European Journal of Science and Theology

Print ISSN: 1841-0464
Publications
The paper looks at the EMU’s purposes and achievements, at the criticism of its architecture, at the successive moments of the Eurozone crisis and at the successive reactions within the EU meant to counter the crisis, in order to trace features and patterns of behaviour. Neofunctionalists are discussing about integration as spillover from one policy area to another and from the economic sphere to the political one. The paper will explore the extent to which such spillover phenomena actually took place during the Eurozone crisis and the extent to which we can talk about deepening the integration of the EU as a result of the measures taken to counter the Eurozone crisis.
 
The chapters of Romans 9-11 have often been misunderstood and abused. Being read and interpreted out of context, some misconstrued on this text a doctrine of predestination, or a kind of capricious god who elects individuals for salvation and damnation before time, and for whom any attempt to seek God is useless without such predestined selective election. Based on such misinterpretation the doctrines of God's sovereignty and human responsibility were regarded as excluding each other. This article is an attempt to prove that in Romans 9-11, Paul is not, concerned with individual election and rejection or salvation and damnation but with the corporative election of Jews and Gentiles in the context of the Israel's problem and paradox. Paul's final solution to Israel's problem and paradox, and implicitly to the relationship between God's sovereignty and human freedom, is a mystery grounded in divine insight. So, rather than be tempted to rationalize it, we should learn to live with such a mystery by accepting both sides of the truth, holding them in a constructive tension, not overemphasizing one side at the expense of the other.
 
Man has always had to fight for his survival. From a certain perspective, human history is a long series of human attempts to progress in the search for better and more stable life conditions. However, since many obstacles and many dangers threaten his life, man is confronted daily with very many threats against his existence and with the ultimate threat of death. If one is flesh, then one is definitely and continually under the threat of death and decay. Our own body can become a source of threats against ourselves when the pathologic processes change its structure and integrity. All human beings are under a threat that is rather within the being than outside it. By experiencing the decay of his own body, man knows that his existence in this world is problematic even beyond any external threats. Within his being, man bears the necessity of his end and thus fear shoots ever deeper roots into this profound experience of corruptibility that makes man feel the sting of death even when he creates life. In the words of the Bible, the Son of God "became flesh" (John 1.14) to redeem man from this condition to the immortality for which he was created. Confronting man with his death is the key of the process that imposes a new way in which he relates to his own truth and life, which can only be lived to its fullest as a gift from Above.
 
Judges 15.15-19 asserts that Samson had killed a thousand men with the “fresh jawbone of a donkey” and that their slain bodies had fallen into “double heaps” — Samson naming the site Ramath Lehi, “Jawbone‘s Height”. Soon after, the strongman implores Yahweh to quench his life-threatening thirst. The Judaic deity responds by spontaneously opening a spring in a “mortar‘ at the site of the massacre, which Samson then names, 'Caller‘s Spring'. The scene‘s historic implausibility suggests that it was invented by its author(s), a scholar who had been exiled to Babylonia during the sixth century BCE. The current article cites circumstantial evidence implying that the Judges author‘s experience in Babylonia was similar to that of the prophet Daniel. Namely, he was indoctrinated with Mesopotamian occult wisdom which included astrological arcana. Cuneiform astrological texts confirm that Mesopotamian astrologers envisioned the starry sky as “heavenly writing‘ that imparted revelation through the medium of wordplay, what Assyrian king, Esarhaddon, called lumāši, or “constellation‘-writing. Literary data indicates that puns discerned from within a star-god‘s title were construed as an inviolable form of truth verification, which imparted unassailable facts regarding the nature of the star-god‘s character, powers and history. The paper shows that a polysemous reading of the cuneiform signs used to write Taurus‘ various titles renders “Little-Sun‘, the Akkadian semantic equivalent to the Hebrew Šimšôn, “Samson‘, as well as the terms “He-Found, a Fresh, Jawbone, Of, the Donkey, Kill, 1000, Man‘. The conclusion argues that the Judges‘ author utilized lumāši/‘constellation‘-writing puns as the impetus for this Biblical story, a point evinced by the direct correlation between puns in Taurus and the Hebrew words of Judges 15.15.
 
