To study the effects of isolation and confinement on small groups during long space flights, it is habitual to use closed hyperbaric ground chambers. For the first time, the European Space Agency made use of a nautral environment taking advantage of an Antarctic winter-over at the French Dumont d'Urville Station. The main objective of that study ("International Antarctic Psychological Programme"), was to compare different Russian tests used for training cosmonauts to a W. European approach validated during previous winter studies and European ground chamber simulations. Russian techniques appeared to be oriented to a narrow range of phenomena and unsuited to discern the adjustment to stress conditions.
According to selective exposure's theory, people tend to expose themselves to consonant informations and to avoid discrepant ones (Festinger, 1957). This theory is often invoked but never tested in the domain of alcohol advertising. The research tends to verify heavy drinkers expose themselves to alcohol advertising more than small drinkers or abstinents. Furthermore, we postulate the more the persons think they can resist drinking, the more they will expose to alcohol adverts. Results tend to validate the first hypothesis whereas go against the second.
Because the lesion occurs when the cerebral system did not complete its maturation, one cannot envisage the consequence of a cerebral palsy on the motor development nor on the psychological development. To successed in the modelization of the motricity of children with cerebral palsy, the theorical approaches of the biomechanic of movment are relevant rather than approaches of neurosciences in which the movement is the product of a central programming. The aim of the paper is to show an original way of work for the investigation of the nature of the link which exists between the quality of the gesture production and the space organization disorders. If this link is confirmed we will be able to care in a preventive way in young children with cerebral palsy. It will be possible to identify precociously the motor patterns and to consider the accompaniment and the shoring of the motor experience.
Two revised versions of the scale “I Like School” of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), were developed in France upon junior high school pupils and upon fourth and fifth grade level pupils (Psychol Psychométrie 15 (1994) 44–64; Can J Behav Sci 35 (2003b) 50–55). This study presents a validation of an adaptation of these versions of the scale to French elementary school pupils, intitled “Échelle des attitudes des élèves envers l’école élémentaire” (ÉAÉE). Four factors still arise, with an improvement of their internal consistency. Fifth factor is also controlled, named “Funny school, distraction place”. The results indicate acceptable fidelity (internal consistency and test–retest reliability), allow to identify the personal factors, which determine the attitudes towards school and support the convergent validity of the scale.
This study establishes a first stage in the creation of a battery of tests allowing the evaluation of the semantic memory. Our objective is to estimate the sensibility of this battery at the normal and pathological ageing (Alzheimer’s patients at different stages of the disease). The results showed that the tests are sensitive to the decline of the semantic memory in normal ageing and Alzheimer’s disease. In normal ageing the decrease of performances concerns essentially the verbal tasks. In the Alzheimer patients groups a progressive decline according to the evolution of the disease was observed. In conclusion, this battery of semantic tests allowed to distinguish the normal ageing of the Alzheimer’s disease in the early stages and to describe the profile of evolution of the semantic memory impairment in Alzheimer’s disease.
This article presents the findings of three studies aiming to develop and validate a French-language scale of adolescents’ self-esteem conditions, the Adolescents’ Self-Esteem Conditions Scale (ASECS). Designed for young people from the beginning to the end of adolescence, the 30-item scale measures to which extent youths base their self-esteem on positive and negative events related to their social acceptance, physical appearance, sportive and athletic performance, body weight and academic achievement. In the first study, the ASECS was administered to a sample of 431 francophone students from grade 7th to grade 11th. Seven weeks later, 372 of these students were invited to answer the questionnaire once more. Exploratory factor analysis yielded five factors with high internal consistency and strong test-retest reliability. In the second study, the five-factor model was confirmed through confirmatory factor analysis on data from 1523 francophone 7th–11th graders. Finally, finding from the third study (n=344) demonstrated the instrument's convergent validity. The results from the three studies establish the ASECS’ strong psychometric properties. The discussion focuses on its usefulness in research and intervention among adolescents.
