European Psychologist

Published by Hogrefe
Online ISSN: 1016-9040
Publications
Article
This investigation was conceptually framed within the theory of marginal deviations (Caprara & Zimbardo, 1996) and sought evidence for the general hypothesis that some children who initially show marginal behavioral problems may, over time, develop more serious problems depending partly on other personal and behavioral characteristics. To this end, the findings of two studies conducted, respectively, with American elementary school children and Italian middle school students are reviewed. These two studies show that hyperactivity, cognitive difficulties, low special preference, and lack of prosocial behavior increase a child's risk for growth in aggressive behavior over several school years. More importantly, they also show that equivalent levels of these risk factors have a greater impact on the development of children who, early on, were marginally aggressive.
 
Article
The most fundamental issue for any design is to pursue a strategy that guarantees that the final design product matches user expectations in terms of the product's usability, functionality, and requisite user competencies. This presentation illustrates this problem in reference to three separate but interrelated major themes: (1) the design of highly complex sociotechnical systems with high hazard potential; (2) the processes of everyday product design in teams; (3) the theoretical aspects of design and creative problem finding/solving. The first theme articulates the specific difficulties arising from the usual conflicts between purely technology-driven demands and the need to integrate the cognitive and action capacities, limitations, and needs of the human operator into the ultimate facility in order to guarantee system safety and reliability. What is called for here is more than a dialog between engineering sciences and psychology, but a genuine active cooperation of diverse disciplines in all design stages. The second theme addresses the social psychological processes of everyday product design under conditions of distributed decision making and the cooperative demands of diverse groups with heterogeneous professional socialization, divergent competencies, and diverse interests. The concluding section reflects on the theoretical dimensions of creativity and design. It discusses the research evidence concerning the social and organizational conditions under which innovative design solutions may be generated such as cognitive competencies and strategies, leadership, and organizational arrangements.
 
Article
Reports on the results of a study done after the terrorist attack in Madrid on March 11, 2004. During the second week after the terrorist attacks, some 1,179 people aged 18 or older were interviewed. Standardized instruments were used to measure the presence of characteristic symptoms of acute stress disorder, depression, and psychosocial functioning. The sample data was examined to adjust age and sex to the Madrid population distribution. The study found that 1.1% of the participants had been injured in the bombings or had witnessed them first-hand, 3.1% had lost a relative or friend, and 6.4% had a close friend or relative who had been injured. The results showed that in the second week post-event, 49.6% of the sample presented symptoms of depression. Of these, 17.1% displayed functional deterioration. Also, 46.7% showed symptoms of acute stress, in 16.8% of the cases with functional impairment. In 13.5% of the sample, symptoms of depression and acute stress appeared simultaneously and were accompanied by functional impairment. The most frequent symptoms of acute stress were the re-experiencing of the event (72.5%) and disassociation (71.8%). The percentage of persons who were emotionally involved was high (40.8%), reaching 50.6% for those who experienced interference in their daily lives, and 33.3% for those experiencing interference with their work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Summarizes activities that took place during the Fifth European Congress of Psychology, held in Dublin in July, 1997. Topics covered include the formal scientific program, pre-congress workshops, congress publications, and exhibitions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Estimated survival curves starting at age 70 years for men (on the left) and women (on the right). Circles represent right-censored observations.
Sample characteristics and longitudinal design of the BASE for cognitive variables
Effects of cognitive performance on age of death in joint longitudinal and Weibull survival analyses (each cognitive indicator analyzed independently)
Effects of cognitive performance on age of death in two-stage longitudinal and Weibull survival analyses (all cognitive indicators analyzed simultaneously)
Article
We use a statistical model that combines longitudinal and survival analyses to estimate the influence of level and change in cognition on age at death in old and very old individuals. Data are from the Berlin Aging Study, in which an initial sample of 516 elderly individuals with an age range of 70 to 103 years was assessed up to 11 times across a period of up to 13 years. Four cognitive ability domains were assessed by two variables each: perceptual speed (Digit Letter and Identical Pictures), episodic memory (Paired Associates and Memory for Text), fluency (Categories and Word Beginnings), and verbal knowledge (Vocabulary and Spot-a-Word). Longitudinal models on cognition controlled for dementia diagnosis and retest effects, while survival models on age at death controlled for age, sex, socioeconomic status, sensory and motor performance, and broad personality characteristics. Results indicate: (1) Individual differences in the level of and in the linear change in performance are present for all cognitive variables; (2) when analyzed independently of cognitive performance, all covariates, except broad personality factors, predict survival; (3) when cognitive performance is accounted for, age, sex, and motor performance do predict survival, while socioeconomic status and broad personality factors do not, and sensory performance does only at times; (4) when cognitive variables are analyzed independently of each other, both level and change in speed and fluency, as well as level in memory and knowledge predict survival; (5) when all cognitive variables are analyzed simultaneously using a two-stage procedure, none of them is significantly associated to survival. In agreement with others, our findings suggest that survival is related to cognitive development in old and very old age in a relatively global, rather than ability-specific, manner. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
