European Journal of Teaching and Education

Published by Mokslines leidybos deimantas, MB
Online ISSN: 2669-0667
Publications
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic has brought not only a global health crisis, but also many changes and shifts towards a more digitalized working environment. In line with the GlobalET conference theme of this year, this paper looks at how particularly the education sectors has been affected by these new forms of working. One year after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic the Competence Team for the Digitalization of Communication at the FHWien der WKW – University of Applied Sciences for Management and Communication conducted two comparative online surveys with students as well as 60 in-depth interviews. The results of this research help to identify and improve ongoing Distance Learning practices, starting with logistics such as the preferred study mode, recommended duration of the Distance Learning units or mandatory attendance of students during class. The outcome of the research will further contribute to sharpen the clarity of the purpose of digital activities to understand the required support services or online material and to develop possibilities to track students’ study progress. Even though there is an understanding that more than one year after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic the findings can only represent the current status and cannot give a long-term outlook, they might be useful to further develop students’ needs for future Distance Learning and its practices.
 
Article
The work presented in this paper is related to the use of the flexible assessment to promote collaborative learning that impact students’ engagement and learning, especially during COVID-19 pandemic. This paper presents the analysis and results obtained by applying the flexible assessment in a large second-year undergraduate computer science module. Flexibility in assessment is usually achieved by giving students choice over the assessment components, contents, type, weight, timing, or the overall assessment grade. This study, however, demonstrates the development of a flexible assessment where students were given the choice to invest in a flexible assignment task designed to encourage collaborative learning and the development of higher-order thinking skills. The flexible assessment used in this study has proven that effective learning can occur when students work collaboratively. The data used for the analysis are those collected from a questionnaire distributed to students by the end of the academic term in addition to gathering students’ written feedback comments about their experience of the new flexible assessment. The questionnaire results and students’ feedback related to their learning experience are recorded and examined. Students’ performance of the targeted module has been recorded, interpreted, and contrasted with similar assessment of another module that has no flexibility in its requirements. In accordance with the students’ performance, questionnaire and feedback analysis results, flexible assessment is considered a unique assessment, beneficial and useful for students’ learning and engagement.
 
Article
More than any other skill, reading proficiency is important to effectively navigating the school curriculum, shaping each individual’s trajectory through life, and actively taking part in broader society (Martin, Mullis & Hooper, 2011). The aim of the present study is to examine the effects of reading motivation constructs and independent reading practice on predicting Moroccan students’ reading comprehension development. This study is framed within virtuous circle of reading model to explain the interaction between the reading behavior, reading practice and reading comprehension achievement (Stanovich, 1986, 2009). Data of 7805 grade 4 students participating in PIRLS 2011 is analyzed. A multilevel linear regression analysis is used to model the relationship between the investigated variables. These individual factors explain 14% of variance in reading comprehension achievement. Reading motivation constructs particularly reading self-efficacy are found to positively affect reading scores. Further, results indicate that independent reading practice has the most predictive value among all the variables investigated in this study. These findings have important practical implications for the enhancement of reading skills with that of reading self-efficacy.
 
Article
Employers in Rwanda have been expressing their dissatisfaction with university graduates’ low English proficiency affirming that it hindered their performance at work. Rwanda Development Board (RDB) also noticed that the English proficiency and work readiness skills of university graduates on internship in 2019 left a lot to be desired, which was an impediment to the completion of the internship and to the development of their professional skills. To enhance these graduates’ communication and work readiness skills, the Rwandan Government, through RDB, sent them to a one and half-month employability boot camp at the University of Rwanda. Therefore, this study aimed at investigating factors that hindered these interns’ development of English proficiency and at exploring whether the course helped improve their skills in this language. For the sake of validity and reliability, both qualitative and quantitative research paradigms were applied to collect and analyse the research data. Themes emerging from classroom observations and interviews were analysed inductively and figures used to interpret the trainees’ results in the entry and exit English proficiency tests. Research findings revealed that unfavorable linguistic environment, teachers limited English proficiency, and regular shifts in the medium of instruction were major impediments to the trainees' improvement of English proficiency. Findings also disclosed that the training had helped the majority of participants boost the four language macro modalities, but that more time was required for slow learners. In agreement with the findings, some recommendations were made on how to effectively support Rwandan students’ learning of English.
 
Article
Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic in Wuhan in China and its rapid spread around the globe, people’s life and work styles have changed. Governments have installed and implemented lockdowns, social distancing, and stay home preventive measures that have forced most people to work from their homes. Research units and higher learning institutions were not spared as well. International conferences that were to take place in 2020 were turned into virtual presentations and until recently nothing has changed. To handle the crisis, the University of Rwanda also thought of transforming its work ethos. In this regard a two-phase online workshop was held in January and February 2021 to review two modules produced during a face-to face workshop in October 2021. These were modules on methodologies to help pre-primary, primary and lower secondary school teachers to effectively deliver their subject content through English, the medium of instruction, and promote learners’ proficiency in this language. As this online review was the first virtual workshop experience of the kind for most participants, the researchers decided to investigate the opportunities it offered them and the challenges faced. Theories on online work and of quantitative and qualitative research paradigms were used. The research tools were a questionnaire and observations. Graphs were utilised and emerging themes grouped into typologies for data presentation and analysis. The research findings revealed a number of opportunities and challenges. The findings also showed the respondents’ potential solutions to these challenges. The proposed resolutions were supplemented by the researchers’ recommendations.
 