In the present study, we are trying to highlight the characteristic features and stylistic evolution in the illumination arts and mural painting, taking as practical example the votive paintings that present as donors, the family of Stephen the Great (1457-1504), of the chancellor loan Tautu (1457-1517), and of the Voivode Ieremia Movila (1595-1606). The period of time connected with the existence of these important figures of Moldavia, marked one of most active historical moments as concerns the artistic and cultural development and emancipation. Among these, the name of Stephen the Great, as ruler of Moldavia. founder of numerous monuments, and ingenious chief of armies in times of great need for the state, reminds to future generations of an uniquely model of understanding and experience of Orthodox belief and completion as concerns the artistic areas devoted almost exclusively to the religious cult.
 
The religious identification of Kazakhs is a complex and debatable topic because for a long time academic literature was dominated by the view of Kazakh nomads‟ indifference to Islam („superficial Islam‟) and the great importance in their culture of traces of Shamanism. However, in the past decades the number of supporters of a new point of view about the Muslim identity of Kazakhs has grown. This research aimed to analyse the religious identification of the Kazakhs based on the modern methodology of defining identity when its indicators include, above all, the self-consciousness of society. The authors of this paper do not share stereotypes of Russian and Soviet historiographies, for example the understanding of Islam as a religion of sedentary-crop growing peoples and the obsolete assessment of Sufism as a pre-Islamic phenomenon. This paper argues for the point of view of the Muslim identity of Kazakhs based on studies of alternative information from ethnography and traditional oral history.
 
The first Romanian liturgical books emerged under the pressure of Reformation ideas, rapidly spread in Transylvania through Hungarian and German ethnic groups. The theological confrontations here led to confessional separation and political struggles, each group trying to increase their number attracting Romanians, who were Orthodox. Hence, Calvinist Transylvanian leaders suggested an insidious cultural proselytism, through the Orthodox service books, which they asked to be translated into Romanian - one of the important ideas of the Reformation. Thus, against the Orthodox traditionalist current, and even against the ecclesiastic hierarchy, during the 16th-17th century has been initiated the substitution of Slavonic with Romanian spoken language in liturgical ministration. In this work archpriest Ioan Zoba from Vinţ (a village near Alba-Iulia, Romania) had a considerable contribution. This study is an attempt of moral rehabilitation of Ioan Zoba who was unfairly accused by some important Romanian historians of adherence to the Calvinistic doctrine (part of 16th and 17th centuries the religion of the political power in Transylvania was Calvinist).
 
This paper introduces 17th and 18th century distemper decorative paintings in Norwegian churches, and it discusses the painting technique and the painting materials used. Distemper decorative paintings from these periods are found in many countries, but seem to be less valued than oil based decorative paintings. The object of this paper is to raise awareness of the importance of these paintings and the fact that what we are looking at today differs from what the artist originally painted. The distemper paintings in Old Stordal church illustrate the importance of understanding altered paintings. A disappeared blue colour was detected in some of the decorative components in the wall paintings. This is believed to originally have been a green colour which would totally change the appearance of the paintings in Old Stordal church.
 
The article examines the interpretation of Islam adherents’ views on artificial intelligence (AI) during the Covid-19 pandemic. The study reveals the following trends: the increasing importance of regulatory actions in the use of AI in religious activities, the rising importance of regulatory and organizational actions in the use of AI in the socio-cultural development of society, the reducing number of opponents of confessional unification. The study discloses several stable connections: escalating social inequality due to the introduction of AI in social life will take place in direct correlation with the income level of the population. The higher the income level, the higher the possibility of AI use, the greater the gap between the rich and the poor. The number of options for the negative impact of AI on society and individuals will rise significantly with the increase in opportunities, forms and methods of uncontrolled introduction of AI in various areas of human activity, from medicine to the military sphere. The obtained results will contribute to theory and practice in the assessment of the nature of the impact of AI on individuals and society during the Covid 19 pandemic by adherents of Islam and other religions.
 
20 years have passed since the Treaty of Maastricht established the concept of 'citizenship of the European Union' (EU citizenship), as the key pillars of European Union polity. That anniversary offers us the opportunity to analyze the evolution of this fundamental status [ECJ, Case I-184/99, Grzelczyk] in the light of the recent developments bring by both the European Union law (especially Treaty of Lisbon) and European Court of Justice (ECJ). This paper stress that the EU citizenship is comprised a set of rights from free movement to diplomatic protection, including political rights that confer to the nationals of the Members States the legal framework to engage in democratic life of European Union. In this regard, under Treaty of Lisbon, the European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) procedure has been settled as a tool for involving the Europeans into European law-making process. Moreover, the paper explores, also, another direction of development of EU citizenship based on the connection with fundamental rights. The main outcome of the paper is the conclusion that the EU citizenship is an intricate tripartite legal relationship; linking European Union to both Europeans and Members States, as well as it is an important factor of European integration process.
 
the community through its sound and through the concerted effort made to purchase it. It also maintained a spiritual connection between the man who was away and the community he had been born in. Bells were also bought from the desire to own something new, unique or to replace the lost ones or those that no longer technically and qualitatively met the new requirements. Also, the bell offered as a gift had a sentimental value as it was also a way of preserving over time its own memory or the memory of the loved ones. The gift was also a way of thanking the deity for the benefits offered, or was given because of the faith in the reward that would be received.
 