Studied the construct validity and the internal consistency of the 15 primary personality dimensions assessed by the French adaptation of the 5th edition of the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF). Human subjects: 1,000 normal French Ss. The construct validity (factor structure) of the primary dimensions was tested at the item level (158 items) by a multiple group centroid confirmatory analysis, which was found to be less flawed than Procrustes solutions. The stability of the factor structure was assessed by comparing the 2 factor structures extracted on 2 500-S subsamples. The internal consistency of the 15 personality scales was tested with the Cronbach alpha coefficient. Results support R. B. Cattell's 1st-level description of personality (15 primary factors) and its confirmation in a French context with the 16PF Form 5. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Examined the relevance of a stress–coping model of adjustment to job change. The relation between job stressors, perceived stress, social support, locus of control, coping strategies, and organizational adjustment was assessed in 145 male employees in a French firm. Result show that 3 processes played a mediating role in the adjustment to job change : perceived stress, which mediated the relationship between social support and employee adjustment; avoidance coping, which mediated the relationship between social support and emotional adjustment; and vigilant coping, which mediated the relationship between locus of control and absenteeism. Job stressors, social support and locus of control proved to have direct and indirect effects on adjustment to job mobility. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Studied the relation of perceived competence and placement of French adolescents in specialized schools, because of a history of failure in a traditional school system. Ss were 382 male and female adolescents (aged 11–14 yrs), 260 in specialized schools, 42 in regular schools who had repeated a grade, and 80 in regular schools, in France, who had followed a normal grade progression. Data on sociodemographic variables, self-perception, and school performance were obtained by questionnaire and school records. The Perceived Competence Scale (S. Harter, 1985) was used. The results indicate that students in specialized schools maintain high perceptions of their own academic competence despite contrary evidence and high perceptions of physical appearance. No gender differences in academic competence were noted among specialized schools students, but boys tend to overestimate their athletic competence and social acceptance compared to girls. Implications for developing cognitive strategies to enable Ss in specialized schools determine realistic capabilities are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Studied the psychometric properties of a French version of the MIA instrument (R. A. Dixon and D. F. Hultsch, 1983). Human Ss: 341 normal male and female French adults (aged 19–87 yrs). Ss were divided into 3 age groups and asked to complete the 108-item, 7-scale MIA. Data were treated with principal component analysis to confirm the instrument's dimensions. The MIA's internal consistency was determined with the Cronbach alpha-coefficient, and a single-factor ANOVA was used to test the influence of age on scores obtained for each scale. Results were compared with data from the original English version of the MIA. (English abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Studied the relation of gender, assessment instruments, employment status, and performance in professional certification programs in 541 male adults (aged 27–37 yrs) (unemployed) and 752 female adults (unemployed) in France. Data on sociodemographic variables and factors associated with job readiness were obtained using performance model tests (a general intelligence test, verbal and numerical aptitude tests, an abstract reasoning test, and a general clerical test) and work sample procedures test to assess prior learning and practical skills related to clerical work. Job training performance after participation in 2 mo clerical training was evaluated using a weighted average of scores on 4 end-of-lesson tests and a final exam. The results indicate significant differences between male and female Ss on performance tests but not on work sample procedures tests are predictors of success in professional certification programs. The adverse gender impact of performance vs procedures instruments as predictors of employment success is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Studied the relation of subliminal and supraliminal exposure to faces displaying positive vs negative emotional expressions and evaluative judgements of advertising messages. 40 female university students in France were shown happy or sad faces and then asked to judge whether advertisements presented immediately afterwards were true or false. An ANOVA and other statistical tests were used. The results indicate that true judgements are more frequent following subliminal and supraliminal exposure to positive emotional expressions than negative ones. These effects are strongest for subliminal messages. No differences in reaction time (RT) time were noted for positive/negative emotions or true/false judgement. The results are discussed in relation to misattribution theory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Investigated affective regulation mechanisms crucial for the paranoid patient. 