European Journal of Psychology of Education

Published by Springer Verlag
Print ISSN: 0256-2928
Publications
We focus on three aspects of the articles of Reyna, of Perry, Stupnisky, Daniels and Haynes, and of Murdock, Beauchamp and Hinton. The first aspect is the logic of causal chain, a logic that we differentiate from a more deterministic approach. The second one is the mode of corrective action (attribution retraining) that is planned for students, whether cheaters or lower achievers. We differentiate this mode of action from the one that is based on the idea of normative awareness (or “clear-sightedness”): normative awareness does not imply that the speaker believes in what he says. Finally, we discuss the concept of social value (of a person) which seems to underlie the empirical results but which does not appear in the authors’ formulations. But this concept stems from a “sociologizing” meta-theory that these authors probably do not share and which makes the norm of enternality theory difficult to integrate within Weiner’s attribution theory. On s’ intéresse à trois aspects des articles de Reyna, de Perry, Stupnisky, Daniels, et Haynes et de Murdock, Beauchamp, et Hinton. Le premier est la logique d’enchaînement causal des raisonnements, logique qu’on différencie d’une démarche plus déterministe. Le second est les modes envisagés d’actions correctives auprès des étudiants, qu’ils soient ou tricheurs ou de bas niveau. On différencie ces modes d’actions de celui qui repose sur l’idée de clairvoyance normative qui n’implique pas qu’on croit en ce qu’on énonce. On discute enfin le concept de valeur sociale (des personnes) qui semble parcourir les résultats empiriques et qui semble absent des formulations des auteurs. Mais ce concept reléve d’une métathéorie “sociologisante” qui n’est sans doute pas celle de ces auteurs et qui peut rendre difficile lintégration de la théorie de la norme d’internalité dans la théorie de l’attribution de Weiner.
 
This paper consists of two major parts. First, research exploring possible interactions between metamemory and domain-specific knowledge in influencing children’s text recall and comprehension is briefly summarized. Overall, the findings indicate that metacognitive knowledge does make a difference even in cases where domain-specific knowledge is rich. Second, a recent experiment conducted in our lab and investigating the generalizability of this conclusion for sort-recall tasks is described in more detail. Third — and fourth-grade soccer experts and novices were first given a comprehensive metamemory questionnaire and then administered a sort-recall tasks using two different picture lists: whereas one list included items from various semantical categories (e.g., animals, clothes), the other list was composed of soccer pictures that could be classified in several categories such as players, kicks, or equipment. The results showed that although domain-specific knowledge had a strong impact on recall of the soccer list, general metacognitive knowledge made an independent contribution, particularly for the group of soccer experts. More specifically, good metamemory positively affected the recall of experts but had no impact on novices’ memory performance.
 
Drawing on socio-cultural theory, we understand the norms regulating the practices within the mathematics classroom as resulting from the social representations of the socially dominant groups and of the school culture related to what constitutes learning mathematics. Immigrant students, having their own personal histories as members of particular social groups, and having been in school traditions other than the one predominant in the host society, have their own images of what mathematics in school is about. Individuals interacting in the classroom are all re-interpreting the different episodes from the perspective of the social representations of the larger groups with which they identify themselves. In multiethnic classrooms different re-interpretations of the same norms clash. The lack of negotiation gives rise to obstacles to immigrant students' participation in the mathematical conversations and, therefore, interferes with the students' learning process.
 
The aim of this study was to show how general models of text production can account for argumentative text planning. It focuses in particular on retrieval process in 11- to 18-year-old children. Various experimental situations were designed to promote different ways of retrieving ideas from long-term memory. Essays written by students were analyzed quantitatively (number of thematic units) and qualitatively (taking addressee into account). It seems that the procedures used here had an impact on the quantitative aspect of the essays written, but had little effect on their quality, no matter how old the children were. Thus, retrieval does not appear to be the most critical process in the production of this type of text. Le but de cette recherche est de mettre en évidence en quoi les modèles généraux de la production de texte peuvent rendre compte de la planification du texte argumentatif. Nous nous intéressons plus particulièrement au processus de récupération chez des enfants âgés de 11 à 18 ans. Ainsi, nous avons mis en place différentes situations expérimentales qui ont pour objectif d'inciter la mise en œuvre de ce processus et qui se différencient par le mode d'accès aux idées en mémoire à long terme. Les textes produits sont analysés à la fois sous des aspects quantitatif (nombre d'éléments thématiques dans les textes) et qualitatif (prise en compte du destinataire dans les textes). Il apparaît que les procédures mises en place ont surtout un effet sur l'aspect quantitatif des textes produits mais n'ont que peu d'effet sur la qualité de ceux ci et ce quel que soit l'âge des enfants. Il semblerait donc que le processus de récupération n'est pas le processus le plus critique dans la production de ce type de texte.
 
By frame number, uses of indefinite articles to refer to entities that remain unchanged across frames (a) orally, (b) in writing (*).
By frame number, uses of definite articles to refer to entities that remain unchanged across frames (a) orally, (b) in writing (*). 
By age, uses of definite articles to refer orally to entities that remain unchanged across frames (*). 
By frame number, uses of pronouns to refer orally to entities that remain unchanged across frames (*). 
By age, uses of pronouns to refer orally to entities that remain unchanged across frames (*). 
Monolingual, native French-speaking subjects (9- and 11-year-old children and adults) were requested either to talk or write about nine triplets of pictures whose components varied along the pragmatic dimension «new vs. given information». In the first picture in each series, all components were new. In the second and third pictures, one component was replaced each time by a new component, the other components becoming given. The oral execution of the task made the experimenter (the addressee) into a co-producer of the situational discourse produced, whereas the written production situation placed a certain distance between the producer and the addressee. The expression of the contrast between old versus new elements to be described in each situation was studied by examining the use ofarticles (definite andindefinite) andpronouns. The expression of oldness and newness by means of articles was more common in speaking than in writing. In the oral medium, the given/new contrast was marked more and more often as age increased, although this was not true in the writing situation, where the subjects generally used definite articles, even when referring to a new element. Pronouns were used infrequently orally, particularly by 9-year-olds, to express the increasing «oldness» of the elements. The written use of pronouns was extremely rare. Although it was already present orally in older subjects, the tendency to give autonomy to the production associated with each picture (decreasing use of pronouns in favor of nouns) was predominant in the written medium. Maximum explicitness was favored in writing (due to the deferred reception of the production by the addressee), and the marking of elements as new or given was therefore not given priority. The way in which the written and oral production media modulated the choices of the subjects is discussed.
 
