore their effectiveness is more dependent upon the specific intergroup relationship. These include intergroup contact, meta-humanisation, and social categorisation. Outgroup-independent strategies are not inherently linked to a target outgroup, implying that their effectiveness is less dependent on the specific intergroup dynamics under consideration. These involve human-animal similarity and secure relationship attachment. We provide evidence for the effectiveness of these strategies and their underlying processes, showcasing our research programme within the larger literature. In so doing, we take into account the distinction between blatant and subtle dehumanisation, and conclude with suggestions for future research.
 
Article
We live in a changing world that can create uncertainty about who we are, and make extremist groups, identities and ideologies attractive to us. This article invokes uncertainty-identity theory to explore the role played by context-induced self-uncertainty in radicalization, violent extremism, and support for populist ideologies and autocratic leadership. Uncertainty-identity theory argues that people are motivated to reduce self and identity uncertainty, and that group identification satisfies this motivation. However, some groups and identities are more effective than others. Specifically, highly entitative groups with clearly defined prescriptive identities that are unambiguous and consensual – identities that echo populist ideology, conspiracy theories and victimhood narratives. Self-uncertainty creates a need for leadership, in particular leaders who are populist, autocratic and toxic. I introduce uncertainty-identity theory to focus on its account of “extremism” – overviewing empirical support, and closing with discussion of warning signs of radicalization and speculations about preventative strategies.
 
Article
A quickly expanding literature has examined the link between physical disgust and morality. This article critically integrates the existing evidence and draws the following conclusions: First, there is considerable evidence that experimentally induced disgust and cleanliness influence moral judgment, but moderating variables and attributional processes need to be considered. Second, moral considerations have substantial effects on behavioural concomitants of disgust, such as facial expressions, economic games and food consumption. Third, while disgust involves a conservation concern, it can manifest itself in both liberal and conservative political attitudes. Overall, disgust can be considered to form part of a behavioural loss aversion system aimed at protecting valuable resources, including the integrity of one’s body. Recommendations are offered to investigate the role of disgust more rigorously in order to fully capture its role in moral life.
 
Article
We propose the Evaluative Information Ecology (EvIE) model as a model of the social environment. It makes two assumptions: Positive “good” information is more frequent compared to negative “bad” information and positive information is more similar and less diverse compared to negative information. We review support for these two properties based on psycho-lexical studies (e.g., negative trait words are used less frequently but they are more diverse), studies on affective reactions (e.g., people experience positive emotions more frequently but negative emotions are more diverse), and studies using direct similarity assessments (i.e., people rate positive information as more similar/less diverse compared to negative information). Next, we suggest explanations for the two properties building on potential adaptive advantages, reinforcement learning, hedonistic sampling processes, similarity from co-occurrence, and similarity from restricted ranges. Finally, we provide examples of how the EvIE model refines well-established effects (e.g., intergroup biases; preferences for groups without motivation or intent) and how it leads to the discovery of novel phenomena (e.g., the common good phenomenon; people share positive traits but negative traits make them distinct). We close by discussing the benefits relative to the drawbacks of ecological approaches in social psychology and how an ecological and cognitive level of analysis may complement each other.
 
Article
A model of interpersonal terms (verbs and adjectives) is reviewed in terms of the research on: (a) the systematic cognitive inferences these terms mediate, and (b) the implications of this model for social cognitive processes as it is applied in different domains such as attribution processes and intergroup relations.
 
Article
Prosocial behaviour is an interdisciplinary topic, involving psychologists, philosophers, and educators. Based on experimental helping research, some moral philosophers have claimed that helping behaviour is entirely situationally determined. The dominance of situational factor experimentation gives the appearance that situational factors alone can explain helping behaviour. This meta-analysis investigated situational explanations of helping behaviour with 286 effects and 46,705 participants from experimental studies with non-manipulation control groups, and observed unilateral adult behavioural helping. Results indicated expected group differences in helping behaviour frequency among help encouraging or help discouraging experimental conditions and no-manipulation control conditions. Helping behaviour was also frequent in help discouraging and control conditions and far from universal in help encouraging conditions. Because helping occurred in control groups, situational factors cannot explain all observed helping. Because helping was not universal in help encouraging conditions, it raises the question of individual differences in responsiveness to helping cues.
 
Study effect sizes from random effects meta-analysis. Diamonds represent Hedges' g effect size, horizontal lines indicate 95% confidence intervals and shaded sections indicate study percentage weight. 
Subgroup analysis of potential QBE moderators. 
Summary the contributions of the four recent QBE meta-analyses. 
Article
Research has demonstrated that asking people questions about a behaviour can lead to behaviour change. Despite many, varied studies in different domains, it is only recently that this phenomenon has been studied under the umbrella term of the question-behaviour effect (QBE) and moderators of the effect have been investigated. With a particular focus on our own contributions, this article: (1) provides an overview of QBE research; (2) reviews and offers new evidence concerning three theoretical accounts of the QBE (behavioural simulation and processing fluency; attitude accessibility; cognitive dissonance); (3) reports a new meta-analysis of QBE studies (k = 66, reporting 94 tests) focusing on methodological moderators. The findings of this meta-analysis support a small significant effect of the QBE (g = 0.14, 95% CI =0.11, 0.18, p < .001) with smaller effect sizes observed in more carefully controlled studies that exhibit less risk of bias; (4) also considers directions for future research on the QBE, especially studies that use designs with low risk of bias and consider desirable and undesirable behaviour separately.
 
Observing and providing emotional social support and coordinated social support: the moderating role of social identification with others affected by the disaster. 
Comparisons of low-and high-identification survivors on measures of "orderliness".
Article
This review provides a new integration of recent research that has formed the basis of a social identity explanation of supportive collective behaviour among survivors in emergencies and disasters. I describe a model in which a sense of common fate is the source of an emergent shared social identity among survivors, which in turn provides the motivation to give social support to others affected. In addition, by drawing on the concept of relational transformation in psychological crowds, I show how an emergent shared social identity can engender a range of further behavioural and cognitive consequences that contribute to collective self-organisation in emergencies, including expected support, coordination of behaviour, and collective efficacy. It will be argued that the model can been applied to explaining how potentially dangerous crowd events avoid disaster: shared social identity operates as the basis of spontaneous self-organisation in these cases, as in many emergencies and disasters.
 
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic has triggered and exacerbated psychological distress, and exposed psychological vulnerabilities, in large swathes of the population. Under challenging circumstances, nostalgia may convey tangible psychological and physical health benefits. We review recent evidence for nostalgia’s utility in vulnerable populations, including sojourners and immigrants, civil war refugees, people suffering bereavement, people facing a limited time horizon, and people living with dementia. Having raised the prospect of a positive role for nostalgia in responding to adversity, we next present findings from a series of randomised nostalgia interventions and their impact over time in the workplace, during the COVID-19 pandemic, and at university, respectively. We conclude by offering evidence-based recommendations for future interventions, highlighting the importance of optimal person-activity fit, diversity of content, and accessibility of delivery mechanisms.
 
Top-cited authors
Paschal Sheeran
  • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Pierre Philippot
  • Université Catholique de Louvain - UCLouvain
Stefano Boca
  • Università degli Studi di Palermo
Bernard Rimé
  • Université Catholique de Louvain - UCLouvain
Batja Mesquita