During the last 20 years, psychological interventions and psychotherapy have acquired a modest but significant place in health care. The lack of a uniform legal definition of these professional activities in the domain of health care hampers quality control of training programs and delivered services and complicates coordination of care. Training requirements are not always made explicit, and often there are no mechanisms for quality control or for monitoring compliance with ethical codes of conduct. In this review, the legal regulation of the professional activity of psychologists in health care and of psychotherapists in 17 European countries is examined. Eleven of these have adopted a legal regulation the title and the professional activities of psychologists in health care. Seven have an additional law regulating the title and the professional activities of psychotherapists. In five countries, professionals other than psychologists and medical doctors can obtain a legally protected title and license to practice as a psychotherapist. Conclusions are drawn concerning the available models of regulation of psychotherapy and their respective consequences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
This editorial preface introduces the historical context and explains the editorial preparation of this Thematic Issue devoted to Pavlov and his research on classical conditioning. Following a brief synopsis of Pavlov's life, an extract from his 1904 Nobel Laureate address is reprinted to highlight Pavlov's thinking, in his own words, about the nature of the psychological phenomena that formed the focus of research in the 2nd half of his life. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Presents an obituary for Professor Tadeusz Tomaszewski, who significantly influenced the destiny of Polish psychology during the second half of the 20th century. His theory of activity, published in 1963, contributed to the development of many original ideas and findings in many fields of psychology, such as general psychology, educational psychology, psycholinguistics, social psychology, work and organizational psychology, neuropsychology, personality psychology, and psychology of individual differences. He died on March 19 surrounded by his close friends to whom he was more than a teacher and master. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Paul Fraisse was widely known as an energetic leader of psychological organizations; a gifted teacher and thesis mentor to about 50 psychologists, several of whom later became prominent in their own right; a productive investigator, especially in the field of perception of time; and a prolific writer and editor. He was interested in a broad range of subjects and was a lively conversationalist. A leading light in both French and international psychology, Fraisse died in his sleep at his home near Paris on October 12, 1996, aged 85. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Presents an obituary for Hans Jurgen Eysenck. For the last 40 years Hans Eysenck has been the most influential psychologist in Britain, if not the world. As the first Professor and Head of the Psychology Department at the Institute of Psychiatry (Maudsley Hospital), London, he was instrumental in making it the foremost Department of Psychology in the country. He was a most prolific researcher and writer, publishing 79 books and 1078 scientific papers, and at the time of his death he was the most widely cited psychologist in the world. He was also a great inspiration to his students and colleagues, arguing openly and without jargon, and establishing an atmosphere that was intellectually stimulating and open to freedom of enquiry. His graduates are today dispersed around the world, many of them now eminent in their own right, and virtually every one holds Hans in great esteem and affection. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Obituary for Wim Mannien (1942-2007). EFPA was shocked and saddened to hear of the sudden death of its former Vice-President and Treasurer Wim Mannien at the age of 65 on October 28, 2007, in Vietnam. Wim represented the Dutch EFPA Member Association NIP in EFPA and served in the Executive Council of EFPA from 1995 through 2003. In the history of EFPA, the years during which Wim served EFPA were crucial in its development. During that time EFPA was able to "organize the organization." Its activities were built upon structured Activity Plans, and it started to carry political weight also in the wider circles of European policy-making. Those who served with Wim will remember him as a wonderful colleague and friend, as a man of personal warmth and great sense of humor--with always a twinkle in his eye. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Location of the main centers of group research within Spanish territory.  
Distribution of articles and papers according to number of signatories.
Distribution of articles and papers according to subject content.
of papers in the course of time.
of articles and papers according to focus.
Article
After a long period of scarce resources and a long delay in new scientific results suffered as a consequence of recent Spanish history, research concerning groups has experienced a rapid development over the last 15 years of the 20th century--the result of the late but then clear institutionalization of psychology into university structure. Although most research has been carried out at the very heart of social psychology and along the traditional lines of the field, a significant growth in the study of groups and work teams in organizational contexts can now be highlighted, coinciding with the tendency detected internationally during the last years. Beyond the normalization of group research in Spain, it is necessary to point out its excessive dependency in both theory and methodology on models and tools elaborated throughout North America and Europe. The present review closes with the proposal of creating a European formative curriculum for group psychologists in order to unify and promote research within this active and important field of psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