Children's explanations of their performances are characterized by an increase of internal explanations over external ones. Originally considered a manifestation of cognitive development, this change has more recently been considered as an appropriation of a social norm. Two investigations are presented analyzing development of causal explanations of success and failure in mathematics and drawing. In the first study, two measures of causal attribution are compared in order to show that the use of unipolar scales is more suitable for illustrating differences in causal factors progressively operated by children. The hypothesis of the appropriation of a norm of internality is investigated in the second study. Results do not confirm this hypothesis and further, they cannot be interpreted solely in terms of cognitive development. They are discussed in the frame of a theory of socio-cognitive development. L'explication de la performance chez les enfants est caractérisée par une émergence de la causalité interne au détriment de la causalité externe. Interprété d'abord dans le cadre du développement cognitif, ce processus a été plus récemment analysé sous l'angle de l'acquisition d'une norme sociale. Les auteurs présentent deux études pour examiner l'évolution de l'explication causale de la réussite et de l'échec en mathématiques et en dessin. Dans la première, deux mesures de l'attribution causale sont comparées pour montrer que l'utilisation d'échelles unipolaires est la méthode la plus appropriée pour mettre en évidence la différenciation des facteurs causaux que les enfants opérent progressivement. L'hypothèse de l'acquisition d'une norme d'internalité est examinée dans la seconde étude. Les résultats ne valident pas cette hypothèse et ils ne peuvent être interprétés uniquement en termes de développement cognitif. Ils sont discutés selon la perspective théorique du développement socio-cognitif.
 
Feelings of difficulty, or subjective estimation of task difficulty, are on-line metacognitive experiences, which arise as response to the difficulty of the tasks processed by the person. They are related to performance, but little is known about their nature and the factors that influence them. This study aimed to delimit the possible individual differences effects on feelings of difficulty experienced in relation to school mathematics. General and domain-specific cognitive ability, affect, gender and expertise were the individual differences factors studied. The subjects were 299 students of 7th, 8th, & 9th grade and they were tested with mathematical tasks of three levels of difficulty. Upon completion of each task subjects rated its difficulty on a 4-point scale, ranging from 1: not difficult at all to 4: very difficult. Testing was repeated one year later. Path analysis showed that feelings of difficulty form a system of their own, which is mainly influenced by performance and cognitive ability rather than affective factors. Only anxiety state had a direct effect on feelings of difficulty. Expertise did not differentiate feelings of difficulty in the 1st testing, but it did so in the second. Gender interacted with both personal and task characteristics, the girls being more atypical in their responses than boys. The educational implications of these results are discussed.
 
Strategies implemented by 12–13 year olds to solve electricity problems are examined. Three factors account for observed strategies: a) type of problem representation, itself dependent on the knowledge base; b) cognitive personality dimensions; c) form of problem statement. Individual interviews were conducted. Each problem statement contained a perceptual ‘trap’ designed to induce contradictory responses. Strategies were coded for accuracy, latency, justification and control. Five types of problem solving strategies were observed: 1) a strategy based on misconceptions such as the vanishing current model; 2) a similar strategy but greater verbalization of doubt; 3) rush to use formulas; 4) sequential analysis of circuit; 5) application of principles learned in class. Analysis shows that the target problems fell into two classes: problems that triggered automatic (canonical or calculatory) responses, and problems which were much more disruptive. The latter differentiated students who could handle contradictions and control their responses. Mention is also made of difficulties caused by the signified/signifier relationship.
 
Social anxiety in the peer groups is currently viewed as typical of early adolescence. This awkwardness with peers is supposedly a consequence of the of the multiple changes occuring during this period. Nevertheless, empirical evidence regarding the development of social anxiety with peers, as well as its psychological correlates, is scarce. To shed light on these issues, a total of 508 French fourth-to-ninth-graders completed questionnaires assessing their perception of social anxiety with peers. They assessed also various aspects of their self-consciousness and perceived peer acceptance, because we hypothesized that these two social cognitive dimensions were correlated — positively and negatively respectively — with social anxiety. Within each of these three general domains, several more specific variables were considered. Specifically, inward and outward self-consciousness were distinguished. Overall, a decreasing tendency with age was observed for social anxiety and inward self-consciousness, although the participants increasingly perceived thewselves to be neglected by their peers. Correlational analyses suggested that inward self-consciousness, outward self-consciousness, and perceived peer acceptance contribute independently to social anxiety.
 
The present paper offers an exploration of the role achievement values play in the generation of mathematical achievement as measured in school grades and test scores. Based on a comparative study of 1665 German, Israeli, and Canadian 14-year-olds two hypotheses are tested. First, it is assumed that achievement value preferences have a dual role in the generation of high academic performance. On the one hand, they are assumed to facilitate a high achievement-related self-esteem, which itself is a strong covariate of good academic performance. On the other hand, they are expected to sensitize for achievement pressure from parents, which in turn increases anxiety, and henceforth lowers the achievement-related self-esteem. Secondly, it is assumed that one will find cross-cultural variation in the strength of the two postulated effects. The "positive" role of achievement values is assumed to be stronger in cultures with a more positive view on achievement (Canada, Israel), whereas the "negative" role is assumed to be stronger in cultures with a less positive view on achievement (Germany). Hypotheses were tested in a structural equation modeling frame, and are essentially confirmed. Effect sizes are, however, low, and confirmation pertains almost exclusively to grades, not to test scores as measures of mathematical abilities.
 
Within the last few years, researchers have shown a renewed interest in "interest". Especially in the field of educational psychology many studies have been conducted to analyze how learning and achievement are influenced by motivational and cognitive factors, which are connected with individual and/or situational interests. In this paper, results from empirical research will be presented besides theoretical considerations concerning the interest-construct. Interest has typically been studied as an independent variable. Dependent variables have been either some aspects of learning outcome (knowledge structure, academic achievement) or hypothetical mediators, which probably can be used to explain the interest effects (e.g., learning strategies, attention, emotional experiences). There is also a growing number of studies which try to explore the conditions of interest development within educational settings. Future lines of research will be discussed in light of the demands of educational theory and practice.
 
