European Physical Journal Plus

Published by EDP Sciences
Online ISSN: 2190-5444
In this paper, the properties of Cd(106-122)isotopes are considered in the U(5)-SO(6)transitional region of IBM1. With employing a transitional Hamiltonian which is based on affine SU(1,1)Lie Algebraic technique, the energy levels and B(E2)transition rates are calculated. The results are compared with the most recent experimental values where an acceptable degree of agreement is achieved. Also, the energy ratios, control parameters and empirical two neutron separation energies suggest spherical to gamma soft shape transitions in these nuclei where the Cd (114,122)nuclei are considered as the best candidates for the E(5)critical symmetry.
The Forbush decrease following the large X2 solar flare on mid-February 2011 has been observed by the muon telescopes of the EEE Project, which are located in several Italian sites and at CERN. Data from two different telescopes of the EEE network have been analyzed and compared to those measured by neutron monitor stations. The variation of the muon counting rate during the Forbush decrease was also extracted for different intervals of the azimuthal angle of the incoming muons.
The Hilbert-Schmidt operator formulation of non-commutative quantum mechanics in 2D Moyal plane is shown to allow one to construct Schwinger's SU(2) generators. Using this the SU(2) symmetry aspect of both commutative and non-commutative harmonic oscillator are studied and compared. Particularly, in the non-commutative case we demonstrate the existence of a critical point in the parameter space of mass and angular frequency where there is a manifest SU(2) symmetry for a unphysical harmonic oscillator Hamiltonian built out of commuting (unphysical yet covariantly transforming under SU(2)) position like observable. The existence of this critical point is shown to be a novel aspect in non-commutative harmonic oscillator, which is exploited to obtain the spectrum and the observable mass and angular frequency parameters of the physical oscillator-which is generically different from the bare parameters occurring in the Hamiltonian. Finally, we show that a Zeeman term in the Hamiltonian of non-commutative physical harmonic oscillator, is solely responsible for both SU(2) and time reversal symmetry breaking.
In this article, we study the two-body strong decays of the bottom mesons with the heavy meson effective theory in the leading order approximation, and obtain all the analytical expressions of the decay widths of the light pseudoscalar mesons transitions among the S-wave, P-wave and D-wave bottom mesons. As an application, we tentatively assign the bottom meson $B(5970)$ as the $2{\rm S}\,1^-$, $1{\rm D}\,1^-$ and $1{\rm D}\,3^-$ states, respectively, and calculate the decay widths of the $B_1(5721)$, $B_2(5747)$, $B_{s1}(5830)$, $B_{s2}(5840)$ and $B(5970)$, which can be confronted with the experimental data in the future.
We develop a stochastic approach to study scalar field fluctuations of the inflaton field in an early inflationary universe with a black-hole (BH), which is described by an effective 4D SdS metric. Considering a 5D Ricci-flat SdS static metric, we implement a planar coordinate transformation, in order to obtain a 5D cosmological metric, from which the effective 4D SdS metric can be induced on a 4D hypersurface. We found that at the end of inflation, the squared fluctuations of the inflaton field are not exactly scale independent and becomes sensitive with the mass of the BH.
Number of created particles after inflation with a given wavenumber N K , with respect to the wavenumber 0.008 < K < 0.01.
We use the Bogoliubov formalism to study both, particles and gravitons creation at the reheating epoch, after a phase transition from inflation to a radiation dominated universe. The modes of the inflaton field fluctuations and the scalar fluctuations of the metric at the end of inflation are obtained by using a recently introduced formalism related to the Induced Matter theory of gravity. The interesting result is that the number of created particles is bigger than $10^{90}$ on cosmological scales. Furthermore, the number of gravitons are nearly $10^{-17}$ times smaller than the number of created particles. In both cases, these numbers rapidly increases on cosmological scales.
We consider a five-dimensional Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model compactified on a S1/Z2 orbifold, and study the evolution of neutrino masses, mixing angles and phases for different values of tan beta and different radii of compactification. We consider the usual four dimensional Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model limit plus two extra-dimensional scenarios: where all matter superfields can propagate in the bulk, and where they are constrained to the brane. We discuss in both cases the evolution of the mass spectrum, the implications for the mixing angles and the phases. We find that a large variation for the Dirac phase is possible, which makes models predicting maximal leptonic CP violation especially appealing.
The cross-section of the natPb binary fission, induced by 7Li ions at 245 MeV energy, was measured and the fission product cross-sections studied by means of activation analysis in the off-line regimen. The analysis of charge and mass distributions of fission products allows to calculate the fission cross-section. The recoil technique ("thick target- thick catcher"), based on the two step model mathematical formalism, is used for the determination of the kinematical characteristics of reaction products. The data concerning transferred linear momentum provides information on the initial projectile-target interaction, and is compared to measurements of the proton-induced fission.