In a referendum held in July, 2003, 79% of the Polish people, citizens of an independent country, opted for joining the European Union. This nation, which on the turn of the first millennium chose a pro-European course of development, once again confirmed its authentically European identity. It is, in fact, an identity never lost, despite the decrees of history and all ominous events of the second half of the twentieth century. Psychologists and students of psychology also have their share in this majority "yes" for the European Union. Poland is a relatively large country with numerous universities and colleges. At 15 of them, students have the possibility of completing psychology as their major faculty with a 5-year schedule of varied courses and subsequently graduating with the degree of MA. Much has changed in our country since the memorable year of 1989 and these transformations obviously also apply to Polish universities, including the community of psychologists who will soon join, with no further limitations, the European community of psychologists. While educating future psychologists, we will be aware of the fact that we are now no longer cultivating them for Poland alone but for Europe as a whole. We, therefore, regard it as worthwhile to delineate for our European colleagues a general overview of Polish academic psychology, and especially of the most recent developments that have taken place during the major socio-political transformation begun in 1989. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
This article presents the structure, processes, climate, and culture of the Slovenian Psychological Association (SPA) in the period from 1999 to 2003. The contribution of the former leadership of the SPA to Slovenian psychology as a profession, science, and academic discipline is discussed. International promotion of the SPA is also covered, as are the following themes: law on psychological practice, Slovenian psychological congresses, financial affairs, some aspects of interpersonal relations, and activities related to the Euro-diploma. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Europe is the oldest continent in the world; in the year 2000, about 17% of Europeans (EU-15) were older than 65, and projections say that in the year 2025 one-fourth of the European population will have reached this age. Nevertheless, the threat to the population is not aging but disability; although life expectancy at birth is about 80, the expected number of years with disability runs from 5.7 to 7.2 years (WHO, 2002). The United Nations recently approved the II International Plan of Action on Aging (MIPAA, UN, 2002) with special recommendation for the European region. This situation is highly demanding both for the science of psychology and for European psychologists. This article introduces a set of research programs--linked with the three priority directions of the MIPAA--as examples of how psychology is one of the disciplines calling for improved quality of life and well-being in old age and, therefore, GeroPsychology as an applied field should be consolidated in the next decades. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
The study investigates whether five often postulated attention abilities related to Posner's attention components (Posner & Boies, 1971; Posner & Rafal, 1987)--alertness, spatial attention, focused attention, attentional switching, and divided attention--represent empirically distinguishable cognitive mechanisms from an individual differences perspective, and to what extent these abilities contribute to conceptually distinct attention abilities related to working memory (Baddeley, 1986), action theory (Neumann, 1992), and psychometric assessment (e.g., Brickenkamp, 1994; Moosbrugger & Goldhammer, 2007). A total of 232 participants completed 12 attention tasks intended to measure the abilities of interest. First, confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) revealed that the five attention abilities based on Posner's work are moderately related, but clearly distinguishable. The proposed confirmatory factor model consists of one common and five specific attention ability factors. Second, structural equation modeling (SEM) indicated that these five specific attention abilities contribute differentially to attention abilities associated with working memory, action theory, and psychometric assessment, whereas the common factor contributes significantly to all of them. Especially, the results suggest that both divided attention and attentional switching are involved in action-oriented attention abilities as well as in attention abilities associated with psychometric assessment ("concentration"). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Examined the relationships between academic achievement and the academic self-concept and their role in the construction of academic self-beliefs in 89 8th, 38 10th, and 42 12th graders. In 4 studies, the following was assessed: (1) the general academic self-knowledge of students; (2) the academic self-knowledge of older students; and (3) academic self-knowledge in a specific discipline when participants were assigned a specific social position. In the 1st 2 studies, all participants exhibited self-beliefs related to superiority, including those whose academic standing was poor. The pattern was weaker for poor students whose academic history was longer (Study 3). When referring to a specific academic situation (English class), however, participants endorsed traits as self-descriptive that were consistent with their academic standing. When assigned a specific social position based on academic achievement, only average students endorsed traits that conformed to their assigned social position. Appendices of the list of the trait and behavior items used are provided. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
This research provides empirical evidence on the relationships between employee attitudes to safety issues and accident indicators in a Spanish context. The research attempts to review to what degree those attitudes reflect a collective, or shared, climate for safety within a number of organizations. Data were gathered from workers in a number of industries in Valencia (Spain) by questionnaire. A total of 1,234 valid questionnaires were completed and formed the basis for subsequent analysis. Analysis of the attitude dimensions found a similar structure to that found in previous research in other countries, as well as identifying those dimensions shared within groups, more likely to represent safety climate. In terms of explaining accidents, the data showed that variables dealing with the work environment, in particular the presence of Workplace Hazards, and the individual’s approach to working safely were directly related to accident outcomes, explaining 19% of the variability in accident history. These variables were, in turn, related to the assessment of safety climate, suggesting that individual attitude variables act as a mediator between climate and accident occurrence. This paper represents one of the few attempts to explain the influence of safety climate, work environment, and individual attitudes on accident outcomes in the Spanish environment, using a theoretical model developed and validated in another European context. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Proposes a model of the motivational structure of the migrant personality within the framework of McClelland's motivational theory. It is argued that those who choose to leave their country of origin have higher achievement and power motivation and lower affiliation motivation than those who want to stay. This model was tested with 1,050 college students in Albania, the Czech Republic, and Slovenia. Ss completed questionnaires measuring achievement, power motivation, and affiliative tendency. Results confirmed predictions for the achievement and power motives. Ss who wanted to emigrate had higher achievement and power motivation scores than those who wanted to stay. This model was also applied to internal migrants, tested with 789 US college students. Results show that those who wanted to leave the region of their university after graduation scored significantly higher on achievement and power motivation than those who wanted to stay. It is argued that this pattern is specific for countries or regions of economic stagnation or decline, while it may be reversed for countries or regions of economic growth. Predictions for the affiliation motivation were partly supported. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Examined semantic memory performance in adulthood and old age, using the 1st wave of data collected in the Betula project, a 10-yr longitudinal study on memory and health that involves 100 participants from each of 10 age groups: 35, 40, 45, . . . , and 80 years of age. Results from tests of verbal fluency and vocabulary indicated no performance variation between 35 and 50 yrs of age, followed by a gradual deterioration with increasing age. In a test of general knowledge, only the 2 oldest cohorts showed deficits. When educational level was statistically controlled, the middle-aged adults performed at the highest level and, with the exception of 1 fluency test, no age-related deficits were observed before 75 yrs of age. These results suggest that, although there may be age-related deficits in semantic memory in the general population, education appears to be a more important factor than adult age per se for semantic memory functioning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
The International Union of Psychological Science is searching for ethical principles that are universal for the discipline of psychology. Codes of ethics adopted by other international organizations are reviewed, as well as recent comparisons of psychology codes across national boundaries. Distinctions are made between declarations of human rights and professional codes of ethics, between ethical principles as overarching values and as rules of conduct, and between Euro-North American and non-Western cultural values. Organizations such as the United Nations and Amnesty International work for the elimination of abuses of human rights. Professional associations establish guidelines to promote the ethical behavior of their members. The hope for articulating universal ethical principles for psychologists is based on respect for our common humanity while still respecting the diversity of beliefs in different cultures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Criticizes the article by Jean L. Pettifor (see record 2004-21859-008) saying that it does not reflect on its own ethical position. What is morally most fundamental? Is it basic human rights, human welfare, justice and fairness, contractual rights and duties, the ethics of care, or some other moral principle? If there is no fundamental ethical principle, what is the relation between these different normative concepts? How should we resolve the conflict between contradicting moral imperatives? A second criticism is that the paper does not reflect on the functions of a professional code of ethics. Professional codes of behavior do not have the function of creating a better world, but instead they describe to the social environment what a profession can achieve and what it cannot achieve. Professional codes of behavior attempt to create public trust and confidence in the profession and its members. A good code of conduct also includes a monitoring mechanism. Finally, a good code must include sanctioning mechanisms directed toward those who can be demonstrated to have violated the rules of the code. The worst-case scenario must allow for a sanction that includes the expulsion from the professional association. Thus, codes of conduct define rules of good practice. In sum, the author should begin with an elaboration of the different functions of professional codes of ethics. At the moment her argument is: other professional associations have a worldwide code of ethics so we need a worldwide code of ethics, too. In the current author's opinion, this is not a strong argument. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
In this Special Section of Issue 2/2000 of the European Psychologist the attempt is made to portray current perspectives on psychology in Europe by "tele-interviewing" a broad sample of European psychological scientists and practitioners on their personal views, expectations, hopes, and prescriptions for the development of psychology (in Europe or elsewhere), and on opinions they may hold on possible specifics of a "European Psychology." These contributions vary significantly both in formal aspects (length or degree of detail) and in substantive aspects of content and opinion. Yet they seem to capture one significant aspect of European psychology quite clearly and correctly: the significant variability of viewpoint and of descriptive or prescriptive attributions in the minds of colleagues from different parts of Europe, in different areas of specialization, and from different professional backgrounds. They also serve to illustrate dimensions of responsibility psychologists should be conscious to meet and should expect to be evaluated against in an evolving globalized societal framework. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
We report a pilot program set up at the School of Psychology of the University of Salamanca (Spain) as a step to precede adapting three subjects to the European Credit Transfer System (ECTS). After reviewing the relevant literature, we contacted via e-mail 30 schools of psychology in 13 countries with which we exchange students through the Erasmus-Socrates Program in order to learn of their experiences. With the same goal in mind, we held meetings with representatives from two Spanish universities responsible for the issue of European convergence. We also interviewed a senior agent from the Ministry of Education to learn about the initiatives being made and the main lines of action foreseen for the future. Owing to its practical nature, the experience of the University of Barcelona was used as a model. Using a questionnaire, among other variables we assessed the workload estimated by students in each subject. The questionnaire was completed by 246 students. The results show that the questionnaire is of use for educators to check their level of demand (to what extent the hours spent by students on each subject match the time they actually should be spending on such work) and to determine which parts of the syllabus require more preparation time, or are more complex, or are the most useful. The feedback is also good for the students. This evaluation is a step that would precede introducing changes in the syllabus and activating other teaching resources designed to ensure passage of the application of the ECTS in Spain. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