During the acquisition of programming concepts prior knowledge may serve as «precursor» and interacts with the informatical concepts; nevertheless the integration of prior knowledge in the new informatical frame requires forming mental representations on this device. Two experiments on conditional structures (on 10th grade students) are reported: they show that logical knowledge is a prerequisite to the acquisition of conditional structures but is not sufficient to insure acquisition. Properties of natural communication are used by many beginners when they need to handle dialog with an informatical device in programming tasks. A model, termed the PRES-model is defined, which accounts for the discrepancy observed between logical knowledge and success on programming tasks. Lors des acquisitions en programmation des connaissances préalables peuvent servir de précurseurs; elles interagissent alors avec les concepts informatiques. Toutefois l’intégration de ces connaissances antérieures dans le nouveau cadre informatique exige la construction de représentations mentales sur le dispositif informatique. Les auteurs présentent deux expériences sur l’acquisition des structures conditionnelles par des élèves de seconde (15–16 ans). Les résultats montrent d’une part que des connaissances logiques sont des prérequis pour cette acquisition mais ne sont pas suffisantes, d’autre part que de nombreux élèves utilisent des caractères de la communication naturelle lors de la communication avec le dispositif informatique. Un modèle de présupposition (le modèle PRES) est introduit par les auteurs pour rendre compte de la différence entre les connaissances logiques et la réussite dans des tâches de programmation.
 
In the present study, the second order structures of the 16PF-5 for 3, 4, 5 and 6 factors are analysed in a sample of 636 undergraduate students and their friends and relatives, with a mean age of 25.09 years (sd: 9.20). A two-stage analysis with Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (EFA and CFA) was performed assigning subjects either to a calibration sample (314 subjects), or to a validation sample (322 subjects). First, EFAs were conducted for each of the 4-factor structures with the calibration sample, and second, CFAs were specified and assessed also for the 4-factor different structures. Four different situations were tested, simple structure, secondary loadings >.30, modification indices between covariance error terms >20, and modification indices between covariance error terms >15. Results show that the 16PF-5 simple structure yields poor fit indices throughout all models, although when incorporating secondary loadings and correlating the variances of the error terms with modification indices >15, the 5-factor model appears to be the best representation of observed data. The usefulness of CFA in the study of personality structural questionnaires is discussed in the light of these results.
 
The psychology of education is considered here as a strategical science. It was created in the period between 1870 and 1913, concurrently with the educational policies applied both in the United states and in Europe. An historical analysis allows to distinguish three strategies. The neo-herbartian pedagogy lends importance to instruction; mental statistics supply the means for building up the national unity through an “analysis of the circle of thoughts” (manipulation of mental representations). The Child Study approach, on the contrary, emphasizes the mechanisms through which specific interests are naturally regulated: the national unity comes out of the confrontation of all the individual differences; mental statistics supply the means for a regulation through the average. This liberal strategy had to be modified at the beginning of the 20th century: it appears necessary to monitor competitors and rationalize the social life in order to increase the national output. The psychology of education thus became one of learning and a theory of measurement which supplies the means for a fairer social deal.
 
This study contributes to the debate about the Flynn effect by proposing a long-term comparison (1921-2001) of the numerical knowledge of two cohorts of three- to five-and-a-half year-old children. In 1921, Beckmann (1923) assessed the numerical development of children using four tasks (Production, Distinction, Recognition, and Naming). In 2001, we used these same tasks to test 400 children equally divided into five age groups spaced six months apart. The main results are as follows: (1) the order of difficulty of the four tasks was the same in 2001 and 1921; (2) the 2001 cohort significantly outperformed the 1921 cohort with an advance in numerical development ranging from six months to one year, depending on the task; (3) the superiority of the 2001 children showed up by the age of 3; (4) the magnitude of the rise in scores varied across tasks (the greatest gain was found for the Naming task); and (5) the children in the two cohorts used the same number-evaluation strategies, but the 2001 children used more mature strategies on the Naming task than did same-age 1921 children, particularly subitizing for apprehending small numbers. The rise in scores seems to correspond to a genuine gain in numerical ability, apparently promoted by parental child-raising practices (cross-generational transmission).
 
scores and standard deviations for reading and listening comprehension and for decoding in skilled and the two groups of less skilled, good decoders and poor decoders in first and second grade
This paper reports a study conducted with French first-grade and second-grade children (mean age: 6;8 and 7;8 respectively). The first aim was to re-examine the Gough and Tunmer’s (1986) Simple View in assessing the specific contribution of decoding ability and language comprehension to reading comprehension. The second one was to analyse the difficulties of children in reading comprehension. Reading and listening comprehension were assessed using both visual and auditory version of the same test. Decoding ability was assessed by means of a nonword reading test. On the basis of reading comprehension scores, skilled and less skilled comprehenders were contrasted, and then two groups of less skilled comprehenders were differentiated on the basis of the decoding scores. Hierarchical regression analyses computed on the whole sample showed that listening comprehension was a more powerful predictor than decoding ability in first- and second-grade children. In both grades, the pattern of performance in less skilled comprehenders showed a relative independence between decoding and reading comprehension. The good decoders’ group and the poor decoders’ group showed similar poor performance in reading comprehension and poor performance in listening comprehension. However, their difficulties could stem from different sources. Some instructional recommendations were formulated taking into account individual differences in decoding and spoken language abilities, as soon as the first months of formal reading acquisition.
 
The goal of this study was to analyze the early manifestations of gender identity. Authors speculate that 24-month-old children do not know their gender identity and sex roles. However, most of the time, the methods used are not really suited to the cognitive capacities of young children. Other studies have shown that, in fact, children at this age seem to adjust their behavior according to the gender characteristics of the situation and the sex of the partner. We therefore hypothesized that if children are able to exhibit such behaviors, then an internal gender system exists, even if at 24 months the cognitive capacities are not well established. In order to establish the existence of such a system at 24 months, we designed an experimental situation which did not involve complicated representational systems. Mixed-peer dyads and unmixed peer dyads (24 months old) were videotaped while playing in a room with gender-stereotyped toys. The children’s attitudes towards the objects and the partners were observed. The results indicate that gender directs children attitudes at 24 months.
 
The underlying structure of the Revised Two Factor version of the Study Process Questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F), a 20-item instrument for the evaluation of students' approaches to learning (SAL), was examined at item level using two independent groups of undergraduate students enrolled in the first (n=314) and last (n=522) years of their studies. The methods used were (a) Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) assisted by rigorous procedures such as Velicer's MAP test, parallel analysis and the Schmid Leiman solution with the first sample; and (b) confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with the second sample. The results of EFA indicated that the latent structure of the R-SPQ-2F is best described by two factors and the results of CFA suggested that out of four a priori structural models, the best fit was achieved by a simple first-order two-factor model. Taken together, these results seemed to converge, suggesting (a) that SAL might be defined as a co-variation between a motive and its intended strategy, these not necessarily being divided into separate first-order factors (subscales), and (b) that the underlying structure of the R-SPQ-2F is apparently non-hierarchical, being best described by a parsimonious first-order two-factor model in which Deep and Surface learning approaches are each measured by their ten corresponding items.
 