We present spectral distributions of channeling radiation by 20-800MeV electrons for various planes of a thin 4H polytype silicon carbide crystal. The quantum theory of channeling radiation has been applied to calculate the transverse electron states in the continuum potential of crystal planes and to study the transition energies, linewidths, depth dependences of quantum states populations, and spectral radiation distributions. At electron energies higher than 100MeV the spectral distributions of emitted radiation have been calculated within the classical approach, and compared successfully with the quantum mechanical solutions. We discuss specific properties of planar channeling radiation in a 4H SiC polytype and find some new features of electron channeling in 4H SiC not available in other structures.
We have derived the hierarchy of soliton equations associated with the untwisted affine Kac-Moody algebra D^(1)_4 by calculating the corresponding recursion operators. The Hamiltonian formulation of the equations from the hierarchy is also considered. As an example we have explicitly presented the first non-trivial member of the hierarchy, which is an one-parameter family of mKdV equations. We have also considered the spectral properties of the Lax operator and introduced a minimal set of scattering data.
We derive and calculate the space-time translational gauge identities in quantum Yang-Mills gravity with a general class of gauge conditions involving two arbitrary parameters. These identities of the Abelian group of translation are a generalization of Ward-Takahasi-Fradkin identities and important for general discussions of possible renormalization of Yang-Mills gravity with translational gauge symmetry. The gauge identities in Yang-Mills gravity with a general class of gauge conditions are substantiated by explicit calculations.
In the present work we analyze the old controversy of Abraham and Minkowski from the microscopic point of view, and from the perspective of a momentum balance equation. Thus we complete the line of research on this subject initiated by Lai et al. (H.M. Lai, W.M. Suen, K. Young, Phys. Rev. A 25, 1755 (1982)). We find that a new term, - \frac1c {\frac{{1}}{{c}}} \frac¶m¶t {\frac{{\partial \mathbf{m}}}{{\partial t}}}×E , justified with several arguments, some of which founded in relativity theory, gives a more coherent view of the controversy. As a test for this approach, we show that the Helmholtz force density may be obtained from a momentum balance equation derived directly from Maxwell’s equations under certain approximations; we find with this analysis that rather than resolve the controversy, we can dissolve it. That is, we have rather a problem of physical interpretation, since we show that other momentum balance equations are also all legitimate implications of Maxwell’s equations.
A new kind of dark matter structures, ultracompact minihalos (UCMHs) was proposed recently. They would be formed during the radiation dominated epoch if the large density perturbations are existent. Moreover, if the dark matter is made up of weakly interacting massive particles, the UCMHs can have effect on cosmological evolution because of the high density and dark matter annihilation within them. In this paper, one new parameter is introduced to consider the contributions of UCMHs due to the dark matter annihilation to the evolution of cosmology, and we use the current and future CMB observations to obtain the constraint on the new parameter and then the abundance of UCMHs. The final results are applicable for a wider range of dark matter parameters
The evolution of jerk parameter j(z) for BD model.  
The evolution of the universe in Brans-Dicke (BD) theory is discussed in this paper. Considering a parameterized scenario for BD scalar field φ = φ 0a α which plays the role of gravitational constant G, we apply the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to investigate a global constraints on BD theory with a self-interacting potential according to the current observational data: the Union2 dataset of type-Ia supernovae (SNIa), the high-redshift Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) data, the observational Hubble data (OHD), the cluster X-ray gas mass fraction, the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO), and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) data. It is shown that an expanded universe from deceleration to acceleration is given in this theory, and the constraint results of dimensionless matter density Ω 0m and parameter α are, Ω 0m = 0.286 −0.039−0.047+0.037+0.050 and α = 0.0046 −0.0171−0.0206+0.0149+0.0171 which is consistent with the result of current experiment exploration, |α| ≤ 0.132124. In addition, we use the geometrical diagnostic method, jerk parameter j, to distinguish the BD theory and the cosmological constant model in Einstein’s theory of general relativity.
Comparison of the results of present model with the observational data
Plot of shear scalar σ versus time T .
The distance modulus µ as function of redshift (z) to the derived model compared with SN Ia data from Amanullah et al. [64]. The observational µ(z) data points are shown with error bars and the solid dots corresponds to distance modulus of derived model.
In the present work we have searched the existence of the late time acceleration of the Universe. The matter source that is responsible for the late time acceleration of the Universe consists of cosmic fluid with the equation of state parameter $\omega =\frac{p}{\rho}$ and uniform magnetic field of energy density $\rho_{B}$. The study is done here under the framework of spatially homogeneous and anisotropic locally rotationally symmetric (LRS) Bianchi-I cosmological model in the presence of magnetized dark energy. To get the deterministic model of the Universe, we assume that the shear scalar $(\sigma)$ in the model is proportional to expansion scalar $(\theta)$. This condition leads to $A=B^{n}$, where $A$ and $B$ are metric functions and $n$ is a positive constant giving the proportionality condition between shear and expansion scalar. It has been found that the isotropic distribution of magnetized dark energy leads to the present accelerated expansion of the Universe and the derived model is in good agreement with the recent astrophysical observations. The physical behavior of the Universe has been discussed in details.