Descriptive statistics on Lecturers' understanding of 21 st Century Skills
Article
The nature of teaching is now changing as current lecturers are required to equip their students with 21st century skills. As such, the Malaysia Education Blueprint 2015-2025 for Malaysian higher education has been developed which emphasized on structuring more holistic and integrated curricula to prepare students for the needs of 21st century employment skills. However, this 21st century education demands more than merely teaching through chalk and talk. There are concerns whether current lecturers are able to grip with the fast pace of technological advancement and to impart that skills to their millennial students. On the other hand, despite having excellent academic records, employers are concerned that current fresh graduates lack the adaptability, multitasking, decision-making and problem-solving skills in the workplace. As such, the objective of this study is two-fold. First, the study would like to assess the lecturers understanding of the 21st century skills. The second objective is to identify whether the teaching practices of 21st century skills (critical thinking, collaboration, communication, creativity and innovation and use of technology as a tool of learning) are applied by the lecturers in their classrooms. A survey adapted from Hixson, Ravitz and Whitman (2012) was administered among a sample of Malaysian higher learning institutions’ lecturers. The findings of the study indicated that Malaysian lecturers are currently moving towards the 21st century learning education approach. Suggestions and recommendations are also discussed to provide for lecturers to better equip in handling the changing scene of education in this 21st century.
 
Article
The world is becoming more and more competitive and the quality performance is the key for personal progress. Excellence particularly in academic and generally in all other areas has been seen as an important aspect. The good academic performance of the children is the strongest pillar in the building of a healthier community. The purpose of conducting this research study was to check and explore the involvement of parents in the academic activities of the students. A quantitative research approach was used for this study with class 10th present students of 15 government and private schools of Kotli City through random selection. Survey design was used for data collection by distributing two set of questionnaires to both parents and their children’s. After analysis of the data the researcher found that the involvement of parents in children’s education not only facilitates their children’s but also it significantly influenced nation as a whole. Thus, the research study recommends the parents to facilitate and provide the good learning environment to their children’s by showing involvement in children’s activities at home to educate the bright stars of the future more accurately towards the path of prosperity. This will help to increase the level of academic achievement of students.
 
Article
Partial Least Square (PLS) was used the path modelling. Latent variables such as staff, institution (administration, number of enrolments, quality of laboratories, rooms, etc.), incentive applied for research and Academic Performance Score (APS) were proposed. The indicators available on Brazilian universities were chosen for this article, they were tested and duly validated, as well as the reliability of these items and the variables represented by them. The result was the model explains satisfactorily well the Academic Performance Score (APS) with a R2 of 70.6%, with the Institution contributing the most to the model, for approximately 35.4%. Next, the incentive to research contributes 29.2%. In addition, the hypotheses generated in this article, except one, adequately support the model.
 
Article
Teachers’ emotions are critical to positive student-teacher relationships and quality teaching in the classroom, though the importance of teachers’ effective management of emotions has been recognized (Chen, 2020), the reverse effects of teachers’ emotions on teachers’ learning have been underplayed in the field. Teachers are expected to be professional learners (Locke; Jarvis, 2009; Magill, 2021), meanwhile, emotions are often framed as a dichromatic disturbance to their professional learning, hence the effect of emotions is often downplayed, if not neglected. Emotions, however, are innate and inseparable from one’s perception of their own lived experience, it affects how one perceives his/her identity and relationship with the world, thereby playing an important role in learning per se (Jarvis, 2006). Through narrative analysis, the teaching trajectories of three Hong Kong Secondary school teachers are studied. The life stories of these three cases have revealed in this research that emotions indeed serve as an accelerator to critical reflection, reflective learning and perspective transformation, thereby leading to transformative learning on both personal and professional levels during disjuncture triggered by conflicts with school leaders. By employing Chen’s (2020) Teacher Emotion Model and Liu & Hallinger’s (2020) partial mediation model, this research provides empirical evidence to the indispensable effects of emotions on teachers’ perception of power distance orientation; how the interactive, dynamic process affects their response; the way emotions act as an accelerator in transformative learning; and how teachers reharmonize disjuncture that are embedded in emotionally charged relationships in the social world in their learning trajectories.
 
Article
The aim of this paper is to investigate the gap between the competencies which employers expect and those acquired by accounting graduates. We adopted the framework of (Bui &Porter, 2010) to examine the causal factors that contributed to this gap. A questionnaire survey was distributed to accounting professionals and educators. Furthermore, we analyzed data collected by non-parametric tests: the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and the Mann-Whitney test. Findings indicate the constraints within universities as contributing to the failure of accounting education to provide accounting graduates with the competencies expected by accounting professionals. This study contributes to the literature as one of few studies that examine expectation-performance gap in Tunisia.
 
Article
Students frequently commit errors despite spending huge amount of time studying language. This paper discusses a classroom-based teaching inquiry about error analysis and correction. The study focused on the use of simple past in paragraphs. The objectives of the investigation were to understand the extent to which dealing with students’ errors in a leaner-centered classroom improves accuracy in English and to assess students’ attitudes to the approach in language learning. The inquiry involved 62 first-year students from the College of Agriculture, Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine at the University of Rwanda. Individual and group work, a questionnaire and class observations were data collection tools. Findings revealed that the majority of students significantly improved their writing as a result of analyzing their errors in written work. In addition, students reported that correcting errors together gave them confidence and freedom to explore their language use more freely, to discuss their errors, to learn new words in their field of study, and to avoid repeating error while writing. Class observations showed that students were discussing and listening to each other’s opinions attentively and critically. The researchers concluded that students acquire more language accuracy when they are deeply involved in error analysis as they feel motivated and responsible for their own learning.
 
Article
Currently the fee structure at a University of Technology is based on subject and not credit base. Qualifications found in the same funding category within the University showed a large variability in costs. The research seeked to understand how the alignment of the fee structure of the Higher Education Qualifications Sub Framework (HEQSF) would affect class fees at UoTs. To propose a new fee structure in a sustainable way a model was developed. A University of Technology was used as a case study. A mixed method research design was followed in the realm of an epistemological paradigm that focusing on policy and needs analysis and on predicted future requirements. The model takes into consideration the qualification mix, funding groups, National Qualifications Framework (NQF) levels, NQF credits of the qualifications. Benchmarking between universities indicate significant discrepancies, based on qualifications of similar duration, funding category and resources required. It showed that the UoT was much lower than the country average. The novelty of the developed model was to calculate the total income of a qualification for each funding group. Based on classification of educational subject matter (CESM) categories, Department of Higher Education and Training (DHET) funding, Teaching Input Units (TIUs) , Teaching Output Units (TOUs), the Rand value of a Senior Lecturer Equivalent (SLE), the targeted number of Full Time Equivalents (FTEs) per SLE per CESM category, TUT financial targets, and benchmarked data. Variables of the model were dynamic, implying that it could easily be adapted for changes in (DHET) funding policy. The developed model showed the new class fee structure for all qualification types. Ring fencing of 25% between the lowest and the highest funding group was done, and the impact it has on income generated by class fees.
 
Article
Self-Determination Theory (SDT) posits that, within formal school settings, students’ satisfied needs for a positive teacher-student relationship, perceived competence and autonomy may be utilised to predict their engagement with learning activities. The current research was seeking insights through the research question: What does prior SDT-embedded research reveal to be the strongest sociocultural motivational influences upon students’ self-reported engagement with learning in science and other subjects? The findings from an adapted meta-ethnographic review (MER) revealed that, whilst SDT emphasises the importance of autonomy as a basis for students’ engagement with learning, the motivation to exercise autonomy within science (and other curricula subjects) is a potential outcome cumulatively influenced by the students’ perceived competence and quality of the teacher-student relationship. These findings present the three SDT constructs as hierarchical, in that there is an emergent order of influence from the teacher-student relationship quality (SDT: relatedness) and perceived competence (SDT: competence) upon the quality and persistence of students’ motivated desire to be autonomous during learning activities (SDT: autonomy). The findings are significant, in terms of the proposed hierarchy, and enhancing research practitioners understanding of students’ motivation to engage with science learning activities. The findings are presented such that it may be further applied and modified by academics and practitioners as part of their classroom-based research agendas.
 
Article
Radiologists in radiology courses (RC) at teaching and university hospitals train medical students in competent image interpreting and reporting (IIR). Information extracted from imaging is crucial for clinical decisions and therapies. This article attempted to explore a teaching approach adapted from adult education for clinical teachers in radiology to address learning needs (LN) in radiology by interacting and tailoring teaching content to LN. The following conclusions were drawn: Addressing LN could encourage students to learn about IIR; Integrating students to negotiate teaching content should take place if feasible, despite high workload and little teaching time in clinical routine; Negotiating with students and co-teachers of other imaging disciplines would help to tailor course specifics to LN and avoid redundancies; Interacting with medical students could be efficient and effective for clinical teaching and learning in RC.
 
Article
This paper evaluates the reality of first year experience (FYE) in two UK Higher Education Institutions, highlighting a gap between reported versus experienced anxiety amongst students. The paper draws on contemporary literature exploring the value of high quality discourse, via personal tutoring and coaching models, advocating ‘a whole-of-student, whole-of-organisation’ approach to FYE support within undergraduate business studies. The merits of contrasting an integrative curriculum model of personal tutoring and a coaching process model are considered. Informed by secondary and primary research, both approaches situate rich student-led dialogue central to fully understanding student issues, supporting them through their challenging and transformative first year of study, thus enabling more effective engagement with their learning and support.
 
Article
The purpose of the present study is to examine the career decision-making profile of the adolescent students of the public high schools of Cyprus by applying the Career Decision-Making Profiles (CDMP) questionnaire of Gati, Landman, Davidovitch, Peretz-Asulin, & Gadassi (2010). The development of the CDMP suggests that an individual’s career decision making process can be better described by a multidimensional profile instead of a single decision-making style or a dominant characteristic. Using the data of 421 students, who were about to make a career choice, the results of the survey revealed eight dimensions for the Greek-Cypriot version of CDMP scale. The findings construct a multidimensional profile characterization of an individual’s career decision making processes: (1) “Information gathering and processing-Effort invested in the process”, (2) “Desire to please others-Dependence on others”, (3) “Speed of making the final decision”, (4) “Consulting with others”, (5) “Aspiration for an ideal occupation”, (6) “Locus of control”, (7) “Willingness to compromise”, (8) “Procrastination”. Using the T-test, we will discuss significant gender differences in the eight dimensions of the CDMP.
 
Article
Dating violence is a multidimensional and cross-cultural problem that in the last decade has extended worryingly to teenage age. The consequences are so serious and lasting over time that they cause serious psychological, educational, family and social implications. Knowledge of predictive indicators and the consequences that these aggression and victimization processes cause, can offer an important guide for the design of prevention and intervention protocols that contribute to decrease the prevalence of cases, to facilitate their identification, to give an answer faster and more efficient. This study emphasizes the moral development of adolescents as a key indicator and, specifically, in the level of moral disengagement they present. The aims are: a) Analyze the level of moral disengagement of adolescents, as well as the mechanisms they use to accept and normalize violent behaviors; b) Know what mechanisms of moral disengagement predict certain forms of aggression in dating relationships. The sample consists of 2029 adolescents (55.4% girls) with ages between 14 and 18 years (M = 16.2; SD = 1.2). The results indicate that adolescents have a moderate level of moral disengagement (M = 2,562; SD = 0.4362) and the most commonly used disengagement mechanisms coincide with the diffusion and displacement of responsibility for the damage caused. As the level of disengagement increases, the mechanisms that adolescents use to validate and approve aggressive behaviors committed and suffered are diversified. Finally, it is found that the use of mechanisms such as dehumanization and euphemistic language are strong predictors of certain forms of victimization.
 
Article
Accelerated skills development and an unconditional pursuit to enhance competencies on numerous levels are two key physiognomies of the post-recession phase of 2008 in South Africa. The research was informed by a contextual perspective, and relied on interpretive, constructivist epistemology to reveal these phenomena. The primary research question driving this qualitative study was to analysis the concept of innovation adoption within a HE context, factors impacting on the adoption process, and the relationships between the identified phenomena, without explaining the reasons behind these relationships. This study could serve to inform and focus such policies and paradigms or direct further research. Recognizing and rewarding innovation adoption in the institution could be extended and enhanced.Case Study و
 
Article
The purposes of this research were to 1) compare the effects of self-correction, paper-pencil peer feedback, and online peer feedback on the students’ writing achievement; 2) compare the effects of the students’ levels of general English proficiency (high, moderate and low) on writing achievement; 3) investigate the interaction effect between the types of feedback and levels of general English proficiency on the students’ writing achievement; and 4) survey the students’ attitudes toward the use of feedback activity they experienced in terms of its efficiency, affective and cognitive aspects, and Thai cultural dimensions. The study was conducted with 72 engineering students having different levels of general English proficiency. They were randomly selected and assigned into three groups. Two-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), descriptive statistics, and content analysis were used to analyze the data. The questionnaire and interview were used to gain more in-depth data. The results revealed that the different types of feedback and levels of English proficiency had a significantly different effect on the students’ writing achievement, and the interaction effect was also found.
 
Article
This research study was conducted in 2018 and resulted in an instructional system designed to support university instructors that seek to promote student agency in lecture-based learning environments. The objective of the study was to design and test an instructional system that supplements the traditional lecture and provides opportunities for the development of agentic engagement. In support of the instructional system design, the study examined ways in which university undergraduates used a digital backchannel, determined if using a digital backchannel affected agentic engagement, and identified the features of a digital backchannel that influenced student agency. The study employed a mixed methodology design using a questionnaire to collect quantitative student profile data and phenomenography to conduct a qualitative inquiry into participants’ experience. The population for this study consisted of undergraduates at a private, international university located outside of Bangkok, Thailand. A total of 171 participants took part in this study, with ten students selected for a focus group through a non-probability, purposive sampling. Overall, the study found that a lecturing system that employs the strategic use of a digital backchannel can promote student agentic engagement. Student agency and instructor effectiveness were both positively influenced through the employment of an instructional system.
 
Article
The present study is an attempt to explore the cross-linguistic influence of French on the learning of English vocabulary for L1 Arabic Speakers who have French as L2 and English as L3 in Algeria. In order to investigate this issue, 30 first-year students, at Metkanat Hasi El-ghara Al-gharbiya secondary school – Lmniaa in Algeria, were asked to do two exercises. Both of them is fill in the gap exercises. They were designed to find out how French knowledge affects English and what types of lexical transfer students encountered to be analyzed qualitatively. The findings showed that students tend to transfer from French. These findings support the idea that transfer occurs due to the similarities that exist between languages.
 
Article
The student success in the first year, is influenced, among the other things, even by academic factors: college readiness, core curriculum in high school, cognitive, etc. The alignment analysis of the some core courses between university and high school, is the main objective of this article. The qualitative method and student questionnaires, are used to carry out this analysis. The results obtained indicate the influence of curriculum alignment on classroom teaching and student success for three core courses: Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry, on the first year. Using the regress analyze, some linear relationships are found, either for two classroom teaching and student success indicators as well. Based on these results, we emphasize the necessity for a greater student support during the transition from high school to university, in order to foster student success. This study was conducted in engineering study field, but it can be used in the other fields as well.
 
Article
The fundamental research question from which this paper is going to be - is there an alternative to alternative education? Alternative schools are in the pedagogical and didactical understanding of teaching, often far ahead of their time, sometimes too far. They offer something new and different, much better than traditional classes. Starting from the central location of students in the curriculum, up to curriculum development and teaching classroom design, this school offers us another option - an alternative. This paper represents selected alternative schools and the answer to the research question, and it is in differentiation. Differentiated school is the third alternative and the side by side with alternative schools brings something new and special. The methodology derives from the twenty-day observation of the teaching and the overall work of the gender-differentiated school with teacher interviews. In this qualitative research, the work of the male school that works on the principle of gender differentiation was analyzed and the specialties that this school achieved are described. The most important of them is the principle of work in a homogenous environment and a mentoring system that reinforces the underlying idea of better education. The specialties of gender differentiation are presented and its place in other possibilities of differentiation. The whole work presents a comparative analysis of alternative schools and differentiation and a conclusion about the greater success of such models compared to traditional schools.
 
Article
This paper presents an analysis of Maltese Advanced Biology examination comprehension questions according to cognitive complexity. The research data consisted of 239 questions from 20 Summer examinations: 10 National and 10 at a public post-secondary Institution between 2010 and 2019. In this research, a qualitative approach and theory-driven content analysis method using Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy of Cognitive Objectives were employed. The 121 Institution and 118 National examination questions were placed in two categories: higher-order cognitive skills (HOCS) comprising Remembering, Understanding and Applying and lower-order cognitive skills (LOCS) comprising Analysing, Evaluating and Creating on the basis of earlier research. Data was given with tables as percentage. This research was guided by the following two questions: What kinds of cognitive skills and knowledge do Maltese Advanced Biology comprehension examination questions require? What is the proportion of marks being awarded to the different cognitive levels? In the National examination questions were allocated to five of the cognitive categories while less, four, in the Institution. Over a 10-year period, the majority of the questions (91.6% in Institution; 81.6% in National) required LOCS. In both types of examination, the highest percentage of questions were in the Remembering objective (53% in Institution; 48% in National), followed by Understanding (31.84% in Institution; 22% in National) and finally Applying (6% in Institution; 11% in National). The study highlighted that the Analysing objective was absent in every comprehension and the Creating category was represented by a mere1% in the National examination. The investigation was extended to determine the marks allocated to the different cognitive levels. The majority of the marks, (92.0% in Institution; 81.7% in National examinations) belonged to the LOCS, being allocated mostly in the Remembering and Understanding objectives. The research indicates that the examinations were overall, not cognitively demanding, but the National one was more intellectually challenging for a number of reasons, including a larger percentage of questions and marks categorised as HOCS. The Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy of Cognitive Objectives as used in this research gives a useful way for designing or analysing biology summative assessment tools. All three higher-order cognitive skills categories should be more evenly presented in future biology examinations.
 
Article
Animated pictorial instructions are effective resources for learning medical content (e.g., surgical procedures). Considering this, the Open University of the Unified Health System of the Federal University of Maranhão (UNA-SUS/UFMA) in Brazil employs animation in their distance learning courses. From 2009 to the present the UNA-SUS/UFMA has offered 48 e-courses to health professionals, reaching around 470,000 enrolments. The development of animated instructions at UNA-SUS/UFMA considers medical and pedagogical knowledge only, lacking information design expertise to reach communication effectiveness. Thus, a design methodology was proposed based on: (a) the results of an analytical study of 100 medical animations; (b) the outcomes of a context analysis of the UNA-SUS/UFMA design process through interviews with the heads of the educational production departments; and (c) the results of an online questionnaire with 1,735 health professionals. The methodology consists of three phases: (1) Structuring: identification and arrangement of different contents (introductory content, inventory information, steps, warnings), resulting in an animation script; (2) Representation: definition of the animation graphic appearance and technological resources (e.g., pictorial style, camera framing, interaction cues), resulting in a visual storyboard or mock-up/prototype that can be tested with users (e.g., comprehension, usability tests); and (3) Finalization: programming and production of the animation. For each phase, instruments/protocols were developed to aid decision-making (form, guidelines and checklist). To evaluate the methodology, a focus group was conducted with the animation stakeholders/developers of the UNA-SUS/UFMA. The results were positive, but suggestions were made to improve the decision-making instruments, which were considered in the methodology final design.
 
Article
E-learning is a type of learning by using electronic technologies to access an educational program outside of a traditional classroom. As conventional classrooms continue to be transformed into digital, it is necessary for teachers to deliver lectures through multiple learning modes. Digitally enriched content and personal learning should be the primary way of teaching, as well as collaborative and interactive learning. The paper deals with issues of education in a virtual environment, the role of virtual reality, and artificial intelligence that is increasingly entering the classrooms of developed countries. The paper explores what application of artificial intelligence in the near future means for the development and wider application of electronic learning in virtual classrooms around the world, as well as in developing countries such as Bosnia and Herzegovina. The paper presents the advantages and opportunities that contribute to the improvement of e-learning in educational institutions and the benefits for students and other involved parties in the educational process, such as teachers and parents.
 
Article
It is fundamental for students to be aware of how they acquire knowledge from resources in the constantly evolving and changing world. The three most practical senses in learning environments are sight, hearing and touch. The VAK model categorizes these sensory methods of learning as Visual (V), Auditory (A) and Kinesthetic (K) learning styles. In the 21st century, it is inevitable to avoid the use of technology in education. Using ways and technical methods of technology in the classroom enables teachers and students to find the new conclusion of daily life problems. It helps in education to create a better educational syllabus, learning material, and future products and services. As a conclusion, we have focused on learning techniques by a specific software that we have written in collaboration with a computer programmer. By this software, the learning technique of each student will be analyzed by means of online tests to be performed. At the end of the day, the learning style of each student will be particularly understood.After the development of the software, which will last around 3 months, we will introduce the new system to the students. Having finalized the test period, we will measure the success rate of students in their lessons compared to traditional learning. In this article, the relation between the effects of differentiated education on academic achievement with the learning skills of students classified by artificial intelligence will be studied.
 
Article
The objectives of the study were to investigate the needs of English communication skills at workplaces of engineers and to provide guidelines on how to develop the English course based on the Integration of Project-based Learning Approach and Blended Learning Module to enhance English communication skills at work of undergraduate engineering students. To develop the course, it is generally composed of three main phases: needs analysis, course development, and course implementation and the course evaluation. However, this research reports the results of the needs analysis and provides suggestions for the course development based on the Integration of Project-based Learning Approach and Blended Learning Module. The questionnaires were used to investigate the needs analysis of three main groups of subjects: 15 engineers, 98 engineering students, and 10 ESP teachers. The semi-structured interview was used to gain more in-depth data from the representatives of the three main groups. However, only the perspectives of the students will be presented in this paper. The results of the study theoretically and practically shed some new light to the area of English language instruction for engineers.
 
Article
For obtaining benefits from using Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in education sector, technical and management aspects related to the use of ICT are needed. This literature review article focuses on assessing managerial aspects that influence deployment of e-learning technologies. Provision of details in each managerial dimension attempted to cover description of their significance, and the extent to which they influence adoption and usage of e-learning technologies. Key considerations were also extracted and presented as benchmarks for smooth practicality. A stock of existing literature n=81 devoted to the study, were reviewed to capture the specific themes for extracting arguments to acquire a wider perspective of the findings. The downloaded literature was categorised thematically and timely to capture a review of themes and trends on appreciable increase of usage or adoption published respectively. The process supported by NVivo software (version 12). From the findings training seemed the most discussed and considered managerial factor in terms of its significance and influence. It might be so due to its nature and need as it has to be conducted from the initial stage and continuously. The literature seems to be concerned with managerial aspects facilitating e-learning technologies in a holistic way, for stance combining different aspects of training, ultimately reflecting a high level of training aspect analysed. Still, despite some of these aspects being dubbed ‘all inclusive’, many tend to be little reported if we consider the possibilities in terms of those managerial dimensions.
 
Article
The university institution is called today to face challenges concerning the ability to recognize and pursue new formative goals (Grion et al., 2018). In the light of this, the research wants to reflect on the reality of the University of Trento, so far, the only Italian university, among the 35 evaluated, to have obtained the highest rating assignable by the Anvur. The aim is to highlight both the primary nodes in which the University requires renewal and its hinges points, and report in detail the results of quantitative analysis, commissioned and drafted by the Joint Committee of the Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering (DICAM), which saw the need to further analyze the reality of students of the individual courses of the Department. The contribution links, in conclusion, the points emerged from the direct observation of the students to a consistent response to the emerging literature review. Specifically, reflecting the field of post-compulsory education paths, with a strong connection with self-assessment (SA). The results seem to show that self-assessment (SA) can be a new key to the promotion of an education capable of experimenting, through participatory and innovative teaching, knowledge, autonomy, responsibility and soft skills: fundamental elements that the University of Trento needs to improve to achieve European and international standards.
 
Article
The work presented in this paper is related to the use of the two-stage examination assessment to promote collaborative learning that has an impact on students’ engagement, learning and performance. It is an initiative to support Student Success project at Kent University. The project aims to reduce the attainment gap of various cohorts of students and enhance their academic performance. This paper presents the analysis and results obtained by applying the 2-stage examination assessment in a second-year undergraduate computer science module entitled Software Engineering Process. The 2-stage examination used in this study has proven that effective learning can take place when students work collaboratively. The data used for the analysis is students’ overall performance in the module and also the data collected by distributing a questionnaire to students at the end of the academic term in addition to online-survey conducted during the final exam preparation period. Students’ performance of the targeted module has been recorded, analysed and contrasted with the previous year cohort. In addition, students’ feedback related to their learning experience is recorded and anlaysed. As per the students’ performance, questionnaire and survey analysis results, one can consider that the 2-stage examination is a unique assessment, beneficial and very useful for final examination preparation.
 
Article
For development of human resources of a nation and to harness their full potential throughout their life, education of all human beings is of great importance. It is the process of teaching, learning and training skills which prepares them for successful life. Secondary Education though not “fundamental right” of people, yet government and society understand it important for prosperity and good health of its people. It is a link between secondary and higher education after which specialisation in the fields of education starts. It is a post-Secondary education. To provide it, a number of schemes, policies, programs have been framed from time to time by the government. Action plan included gender sensitisation to minimise the gender gap in educational attainment spatial disparities and in sequence monitored at various levels from time to time with the help of public and private agencies. Nonetheless, gender disparities are nearly universal in terms of educational attainment at each level. In the present study, Senior Secondary education has been selected as focus. It is a micro level study based on census 2011 data. Maps are prepared using GIS technology to analyse patterns of Senior Secondary education attained total population and in males and females separately at district level of Haryana.
 
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Paradigm shifts in the field of education have been an issue in the Philippines since the COVID-19 pandemic struck. To fill this gap, this study sought to highlight the pedagogical practices and teaching experiences of award-winning educators in a State University. The qualitative data extracted from semi-structured interviews were analyzed following a thematic analysis based on descriptive phenomenology. One finding revealed that the educators’ years in service and educational attainments were helpful in their migration from face-to-face to distance education, even though the number of course preparations was a weight on their shoulders. Secondly, the educators conducted their classes through preparation and implementation via fifteen instructional methods, formative and summative assessments, and feedback. On another note, the educators determined six roadblocks in their teaching practice with explanations on how they overcame them. Amidst all these, they mentioned that it is imperative to uphold empathy in the conduct of their classes.
 
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The essay is dealing with the development of a special form of education in the Northern-Balaton region of Hungary. There are some kinds of tourism products and education techniques that are characterized by the area of Balaton-Uplands Nature Reserve. The mentioned region became one of the most attractive destinations from the aspect of recreational ways and cultural sites. First of all, the geological and geomorphological shapes and sites in addition to other cultural factors introduce the visitor into the scientifically examination. The investigated factors of the proposed paprer are extended and include site typology, complex research of tourism supply and demand, integration into the school program, tourism management inquests among others. I used primary and secondary sources in methodology such as online mapping, measurement and locating geosites through GPS coordinates, audio-and photo recording, academic literature analyzing. Balaton Uplands has a uniqueness in the tourism market, and in this lecture, I try to illustrate them partially through the best practices. In the case of this study, it provides some information about strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities of these regions and shows other touristic potentials of the rural and urban areas. However, it is necessary to interpret the comprehensive relations between the core product (geotour) and the related facilities. The researched aspect in question is how strong is the relation to natural values, sports facilities, cultural heritage, and gastronomy. From another perspective, it is also considerable, how could we integrate efficiently the educational techniques into the school programs?
 
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Teaching, learning and education are the main activities related with any higher education institution (HEI), be they public or private. In this context, the balanced scorecard (BSC) is a powerful method that helps the successful application of performance measurements in terms of the efficiency of the programs, processes and people of any educational institution. The key performance indicators (KPI) are crucial indicators to translate the strategy into action, improving the synergies of all the people that contribute to management success. This paper underlines the importance of the BSC model in private, governmental and non-profit organizations highlighting its implementation in a HEI. In order to clarify the main concepts of the application of the BSC method in a HEI, a hypothetical institution (IPX) is considered and a set of strategic objectives are considered in terms of financial, clients, business, learning and growth perspectives. The key parameter indicators and the action plan are defined according to the HEI vision.
 
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Writing is one of the noteworthy factors of four major language skills. However, teaching English writing is a difficult and troublesome task for the teachers in the village areas of Bangladesh albeit to the maximum preference was given to writing modules in rural secondary schools. The present study aimed at looking into issues that hinder the advancement and effectiveness of teaching English writing at secondary school levels in rural Bangladesh. It was also investigated if the methods, materials, environments, curricula, and class sizes were congenial to the effective learning and teaching. The researcher used a mixed method approach. Both qualitative and quantitative methodology by analyzing documents, observing and interviewing of secondary school teachers and learners from different rural schools were used to conduct the study. It was observed that learners had almost no opportunity to practice critical writing in classroom settings. Seldom were they taught the writing strategies including pre-writing, brainstorming, and branching. Most often students were reluctant to the strategy of idea generation—drafting—revising. Among many obstacles, the study reveals the followings: low salary of teachers, learners’ inertia; obscurity in foreign language policies, qualms in curricula, dearth of resources and training facilities. Results from this study found plenty of incongruity between teachers’ perception and practice in writing classes. The authenticity of this paper is not marginalized to the context of a particular institution in remote Bangladesh, but is hoped to reach further to regional institutions which are facing similar problems.
 
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This study uses the data from the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, Bangladesh Economic Update, and Bangladesh Export Promotion Bureau to investigate the role of higher education in creating new jobs in Bangladesh. Every year about three million youths are entering job markets. But industry and service sectors do not develop much to provide jobs for such large youth job seekers. This challenge can be faced if universities produce graduates with high level skill and innovative quality. With such graduates Bangladesh can create knowledge-based society and more opportunities will be created for them to get jobs in global markets, and graduates can be successful as entrepreneurs and self-employed workforce. Such dispositions demand changes in curricular, teaching and assessment methods to function young generation as active learners and creators. A simple economic model is used to study the relationship between per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and the three economic sectors, namely agriculture, industry and services sectors for Bangladesh. Using available data both correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis are used to examine the relationship between the dependent variable and the independent variables in the study. The results of this study have implications for economic development policy in Bangladesh.
 
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Despite of the fact that health care employees spend over 25% of their working hours on information administration using technology, there are no official study opportunities for information security, eHealth and medical devices in Estonia. Tallinn Health Care College commenced the development of a module to teach technologies to improve learners’ digital competence. Aim was to design a crucial subject to develop the competences for digital health technologies in basic nursing training. Following tasks were arranged: to conduct comprehensive overview of scientific literature with the aim to systematize the competences of digital technologies instructed in the field of health care; to design a conceptual framework of the subject; to monitor the functioning of the subject and students’ satisfaction with the subject’s contents to further develop the subject. Combined qualitative and quantitative research methods were used. The comprehensive literature overview was created of teaching health technologies and eHealth to design the conceptual framework, it offered the input to structurise the volume and contents for the subject on digital technologies. The analysis of the students’ feedback was the ground for monitoring and development. The list of competences was composed derived from the comprehensive overview of scientific literature, also of topicality of the themes; forms of assessment and feedback, and the factors influencing the whole learning process. Designed conceptual framework helped to structurise the course, and the visual image demonstrates the link between the connections. Continuous monitoring helps to evaluate the functioning of the subject and its continuous development ensures effective teaching.
 
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This study investigated students’ observable and unobservable involvement behaviours and their possible relation with academic achievement in a Climatology course at the Department of Physics and Astronomy of the Faculty of Sciences of the University of Porto, Portugal, in the Fall 2018/19. A structured online questionnaire titled “Observable and Unobservable Student Involvement Behaviours (OUSIB)” featuring a zero-centred 5-point Likert scale was used to collect the data. The OUSIB questionnaire comprised 20 multiple-choice questions, which were divided into two subscales: (1) Observable Involvement Behaviours; (2) Unobservable Involvement Behaviours; it was validated using Cronbach coefficient alpha. The collected data show that unobservable involvement behaviours are more frequent than the observable ones. This may reflect the difficulties that most students face in understanding the course contents, which likely triggers their introspective (unobservable) in detriment of their observable involvement behaviour. We notice that most of the Climatology syllabus consists of new subjects for which students generally have no prior knowledge or experience. It may constitute a great challenge for students being able to provide regular observable feedback during an entire problem-solving class. Moreover, there is a common tendency for high-grade students to prepare the classes in advance and involve less both observably and unobservably in classroom activities. We found no significant correlation between students’ final grades and their replies to the OUSIB questionnaire, which precludes any possible relationship between students’ academic achievement and their involvement behaviours in problem-solving classes.
 
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This paper discusses part of a practitioner research case-study which I carried out with a class of thirty-seven college students learning chemistry in a blended learning context. The full two-year study involved a multi-method interpretivist approach using observations, unsolicited meetings, VLE tracking system, students’ reflective journal, online informal discussions, questionnaires, focus groups and individual interviews. The study identified four key student online learning dispositions, i.e., the dispositions of resourcefulness, resilience, reciprocity and responsibility. These dispositions were identified as persona-related enablers for online learning and were found to be crucial for the students to develop a deep approach to learning. They were also instrumental for changes in the students as learners. These included changes in epistemological beliefs, study patterns, study habits and above all, changes in learner roles and learning identities. Notable changes occurred in a group of learners who were initially reluctant to learn from the online environment. This study showed that student learning dispositions may be transferred from one context to another. This includes a transfer of learning dispositions from the online environment to the face-to-face traditional classroom setting. Several educators argue that learning dispositions should be included as educational goals in educational curricula and should serve as practical strategies in creating learning environments. Learning activities should provide students with opportunities to develop and cultivate desirable dispositions for learning.
 