In French, a verb always agrees in number with its subject. The agreement rule is regularly applied. However, in specific conditions, agreement errors occur. These errors consist in agreeing the verb with the local noun, instead of with the first occurring noun, which is the subject, when two nouns differing in number precede the verb. Currently, one of the most powerful hypotheses to explain this kind of errors suggests that subject-verb agreement errors result from a temporary overload in working memory. In this regard, a developmental study, combined with an analysis of the differences between tenses of the French indicative has been led. We hypothesized a decrease of agreement errors with children's grades and that the agreement with the imperfect tense may have a lesser cognitive cost than the agreement with the present. The objective of this work was thus to study the management of subject-verb agreement in children from 2nd to 7th grades (between the age of 7 and 12), for the present and the imperfect. The results confirmed that the imperfect is acquired more rapidly than the present. The cognitive cost of the agreement would be lower with the imperfect than with the present. These data were analyzed in the framework of the knowledge development model proposed by Anderson (1983).
 
The study addresses the relationship between values and occupations. Israeli workers (N=652; mean age=47; 43% male) in 32 occupations reported their values using the Portrait Value Questionnaire (Schwartz, Melech, Lehmann, Burgess, Harris, & Owens, 2001), and value scores were aggregated within occupations. Occupations were classified according to the Holland (1985) typology. Enterprising work environments correlated negatively with universalism values. Social environments correlated positively with benevolence and universalism values and negatively with power and achievement. The artistic environment correlated negatively with conformity values. Investigative environments correlated positively with self-direction values and negatively with tradition. A COPLOT analysis of occupational value priorities yielded meaningful clusters of occupations, each characterized by a distinct value profile, and fitting the Holland typology. The findings point to the importance of values in vocational behavior.
 
The question of theory change is crucial in knowledge construction, particularly in the process of conceptual change. This study was designed to investigate two factors that, in addition to initial theory preference, may play a crucial role in the process of theory change, that is, students' interpretation of anomalous data on two controversial topics (the dinosaur extinction and the construction of the Giza pyramids in Egypt) and their epistemological beliefs about the nature of knowledge. Canonical correlation analyses suggested for both topics an association, stronger for the dinosaur extinction topic, between (a) acceptance of anomalous data (rated both as valid and inconsistent with the held theory), initial theory preference, epistemological belief in Certain Knowledge and (b) theory change. Data obtained from structure coefficients in canonical correlation analyses indicate that acceptance of anomalous data significantly contributed the most to theory change whereas the epistemological belief contributed the least. Finally, educational implications are drawn.
 
Contemporary western society is characterised by an individualistic model of the person. Conceptions of socialization insist more on self expression and development than on the individual's submission to social requirements. Values concerned with individual responsibility and self-realization guide educative actions. The article analyses the influence of parental education on internality and self-esteem in the child with particular attention to how parents lead the child to become responsible (commitment). Two hundred parents (from contrasting social backgrounds) answered a questionnaire on internality and a question on self-esteem. According to their social background, the parents adopt educative practices which induce more or less responsibility in the child. Leading the child to accept responsibility in daily life encourages the learning of internality, but family education has little influence on self-esteem. How subjects "positioned" themselves, i.e., how they placed themselves a variety of measures was examined. Some preferred to position themselves in the centre of the scales while others placed themselves on the extremes. There was a correlation between the positioning of the parents 2nd that of the children.
 
In the last few years an increasing number of researchers has started to investigate children’s conceptions of the economic world. However, complex notions, such as those concerning the overall functioning of an economic system, have hardly been considered. In post-elementary schools children encounter some of these notions in history, geography or social studies. An investigation on this topic should therefore consider both children’s conceptions and misconceptions and the relevant information furnished at school. The present study examines how 7th graders understand two complex economic notions: capitalism and socialism. Two groups of children (N =40) were interviewed, one who had studied a geography textbook containing a large quantity of relevant information, the other one a more traditional book in which these notions were only touched on. The interview was about:a) the characteristics of capitalist and socialist system; b) how it is decided what to produce, and at what prices to sell goods in each of these systems. It was found that, on the whole, children’s knowledge of capitalism and socialism was rather poor. Those who had studied the look containing more information showed some advantages over the other group; however, these did not appear substantial: the children mentioned the words «market» and «plan» more often, but failed to explain what a plan is and how the market works, and their replies to the other questions were similar to those given by the second group.
 
Conducted in the framework of the theory of social representations, the study was designed to examine the dimensions in terms of which parents assess their children's abilities, the ways in which social positions - here, the parents' education and gender and the child's gender - organize these assessments, and the ways in which the assessments relate to the estimated school success of the child. The subjects were a nationwide sample of parents (N=938), who were asked to estimate their children 's school success and to assess these children's abilities. A factor analysis showed the ability assessments to be multidimensional. The parents assessed girls' cognitive and social abilities to be better than boys'. Academically educated parents drew a more categorical distinction than other parents between cognitive and other abilities, which suggests that they endorse a differential conception of intelligence. A clear congruity of content was observed between the estimations of school success and the assessments of abilities, indicating that different school subjects are associated with different abilities.
 
Interaction between access to sound and age. 
Participants 
Interaction between age and sequence type 
The present study investigates the development of children’s ability to make inferences about a peer’s mental state. In this study 48 eight-year-old children, 49 ten-year-old children and 44 adults observed and analyzed short video sequences, extracts from a socio-cognitive interaction between two children working on a mathematical task. The participants inferred mental states of one of the videotaped children while answering questions. Half of the participants watched the different sequences with sound and the other half watched them without sound. The results show that ten-year-old children are nearly as skilled as adults in making inferences but that eight-years-old children make less relevant inferences. The access to verbal information influenced the inferences only for the eight-year-old group. Cette étude porte sur le développement des compétences inférentielles des enfants concernant les états mentaux d’autrui lorsqu’il interagit. Quarante huit enfants de 8 ans, 49 enfants de 10 ans et 44 adultes ont réalisé une tâche d’inférences. Elle concerne les états mentaux d’un garçon filmé lors de la co-résolution d’un exercice de mathématiques. Les participants observent de courtes séquences de cette interaction et produisent des inférences par l’intermédiaire de questions. La moitié des participants regarde les séquences avec le son et l’autre moitié regarde les mêmes séquences privées du son. Les résultats montrent que les enfants de 10 ans sont déjà presque aussi compétents que les adultes. En revanche, les enfants de 8 ans produisent des inférences moins pertinentes. L’accès aux informations verbales a une influence sur la pertinence des inférences uniquement pour le groupe des enfants de 8 ans.
 