Deceleration parameter as a function of anisotropic parameter for two different choices of the string equation of state in presence of magnetic field. Deceleration parameter in the absence of magnetic field is also shown for comparison.  
Jerk parameter as a function of anisotropic parameter.  
Plane symmetric cosmological models are investigated with or without any dark energy components in the field equations. Keeping an eye on the recent observational constraints concerning the accelerating phase of expansion of the universe, the role of magnetic field is assessed. In the absence of dark energy components, magnetic field can favour an accelerating model even if we take a linear relationship between the directional Hubble parameters. In presence of dark energy components in the form of a time varying cosmological constant, the influence of magnetic field is found to be limited.
The role that small particle accelerators play in the field of applications to Cultural Heritage (for material analysis and dating) is critically discussed also in comparison to other techniques, pointing out pros and cons. As to material analysis, some peculiarities of ion beam techniques may be now less unique than they were perhaps ten years ago, but these techniques can still reach unrivalled results thanks to a smart use of their potential: for instance, they can provide elemental maps and resolve layer structures. Concerning Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, its unique performance for radiocarbon dating -- as to sensitivity, precision and quasi non-destructivity -- is described, and perspectives for further improvements are presented.
We present a criterion for deciding which compact extra dimensional spaces yield physically reliable Newton's law corrections. We study compact manifolds with boundary and without boundary. The boundary conditions which we use on the boundaries are Dirichlet or Neumann. We find that compact connected Riemannian manifolds with Dirichlet boundaries are completely excluded as extra dimensional spaces.
The values of the Y i and ω i calculated for four various versions of Feynman-alpha formulas (the source is in Region A, fast neutron detector is used either in Region A or B).
Geometry used for the Monte-Carlo simulations.  
The dependence of the ratio of the variance to mean of the number of fast neutron detections on the detection time for four versions of Feynman-alpha theory (the source is in Region A, detector is in Region A).
Dependence of the ratio of the variance to mean of the number of thermal neutron detections on the detection time for four versions of Feynman-alpha theory (the source is in Region B, detector is in Region A).  
Dependence of the ratio of the variance to mean of the number of thermal neutron detections on the detection time for four versions of Feynman-alpha theory (the source is in Region B, detector is in Region B).  
This paper presents a full derivation of the variance-to-mean or Feynman-alpha formula in a two energy group and two spatial region-treatment. The derivation is based on the Chapman - Kolmogorov equation with the inclusion of all possible neutron reactions and passage intensities between the two regions. In addition, the two-group one-region and the two-region one-group Feynman-alpha formulas, treated earlier in the literature for special cases, are extended for further types and positions of detectors.We focus on the possibility of using these theories for accelerator-driven systems and applications in the safeguards domain, such as the differential self-interrogation method and the differential die-away method. This is due to the fact that the predictions from the models which are currently used do not fully describe all the effects in the heavily reflected fast or thermal systems. Therefore, in conclusion a comparative study of the two-group two-region, the two-group one-region, the one-group two-region and the one-group one-region Feynman-alpha models is discussed.
In the geometric-optics limit, Yang-Mills gravity with space-time translational gauge symmetry predicts $\D \phi =7Gm/(2R) \approx 1.53''$ for the deflection of a light ray by the sun. The result, which is about 12% smaller than that in the conventional theory, is consistent with experiments involving optical frequencies that had an accuracy of 10-20%.
Bogoliubov pseudoparticle creation in a BEC undergoing a WH like flow is investigated analytically in the case of a one dimensional geometry with stepwise homogeneous regions. Comparison of the results with those corresponding to a BH flow is performed. The implications for the analogous gravitational problem is discussed.
The real and imaginary parts of frequency ω within the intervals k =[0, 0.2] and σ =[0.05, 0.2] (at β =0,β =0.85).
The real and imaginary parts of the electrostatic potential ϕ with the interval x at different values of time t =0, 4a n d β =0, 0.85 at arbitrary parameters σ =0.2,α1 = δ =1.
The flow velocity u, the electric field E at different values of σ and β.
The mobility µm at different values of σ and β.
Using the standard reductive perturbation technique, a nonlinear cubic complex Ginzburg-Landau equation (CGL3) is derived to study the modulational instability of ion acoustic waves (IAWs) in an unmagnetized plasma consisting of warm adiabatic ions and non-thermal electrons, which form the background. The CGL3 is exactly solved by using two methods: the separation of variables and the complex tanh function which produces four solutions; the results are compared and good agreement exists in most predictions. The CGL3 admits localized envelope (solitary wave) solutions of bright and dark types. We study the effects of the thermal conductivity of ions and non-thermally distributed electrons \( \beta\) on the modulational stability. The effect of ion thermal conductivity makes the frequency \( \omega\) be complex in the nonlinear dispersion relation. In terms of the first mode \( \omega_{{1}}^{}\) , the amplitude of the wave moving in the (+ ve) x -direction decreases when any one of the parameters \( \beta\) and the temperature ratio \( \sigma\) (= T i/T eff) increases (where Teff and Ti are the effective and ion temperatures, respectively). It is found that the whole k -\( \sigma\) plane transforms to an unstable region as \( \beta\) \( \approx\) 0.85 . Referring to the internal energy formula, the order of magnitude ratios of different kinds and contributions of the internal energy changes are calculated for various sets {\( \sigma\),\( \beta\)} . The obtained results encourage us to name the unstable system --which experiences loss and gain of ions escaping out or embedding themselves into the acoustic frequency domain, collision and recently experimentally due to ionization and deionization-- a non-equilibrium thermodynamic dissipative open IAW system.
General two-particle system is considered within the formalism of Fokker-type action integrals. It is assumed that the system is invariant with respect to the Aristotle group which is a common subgroup of the Galileo and Poincar\'e groups. It is shown that equations of motion of such system admit circular orbit solutions. The dynamics of perturbations of these solutions is studied. It is described by means of a linear homogeneous set of time-nonlocal equations and is analyzed in terms of eigenfrequencies and eigenmodes. The Hamiltonian description of the system is built in the almost circular orbit approximation. The Aristotle-invariance of the system is exploit to avoid a double count of degrees of freedom and to select physical modes. The quantization procedure and a construction of energy spectrum of the system is proposed.
A method of calculation for the constrained variational derivatives for gravitational actions in the pseudo-Riemannian case is proposed as a practical variant of the first order formalism with constraints. The proposed method calculation is then used to derive the metric field equations for generic $f(R)$ model.
An open issue in classical relativistic mechanics is the consistent treatment of the dynamics of classical $N$-body systems of mutually-interacting particles. This refers, in particular, to charged particles subject to EM interactions, including both binary and self interactions (EM-interacting $N$-body systems). In this paper it is shown that such a description can be consistently obtained in the context of classical electrodynamics, for the case of a $N$-body system of classical finite-size charged particles. A variational formulation of the problem is presented, based on the $N$-body hybrid synchronous Hamilton variational principle. Covariant Lagrangian and Hamiltonian equations of motion for the dynamics of the interacting $N$-body system are derived, which are proved to be delay-type ODEs. Then, a representation in both standard Lagrangian and Hamiltonian forms is proved to hold, the latter expressed by means of classical Poisson Brackets. The theory developed retains both the covariance with respect to the Lorentz group and the exact Hamiltonian structure of the problem, which is shown to be intrinsically non-local. Different applications of the theory are investigated. The first one concerns the development of a suitable Hamiltonian approximation of the exact equations that retains finite delay-time effects characteristic of the binary and self EM interactions. Second, basic consequences concerning the validity of Dirac generator formalism are pointed out, with particular reference to the instant-form representation of Poincar\`{e} generators. Finally, a discussion is presented both on the validity and possible extension of the Dirac generator formalism as well as the failure of the so-called Currie \textquotedblleft no-interaction\textquotedblright\ theorem for the non-local Hamiltonian system considered here.
A viscous incompressible electrically conducting fluid flow through a porous medium over a stretching sheet is considered in the presence of a magnetic field. Such flow problems have relevance in the process of a polymer sheet extrusion from a dye, and the numerical and approximate solutions of these problems are of great interest as these solutions serve practical purposes. By using the technique of stretching variables of the flow concern in porous medium and minimizing the residual of the resulting governing differential equations by the least squares method, we obtained an approximate solution for this problem of flow through porous medium near a stretching sheet. The results are also compared to a numerical solution determined by using the shooting method along with the Runge-Kutta method. The effects of various pertinent parameters on the velocity distribution and the residual function are investigated. The results are depicted graphically and discussed.
Geometrical setting of the problem: section of height l cos α of the infinite straight circular cone of opening angle 2 α and uniform magnetic field parallel to the cone axis. We consider α between 0 and π/ 2 , since, for π/ 2 < α < π we just have an inverted cone. 
a Some Landau levels for a 2DEG on a single cone without singular effects(we considered just three filled angular momentum states, j = − 1 , 0 , 1 ) and b with singular effects. In both cases, each energy labeled with index n splits in two energy values but they show different energy spacing. We considered α = π/ 3 rad. 
Hall conductivity on the cone for different opening angles. (a) irregular and (b) regular case. There is an enhancement on the Hall conductivity as α is reduced. Notice that considering the singularity in the wavefunctions has important consequences.
Profile of the mean curvature M depending on the opening angle α . We can see that, for a smaller values of α , M grows while for higher values of α approaching π/ 2 , M −→ 0 . 
In this work we obtain the Landau levels and the Hall conductivity at zero temperature of a two-dimensional electron gas on a conical surface. We investigate the integer quantum Hall effect considering two different approaches. The first one is an extrinsic approach which employs an effective scalar potential that contains both the Gaussian and the mean curvature of the surface. The second one, an intrinsic approach where the Gaussian curvature is the sole term in the scalar curvature potential. From a theoretical point of view, the singular Gaussian curvature of the cone may affect the wave functions and the respective Landau levels. Since this problem requests {\it self-adjoint extensions}, we investigate how the conical tip could influence the integer quantum Hall effect, comparing with the case were the coupling between the wave functions and the conical tip is ignored. This last case corresponds to the so-called {\it Friedrichs extension}. In all cases, the Hall conductivity is enhanced by the conical geometry depending on the opening angle. There are a considerable number of theoretical papers concerned with the self-adjoint extensions on a cone and now we hope the work addressed here inspires experimental investigation on these questions about quantum dynamics on a cone.
The plot of g(f 0 , H 0 , r s0 , q 0 ) against t for model1 (red), model2 (green) and model3 (black) using b interaction. The other parameters are considered as q = −0.2, r = 3/7, b = 1.5, µ = 0.01, ν = 0.05, n 1 = 0.5, m = 3, α = 5.7 × 10 −61 , p = 1, q 3 = −1, n 2 = −0.9, β = 0.646 × 10 −4
In this note we address the well-known cosmic coincidence problem in the framework of the \textit{f(R,T)} gravity. In order to achieve this, an interaction between dark energy and dark matter is considered. A constraint equation is obtained which filters the \textit{f(R,T)} models that produce a stationary scenario between dark energy and dark matter. Due to the absence of a universally accepted interaction term introduced by a fundamental theory, the study is conducted over three different forms of chosen interaction terms. As an illustration three widely known models of \textit{f(R,T)} gravity are taken into consideration and used in the setup designed to study the problem. The study reveals that, the realization of the coincidence scenario is almost impossible for the popular models of $f(R,T)$ gravity, thus proving to be a major setback for these models.
Carter-Penrose diagram for the new anti-RN-AdS solution.
Graph of the scalar of curvature in function of the entropy S, of the anti-RN-AdS case, for the electric charge q = 0.25 and the cosmological constant Λ = −1.
Graph of the temperature in function of the entropy S, of the RN-AdS case, for the electric charge q = 0.1 and the cosmological constant Λ = −1.
Graph of the temperature in function of the entropy S, of the anti-RN-AdS case, for the electric charge q = 0.1 and the cosmological constant Λ = −1.
Graph of the Gibbs potential, to the RN-AdS case, in function of the entropy S for the electric charge q = 0.1 and the cosmological constant Λ = −1.
We obtain a new solution of the Einstein-anti-Maxwell theory with cosmological constant, called anti-Reissner-Nordstrom-(A)de Sitter (anti-RN-(A)dS) solution. The basic properties of this solution is reviewed. Its thermodynamics is consistently established, with the extreme cases and phase transitions, where the analysis is performed through two methods, the usual one and that of Geometrothermodynamics . The Geometrothermodynamics analysis does not provide a result in agreement with the usual method or by the specific heat. We establish local and global thermodynamic stabilities of anti-RN-AdS solution through the specific heat and the canonical and grand-canonical ensembles.
Henyey-Greenstein functions representing the aerosol phase function for different asymmetry parameters g HG and backward factors f. The Rayleigh phase function, proportional to (1 + cos 2 ζ) and representing scattering properties for the molecular component of the atmosphere, is also plotted.
Normalised distributions of the Angström exponent observed by the two monitors dedicated to this measurement at the Pierre Auger Observatory. Estimations of γ from the HAM for data recorded between July 2006 and February 2007 (continuous line) [13]. The measured γ distribution for data collected by the FRAM from June 2006 until December 2008 (dotted line) [14]. 
Monthly frequency all along the year of clear and hazy nights. Aerosol optical depths at 3.5 km above ground level measured between January 2004 and December 2010 at Los Morados. Clear nights are defined as 0.00 ≤ τa ≤ 0.01 (continuous line) and hazy nights as τa ≥ 0.10 (dotted line).
Example of a forward trajectory from the Malargüe location using HYSPLIT. The initial height is fixed at 500 m above ground level and the time scale is 100 hours (map taken from Google Earth). Kerguelen Island is represented with the circle. 
The Pierre Auger Observatory detects the highest energy cosmic rays. Calorimetric measurements of extensive air showers induced by cosmic rays are performed with a fluorescence detector. Thus, one of the main challenges is the atmospheric monitoring, especially for aerosols in suspension in the atmosphere. Several methods are described which have been developed to measure the aerosol optical depth profile and aerosol phase function, using lasers and other light sources as recorded by the fluorescence detector. The origin of atmospheric aerosols traveling through the Auger site is also presented, highlighting the effect of surrounding areas to atmospheric properties. In the aim to extend the Pierre Auger Observatory to an atmospheric research platform, a discussion about a collaborative project is presented.
We briefly describe the modified Friedmann equations for Einstein-Aether gravity theory and we find the effective density and pressure. The purpose of our present work is to reconstruction of Einstein-Aether Gravity from other modified gravities like $f(T)$, $f(R)$, $f(G)$, $f(R,T)$ and $f(R,G)$ and check its viability. The scale factor is chosen in power law form. The free function $F(K)$ for Einstein-Aether gravity (where $K$ is proportional to $H^{2}$) have been found in terms for $K$ by the correspondence between Einstein-Aether gravity and other modified gravities and the nature of $F(K)$ vs $K$ have been shown graphically for every cases. Finally, we analyzed the stability of each reconstructed Einstein-Aether gravity model.
Fig 8 : The statefinder parameter s is plotted against the EoS parameter. Other parameters are fixed at α = 1, β = −1, b = 1, A = 1/3, B = 0.5, f 0 = 1.2 and M = 2000. Fig 9 : The ratio of density parameters is shown against e-folding time. The initial conditions chosen are v(1)=0.05, u(1)=2.5, y(1)=1.8. Other parameters are fixed at α = 1, β = −1, b = 1, A = 1/3, B = 0.5, f 0 = 1.2 and M = 2000.  
In this work we investigate the background dynamics when dark energy is coupled to dark matter with a suitable interaction in the universe described by Einstein-Aether gravity. Dark energy in the form of Modified Chaplygin gas is considered. A suitable interaction between dark energy and dark matter is considered in order to at least alleviate (if not solve) the cosmic coincidence problem. The dynamical system of equations is solved numerically and a stable scaling solution is obtained. A significant attempt towards the solution of the cosmic coincidence problem is taken. The statefinder parameters are also calculated to classify the dark energy models. Graphs and phase diagrams are drawn to study the variations of these parameters. It is also seen that the background dynamics of modified Chaplygin gas in Einstein-Aether gravity is completely consistent with the notion of an accelerated expansion in the late universe. Finally, it has been shown that the universe follows the power law form of expansion around the critical point.
Front propagation. Relative area of the hole as a function of time for experiments (see Table 2), theory and simulations. Parameters for the theory are P i = −1 for 0kPa and P i = −0.98 for 1kPa, α i = 0.71, α e = 0.53, δ = 0.3 (with initial radius 1), τ = 1. These numerical values correspond to the best estimated fitting for our experimental data. Parameters for the simulations are k div = 32 division/day while keeping k diff /k div = 0.9 or 1.7, for 0kPa and 1kPa, respectively. 
Simulated ring assay. Illustrative examples of the rings obtained for different ratios of the rates of diffusion and division. 
Front velocity and roughness from numerical simulations. a) The front velocity as a function of the ratio of the rates of diffusion and division. b) The front roughness as a function of the ratio of the rates of diffusion and division. 
Understanding the role of microenvironment in cancer growth and metastasis is a key issue for cancer research. Here, we study the effect of osmotic pressure on the functional properties of primary and metastatic melanoma cell lines. In particular, we experimentally quantify individual cell motility and transmigration capability. We then perform a circular scratch assay to study how a cancer cell front invades an empty space. Our results show that primary melanoma cells are sensitive to a low osmotic pressure, while metastatic cells are less. To better understand the experimental results, we introduce and study a continuous model for the dynamics of a cell layer and a stochastic discrete model for cell proliferation and diffusion. The two models capture essential features of the experimental results and allow to make predictions for a wide range of experimentally measurable parameters.
The essentially unique torsionful version of the classical two-component spinor formalisms of Infeld and van der Waerden is exhibited. All the metric spinors and connecting objects that arise here are formally the same as the ones borne by the traditional formalisms. Any spin-affine connection appears to possess a torsional part which is conveniently taken as a suitable asymmetric contribution. Such a torsional affine contribution thus supplies a gauge-invariant potential that may carry an observable character, and thereby effectively takes over the role of any trivially realizable symmetric contribution. The overall curvature spinors for any spin-affine connection accordingly emerge from the irreducible decomposition of a mixed world-spin object which in turn comes out of the action on elementary spinors of a typical torsionful second-order covariant derivative operator. It is pointed out that the new theoretical framework supposedly should afford both a physical characterization of the cosmic dark energy and a description of the propagation of gravitons in torsional regions of the universe.
Plot of x(N ) (on the left) and of y(N ) (on the right) for ω = 0 (dotted) and ω = 1/3 (solid). The initial conditions are x(0) = y(0) = z(0) = 10 −3 and w(0) = κv(1 + 10 −5 )/ √ 6. The plot of z(N ) is almost identical to the one of x(N ). 
On the left: plot of x(N ) (dotted line) and of y(N ) (dashed line) for ωm = 0. On the right: plot of ωχ(N ) (dotted line) and q(N ) (solid line). The initial conditions are: x(0) = 0.9999, y(0) = 0.0099, z(0) = 0.0001, and w(0) = 11κv/ √ 6. 
In this paper we study the dynamics of the late Universe when a nonminimally coupled Higgs field is present. In general, the nonminimal coupling leads to a nontrivial mixing between the gravitational degrees of freedom and the Goldstone massless bosons. We know that this is irrelevant during the inflationary phase. In contrast, in the late Universe the nonminimal coupling affects the classical equations of motion, leading to an acceleration of the expansion rate or to a collapse that forms Q-balls. © 2014 Società Italiana di Fisica and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
We present a class of models where both the primordial inflation and the late times de Sitter phase are driven by simple phenomenological agegraphic potentials. In this context, a possible new scenario for a smooth exit from inflation to the radiation era is discussed by resorting the kination (stiff) era but without the inefficient radiation production mechanism of these models. This is done by considering rapidly decreasing expressions for $V(t)$ soon after inflation. We show that the parameters of our models can reproduce the scalar spectral parameter $n_s$ predicted by Planck data in particular for models with concave potentials.
In this paper, we investigate the twisted algebra of the fermionic oscillators associated with Dirac field defined in $\kappa$-Minkowski space-time. Starting from $\kappa$-deformed Dirac theory, which is invariant under the undeformed $\kappa$-Poincare algebra, using the twisted flip operator, we derive the deformed algebra of the creation and annihilation operators corresponding to the Dirac field quanta in $\kappa$-Minkowski space-time. In the limit $a\rightarrow 0$, the deformed algebra reduces to the commutative result.
VSR symmetries are here naturally incorporated in the DKP algebra on the spin-0 and the spin- 1 DKP sectors. We show that the Elko (dark) spinor fields structure plays an essential role in accomplishing this aim, unravelling hidden symmetries on the bosonic DKP fields under the action of discrete symmetries.
In this paper various representations of the exceptional Lie algebra G_2 are investigated in a purely algebraic manner, and multi-boson/multi-fermion realizations are obtained. Matrix elements of the master representation, which is defined on the space of the universal enveloping algebra of G_2, are explicitly determined. From this master representation, different indecomposable representations defined on invariant subspaces or quotient spaces with respect to these invariant subspaces are discussed. Especially, the elementary representations of G_2 are investigated in detail, and the corresponding six-boson realization is given. After obtaining explicit forms of all twelve extremal vectors of the elementary representation with the highest weight {\Lambda}, all representations with their respective highest weights related to {\Lambda} are systematically discussed. For one of these representations the corresponding five-boson realization is constructed. Moreover, a new three-fermion realization from the fundamental representation (0,1) of G_2 is constructed also.
A stochastic theory for a branching process in a neutron population with two energy levels is used to assess the applicability of the differential self-interrogation Feynman-alpha method by numerically estimated reaction intensities from Monte Carlo simulations. More specifically, the variance to mean or Feynman-alpha formula is applied to investigate the appearing exponentials using the numerically obtained reaction intensities.
Show the geometry used for the Monte Carlo (MCNPX) simulations for the DDAA (left) and DDSI (right) cases in approximation of real and infinite moderator.
A Feynman-alpha formula has been derived in a two region domain pertaining the stochastic differential self-interrogation (DDSI) method and the differential die-away method (DDAA). Monte Carlo simulations have been used to assess the applicability of the variance to mean through determination of the physical reaction intensities of the physical processes in the two domains. More specifically, the branching processes of the neutrons in the two regions are described by the Chapman - Kolmogorov equation, including all reaction intensities for the various processes, that is used to derive a variance to mean relation for the process. The applicability of the Feynman-alpha or variance to mean formulae are assessed in DDSI and DDAA of spent fuel configurations.
The von Neumann entropy of a generic quantum state is not unique unless the state can be uniquely decomposed as a sum of extremal or pure states. As pointed out to us by Sorkin, this happens if the GNS representation (of the algebra of observables in some quantum state) is reducible, and some representations in the decomposition occur with non-trivial degeneracy. This non-unique entropy can occur at zero temperature. We will argue elsewhere in detail that the degeneracies in the GNS representation can be interpreted as an emergent broken gauge symmetry, and play an important role in the analysis of emergent entropy due to non-Abelian anomalies. Finally, we establish the analogue of an H-theorem for this entropy by showing that its evolution is Markovian, determined by a stochastic matrix.
We show how power-law corrections to the Einstein-Hilbert action yield a viable extended theory of gravity, passing the Solar-System tests, provided that the power-law exponent n is strictly comprised between 2 and 3. We implement this paradigm on a cosmological setting outlining how the main phases of the Universe thermal history are properly reproduced. As a result, we find two distinct constraints on the characteristic length scale of the model, i.e., a lower bound from the Solar-System test and an upper bound found by requiring the existence of the matter-dominated phase of the Universe evolution. We also show how the extended framework can accommodate the existence of an early de Sitter phase. Within the allowed range of characteristic length scales, the relation between the expansion rate H_I and the energy scale M of inflation is modified, yielding a value of H_I several orders of magnitude smaller than the one found in the standard picture, i.e., H_I ~ M^2/m_pl. The observational implication of this fact is that, quite generally, a tiny value of the tensor-to-scalar ratio r is expected in the extended framework, that will go undetected even by future missions focused on cosmic microwave background polarization, like CMBPol. The suppression of primordial tensor modes also implies that the inflationary scale can be made arbitrarily close to the Planck one without spoiling the current limits on r. Finally, considering the same modified action, an analysis of the propagation of gravitational waves on a Robertson-Walker background is addressed. We find that, in the allowed parameter range, the f(R) correction does not significantly affect the standard evolution.