10 schizophrenic patients were filmed in dyadic interaction with healthy Ss uninformed of the patients' problems. Facial behavior was analyzed with the Emotion Facial Action Coding System (W. V. Friesen and P. Ekman, 1984) and compared with that of 10 healthy interactions of a control group. Immediately after the meeting, own emotional feelings as well as those attributed to the partner were surveyed with the Differential Emotion Scale (W. E. Kotsch et al, 1982). The healthy Ss adapted downward in their expression and experience toward the schizophrenics, and the correlations between facial expression and experience were different within the mentally ill and the healthy Ss and within the different dyads. (French abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Over a lifespan, age affects the efficiency of short-term memory. However, the vast majority of studies employ verbal material. Therefore, in the present study, nonverbal, visuospatial material (patterns) was used. In addition, the best procedure for investigating nonverbal short-term memory is as yet unclear. Therefore, the present study compared three different procedures (simultaneous presentation of the material vs. two versions of a sequential presentation). In Exp 1, a group of young adults (aged 18–28 yrs) and a group of elderly Ss (aged 63–75 yrs) was enrolled for the 3 kinds of assessment. It showed an effect of aging which was similar across the three procedures. In Exp 2, 6 age groups (from 18 to 80 yrs old) were submitted to one of the procedures of Exp 1, in order to search for linear trends vs a qualitative gap over the lifespan. A linear effect of age was observed. It thus appears that age affects the visuospatial component of short-term memory, and that this effect is progressive and linear. The kind of assessment was also seen to be irrelevant, and thus the clinical evaluation can be made using the simplest and shortest procedure (namely, simultaneous presentation). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Evaluates the effectiveness of a behavioral approach to improving safety on construction sites. The research used the more stable Proportional Rating Scale under development at the university which measures the effects of external variables better than the more traditional approach of the All Or Nothing measure for safety performance. Criterion for selecting items for measurement was that they needed to be reflected throughout all phases of the building program. Results indicate a 35% difference in safety performance levels on the same site between the results of the 2 measures used. (French abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Examined the amnestic effects of benzodiazepines (BZDs) after long-term medication and during withdrawal. 10 patients (aged 27–53 yrs) and a matched group of 10 controls were examined repeatedly on a number of psychological tests. Results indicate that nonverbal visual memory tests, concentration, and subjective mood are significantly impaired by BZDs. During withdrawal, most deficits showed a reversal; however, concentration and mood were still impaired. (French abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Tested a causal model of the determinants and consequences of role stress in 2 independent samples of 190 nurses (72% women) and 206 physicians (75% men) working in primary health care teams. Data were obtained by questionnaire. The model includes job autonomy, feedback from colleagues, goal standardization, tenure, and workload as role stress antecedents. Effects of role conflict ambiguity are hypothesized on job tension, job satisfaction and propensity to leave the team. The goodness-of-fit of the hypothesized model was satisfactory for both samples, indicating that the model reproduced adequately the relationships observed in each sample. However, differences were detected related to the significance level of some parameter estimates. (French abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Reviews ways in which computers are being implemented internationally to support diagnostic tasks. This survey demonstrates that a comprehensive theory of computer-supported diagnostics does not exist. However, even if only subtasks of the diagnostic process can be performed with appropriate software, computer diagnostics are justified. Thus, computers can be used in test development, evaluation, administration, scoring, and interpretation of results. Specific psychological problems, as well as ethical and legal aspects, are discussed. (French abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Argues that a revolution in psychological assessment is at hand due to computerized test administration and automated scoring. The use of computers will also change the concept of diagnostic action. Changes are discussed in regard to the definition of diagnostic objectives, data collection, and the evaluation of information. In some cases of "intelligent" software systems, computers carry an element of diagnostic competence. An example is the clinical expert system of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III), entitled