This paper reports two related studies intended to explore the interactions between children's metacognitive abilities, their working memory capacity, the development and selection of strategies and their performance on problem-solving tasks. In the first study, a sample of 20 children aged 5 and 6 were presented with a reclassification task. In the second study, a sample of 72 children aged 6, 8 and 10 were presented with a multidimensional discrimination learning (MDL) task. Data was collected related to the children's metacognitive abilities, working memory capacity, response strategies and task performance. The results indicated that performance on both tasks was dependent upon developmentally changing interactions between these various aspects of cognitive functioning. In particular, the relationship of working memory capacity to performance was dependent upon metacognitive abilities. The results also suggested that metacognitive awareness did not directly affect performance, but that such a relationship was dependent upon the development of strategic control. The implications of these results for understanding U-shaped behavioural growth and other common developmental patterns are discussed. Within the educational sphere, the study emphasises the significance and possibility for children as learners of fostering certain kinds of metacognitive ability.
 
As a consequence of a recent reform of junior secondary education in the Netherlands, instruments for the assessment of cognitive abilities of students who are eligible for special educational support must be designed. In constructing a new test battery contemporary theory on crystallized and fluid intelligence (Gf-Gc theory) was considered. Complete coverage of the factors in Gf-Gc theory was not striven for, because the status of some of these factors in relation to referral to education with special educational support is not entirely clear. The sample in the study consisted of students from regular and special primary as well as secondary education, aged between 11 and 15 years. Approximately two-thirds of the sample was of Dutch origin, whereas the remaining third was of a different ethnic origin. Results show that the factors verbal-crystallized ability, fluid-reasoning ability, spatial-visualization ability and memory capacity can explain the positive correlations between the tests in the battery for the greater part. Students from regular and special education can be distinguished on the basis of their cognitive profiles reasonably accurate, thus supporting the criterion validity of the test battery. Students requiring special educational support are characterized by a significant discrepancy between short-term recall and long-term retention and retrieval.
 
Scale reliability for the Thinking Styles Inventory-Revised
Zero-order and partial a correlations coefficients (Study 2): Thinking styles and abilities (analytical and creative)
This article reports two studies that aim at further distinguishing intellectual styles from abilities by taking into account the confounding effects of age and gender on the relationship between these two constructs. Two independent groups of secondary school students responded to the Thinking Styles Inventory-Revised and took the Sternberg Triarchic Abilities Test (Level H). Both sets of results suggested that although statistically significant relationships could be identified between thinking styles and abilities, when age and gender were put under control, styles and abilities became fundamentally independent. Implications of this finding for students and teachers are discussed. La présente contribution propose de discuter deux études dont l’objectif était d’élargir la différenciation entre styles intellectuels et habiletés en prenant en compte les effets complexes de l’âge et du sexe dans la relation entre ces deux concepts. Deux groupes indépendants de lycéens ont été interrogés sur deux types de questionnaires : Thinking Styles Inventory-Revised et Sternberg Triarchic Abilities Test (Level H). Les résultats montrent que même si un certain nombre de relations peuvent s’établir statistiquement entre styles intellectuels et habiletés, lorsque l’âge et le sexe deviennent les facteurs dominants, les styles et les habiletés deviennent fondamentalement indépendants. Dans cette présentation, nous analyserons les implications de cette recherche pour les enseignants et les apprenants. KeywordsAbilities-Age-Gender-Intellectual styles-Thinking styles
 
The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the respective effects of cognitive abilities and personality traits on academic achievement. The subjects were 141 sixth-grade French adolescents (mean age: 12) who took three cognitive tests (g factor, numerical ability, and spatial ability) and answered a personality questionnaire based on the Big Five Model. Path analyses indicated that Openness-intellect had an effect on junior high school achievement in all disciplines, with most effects being indirect ones mediated by verbal achievement (French). Neuroticism-anxiety also had an effect, although not as marked and mainly on mathematics. Personality is complementary to abilities in predicting academic achievement. Possible conceptual extensions and field applications are addressed in the conclusion. Le but de cette recherche est de mettre en évidence l’influence respective des aptitudes et des traits de personnalité sur les performances scolaires. 141 participants, élèves de sixième (âge moyen 12 ans), ont répondu à trois tests cognitifs (facteur g, aptitude numérique, aptitude spatiale) et à un questionnaire de personnalité basé sur le modèle des Big Five. Les analyses de parcours indiquent que l’Ouverture-intellect a une influence sur l’ensemble des performances au collège, la plupart des effets étant indirects, via le niveau en français. Le Névrosisme-anxiété a aussi un effet, plus modeste et principalement sur les mathématiques. La prédiction approtée par la personnalité complète celle qui est donnée par les épreuves d’aptitudes. Les perspectives de prolongement conceptuel et d’application au terrain sont abordées en conclusion.
 
The objective of this study was to identify causal relationships between the development of phonological abilities and progress in writing in preschool children. The participants were 44 children, with an average age of 5 years and 6 months, and whose writing was syllabic with phonetization. The children were divided into three groups. They were subjected to a pre-test and a post-test that were intended to evaluate both their writing and their phonological skills. In between the two tests experimental group 1 underwent a writing training program designed to lead them to produce syllabic-alphabetic/alphabetic writing, while experimental group 2 was subjected to a phonological training program designed to work on phonetic units. The third group served as a control group. The number of letters known and the level of intelligence were controlled. The children in the two experimental groups achieved results that revealed a similar degree of progress (greater than the control group) in both their writing and their phonological abilities.
 
The highly able can be expected to be at least as well balanced as any other children, but they do have special emotional problems arising both from other people's reactions to their exceptionality and from inappropriate education. This was investigated in a British 14-year comparative study. Children labelled as gifted were found to be from different home backgrounds and to have different emotional profiles than others of the same measured ability who had not been seen as gifted. From this and other research it can be seen that expectations of highly able children can be confusing, for example that they either have poor social relationships or are natural social leaders. Teachers and parents may over-pressure pupils to excel at all times, or raise their all-round expectations for a child, even though s/he is only gifted in a specific area. Stress may also come from always having to learn at an unstimulating level, producing boredom, apathy and underachievement. Suggestions are made for helping the emotional development and improving educational provision for the highly able.
 
In this contribution we concentrate on the features of a particular item format: items having as the last option "none of the above" (NOTA items). There is considerable dispute on the advisability of the usage of NOTA items in testing. Some authors come to the conclusion that NOTA items should be avoided, some come to neutral conclusions while others argue that NOTA items are optimal test items. In this article, we provide evidence to this discussion by conducting protocol analysis on written statements of examinees while answering NOTA items. In our investigation, a test containing 30 multiple-choice items was administered from 169 university students The results show that NOTA options appear to be more attractive than options with specified solutions in those cases where a problemsolver fails. Also, a relationship is found between the quality of (incorrect) problemsolving and the choice of NOTA items: the more qualitative the incorrect problemsolving process is, the more likely the student is to choose for NOTA items. Overall, our research supports the statement that 'the more confidence an examinee has in his worked solution, which is inconsistent with one of the specified solutions, the more eager he seems to choose "none of the above".
 
Mean quality of analogy score as a function of condition (specific alternatives, hypothetical alternatives, and circular) and method of indicating similarity (verbal and drawing) 
scores for concrete and abstract premises on the pre-test and post-test for each of the three conditions as a function of pre-test abstract reasoning level
Abstract reasoning refers to the ability to reason logically with premises that do not allow reference to knowledge about the real world. This form of reasoning is complex and difficult, and at the same time, it is critical for understanding science and mathematics. Two studies examined the use of analogy as a method to bridge reasoning with familiar content and abstract reasoning among older adolescents. The results showed that the ability to make an appropriate analogy depends on reasoning ability. Neither of the two procedures used resulted in an improvement in abstract reasoning. However, generating an inappropriate analogy actually decreased abstract reasoning performance among students who showed greater initial levels of reasoning ability. These results highlight the problems associated with using familiar reasoning as a basis for learning abstract reasoning skills. KeywordsReasoning–Abstract–Analogy–Learning
 
Teacher-educators need ways of assessing the adequacy of university curriculum and the extent to which student-teachers meet learning objectives. One potentially useful tool is Anderson and Krathwohl's (Addison Wesley Longman, New York, 2001) theoretical framework, which can be applied to assess student-teachers' knowledge types and their cognitive processes in critical pre-service curriculum areas such as child sexual abuse and personal safety. This study aims to illustrate the use of Anderson and Krathwohl's framework in assessing student-teachers' learning of pedagogies in relation to child sexual abuse and personal safety. Participants were a final year cohort of 122 Bachelor of Education (Primary School) students at an Australian university. Student-teachers' essays regarding the pedagogical practices that they would implement in teaching about child sexual abuse and personal safety were content analysed using Anderson and Krathwohl's framework. Pedagogies identified by the student-teachers were unevenly distributed across the cells within the theoretical framework. Well-represented pedagogies tended to reflect mid-level cognitive processes (those of understand, apply, and analyse), and low to mid-level knowledge types (those of factual, conceptual, and procedural). Under-represented were pedagogies reflecting higher-level cognition such as creating (in all four knowledge types) and evaluation (of factual and conceptual knowledge). The findings provide a basis for assessing the adequacy of current university teacher-education curriculum structures. Student-teachers' understandings of under-used theoretical and pedagogical strategies can be identified as a guide to enhance their cognitive processes and knowledge dimensions. This study illustrates a method that has applicability as a diagnostic and assessment tool across a wide range of pre-service teacher education curriculum areas.
 
The empirical study we present here deals with a pedagogical issue that has not been thoroughly explored up until now in our field. Previous empirical studies in other sectors have identified the opinions of researchers about this topic, showing that completely unacceptable interpretations have been made of significance tests and other statistical resources. We tried to show the degree to which these errors of interpretation appear in a sample of university professors and researchers. To evaluate the beliefs and opinions of the university professors about certain methodological and statistical questions, we adapted the "Psychometrics Group Instrument" questionnaire by Mittag (1999) and Mittag and Thompson (Educational Researcher 29:14-20, 2000). We specifically wanted to detect opinions about: (1) avoiding inappropriate interpretations, (2) rectifying incorrect uses, (3) creating a debate on possible alternatives, and (4) proposing editorial changes in the publication criteria. In this study, we compare the results we obtained with those obtained by two other equivalent studies (Gordon, Journal of Vocational Educational Research 26:1-18, 2001; Mittag and Thompson, Educational Researcher 29:14-20, 2000). The characteristics of the sample and the scope of the results are described, and a critical reflection is carried out on typical misunderstandings in interpretation that show a worrisome lack of understanding of some basic methodological and statistical concepts. © 2010 Instituto Superior de Psicologia Aplicada, Lisboa, Portugal and Springer Science + Business Media BV.
 
Research examining family influences on student motivation and achievement in school has generally focused on parental influences and has often been limited to one or two variables (e.g., parental expectations or aspirations, parental involvement in schoolwork). In the present study we interviewed high school seniors to examine whether and how family members affected their academic motivation and achievement. Interviews were coded holistically for the strength, affective tone, source, and types of familial influence. Emergent themes from the interview analyses revealed that students perceived a broad range of types and sources of familial influence on motivation. Interviews were divided into five prototypical patterns: Family Obligation, Family Pleasing, Family Support, Aversive Influence, and No Influence. The types of familial influence differed by cultural characteristics (generational status, native country) and by achievement level. Associations between the five patterns of family influence and existing theories of family influence are discussed.
 
Differences in academic performance can surely be explained by differences in cognitive aptitudes, but cognitive-affective variables like self-efficacy or anxiety may also intervene This paper is partly based on Bandura's social cognitive theory and several assumptions relative to the systemic organisation of the cognitive-affective variables just mentioned with academic performance art tested. 505 students in the 4th and 5th grades were invited to participate in the study. Anxiety and self-efficacy are measured by self-report questionnaires at two levels of generality: dispositional (trait-like variables) and situational (state variables). Performance refers to the stores obtained at an usual French exam. Path analyses replicate the same functional relation between self-efficacy and anxiety. But when one aims at explaining performance, Bandura's general hypothesis of an effect of self-efficacy on performance directly and Indirectly via anxiety doesn't hold anymore when individual differences in the level of knowledge are taken into account. Interesting enough is the finding of rather different models when the level of knowledge is considered. Indeed, it seems that cognitive affective variables play a more important role to explain performance when the students' level of French knowledge is low.
 
Correlations between measures and descriptive statistics (N=110)
Correlations between all variables and descriptive statistics (N=97)
analysis: mean standardised scores and standard deviations of the scales of the questionnaires on approaches to learning, student social identity, and perceptions of the learning community in the two cluster groups (deep learning and surface learning)
This research focuses on understanding how socio-psychological dimensions such as student social identity and student perceptions of their learning community affect learning at university. To do this, it integrates ideas from phenomenographic research into student learning with ideas from research on social identity. In two studies (N = 110, and N = 97) the relationships between student social identity, perceptions of the learning community, approaches to learning, and academic performance were explored. Our findings suggest that a strong student social identity is associated with a deep approach to learning, which in turn is linked to higher academic performance. Also, perceptions of learning community mediate the relationship between student social identity and deep approaches to learning. Significantly, a surface approach turns out not to be associated with student social identity or perceptions of the learning community, but it is negatively related to academic performance. Our research argues for the value of an integration of complementary frameworks, emphasising social and psychological aspects of the learning experience that can be used to improve our understanding of how and why students vary in the quality of their learning. KeywordsHigher education–Student learning–Approaches to study–Student social identity–Learning community
 
The aim of this study was twofold: (a) to examine student perceptions of their parent goals and their achievement goal orientations across adolescence, and (b) to examine how perceived parent goals relate to student achievement goal orientations, and engagement in the classroom (both emotional and behavioral) from early to late adolescence. A set of self-report questionnaires measuring the above variables was administered to three age groups of male and female students attending 7th (N=139), 9th (N=149), and 11th grade (N= 138). Regarding the first aim of the study, results indicated that 9th and 11th graders scored lower than 7th graders on all student goal orientation scales as well as on the perceived parent performance goal scale. Regarding the second aim, multi-sample path analyses showed that the pattern of relationships among the variables under examination was different for the three grade levels. The significant and non-significant paths among the variables are discussed for each grade level. Implications of the above results for parents as well as for future research are pointed out.
 
Academic self-concept and academic interest are crucial concepts for understanding students' academic achievement. Yet, few questionnaires currently exist that have been used and validated in more than one country. This study aimed at assessing these concepts using an academic self-concept questionnaire (Marsh, 1990) and an academic interest questionnaire (Corbière & Mbekou, 1997) with French and Italian student samples. Confirmatory Factor Analyses enabled us to assess the structure of the two questionnaires with regard to two academic subjects - Math and First Language (French or Italian) - and to determine the theoretical directions between the concepts. Results from Confirmatory Factor Analyses of both French and Italian samples supported a theoretical model in which academic self-concept and academic interest were intercorrelated, yet maintaining their unique characteristics. On the other hand, results from Multi-Sample Confirmatory Factor Analyses (French and Italian samples) endorsed a correlational model between the two concepts. Finally, the results indicated a significant and positive correlation between academic self-concept, academic interest, and academic achievement in both academic subjects.
 
Some pupils categorized as good vs. bad pupils were given a questionnaire of attributions, thus allowing the calculation of internality scores. They were also requested to answer as would a good (vs. a bad) pupil do. Finally, they also had to predict in which way a good (vs. a bad) pupil would answer on their behalf. The results were explained within the frame of two different theoretical fields: the theory of the norm of internality and the biases in terms of intergroup attributions. These results show that 1) the attribution of internal explanations relates to an attribution of value that takes place within the intergroup evaluation, 2) whereas the ultimate attribution error can clearly be observed among the good pupils, the bad pupils exhibit an attributive pattern that is favorable to the good pupils. Des élèves caractérisés sur la base de leur dossier comme “bons” ou “mauvais” passaient un questionnaire d’attributions permettant le calcul de scores d’internalité. Ils devaient également répondre comme le ferait un bon (ou un mauvais) élève. Ils devaient enfin prédire la façon dont un bon (ou un mauvais) élève répondrait à leur place. Les résultats ont été interprétés dans le cadre de deux champs théoriques différents: celui de la théorie de la norme d’internalité et celui des biais dans les attributions intergroupes. Les résultats montrent, 1) que l’attribution d’explications internes correspond à une attribution de valeur intervenant dans les évaluations intergroupes (norme d’internalité), 2) que si l’erreur ultime d’attribution est observée chez les bons élèves, les mauvais élèves exhibent un pattern attributif favorable aux bons élèves.
 
336 students, 186 girls and 150 boys were met at the end of the school year, both at grade six and at Secondary one, in order to examine the impact of the transition from elementary to secondary school on various motivational variables. Analyses showed changes in self-efficacy beliefs and learning goals, whatever students’ level of achievement and gender. However, self-efficacy beliefs appeared as the most powerful predictor of academic performance at both school levels. In addition, the pattern of relations between academic performance and the variables examined was relatively similar at both times of measurement. The discussion focuses on changes in self-efficacy beliefs and learning goals and on their relations to academic performance. 336 élèves, 186 filles et 150 garçons, ont été rencontrés une première fois en sixième année du primaire et une seconde fois vers la même période l’année suivante, en première année du secondaire afin d’examiner l’impact du passage au secondaire sur leur motivation. Les analyses montrent que peu importe leur niveau de rendement antérieur et leur sexe, tous les élèves présentent des modifications de leur sentiment d’auto-efficacité et des buts d’apprentissage qu’ils poursuivent suite à leur passage au secondaire. Cependant, aux deux temps de mesure, le sentiment d’auto-efficacité relatif à la matière est la variable qui contribue le plus à la variance totale observée dans le rendement dans la matière, et le patron des relations entre les variables et le rendement scolaire diffère peu. La discussion met l’accent sur les changements observés dans le sentiment d’auto-efficacité et les buts d’apprentissage et sur leurs rapports avec le rendement scolaire.
 
Eighty pupils of different academic levels (i.e. strong vs weak) were asked to make estimations about the different subjects taught at school. Gathered post-experimentally, the data allow specification of the relation to intelligence in which each school subject stands for the two different types of subjects. Evaluations of the significations accorded to performances in the different disciplines were also obtained. In accordance with expectations, analysis of these estimations reveals that pupils in a failure situation have an “original” conception of the field of academic comparison. However, the data obtained show that this originality (i.e. this social differentiation) stays within the dominant value system which sets the confines of the field of academic comparison. Taken in conjunction with more experimental results reported elsewhere, these estimations suggest that the cognitive attitude adopted by subjects towards an object of knowledge (here academic) can, in certain conditions, be formed independently of the social significations associated with this object but not independently of the nature of the social insertion which subjects undergo at the time of this interaction.
 
The Children Depression Inventory (CDI) is a multidimensional instrument that includes items of social withdrawal, anhedonia, asthenia, low self-esteem (internalized) and behavioral problems (externalized). Child depression has been related with low academic achievement, neurotic and introverted personality traits and social maladjustment defined by aggressiveness, psychoticism and antisocial behavior. In this work, it is hypothesized that in non-clinical populations, the relationships between CDI scores and a low academic achievement might be basically due to social maladjustment assessed by the behavioral items of this instrument, which do not necessarily tap depressive mood. The effects of both depressive mood and social maladjustment on academic achievement are analyzed in an adolescent sample of 315 boys and 363 girls through Structural Equation Modelling procedures. Results corroborate the hypothesis that social maladjustment measured by the CDI behavioral items and Psychoticism explain low academic achievement over and above depressive mood measured by the rest of the CDI items, extraversion and neuroticism.
 
Despite notable steps toward gender equality and significant changes in gender roles, women continue to face tension between academic aspirations and the more traditional role of caregiver. The goal of the present research was to examine how this conflict might be revealed through assessments of associations that cannot be consciously controlled. In two experiments, college women completed implicit association tasks measuring the strength of their academic identification. Experiment I (N= 55) showed that implicit academic identification was weaker when motherhood cues were present (rather than absent). In Experiment 2 (N= 73), implicit academic identification was weaker when participants reflected on their aspirations to become a college graduate rather than aspirations to be a mother. These findings emphasize the malleability of the implicit academic self-concept. More precisely, they document that subtle exposure to cues and more deliberate thought processes produce distinct effects. This research contributes to a better understanding of contextual influences on the academic self-concept of college women and their potential implications for academic performances.
 
The influence of sixth-graders’ explanatory activity was studied on their teachers’ academic judgment. Concerning the pupils’ explanatory activity, trait-related internal explanations were chosen more to explain positive events than negative ones, whereas the reverse was observed for effort/intention-related internal explanations. In response to positive and negative events, the trait-related and effort/related internal explanations were socially valued, whereas external explanations (Situational factors and others’ traits; Luck and others’ efforts and intentions) were socially devalued. Concerning teachers’ judgment, the more pupils chose traits and the less they chose lack of effort/intention to explain the negative events, and the less they chose traits and the more they chose effort/intention to explain the positive events, the more teachers attributed socially desirable traits to them. The more pupils chose effort/intention to explain the positive and negative events and the less they chose luck and others’ effort/intention to explain the negative events, the more teachers’ attributed socially useful traits to them (if the pupils do not value these internal explanations and devalue these external explanations). The results are discussed in reference to the social functions implied by the academic judgment.
 
The impact of achievement project appraisals on academic achievement, satisfaction and test anxiety, as well as on subsequent project appraisals, was examined. First, 303 university students filled in the Little's Personal Project Analysis (PPA) at the beginning of their studies. Six months later, 170 of them were examined according to their anxiety, and expected and received grades in an examination situation. One year after the first measurement, they filled in an academic satisfaction scale, and two years later, the PPA. Data on academic achievement was gathered from university archives. The results, analysed by structural equation models (SEM), showed that those who appraised their achievement projects in positive terms and as easy to achieve had higher levels of academic achievement and related satisfaction than those who appraised achievement projects as stressful and non-attainable. In turn, the more satisfied they were with their achievements, the more they appraised their achievement projects as easy to achieve two years later. Furthermore, the more the subjects appraised their achievement projects in negative terms, the more anxiety they reported before the examination.
 
Three questions were posed. Would low achieving 13 to 14 year olds in Latvia have followed the predictions derivable from Social Identity Theory and formed a counter-culture or would they display depressed scores on measures of self-evaluation and other aspects of self-concept? With ethnic Russians having been “relatively deprived” vis-a-vis ethnic Latvians since 1989, would these effects be particularly evident in their experience and behaviour? Given that both groups are materially impoverished in comparison with their English peers would this be reflected in their self perceptions and evaluations? While differences associated with differential achievement were found across a wide range of perceptual, evaluative, attitudinal and reported behavioural measures in line with the hypothesis that low achievement is associated with depressed school-valued dispositions and behaviour, neither the relative deprivation of ethnic Russians, nor the lower material resources of both groups showed effects. Suggestions are offered as to the consequences of these results for policy makers and the challenges they present to social psychologists in education.
 
Teacher's responsibility as a function of causal attribution and type of school
Teachers' interventions as a function of causal controllability (frequencies)
versus absence of "mitigating circumstances" as a function of failure causal attribution
of responsibility ascribed and likelihood to pass the student as a function of presence vs. absence of mitigating circumstances
of responsibility ascribed and likelihood to pass the student comparing Italian and French teachers
115 Italian and French teachers of high school and junior high school participated in a study aimed at investigating the impact of causal attribution on judgments of responsibility in case of academic failure of their pupils. Results support the attribution theory as conceptualized by Weiner (1986, 1995) and confirm the predictive utility of the theoretical model in Italian and French schools: Effort causal attribution of failure give rise to punitive strategies and ascription of responsibility to the pupils. The data therefore document cross-cultural differences concerning the responsibility ascription and behavioral consequences in terms of student’s assessment. Results are also discussed in terms of the role of social norms in school context. 115 enseignants italiens et français ont participé a un étude ayant pour objectif d’examiner l’impact des attributions causales de l’échec sur leurs jugements de responsabilité et leurs prédictions de réussite à propos d’élèves qu’ils connaissent. Les résultats tendent à supporter le modèle du jugement de responsabilité avancé par Weiner (1986, 1995): aussi bien en Italie qu’en France, l’attribution de l’échec au manque d’effort entraîne une prédiction moins positive qu’une attribution au manque de capacités, et une attribution de la responsabilité de l’échec à l’élèves. Les résultats sont interprétés en terme de rôle des normes sociales dans le contexte scolaire.
 
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Wolfgang Schneider
  • University of Wuerzburg
Lieven Verschaffel
Filip Dochy
  • KU Leuven
Dan A. Olweus
  • University of Bergen
Noel Entwistle
  • The University of Edinburgh