The present paper argues that psychosocial adaptation in visually impaired older adults is substantially mediated by the use of control strategies. Our first research question against this general conceptual background is whether there are differences between visually impaired older adults and unimpaired older adults in control strategies or variables considered as major adaptational outcome variables in the behavioral and emotional domain. Our second research question addresses the kind of relations between control strategies and outcomes in visually impaired older adults. The findings are based on a sample of N=90 visually impaired older adults (mean age: 79.5; 64 women, 26 men; all suffering from age-related macular degeneration; visual acuity less than 20/70) as well as a reference group of N=35 unimpaired older adults. All participants underwent a standardized psychological assessment program based on internationally well-established measures. Findings support the notion that differences between the visually impaired and the unimpaired are most pronounced in behavioral indicators such as activities of daily living and leisure activity level, while control strategies were different in only one instance, pointing to a stronger tendency in visually impaired persons... (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Subjective quality of life can be defined in terms of life satisfaction (LS), subjective well-being (SWB), happiness, and morale. In our study, we investigated the effect of demographic, health, affective, and adaptation-to-old-age factors on the above attributes of subjective quality of life. The sample was comprised of 160 elderly of both genders, aged 63 to 100 years. Half of them lived in a Greek city and the rest came from a small town and nearby villages. Participants filled in questionnaires on (a) demographic information; (b) subjective perception of their health condition; (c) emotional state; (d) adaptation to old age; (e) Life Satisfaction Index A and B (Neugarten, Havighurst, & Tobin, 1961). Pearson correlation and regression analyses showed that the effect of demographic and health factors was mediated by affect and adaptation-to-old-age factors. Positive affect contributed to all aspects of subjective quality of life, whereas negative affect was important for the determination of happiness and SWB. Particularly important for LS proved to be good adaptation to old age and generativity toward one's children, whereas self-control and efficacy, and downward social comparison for one's health condition contributed to morale. Having children had a significant... (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
In September 2002, the Hungarian Psychological Association established a working group as a committee of the association (abbreviated from the Hungarian to be known as the PSZEU committee) with the dual aim of facilitating the European integration of the profession, and to gather information and to create initiatives that can help in the further development of psychology in Hungary. This working group has had several meetings during the past 2 years and had as a priority item on its agenda to support the adaptation and oversee the implementation of the EUROPSY platform and license in Hungary. In June 6-7, 2004, the committee held a conference to assess the results of the EUROPSY pilot project. This article reports on some of the PSZEU committee's work, discussing the topics that were deliberated and the decisions and outcomes that subsequently arose. These included: the arrival at a definition of professional supervision; state regulation an laws on psychology in Hungary; the primacy of clinical psychology; and the division of psychology into professional areas and area-specific competencies of psychologists. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
This is the second of two reports using semistructured interviews to explore the current and recollected experiences of Irish people for the period before, during, and after the introduction of Euro notes and coins (1 January 2002). A total of 24 adults were interviewed between October 2002 and February 2003. Most people felt they were adapting well although their knowledge of new prices tended to be fairly sparse. Some reported still experiencing confusion with notes and coins or making errors associated with habitual behavior based on the value of the former currency, the punt. Initially respondents had routinely attempted to make mental or electronic comparisons of Euro and punt prices, although this had become more selective. One year after the transition, some respondents claimed to be thinking in Euros, while others were still thinking in punts. People's reported experience appeared to reveal an adaptation strategy comprising at least two stages, initially involving currency conversion, but later focusing on the relearning of reference prices for certain exemplars. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Convergence towards the European Higher Education Area involves a profound change within the university sector. The emphasis in the teaching-learning process shifts away from the teacher and onto the student. In order to deal with the major changes in the reform, the Faculty of Psychology of the University of the Basque Country, like other faculties throughout Europe, introduced a pilot scheme involving the adaptation of several undergraduate courses to the ECTS (the European Credit Transfer System). Based on data collected from a sample of 218 students--143 belonging to the experimental group which received teaching based on ECTS credits and 75 belonging to the control group taught in accordance with the current system--the aim of this study was to develop and validate a questionnaire that assesses whether, from the students' viewpoint, the courses adapted in this pilot scheme met the pedagogical requirements proposed by the new system. The results show that the instrument has a four-dimensional structure with adequate internal consistency and good validity indices. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Attachment configurations and dyadic adjustment.