Altai Spiritual Mission was established by the Decree of the Holy Synod of December 24, 1828. However, the actual formation of the mission refers to 1830, when the first permanent missionaries headed by the Reverend Archimandrite Macarius (Glukharev) came to Altai. Since that time, the purposeful work of Christian education in various fields of activities has started: baptism, provision of literacy skills, education, and charity, administrative and organizational initiatives, involving indigenous local communities in the values of the sedentary lifestyle. The article reveals the specificity of the missionary approach in the formation of sedentariness in Altai nomads. Based on the study of the archival documents, new documents on the role of the Altai Spiritual Mission in the formation of the sedentary lifestyle among the indigenous inhabitants of Gorny Altai (Altai Mountains) in the 19th – early 20th centuries are introduced into the scientific circulation.
 
Bells, important objects of worship, have long been associated with particular religious practices and went almost exclusively to the attention of church ministers. Also, researchers were interested in capturing the profound implication of these objects in other aspects of daily life, in the diversity of meanings assigned to them. Therefore, the present research aims to emphasize the cultural, artistic and historical importance that the Transylvanian people of the 19th-20th centuries assigned to these acoustic instruments. To achieve the goal that we have set we had analyzed a variety of sources: archival, memoirs, monographs, parish reviews, press and church periodicals, oral sources.
 
The article will answer the research question: Which of the Romanian populists use religious symbols in their electoral communication? I have built a grid to measure the degree in which the politicians used a populist speech on their blog. In the theoretical part, I made the distinction between populists, neo-populists and cyber-populists. The content analysis of 12 presidential campaign blogs suggested that blogs provided a scene where some populists became cyber-populists, while other populists did not adapt to the new media, preferring to communicate on the traditional media, especially on TV.
 
The last census in Romania took place between the 20 th and the 31 st of October 2011 and reminded in the specialist's world and the public sphere the importance of such a difficult initiative. Lately, despite the criticism, alarming are, in fact, the preliminary findings of the results: the population decline and the emphasis of some negative demographic phenomena. It is obligatory that a public debate on these issues take place at all levels of society and not only between socio-economic scientists. In this article, we want to analyse the preliminary results of this census from a comparative and historical perspective, with a view on additional sources of error: technical difficulties of collecting data and the frame of presentation of the whole process in the mass-media.
 
Large scale social movements received the attention of researchers across disciplines for decades. They provided a gamut of theoretical perspectives from which to tackle the many questions social scientists have posed on this subject. This paper deals with a special case of social movements: the case of small scale political protests (hence SSPPs). The aim of our endeavour is to produce a theory capable to accommodate rational participation in SSPPs. This theory will be derived from two classes of large scale phenomena theories, revolution theories and electoral behaviour theories. Our strategy goes in three steps: first, we review the literature on revolutions; second we deal with the literature on turnout; third we derive a theory capable of explaining the general class of occupy movements and in particular, the Romanian protests from University Square January - February 2012. Our central argument is that SSPPs are compatible with rational expressive behaviour and rational socially oriented preferences.
 
The 4th century is theologically characterised by an effort to fully acknowledge man's freedom, based on the new understanding of filiation initiated in Sacred Scripture. During their discussions with the Arians and the Neo-Arians, the Fathers of the Church came to identify the Son's free obedience as a proper personal characteristic. In the heretics' view, on the contrary, the obedience of the Logos was a proof of His inferiority with respect to the Father, whereas for the Orthodox authors it was the expression of that love which is the Trinity itself. This demanded a new epistemology and the radical overcoming of the Platonic conception of image-essentially marked by passivity and degeneration-through a true Trinitarian understanding, freshly moulded on the fact that the Son is the perfect and eternal Image of the Father. This implies that through Genesis 1.26 man is recognised as image of the Image, i.e., at the same time as a determined and free being. Man's mystery is thus qualified by both passivity and activity-and filiation must be the primary approach to it. The psychoanalytical studies of the 20th century pointed out the relevance of filiation itself in order to describe man and cure him of his illnesses and alienations. Some authors, such as R. Girard and V. Frankl even highlighted the religious dimension of this phenomenon. The connection with the theology of the Fathers of the Church of the 4th century, and specifically with Gregory of Nyssa's thought, may be in position to cast a new light on the deep reason of the essential role played by filiation even at the medical level, manifesting the perennial value of the Fathers' writings, and offering at the same time useful suggestions to develop a new epistemology proper to cope with man's mystery and with his relational structure.
 
The aim of this paper is to interpret the cultural and literary context of the formation of Slovak, Czech and Hungarian Catholic literature in the 20th century, as Christianity in its two main forms, namely in Catholicism and Protestantism, has determined the contemporary identity in Europe. And as Martin C. Putna states, Catholic literature exists and it is a phenomenon not only aesthetic, but mainly literary-historical and literary-sociological. It arose during the 19th century (in different countries at different times, etc.) due to the secularization as literature of Catholic milieu and on the principle the “opposition” and controversial literature. Since the beginning of the 20th century, Central European Catholic literature began to significantly enrich by the western European literary and cultural trends, and vice versa implement its literary and cultural richness to the cultures of other nations and ethnic groups. It is important to draw attention to the inculturation element of the Catholic ideological system, in an effort to pass on some aspect of the Christian worldview to adequate artistic expression in an environment of modern times, since many highly educated clerics and lay artists have succeeded due to their remarkable artistic achievements.
 
Attitudes towards religious symbolism and use of biblical stories in 20th century Russian music and visual arts are extremely contradictory. Despite a long period of rejection, oblivion and prohibition, religious discourse held an important place in the works of many 20th century Russian artists and composers. The present article gives a short description of some of the well-known artistic works, which reflect biblical symbolism in one way or another. These works are arranged into a number of groups: canon ecclesiastical art, secular art based on biblical topics, art drawing only occasionally on religious symbols and inverse interpretation of religious plots.
 
This paper reports the procedure and results of 3D low cost documentation system applied to the marble bas-reliefs, which now decorate the front of the pulpits of Santo Sepolcro Cathedral in Acquapendente (Italy). The church also contains a beautiful Romanesque crypt, dating back to the twelfth century. Inside the crypt it may be admired the oldest surviving copy, in Europe, of the newsstand of the Jerusalem Holy Sepulchre. The two bas-reliefs, representing respectively Saint Michael the Archangel and Saint Raphael the Archangel, were attributed to Agostino di Duccio (Florence 1418 - Perugia, 1481).
 
This paper reports the procedure and results of 3D rendering applied to ultraviolet fluorescence documentation of artworks. A close range image system was applied, using ultraviolet radiation as source for subject investigation. In this way a complete 3D documentation of the conservation state was achieved by taking advantage by ultraviolet radiation. To test the applicability of this new procedure of documentation and investigation on artworks, a papier-mâché bust dated back to the beginning of 18th century, exposed in the Museum of Colle del Duomo in Viterbo, was chosen. The bust, representing the Pope Pio V is made of papier-mâché as support and of other superimposed layers made of gypsum, with a final layer of silver.
 
The article proposes a model, in the Orthodox tradition, for treating pathology that embraces a cognitive, conative, and behavioural approach in the framework of neptic-psychotherapy.
 
A lot of objects with historical and artistic significance in cultural heritage assets are made of wood. This is due not only to the availability of raw material and its easy processing, but also to the natural beauty and durability of wood against biological degradation and weathering. For these characteristics, wood has been widely used for musical instruments, furniture, paintings, sculptures, etc. In this context, the study of wooden doors in historic buildings plays a primary role when the ancient town centres are investigated. The doors can be considered artefacts expressing historical, aesthetic and technological values of historical buildings, revealing at the same time a great durability in regards to the most relevant degradation agents. Their importance, therefore, is crucial in the analysis of historical events and problems related to their conservation. In this contribution, the wooden door of the ex-Abbey of Saint Secondo in Amelia (province of Terni, Italy) has been investigated with the main objective to gather information of its state of conservation to supply information for the restoration process. After restoration, samples from replaced boards were also examined. The investigation was performed through direct observation and analysis of wood micro-samples in the laboratory for characterising the species.
 
Word and image are highly correlated in Biblical codex and eastern icons. This connection is found among the scripta continua of the Biblical codex in which many abbreviations were used by scribes to unveil their text to foreign readers or to shorten their efforts. Developed in second or third century, this scribal habit of abbreviation became well established and generic form to refer to God, Jesus, Mary or the cross, until the statement of Christian icon. Later on such abbreviations became distinguished elements easily identifiable for both from the illiterate and the learned, which highlights the correlation of word and image.
 
The aim of the present-day society is to have wise and creative individuals available. One only becomes creative when working with joy. Since immemorial times, people have always been producing customary objects for their religious feasts, whether Christmas decorations or Easter eggs, with pleasure. In order to be able to create valuable products for the society, one needs to be skilful in handicraft and to know how to approach various activities in a creative manner. One of the ways of how to achieve this is to start developing children in this direction through diverse work activities as soon as when they attend elementary schools. To develop creativity in children, work activities offer a very good opportunity as children gain, in a natural way, not only practical skills but also theoretical knowledge they will apply later in their lives and future occupations. The article is focused on the effect of Easter on the development of creative abilities in children.
 
The religious worldview, religious values and religious ethics are an integral element of culture at all stages of its historical existence. Religiosity is one of the universal forms of motivating a person's moral choice. For a particular community or person – subjects of religious faith and practice – it is their religious traditions that appear as a kind of concentration of moral self-determination attitudes. The aim of the study is to generalize the role of religious traditions in the moral self-determination of believers of the Abrahamic religions (by the example of Islam and Orthodox Christianity). The article analyses the humanistic core of moral ideas of religious traditions of Islam and Orthodox Christianity. The possibilities of moral self-determination of believers at individual, cultural and community level are revealed. The article raises the question of individual responsibility of religious leaders for the moral vector of relevant practices not only at the centralized, but primarily at the local level of functioning of the religious communities.
 
This paper aims to define the socio-demographic characteristics of inmates who used chemical means (drug poisoning and other toxic substances) than those inmates who used physical means and besides those subjects from the general population who used the same method. The following variables were recorded to all patients: sex, age, date of submission (we are interested in the month and day of the week), the schedule when it has been made, the number of autolitic attempts in their antecedents, the psychiatric disorders, the method chosen, if treatment was accepted or rejected and if they required hospitalization or they were outpatients. The average age was the lowest: 25.2 ± 7.6 years (those with self-harm by physical means 28.2 ± 6.8, those of the general population 35.6 ± 14.6). There were no differences in the frequency of relapses between inmates or between inmates and the general population. Regarding the psychiatric antecedents there were no differences between prisoners and the general population. There were significant differences between both categories of prisoners and between prisoners and the general population regarding temporal placement of the act (month, day, time slot). No differences between inmates were registered on treatment acceptance and need for hospitalization. The inmates with substance abuse refuse the treatment to a lesser extent than those in the general population but require less hospitalization than these. It can be concluded that there are significant differences that support the idea that prisoners carrying non-lethal autolitic acts by substance abuse is a different category compared both with those who performed the act in the same way as those of the general population and to prisoners who performed the act through mechanical means. The study needs to be deepened both by extending the monitoring period and the collection and processing of other variables.
 
San Clemente is one of the most significant archaeological complexes in Rome. Here one can visit and see the many different construction phases of an important monument. There is a constant stream of visitors from all over the world who come to visit the Basilica and descend to its underground levels. This large number of visitors makes it necessary to improve the system of access and to provide a route through the various levels; first of all to make the visit easier and safer, while at the same time ensuring the preservation of the monument. The provision of a new entrance is also needed in order to give back to the medieval church its proper dignity and not allow it to be simply a passage way to the excavations underneath. Moreover the present arrangement, where people have complete freedom to wander through the underground area, gives rise to a sense of disorientation, making it difficult for the visitor to understand the spatial and architectural qualities of the monument. In the last ten years the possibility of creating a new access to the underground levels and of establishing a route to be followed by the visitor to the complex has been widely studied. In addition looking at a particular architectural solution, the project described here pays special attention to meeting general requirements of safety and economy of management, which are essential for the preservation and proper appreciation of this important part of our cultural heritage. Alongside the actual proposed work to be carried out, the project involves the implementation of an organizational plan and an extensive set of teaching aids, creating an integrated management scheme for the monument.
 
The Ethnographic Museum of Moldavia within 'Moldova' National Museum Complex of Iaşi detains a valuable collection of ethnographical objects, mainly from Moldavia area. This study aims the determination of metallic accessories by XRF spectrophotometry in order to identify the metals used on ethnographic textiles and their impact on the deterioration processes to which these are subjected. The metals identified in the decoration elements on ethnographical textiles were silver, alloys of copper or iron, sometimes showing a noble metal coating. Some of these metals proved to be implied in the deterioration processes, appearing as coloured spots on the fabrics. The information gathered in this study is important for establishing the preservation strategy of the ethnographical textiles.
 