Resonances, which are also described as autoionizing or quasi-bound states, play an important role in the scattering of atoms and ions with electrons. The current article is an overview of the main methods, including a recently-proposed one, that are used to find and analyze resonances.
We analyse the $\theta$-angle physics associated to extensions of the standard model of particle interactions featuring new strongly coupled sectors. We start by providing a pedagogical review of the $\theta$-angle physics for Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) including also the axion properties. We then move to analyse composite extensions of the standard model elucidating the interplay between the new $\theta$-angle with the QCD one. We consider first QCD-like dynamics and then generalise it to consider several kinds of new strongly coupled gauge theories with fermions transforming according to different matter representations. Our analysis is of immediate use for different models of composite Higgs dynamics, composite dark matter and inflation.
We decompose the canonical SEM tensor of the electrodynamics, in the presence of sources, into a part corresponding to the Maxwell-Minkowski tensor and into another part that is non-symmetric. From the latter, we derive a linear momentum density and we write the conservation law of the total linear momentum. Then, we derive an angular momentum, using the density of the linear momentum calculated before. Doing so, some terms that, thereafter, will cancel each other with terms related to the lack of symmetry of the canonical tensor, appear. Lastly, we prove that the same expression for the conservation of the total angular momentum is obtained either from the canonical tensor or from the Maxwell-Minkowski tensor. The aspects of GR and of quantization will not be considered here.
Coherent pion production by neutrinos has been interpreted in the framework of the Partially Conserved Axial Current hypothesis (PCAC) and explicit model calculations are available. In this article we compute angular correlations for the produced pions which may help to separate the signal from the background. We present many figures useful for the experiments and compare them with another model.
There are no phase-space trajectories for anharmonic quantum systems, but Wigner’s phase-space representation of quantum mechanics features Wigner current J . This current reveals fine details of quantum dynamics – finer than is ordinarily thought accessible according to quantum folklore invoking Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle. Here, we focus on the simplest, most intuitive, and analytically accessible aspects of J . We investigate features of J for bound states of time-reversible, weakly-anharmonic one-dimensional quantum-mechanical systems which are weakly-excited. We establish that weakly-anharmonic potentials can be grouped into three distinct classes: hard, soft, and odd potentials. We stress connections between each other and the harmonic case. We show that their Wigner current fieldline patterns can be characterised by J ’s discrete stagnation points, how these arise and how a quantum system’s dynamics is constrained by the stagnation points’ topological charge conservation. We additionally show that quantum dynamics in phase space, in the case of vanishing Planck constant h̄ or vanishing anharmonicity, does not pointwise converge to classical dynamics.
Exact solutions of the totally anisotropic Bianchi type-II space-time are obtained in the scalar-tensor theories developed by Saez and Ballester (Phys. Lett. A,113 (1985) 467) and Lau and Prokhovnik (Aust. J. Phys.,39 (1986) 339). The dynamical behaviour of these models has also been discussed.
Spatially homogeneous but totally anisotropic and non-flat Bianchi type II cosmological model has been studied in general relativity in the presence of two minimally interacting fluids; a perfect fluid as the matter fluid and a hypothetical anisotropic fluid as the dark energy fluid. The Einstein's field equations have been solved by applying two kinematical ans\"{a}tze: we have assumed the variation law for the mean Hubble parameter that yields a constant value of deceleration parameter, and one of the components of the shear tensor has been considered proportional to the mean Hubble parameter. We have particularly dwelled on the accelerating models with non-divergent expansion anisotropy as the Universe evolves. Yielding anisotropic pressure, the fluid we consider in the context of dark energy, can produce results that can be produced in the presence of isotropic fluid in accordance with the \Lambda CDM cosmology. However, the derived model gives additional opportunities by being able to allow kinematics that cannot be produced in the presence of fluids that yield only isotropic pressure. We have obtained well behaving cases where the anisotropy of the expansion and the anisotropy of the fluid converge to finite values (include zero) in the late Universe. We have also showed that although the metric we consider is totally anisotropic, the anisotropy of the dark energy is constrained to be axially symmetric, as long as the overall energy momentum tensor possesses zero shear stress.
Top-cited authors
Aly R. Seadawy
  • Taibah University
J.F. Gómez-Aguilar
  • CONACyT-Tecnológico Nacional de México/CENIDET
H. Hassanabadi
  • Shahrood University of Technology
Farzad Ebrahimi
  • Imam Khomeini International University
Muhammad Asif Zahoor Raja
  • COMSATS University Islamabad, Attock Campus, Attock, Pakistan