the DSM-III-X. The program uses a branching technique to deliver a diagnostic judgment. (French abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The development and application of psychological tests is an ever increasing activity in India. Based on a cross-cultural perspective, major forms of cultural bias in testing are identified. An historical overview of test development and the attendant problem of bias is presented within an Indian context. The problems of test adaptation, test translation, and psychometric invariance are specifically examined. Recent attempts in the direction of developing culturally appropriate tests are discussed. The role of projective inventories is cited as an emerging trend in this direction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Studied the relationships among 3 competing taxonomies of personality: the Cattellian taxonomy (based on 16 primary factors), the Comrey taxonomy (based on 8 principal factors), and the taxonomy subsumed by the 5-factor model (FFM) of personality traits. 614 male and female Italian adults were administered the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF), the Comrey Personality Scales, and the Big Five Questionnaire (G. V. Caprara et al, 1993). Joint factor analyses (with direct oblimin oblique rotation and Kaiser normal varimax orthogonal rotation) of the personality scales in the 16PF and the Comrey Personality Scales yielded 4 main factors that correlated with 4 of the dimensions specific to the FFM (Energy or Extraversion, Agreeableness or Friendliness, Conscientiousness, and Emotional Stability). Openness is the only dimension from the FFM that is not considered in the Cattell and Comrey taxonomies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Compared the performance of 3 sets of male and female American undergraduate students (aged 17–54 yrs) totaling 624 Ss on the NEO Personality Inventory and the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF). Analysis of correlations between all NEO and 16PF scales, regression analyses predicting each scale of each test from the scales of the other test, and factor analyses of both tests at the primary and secondary levels were performed. The alignment between the global scales of the 2 tests was assessed. Results indicate a strong resemblance between the original 2nd-order personality factors of the 16PF (R. B. Cattell, 1946, 1956) and the recent 5-factor conceptualization of personality (L. R. Goldberg, 1990, 1992). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Administered a comprehensive list of personality descriptors (561 adjectives) from the Hungarian lexicon to 400 paid Ss to obtain self-ratings. In addition, Ss completed the Eyesenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) and the Pavlovian Temperament Survey (PTS). Results form an independent confirmation of the 1st 4 factors (Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Emotional Stability) of the Big Five. The 5th factor remains elusive. Results corroborate the usefulness of the lexical approach in arriving at a trait structure for a particular language. (French abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
This paper seeks to define the "bilan de compétences" (competences report). It is not an assessment, a selection or a testing. The notion is close to career guidance; but the system targets adults or wage earners. They wish to know their competences in order to develop their career or to have a new job. The knowledge produced is their property and a counsellor helps them to clarify their competences and to build a vocational plan. The stages of the "bilan de compétences" are indicated. Then the theoretical model of "analytical emprise" is used to show the processes induced: taking personal information, giving results in return and having an action on oneself by analysis. Three conditions to access to self-analysis of one's competences are reviewed : the place of subject, the role of counsellor, and the way to conceive of methods. Success lies in the analysis rather than in the simple self-evaluation of competences. The system induces not only an external observation but produces a new competence: knowing how to analyze one's competences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Examined the relationship between coping strategies, self esteem, perceived personal resources, and burnout in police officers and teachers. 86 police officers (mean age 39.4 yrs) and 58 elementary school teachers (mean age 39.10 yrs) completed questionnaires comprising (1) the French version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (C. Maslach and S. Jackson, 1986); (2) the short version of Ways of Coping Questionnaire (S. Folkman and R. Lazarus, 1988); (3) the Sense of Coherence Scale (A. Antonovsky, 1993); and (4) the Texas Social Behavior Inventory (R. Helmreich and J. Stapp, 1974). Results show that the relationship between coping and burnout was completely mediated by self-esteem and perceived personal resources. In the partially mediated model, coping had both a direct and indirect effect on burnout. Findings argue in favor of a mediated model, which stipulates that coping strategies do not have direct effects on burnout. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)