Model with Actor and Partner effects
The influence of transition to parenthood on adjustment subscales
The role of attachment configuration on dyadic consensus
Article
This study focuses on the changes in perception of dyadic adjustment following childbirth and on the role of attachment (as a risk or protection factor) in the way partners adjust to this stressful event. Four attachment configurations were analyzed which emerged from the concordance or discordance between the “generalized” and the “specific” states of mind in the individual, and a longitudinal and cross-sectional study on N = 206 participants (104 “new-parents” and 102 “nonparents by choice”) was then implemented. These results showed that individuals who became parents had lower dyadic adjustment levels than nonparents (Lrtest = 395.03; p < .001). This decline in values seemed to be more pronounced for the “affectional expression” subscale ( b = −3.69) and suggests that in our sample the expression of love toward a partner might be particularly subject to stress due to the arrival of a child. Considering the role played in the attachment configuration of each individual, a significant effect upon Insecure GEN/Insecure SPEC individuals was found ( p = .015). This then would seem to indicate that these individuals might be more vulnerable to perceiving worse adjustment levels during the transition to first-time parenthood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
This study investigated the relationships between tenacious goal pursuit (TGP) and flexible goal adjustment (FGA), two fundamental modes of self-regulation suggested by Brandtstädter and colleagues, and positive and negative affect (PA, NA). This was done in general terms and by considering the developmental constraint of perceived age-related visual decline. Data stem from 751 community-dwelling elders (55-98 years, 372 women, 379 men). Results support the hypothesis of differential associations of TGP and FGA, respectively, with affect: TGP was positively related to PA, and FGA was negatively related to NA. Moreover, differential moderator effects of TGP and FGA, respectively, on the relationship between subjective vision and affect emerged. FGA independently moderated the inverse relationship between subjective vision and NA. The moderator effect of TGP, however, was dependent on FGA: TGP did not alter the relationship between subjective vision and PA until FGA was high, too. It is concluded that both TGP and FGA are necessary for an adaptive self-regulation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
The negative consequences of children's exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) have been well documented; however, less is known about the effects of contextual factors such as parenting stress, parenting behaviors, and mothers' psychological functioning on exposed children. A total of 172 African-American mothers and their children (4 to 12 years of age) were recruited from battered women's shelters for the present study. Mothers filled out questionnaires assessing family violence, family contextual variables, and children's outcomes, and children reported on their own depressive symptoms. Results from a cluster analysis indicated substantial variability in women's experiences of parenting stress with regard to both type and quantity. Across each of the six clusters, women significantly differed in parenting behaviors and general psychological distress, and their children varied concomitantly in severity of internalizing and externalizing problems. These patterns suggest the need for individualized interventions, with a particular focus on parenting stress, to better serve the needs of women and children experiencing IPV. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Comments on the article by C. Umiltà (see record 2000-03879-001) on the dependence of conscious experience on multiple brain systems. The question of relations among conscious experience and emotional states, goal strivings, and other motivational states is raised. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
The present study aims to investigate the latent structure of a Physical Dating Aggression Scale in Italian and Canadian adolescents and to evaluate the measurement invariance across gender and country. Participants involved 1,628 adolescents (704 Italians and 924 Canadians; 800 males and 828 females) aged 14–16 years. A revised version of the CTS Physical Aggression Scale (Straus, 1979) modified to make the items more acceptable to younger teens was used. Results from Single-Group confirmatory factor analysis supported a monodimensional structure as the most parsimonious index of Physical Dating Aggression. Furthermore, Multiple-Group analyses conducted through different tests (across gender in each country separately, across country in each gender separately, and across country on the whole sample) showed a substantial factorial invariance. Results are discussed in relation to age, gender, and cultural issues on Physical Dating Aggression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
The way an adolescent handles different internal and external sources of stress depends partially on coping strategies. The aim of this study is to answer the following questions: Do coping strategies vary according to age and gender? And do relationships between coping and mental health vary according to age? Participants in this study consist of a community sample (N = 140; 73 girls and 67 boys, 11 through 15 years of age) in an urban area of the French-speaking part of Switzerland. The population was divided into two groups: a subsample of 70 subjects with a mean age of 12.25 years (early adolescents) and a subsample of 70 subjects with a mean age of 13.75 years (mid-adolescents). Coping was measured by the A-COPE ( Patterson & McCubbin, 1987 ). Findings show that there are less family-oriented coping strategies and more relaxing strategies in mid-adolescents compared to early adolescents. Girls more often use social relationships as well as ventilating feelings and self-reliance, whereas boys more often use liesure. It appears that coping strategies are more useful in mid-adolescents. The buffer hypothesis is confirmed in this latter group, but not in the early-adolescent group.
 
Article
Presents a scale developed to measure 2 dimensions of environmental perceptions—reactions towards preservation and towards utilizing nature and/or the environment—consisting of 2 and 3 subscales, respectively. The empirical part consists of a reanalysis of data from 4 national samples, now analyzed together as 1 sample. The results of the 4 subsamples (of some 4,500 secondary school pupils in total) have been published elsewhere as bilateral studies. The aim of the present analysis was to identify a scale that is valid for the entire European sample: By means of factor analyses and structural equation modeling 20 items were extracted. Two latent variables, utilization and preservation, were hypothesized and related in a causal fashion, whereby utilization influences preservation. By application of the methods of linear structural relationships, the proposed model yielded a good fit to the data. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Characteristics of literature described in the present study
Continued.
Article
This review examines associations between parenting styles and the psychosexual development of adolescents. Methods and results of empirical studies of associations between parental support, control, and knowledge and the sexual behavior and sexual health of adolescents are described and evaluated. The results show that, in general, higher scores on support, control, and knowledge relate to a delay of first sexual intercourse, safer sexual practices, and higher sexual competence. Despite the vast amount of literature on this subject, the majority of these studies focus on single dimensions of parenting and unidirectional parenting influences. This review generates hypotheses regarding interactions of different parenting styles and reciprocal associations between parents and their children. There is a need for more dynamic, dialectical studies of parenting, and children’s sexual development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
The core aim of the present study is to compare the effects of a safety campaign and a behavior modification program on traffic safety. As is the case in community-based health promotion, the present study's approach of the attitude campaign was based on active participation of the group of recipients. One of the reasons why many attitude campaigns conducted previously have failed may be that they have been society-based public health programs. Both the interventions were carried out simultaneously among students aged 18-19 years in two Norwegian high schools (n = 342). At the first high school the intervention was behavior modification, at the second school a community-based attitude campaign was carried out. Baseline and posttest data on attitudes toward traffic safety and self-reported risk behavior were collected. The results showed that there was a significant total effect of the interventions although the effect depended on the type of intervention. There were significant differences in attitude and behavior only in the sample where the attitude campaign was carried out and no significant changes were found in the group of recipients of behavior modification. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Means, standard deviation and F test for gender differ- ences for the variables of the conceptual model.