The importance of religious communities in a nation's social life justifies the state's support of religious entities, including by granting them public funds or fiscal incentives. Thus, in Romania, since 1991, according to the Constitution, ratified international treaties, and numerous laws, public authorities respect and guarantee the fundamental right to freedom of thought, conscience, and religion of each person living within the national borders, and, at the same time, they finance religious establishments that are legally constituted. The system of fiscal incentives granted to these units exempts them from paying the profit tax on the income produced by the manufacturing and exploitation of specific products and on certain revenues derived from carrying out economic activities. Exemption from the value added tax is granted for revenues resulted from the exploitation of religious objects. They are also exempt from paying taxes on some of the buildings and lands that they own. In what regards the structure and management of accounting activities, religious establishments are required to use double-entry bookkeeping if they carry out economic activities or single-entry bookkeeping if they do not carry out such activities. Our contribution, with this study, consists in showing the changes in the position/attitude of the Romanian state toward the religious/cult sector in terms of guaranteeing the fundamental freedoms, by regulations, and of offering effective support to religious establishments, within the context of European integration.
 
The penitential canons of Saint John the Faster are part of the canons called supplementary canons. The following three penitential works: Kanonarion, Deuterokanonarion and Kanonikon are attributed to Saint John the Faster. Written by various authors, these three works are linked together by the unity of ideas and form, presenting an intrinsic homogeneity. The study is centred around the mission of the confessor, who is not regarded as a judge that prosecutes the penitent but, above all, as a doctor that heals the penitent, according to the nature of the disease. The rule which helps us better understand the method used by the author in applying the penance is canon 3, rightly called the key of Saint John the Faster's canons'. In this canon, the author justifies the shortening of the penitential practice, by explaining that there are other penances that can replace the interdiction to take part in the communion, often recommended by Saint John's predecessors. In the event that the penitents did not accomplish all these, they would have to apply the severe penances of the Fathers. Through their content, by being a pastoral landmark for each confessor, the canonical norms attributed to Saint John have had a great influence on the formulation of the penitential discipline in the Orthodox Church.
 
During their brief history, all political ideologies have been escorted by Propaganda and, hence, the Grand Public perceived them as mere symbolic products spread out of a propagandist kernel. Accordingly, the critical insights into the question of binding ideology and Propaganda enclosed a great deal of ethical issues. In spite of good intentions, the conceptual inaccuracy generated and lead to confusions. This is the reason why my endeavour shall clear away from any value judgements and strictly follow the dull realisation of two Cartesian conditions of knowledge: clarity and distinctness. In the first place, we need to determine what meanings of 'ideology' and 'Propaganda' can possibly allow an objective frame of analysis; up to the moment, the scholarly sources have negotiated and changed a legion of definitions. Thus, we intend to establish the scientific core of Propaganda messages, all related to the causes that lead to the rise and development of this phenomenon. Once settled the terms of our theoretical viewpoint, the proper definition for such a concept would be the following: Propaganda represents a communication technique, systematically decreed and sustained by an institutional structure which, through symbolic anchors, activates and manipulates the irrational dimension of group movements, seeking to trigger actions that aim to maintain or shift the power scheme, within the group or in the mutual relationships with other groups; the efficacy is quantified by the way Propaganda fulfils the Agent's aim, and not by its responsiveness to some moral ideal. Therefore, Propaganda represents a dynamics of ideology, the ideology in action, and conjoins both democracy and the technical society. I assume that ideology cannot exist without Propaganda, parties cannot exist without ideology, and democracy cannot exist without parties. All these anticipations prevail over the chief hypothesis of this paper: there is no democracy without Propaganda.
 
The transformation of (sub)urban spaces in the former communist countries was dependent on multiple driven factors and know how of all actors. Fragmentation and heterogeneity of urban and suburban areas can be studied only in the context of globalization and cultural paradigm change related on housing of living and ownership status. Urban planning process involves the presence of power relations and its political and conflictual nature. This article aims to extend its contribution to literature residential developments, emphasizing the effects of uncontrolled urban development and change options for individual housing residents, the ideal type of post-communist Romanian society, and therefore inconsistencies and challenges of the legislative framework for private and residential mobility.
 
The paper describes the missionary activities in Kazakhstan. The authors share their own opinions while analysing the work of missionary organizations. The paper is based on the research results in the form of surveys. The goal of the study is to discover Kazakhstan citizens’ perspectives of missionary activities and to evaluate the impact of missionary organizations on society. Now missionary activities show a rising intensity, and different religious communities are spreading throughout the world. Various religious bodies attract people through their methods. The power of influence of the religion in society depends on its propagation. That’s why it’s necessary to conduct studies on determining the religious situation. The impact of missionary work on the forming of the religious awareness in society, and the features of missionary activity of current traditional and non-traditional religions are the framework for the urgency of the paper.
 
In the Christianization of Great Moravia in the Middle Ages, the key role was played mission of Saint Constantine-Cyril and Saint Methodius from Byzantine Empire, who came to this territory probably in 863. Their arrival was a result of Great Moravian sovereign Rastislav’s request sent to Byzantine Emperor Michael III (842-867). Duke Rastislav desired to establish autonomous ecclesiastical organization independent from the Frankish clergy.
 
The author solves two interconnected problems in the article: 1) informational problem - to give an idea about understandings of „genre‟ category in Russian art criticism; 2) scientific and theoretical problem-critical analysis of the genre theory statements from its designation as a category which is organically inherent to painting, to complete denial or introducing new meanings, expanding its boundaries. The technique is based on the principles of historicism and dialectics, which helped to identify the continuity in the approaches of the stated problem‟s study. The analysis of theoretical concepts and typologies creating, determined the need for using the typological, comparative, system-structural and historiographic methods. For the international professional community the genre problem is the one of the fundamental problems not only in art theory, but also in art practice, as its solution allows to determine a type of artistic phenomenon and-as a result-specifics of creative method and style. This problem assumes special prominence when changes associated with the emergence of new directions of creative search happen in the art. This is a period that art experienced in the second half of the XX-the beginning of the XXI century. New themes, stories, art solutions actualize the process of interpenetration and mixing genres, and at the same time cause the need for theoretical and methodological reflection. The formation of genre theory in Russian art criticism has made a way from its designation as a category, organically inherent to painting, to complete denial or introducing new meanings expanding its boundaries. At the root of Russian art criticism thought, the understanding of the genre essence is connected to painting. Stable in domestic scientific tradition is a trend of understanding genre as a fundamental category, reflecting the essential properties and connections among phenomena of art world, a complex of formal and content-related characteristics of piece of art. In this approach‟s context, genre is a style function, a style is a product of genre. Genre analysis is proposed as a theoretical and methodological basis for the study of fine arts, as it allows to reveal hidden qualities of art in genre dispositions. Another position defines genre as a function of painting theme. In present conditions, genre problem is actualized because accepted system of concepts in the contemporary conditions of interpenetration and mixing of genres is not enough.
 
This study presents by comparison social situations of the Hebrew world from the eighth to the fifth century B.C. and of the contemporary Christian society. Some social problems in the Old Testament refer us to nowadays and the prophets of the Old Testament offer solutions to these problems. One common problem of both ages is the one of human suffering, this time of suffering caused by injustice.
 
In the introductory part of the article, we briefly examine the crisis of the Hegelian system that took place in the middle and second half of the 19th century, and its subsequent ‘revival’ as a kind of reflection of the turbulent processes of modern European history. In the next part, we substantiate a seemingly paradoxical idea that Hegel’s philosophy is the first and, perhaps, the deepest experience of self-understanding of the modernity. It was in Hegel’s philosophy that the radical overcoming of Cartesian dualism was initiated on which the scientist worldview of the early Modern Age was based. In the sections of the article with the titles ‘From nature to culture’ and ‘From reality to actuality’, we offer a methodological substantiation of the radical change created by Hegel. The shift of philosophical attention from the world of natural givenness to the world of cultural values created by humans resulted in a turn from the interpretation of motionless objects and entities to the world of activity. In the ontological sense, this meant a turn from „reality’ to ‘actuality’ (that is, to the interpretation of the ‘world’ as a result of action). In the ‘Conclusion’ section we emphasize that it is this turn that gives Hegelian philosophy an inexhaustible topicality.
 
From the beginning of our era up to the rise of Great Moravia, a more or less turbulent ethnic and Christianisation process run in the north-western inner Carpathians (approximately the present-day Slovakia). First Christians in Roman legions brought here a new faith, reflection of which anchored in the Germanic, Slavic and Avar environment. The long era of the proto-Christianisation (beginning of the 1st – end of the 8th centuries), that takes almost the entire first millennium, is documented by several preserved archaeological, historical, iconographic and epigraphic monuments (various artefacts bearing Christian symbols and sacral architecture). Christian reverberations, which were multiplied by missions organized by European Christian centres to the territories north of the River Danube, entered the life of societies with growing intensity in spite of the lingering Pagan background. In the end of the first millennium, the gradual Christianisation of the Slavs living north of the River Danube opened them the gate to the Christian civilization world of the Early Medieval Europe.
 
Distribution according to the type of university. 
The frequency of unethical behaviours. 
Students with relatives working abroad. 
Addiction is a persistent, compulsive dependence on a certain behaviour (ex. gambling, eating) or substance (alcohol, drug abuse and smoking). Studies proved that addiction is seen in different ways: pleasure, disease, moral condition, neuropsychiatric disorder. The study presents a literature review on addiction, the profile of an addicted person, methods of intervention, treatments and guiding lines for health and educational policies.
 
There were numerous and various approaches, descriptions and definitions of the spiritual state of apatheia in the philosophical and spiritual tradition of the humanity along the centuries. In this short study I will try to describe only some aspect of the spiritual state of apatheia or dispassion of the soul, from the perspective of some sources of the Semitic and Syrian Christian spirituality, where I have found the metaphorical expressions and elements which are fitting with the thematic of this conference, the problem of addiction. This doesn't means that I will not refer to the common Greek-Roman philosophical ground or to other definitions from the patristic and philokalic tradition, but I will chose from these sources especially the references in the antecedent continuity with our proposed thematic, describing apatheia in relationship with the grace and love of God understood as loving Person revealed in history, and as the fruit and the producer of love in soul.
 
In the present study, I tried to argue the fact that the aetiological polymorphism of addiction demands a multi-, inter- and transdisciplinary approach that will take into consideration not only data from Neurology, Sociology, Pedagogy, Chemistry, etc., but also the data from Philosophy and Theology. Such an approach is the more necessary as the genesis of addiction also involves reasons of a metaphysical order. The more profound cause of addictive behaviour is the distancing from the ontological source. This makes us dependent to things, phenomena or states that are only its surrogates as a reversed thirst of infinity is consumed through addiction. Anxiety, the interior void, the lack of sense, absurdity, the neurosis, the decrease of will, different psychotic forms are only consequences of the altered relationship with the ontological source.
 
Critical differences between Modernity and Postmodernity
Addictions are considered in this paper as a unitary disease in which all of its forms are characterized by the same psychological laws. These are the strong will for control, the resort to phantasy and the dislike of reality, and the use of the world instead of real healthy relationships. Theological implications are discussed in order to shape a pastoral attitude that will be effective in this postmodern alienation of the subject.
 
In the modern society, despite all technological progress, addictive behaviour has become a real concern for scientists, practitioners and theologians. The tendency of pains reduction and awareness, the search for enhanced sense of control and self-esteem satisfaction, the wish for escaping the social and psychological problems of the modern world are the most common causes of addiction. The modern science has no yet solutions for it. What in the last decade of the 20th century was seen as addictive behaviour, in our days is considered as normal conduct. The only way out from this labyrinth is living a true Christian life by keeping the commandments and leading an ascetic life, by which man triggers the grace received at the Holy Baptism, strengthens his own nature, guards the freedom gained by him in the Baptismal waters and escapes from all addictions acquired in a sinful kind of living.
 
More and more people take advantage of the Internet for professional, educational and distraction reasons. However, an excessive usage of online computer service (over 40 hours a week) can have negative influence on human mental condition. Internet addiction appears to be a relatively common behavioural addiction that involves the following four components: excessive use; withdrawal, leading to feelings of anger, tension and/or depression when the computer is in- accessible; need for more advanced computer equipment and software and/or more hours of use; and negative social repercussions. Today there is a great necessity to arrange strategies and methods in order to train the individual to fight his own resistance to change, in order to harmonize the variations that life presents positively and constructively, in order to view identity crises in an integrative way and not in a destabilizing way. This means that the educative task is to guide development, to strengthen and upgrade the individual's ability to understand and choose with the aim of becoming active protagonists in their own lives and not only in life on screen.
 
Top-cited authors
Roman Kralik
C. Pelosi
  • Tuscia University
Iulian Rusu
  • Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi
José Gómez Galán
  • UMET(SUAGM)/UCAV
Martina Pavlikova
  • University of Constantinus the Philosopher in Nitra - Univerzita Konstant’na Filozofa v Nitre