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In the current trends of communication and globalization, the knowledge of vocabulary is of paramount importance. With a vocabulary package, people can read any texts and understand them. Additionally, it is easy to communicate when people have enough vocabulary. The present study is a class enquiry. It involved 30 students doing English for Specific Purposes at the University of Rwanda, College of Business and Economics, Business Administration option. Facing the challenge of getting students to effectively communicate in English and understand reading materials, the purpose of the study was to investigate into the role of vocabulary to the understanding of reading texts, speaking and writing activities. Data collection tools were individual evaluations, debates, a questionnaire and class observations. Findings revealed that vocabulary activities prior to reading provide students with many benefits. As students reported, vocabulary increased their understanding of the text and helps them exchange ideas and increase language skills while discussing vocabulary related exercises. Findings also indicated that the vocabulary activities helped students write in an effective way, applying new terms and writing freely. Therefore, it is recommended that vocabulary should be worked on thoroughly in order to foster reading comprehension, speaking and writing.
 
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A serious game is a media based on the narrative of a game focused on learning. The narrative of a game brings elements and mechanics that motivate the participation and engagement of the players. This is because games are a constant in human development as they formalize cultural activities with social function, being full of meanings. Moreover, the possibilities found in the game narratives contribute to the construction of more participatory plots, since the player can act actively in the course of the story. The narrative and engagement of serious games are of prime importance to distance learning in the health field. In Brazil, the Open University of the Unified Health System (UNA-SUS/UFMA) develops serious games as educational resources to train health professionals. This paper presents the design process of the Clinical Case Game, a serious game for diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions, addressed to doctors in Brazil. A multidisciplinary and human-centred design approach was adopted to develop the game. It involved medical doctors, educators, IT professionals, information designers and game designers, who coordinated the team and acted on the balance of the dynamics involved, that is, the narrative and playful pleasure. The methodology employed consisted of a workshop; content and prototype production; prototype testing with users; and refinements for the final version of the game. The results suggested that narrative unity must be coherent for serious games on health and highlight the relevance of serious games as high potential resources in the educational process.
 
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In this paper, the impact of broader and more specific dispositions on technological knowledge (TK) in teacher candidates is analyzed. TK is the fundament on which the technological pedagogical and content knowledge (TPACK) model is built on. According to contemporary behavioral competence theory, the predictors will be tested as cognitive, affective and conative dispositions for TK. Thus, multiple regression models are utilized to test according predictors of performance based and self-reported TK as criteria (n = 460). In the first model, broader sense predictors such as general self-efficacy, basic motives, intelligence and personality are introduced as predictors. The second model adds more specific predictors such as technology commitment, motives, attitudes concerning information and communications technology (ICT). The third model adds private and study related technology use with different devices. A precedent base model controls for gender and age. For performance-based TK as dependent measure, the third model (R2 = .261) indicates that intelligence, extraversion, negative attitudes towards ICT and the private use of a PC function as the most powerful predictors. In explaining self-reported TK, the second model (R2 = .280) indicates that technology commitment and negative attitudes towards ICT are predictors. In conclusion, the prediction pattern between performance-based and self-reported TK differs. An explanation might be a practice effect from actual technology use.
 
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Second/Foreign language learning is a complex process. People who learn a language other than their home language often commit errors because they learn in an unnatural way. Scholars mention that some errors originate from mother tongue interferences and this phenomenon results in inter-lingual errors. Other errors are made as a result of the unfamiliarity with the target language when learners are trying to cope with the new language, internalising some concepts. Scholars also highlight those errors can be stabilised and even fossilised. Stabilised errors are errors that can be corrected provided learners have enough exposure to the new language. Nevertheless, errors’ fossilisation impacts on the whole language process as learners never know the correct way of using it. The present paper reviews the most common errors and their causes and discusses them from a theoretical standpoint. It also analyses contextual factors that have an impact on errors. Next, the paper emphasises the role of teachers in boosting effective language use among second language learners. Finally, it offers recommendations on how second language errors can be dealt with to promote learning.
 
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Beyond doubt, learner-centered approach has proved to be effective for better learning outcomes. Drawing on a personal experience, I present in this paper how a mix of being involved with a series of training workshops, discussion with my colleagues, and the ‘accidental’ introduction of social constructivist tools in my classrooms gradually changed my view on the potential of technology in the learning process. It also looks at how a reflective diary helped me to leverage these experiences more effectively. It records a journey of interaction with education designers, other teachers and students, and how I selected the resources and approaches that might produce better learning opportunities for the learners. It further looks at the adoption of learning technology as a vehicle for developing the teacher’s own understanding of the power of social learning. I address some of the challenges I encountered while making the shift. The paper concludes that intentionally reviewing one’s teaching in collaboration with education experts, one’s colleagues and learners is a positive experience and has resulted in an approach that has considerably shifted the focus to learners. I am optimistic that my fellow teachers find my experiences inspiring and we collectively can bring about a change for the benefit of the education sector.
 
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The purpose of this study was to examine how daylight exposure affects the health and well-being of elementary school children. Sleep actigraphy data were the main dependent variables in this study. Independent variables were total light and daylight levels elementary school children were exposed to inside their classrooms as well as outside. Participants were composed of elementary school children (46% female, mean age = 7.27 years, ~33% African American) attending a rural and urban schools in the mid-west, each set of children divided into groups according to classroom orientation. Eighty participants in total wore light-sensor equipped actiwatches for one-week to measure sleep quality and exposure to ambient light levels. To assess light levels students were exposed to beyond the one-week of actigraphy measurements, data logging light meters were placed in various locations within the classrooms for an entire semester. Our results seem to indicate that studying in daylit classroom spaces would lead to higher sleep time and quality compared to those who receive little or no daylight. We measured differences as large as 36 minutes. We recommend, therefore, that classroom design need to pay attention to the daily daylight exposures elementary school children are receiving.
 
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