Article
Tested the hypothesis that perceived self-efficacy to resist peer pressure for high-risk activities is related to transgressive conduct, both directly and through the mediation of open familial communication. 324 adolescents (aged 14–18 yrs) rated their self-regulatory efficacy, openness of communication with parents, and their involvement in delinquent conduct and substance abuse. Results of structural equation modeling confirm that a high sense of efficacy to ward off negative peer influences was accompanied by open communication with parents about activities outside the home and by low engagement in delinquent conduct and substance abuse. Both the posited direct and mediated paths of influences were replicated for males and females, although girls exhibited a slightly weaker direct relationship between self-regulatory efficacy and transgressive conduct. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
The present study examined how tolerance toward nontraditional family forms relates to family structure, by examining differences between youngsters and parents from intact and postdivorce families. We also explored whether intergenerational transmission of attitudes toward nontraditional family forms differed between intact and postdivorce families. We made use of three-wave longitudinal data of 959 adolescents and young adults aged 12 years to 24 years at the first wave, and also of one of the parents. Longitudinal multilevel analyses revealed that both youngsters and parents of postdivorce families are more tolerant toward nontraditional family forms and that parental attitude transmission is significantly lower in families after a divorce. Results apply to respondents of a broad age range. Several explanations are suggested for the flawed intergenerational transmission of attitudes in postdivorce families. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Means, Standard Deviations, and Range of the Variables Germany Israel
Article
Immigrant adolescents have been found to prefer intraethnic over interethnic friendships, a phenomenon called friendship homophily (FH). This study investigates whether Russian Jewish immigrants in Israel and ethnic German immigrants in Germany differ in their FH rates, which variables predict friendship homophily in each sample, and whether relative strength of association between predictors and FH differs between both samples. FH is measured using reports on best friends, cliques, and distant friendships. Results found FH, in general, to be more pronounced in the Russian Jewish sample, and acculturation orientation and language use predicted interindividual differences in FH in both samples. Perceived discrimination predicted higher levels of FH in cliques and distant friendships only in Israel. Findings suggest the importance of acculturation in selecting intra- or interethnic friends. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
[Correction Notice: An erratum for this article was reported in Vol 7(2) of European Psychologist (see record 2007-17072-001). Via e-mail on April 7, 2002, the authors informed us about an error in the data presented in their article. The error occurred in Table 1, page 206. The correct data is presented in the corrigendum.] The main goal of this research was to examine the effect on early adolescents of the temporary or definite loss of their fathers on their posttraumatic adaptation (psychological state, behavioral problems, and school achievements). Researchers examined the effect of the exposure of 816 adolescents (10–15 yr olds in Sarajevo who were 6–12 yrs old at the time of the war) to the 1992–95 war in Bosnia-Herzegovina and to postwar-related stressful/traumatic experiences. In particular, they examined the level of depression in these Ss who experienced temporary or definite traumatic loss of a father, many of whom had no valid information about their fathers' fates. The Ss completed questionnaires on their war-related trauma experiences and completed the Birleson Depression Scale for Children. Results show that the group of early adolescents whose fathers had disappeared (and are still missing) was the group exposed most to war-related traumatic events; these adolescents also show the highest level of depressive reactions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Does personality stay stable after young adulthood or is there continued change throughout middle and later adulthood? For decades, this question has caused heated debate. Over the last couple of years, a consensus has emerged based on recent cross-cultural as well as longitudinal evidence. This consensus confirms that indeed there is personality change in middle and later adulthood. Many authors have labeled this change personality maturation or growth. In somewhat simplified terms the observed pattern is as follows: neuroticism declines, conscientiousness and agreeableness increase. At the same time it has been argued that this pattern of personality change is the result of coping with the developmental tasks of adulthood and, thus, increased adjustment. We would like to examine this practice of equating developmental adjustment with growth and ask how to define personality growth. To answer this question, we consult theories of personality development as well as lifespan theory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Three cross-sectional studies examined stability and change in personality over the course of life by measuring the relations linking age to personality traits, self-efficacy beliefs, values, and well-being in large samples of Italian male and female participants. In each study, relations between personality and age were examined across several age groups ranging from young adulthood to old age. In each study, personality constructs were first examined in terms of mean group differences accrued by age and gender and then in terms of their correlations with age across gender and age groups. Furthermore, personality-age correlations were also calculated, controlling for the demographic effects accrued by marital status, education, and health. Findings strongly indicated that personality functioning does not necessarily decline in the later years of life, and that decline is more pronounced in males than it is in females across several personality dimensions ranging from personality traits, such as emotional stability, to self-efficacy beliefs, such as efficacy in dealing with negative affect. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for personality theory and social policy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
The Distribution of Identity Status over the Domains of Political and Occupational Identity at Ages 27, 36, 42, and 50, and the Identity Status Change between Each Measurement for Women and Men. Women
Article
Identity formation in political and occupational domains was examined from young to middle adulthood based on an ongoing longitudinal study. In addition to the participants’ identity status (diffused, moratorium, foreclosed, achieved), we assessed their perceived importance of politics, future orientation, and career stability four times in adulthood, at ages 27, 36, 42, and 50. The number of participants varied between analyses, from 168 to 291. Changes in the economic situation in Finland from 1986 to 2009 provided a context for the study. Data collections at ages 36 (in 1995) and 50 (in 2009) took place during economic recessions, and at age 42 (in 2001) during an economic boom. The results were discussed from both age-graded and history-graded perspectives. Developmental trends in political and occupational identity were reversed across age and changes in the economic situation. Political identity was at its lowest level and occupational identity was at its highest level at age 42 during the economic boom. Political identity progressed at a time of economic recession at age 50, whereas occupational identity regressed. In women, identity changes were associated with personal career stability. The perceived importance of politics increased concurrently with political identity achievement. During the recession when they were age 50, women tended to worry about future financial problems, while men perceived their future depending decreasingly on themselves and increasingly on the world situation. The results indicate that macro-level economic conditions may have psychological implications on people’s conceptions of themselves that are worth considering in developmental studies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved) Pre-print version available at: https://jyx.jyu.fi/dspace/handle/123456789/45439
 
Descriptive data for the final sample (n = 1777) 
WCD groups (groups with lowest means) in the total sample and separated by APOE status 
Article
This study of the general population examined interactions of the gene Apolipoprotein E ( APOE) and/or lipid levels, and their effects on cognitive change. A MANCOVA model based on longitudinal data (with a 5 year follow-up) obtained from the Betula study ( n = 1777; age 35–85 years) was used. The significant two-way and three-way interaction effects detected were equally frequent in tests of episodic and semantic memory. A difference in the distribution of interaction effects on episodic and semantic memory decline was also found. Men demonstrated the worst cognitive development as shown by significant two-way interaction effects on episodic memory whereas two-way interaction effects among women resulted in the worst semantic memory development. This result is discussed from the viewpoint that tests of episodic and semantic memory have different cognitive demands. This study focuses on how interaction effects of the gene APOE and vascular risk factors (such as lipid levels) affect cognitive abilities and also whether the interaction effects vary across age and sex. In this study, the main focus is on interaction effects as a phenomenon in itself. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
This paper reports on two studies in which different adult populations who had not formally studied psychology completed multiple-choice tests derived from general psychology textbooks to evaluate specific knowledge of the discipline. The aim was to determine to what extent psychology was "common sense" and which personal characteristics, such as sex, education, and age, best predicted correct answers. In the first study, 114 students about to start a psychology degree, and 222 nonstudent adults, completed a 106-item questionnaire taken from a standard textbook. There was considerable variability in the extent to which participants checked the correct answer, with an overall average of only 56% (just above chance). There was no statistical difference between the two groups in knowledge overall or in any particular areas. A regression showed books read and belief in the scientific nature of psychology to be the best predictors of overall knowledge. In the second study, 94 first-year students at the beginning of their course and 136 student applicants completed a 114-item questionnaire derived from a different textbook, this time focusing on child development. There was no difference in the correct responses between a psychology-student and nonstudent group, with both groups . . .. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Despite several studies investigating the impact of sex and violence in television on consumer behavior and memory for products in commercials, results remain inconsistent and debated. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of television violence and sex on memory for commercials and willingness to buy products. Two hundred twelve young adults were assigned to watch either a sexual, violent, combined sexual and violent or neutral television show. Within each show were embedded 12 commercials, four violent, four sexual, and four neutral. Results indicated that violent or sexual content of the television show did not impair memory for commercials or willingness to buy products, and that sexual or violent content in the commercials themselves increased memory for those commercials. Implications for the current study are that violent or sexual shows may adequately function in attracting viewers’ attention, with sexual and violent content in the commercials themselves improving viewers memory for products. Use of violent or sexual content in commercials may thus be useful in advertising for brand recall. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Provides an overview of the International Association of Empirical Aesthetics (IAEA), including its origins and aims, organization, and publications and activities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Conceptual model of goal setting.
Temporal ordering of measures.
Article
This paper focuses on explaining how individuals set goals on multiple performance episodes, in the context of performance feedback comparing their performance on each episode with their respective goal. The proposed model was tested through a longitudinal study of 493 university students’ actual goals and performance on business school exams. Results of a structural equation model supported the proposed conceptual model in which self-efficacy and emotional reactions to feedback mediate the relationship between feedback and subsequent goals. In addition, as expected, participants’ standing on a dispositional measure of behavioral inhibition influenced the strength of their emotional reactions to negative feedback. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Top-cited authors
David Fletcher
  • Loughborough University
Fons Van de Vijver
  • Tilburg University
Mustafa Sarkar
  • Nottingham Trent University
Ronald K Hambleton
  • University of Massachusetts Amherst
Florian G Kaiser
  • Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg