European Journal of Personality

Published by SAGE

Online ISSN: 1099-0984


Print ISSN: 0890-2070


Trait Self–Esteem Moderates Decreases in Self–Control following Rejection: An Information–Processing Account
  • Article

March 2012


186 Reads






In the current paper, the authors posit that trait self-esteem moderates the relationship between social rejection and decrements in self-control, propose an information-processing account of trait self-esteem's moderating influence and discuss three tests of this theory. The authors measured trait self-esteem, experimentally manipulated social rejection and assessed subsequent self-control in Studies 1 and 2. Additionally, Study 3 framed a self-control task as diagnostic of social skills to examine motivational influences. Together, the results reveal that rejection impairs self-control, but only among low self-esteem individuals. Moreover, this decrement in self-control only emerged when the task had no social implications-suggesting that low self-esteem individuals exert effort on tasks of social value and are otherwise preoccupied with belonging needs when completing nonsocial tasks.

Modern Regression Methods that can Substantially Increase Power and Provide a more Accurate Understanding of Associations

May 2012


68 Reads

During the last half century hundreds of papers published in statistical journals have documented general conditions where reliance on least squares regression and Pearson's correlation can result in missing even strong associations between variables. Moreover, highly misleading conclusions can be made, even when the sample size is large. There are, in fact, several fundamental concerns related to non-normality, outliers, heteroscedasticity, and curvature that can result in missing a strong association. Simultaneously, a vast array of new methods have been derived for effectively dealing with these concerns. The paper (1) reviews why least squares regression and classic inferential methods can fail, (2) provides an overview of the many modern strategies for dealing with known problems, including some recent advances, and (3) illustrates that modern robust methods can make a practical difference in our understanding of data. Included are some general recommendations regarding how modern methods might be used.

Figure 1: Frequency distributions of the Inventory of Creative Activities and Achievements (ICAA) scales.
Table 1 . Descriptive statistics and intercorrelations of the employed measures
Figure 2: Structural equation model for the prediction of creative activities and achievements. Error terms are not displayed. Detailed explanations and abbreviations are given in the Results section.
Figure 3: Structural part of the latent moderation model.
The Road to Creative Achievement: A Latent Variable Model of Ability and Personality Predictors
  • Article
  • Full-text available

April 2014


2,211 Reads

This study investigated the significance of different well-established psychometric indicators of creativity for real-life creative outcomes. Specifically, we tested the effects of creative potential, intelligence, and openness to experiences on everyday creative activities and actual creative achievement. Using a heterogeneous sample of 297 adults, we performed latent multiple regression analyses by means of structural equation modelling. We found openness to experiences and two independent indicators of creative potential, ideational originality and ideational fluency, to predict everyday creative activities. Creative activities, in turn, predicted actual creative achievement. Intelligence was found to predict creative achievement, but not creative activities. Moreover, intelligence moderated the effect of creative activities on creative achievement, suggesting that intelligence may play an important role in transforming creative activities into publically acknowledged creative achievements. This study supports the view of creativity as a multifaceted construct and provides an integrative model illustrating the potential interplay between its different facets.

Lexical Studies of Filipino Person Descriptors: Adding Personality-Relevant Social and Physical Attributes

June 2008


269 Reads

Lexical studies have focused on traits. In the Filipino language, we investigated whether additional dimensions can be identified when personality-relevant terms for social roles, statuses, and effects, plus physical attributes, are included. Filipino students (N = 496) rated themselves on 268 such terms, plus 253 markers of trait and evaluative dimensions. We identified 10 dimensions of social and physical attributes-Prominence, Uselessness, Attractiveness, Respectability, Uniqueness, Destructiveness, Presentableness, Strength, Dangerousness, and Charisma. Most of these dimensions did not correspond in a one-to-one manner to Filipino or alternative trait models (Big Five, HEXACO, ML7). However, considerable redundancy was observed between the social and physical attribute dimensions and trait and evaluative dimensions. Thus, social and physical attributes communicate information about personality traits, and vice-versa.

The Contribution of Agreeableness and Self-efficacy Beliefs to Prosociality

February 2010


346 Reads

The present study examined how agreeableness and self-efficacy beliefs about responding empathically to others' needs predict individuals' prosociality across time. Participants were 377 adolescents (66% males) aged 16 at Time 1 and 18 at Time 2 who took part at this study. Measures of agreeableness, empathic self-efficacy and prosociality were collected at two time points. The findings corroborated the posited paths of relations to assigning agreeableness a major role in predicting the level of individuals' prosociality. Empathic self-efficacy beliefs partially mediated the relation of agreeableness to prosociality. The posited conceptual model accounted for a significant portion of variance in prosociality and provides guidance with respect to interventions aimed at promoting prosociality.

Table 2 . Correlations between participant characteristics and outcome measures at baseline
Table 3 . Outcome measures at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and follow-up
Cognitive Bias Modification Using Mental Imagery for Depression: Developing A Novel Computerized Intervention to Change Negative Thinking Styles

March 2012


621 Reads

Why do some people see their glass as half-empty rather than half-full or even imagine that the glass will be filled in the future? Experimental methods can illuminate how individual differences in information processing style can profoundly impact mood or even result in disorders such as depression. A computerized cognitive bias modification intervention targeting interpretation bias in depression via positive mental imagery (CBM-I) was evaluated by investigating its impact on mental health and cognitive bias compared with a control condition. Twenty-six depressed individuals completed either positive imagery-focussed CBM-I or a control condition daily at home over one week. Outcome measures were collected pre-treatment and post-treatment and at two-week follow-up. Individuals in the positive condition demonstrated significant improvements from pre-treatment to post-treatment in depressive symptoms, cognitive bias and intrusive symptoms compared with the control condition. Improvements in depressive symptoms at two-week follow-up were at trend level. The results of this first controlled comparison of positive imagery-focussed CBM-I for depression further support the clinical potential of CBM-I and the development of a novel computerized treatment that could help patients imagine a more positive future. Broader implications concern the modification of individual differences in personality variables via their interaction with key information processing targets. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Personality and Career Success: Concurrent and Longitudinal Relations

March 2009


4,233 Reads

The present research addresses the dynamic transaction between extrinsic (occupational prestige, income) and intrinsic (job satisfaction) career success and the Five-Factor Model of personality. Participants (N = 731) completed a comprehensive measure of personality and reported their job title, annual income, and job satisfaction; a subset of these participants (n = 302) provided the same information approximately 10 years later. Measured concurrently, emotionally stable and conscientious participants reported higher incomes and job satisfaction. Longitudinal analyses revealed that, among younger participants, higher income at baseline predicted decreases in Neuroticism and baseline Extraversion predicted increases in income across the 10 years. Results suggest that the mutual influence of career success and personality is limited to income and occurs early in the career.

Climatic Warmth and National Wealth: Some Culture-Level Determinants of National Character Stereotypes

December 2007


226 Reads

National character stereotypes are widely shared, but do not reflect assessed levels of personality traits. In this article we present data illustrating the divergence of stereotypes and assessed personality traits in north and south Italy, test hypotheses about the associations of temperature and national wealth with national character stereotypes in 49 cultures, and explore possible links to national values and beliefs. Results suggest that warmth and wealth are common determinants of national stereotypes, but that there are also idiosyncratic influences on the perceptions of individual nations.

Context Specificity in Stability of Hyperactivity-Impulsivity

December 2010


29 Reads

This paper exemplifies a secondary data analysis of context-specific differences in children's hyperactivity-impulsivity while controlling for informant-specific effects. Participants were boys and girls from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development who were measured in 1(st), 3(rd), and 5(th) grades. Latent factor models were structured using multi-informant reports including mothers, fathers, teachers, and observers. Temporal stability within a context was stronger than cross-context consistency, and the magnitude of longitudinal stability was higher in the home context compared to the school context. Controlling for informant-specific effects resulted in a significantly improved model fit and increased within-context stability. Our findings highlight the importance of considering both context and informant effects when studying longitudinal stability and change in personality development.

On the Contributions of a Network Approach to Personality Theory and Research

July 2012


63 Reads

Understanding personality structure and processes is one of the most fundamental goals in personality psychology. The network approach presented by Cramer et al. represents a useful path toward this goal, and we address two facets of their approach. First, we examine the possibility that it solves the problem of breadth, which has inhibited the integration of trait theory with social cognitive theory. Second, we evaluate the value and usability of their proposed method (qgraph), doing so by conducting idiographic analyses of the symptom structure of Borderline Personality Disorder.

Taxonomy and structure of Hungarian personality traits. European Journal of Personality, 8, 95-118

June 1994


231 Reads

This study reports on the application of the principles of the lexical approach to a non-Indo-European language, namely Hungarian. This language is a Uralic island surrounded on all sides by Indo-European languages. In addition, the Hungarians are, in terms of cultural features, Europeans. These conditions provide a great opportunity for a crucial test case of the lexical approach to personality. Study 1 reports on the different phases of the selection of the trait terms from the Hungarian lexicon, a categorization into kinds of personality-relevant terms, a comparison of the category findings with those of other languages, and on indices of relevance of the personality terms. Of the total number of 8738 personality-relevant terms, 3914 adjectives were used for Study 2. In that study, personality descriptiveness ratings were obtained from a group of judges (N = 5). On the basis of these ratings, a manageable set of 624 adjectives was selected for a rating task. Four hundred subjects provided self-ratings on the 624 adjectives. On the basis of the means and standard deviations of the ratings, the set of 624 was further reduced to 561 adjectives. On ipsatized data, principal components analyses were performed. Both a four-factor solution and a five-factor solution, which were Varimax-rotated, are presented. The correspondence of these factors to the traditional Big Five factors is discussed.

The Five-Factor Personality Inventory: Cross-Cultural Generalizability across 13 Countries

September 2003


419 Reads

In the present study, we investigated the structural invariance of the Five-Factor Personality Inventory (FFPI) across a variety of cultures. Self-report data sets from ten European and three non-European countries were available, representing the Germanic (Belgium, England, Germany, the Netherlands, USA), Romance (Italy, Spain), and Slavic branches (Croatia, Czech Republic, Slovakia) of the Indo-European languages, as well as the Semito-Hamitic (Israel) and Altaic (Hungary, Japan) language families. Each data set was subjected to principal component analysis, followed by varimax rotation and orthogonal Procrustes rotation to optimal agreement with (i) the Dutch normative structure and (ii) an American large-sample structure. Three criteria (scree test, internal consistency reliabilities of the varimax-rotated components, and parallel analysis) were used to establish the number of factors to be retained for rotation. Clear five-factor structures were found in all samples except in the smallest one (USA, N = 97). Internal consistency reliabilities of the five components were generally good and high congruence was found between each sample structure and both reference structures. More than 80% of the items were equally stable within each country. Based on the results, an international FFPI reference structure is proposed. This reference structure can facilitate standardized communications about Big Five scores across research programmes. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Social acceptance and the relationship between aggressive problem‐solving strategies and aggressive behaviour in 14‐year‐old adolescents

November 1996


20 Reads

This study examines the relationship between aggressive problem-solving strategies and aggressive behaviour, and the intervening role of social acceptance in that relationship. The subjects were 780 14-year-old adolescents (382 girls and 398 boys). They completed a questionnaire measuring social problem-solving strategies, while assessments of aggressive behaviour and social acceptance were obtained by peer ratings. The results showed that aggressive problem-solving strategies were only moderately related to aggressive behaviour, social acceptance playing an important role. Those who received incongruent social feedback, i.e. scored high on social acceptance even though they behaved aggressively, or low although they behaved non-aggressively, expressed aggressive problem-solving strategies which conflicted with their actual behaviour. Those who received congruent social feedback, on the other hand, i.e. scored high on social acceptance if they behaved non-aggressively, or low if they behaved aggressively, had strategies which were in line with their actual aggressive behaviour. Analyses of gender differences showed that aggressive problem-solving strategies were related to aggressive behaviour and social acceptance more among boys. The findings are discussed in terms of social information-processing models and social knowledge about the self.

Personality development from 12 to 18 years of age: Changes in mean levels and structure of traits

September 2004


686 Reads

The Estonian NEO-FFI was administered to 2650 Estonian adolescents (1420 girls and 1230 boys) aged from 12 to 18 years and attending 6th, 8th, 10th, or 12th grade at secondary schools all over Estonia. Although the mean levels of personality traits of Estonian adolescents were quite similar to the respective scores of Estonian adults, there was a developmental gap in Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. Three of the five personality dispositions demonstrated a modest cross-sectional change in the mean level of the trait scores: the level of Openness increased and the levels of Agreeableness and Conscientiousness decreased between 12 and 18 years of age. Although the five-factor structure of personality was already recognizable in the sample of 12-year-old children, it demonstrated only an approximate congruence with the adult structure, suggesting that not all children of that age have developed abilities required for observing one's own personality dispositions and for giving reliable self-reports on the basis of these observations. The self-reported personality trait structure matures and becomes sufficiently differentiated around age 14–15 and grows to be practically indistinguishable from adult personality by the age of 16. Personality of adolescents becomes more differentiated with age: along with the growth of mental capacities the correlations among the personality traits and intelligence become smaller. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Figure 1: Size of the Bielefeld and the Saarbrücken word lists.
Fantasy, wishful thinking, and statistical hokuspokus. A rejoinder to De Raad and Ostendorf (1996)

June 1996


16 Reads

De Raad and Ostendorf (1996) sharply criticize a paper of mine (Henss, 1995). However, their critique is seriously flawed. In this paper, I discuss some of the most important shortcomings of De Raad and Ostendorf's article.

Gone Too Far - Or Not Far Enough? Comments on the Article by Ashton and Lee (2001)

January 2002


81 Reads

Ashton and Lee argue that Honesty should be added to the Big Five model of personality as a sixth factor, and present a theoretical framework for interpreting Big Five factors and Honesty that helps make sense of the proposed six-factor structure. The attempt by Ashton and Lee to go beyond the Big Five is applauded, but numerous problems are evident. Adding Honesty to the Big Five is plausible only if one ignores key assumptions that the Big Five model consists of independent factors that are candidates for pervasive lexical universals. The proposal does not take into account significant deviations from the Anglo-Germanic Big Five that have occurred in emic studies of languages having their origin outside of northern Europe, nor potential substantive interpretations of the widely replicated Negative Valence factor. Future studies should seek improvements or alternatives to the Big Five in a way that keeps constituent factors well discriminated from one another and enhances the likelihood of ubiquity across diverse languages and cultures. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Distinguishing among models and goals in personality science: Comment on Ashton and Lee (2005)

August 2005


12 Reads

This comment notes a misrepresentation of work by Caprara and Cervone (2000) contained in a recent contribution to this journal (Ashton & Lee, 2005). This occurrence is taken as an opportunity to highlight a positive development in personality science: investigators' increasing awareness of distinctions among alternative conceptual models that address qualitatively distinct scientific goals that each fall within the confines of the professional field. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

On artifacts and meaning in person-centred analyses: Comment on McCrae, Terracciano, Costa and Ozer (2005)

January 2006


45 Reads

McCrae et al.'s (2006) analyses of the California Adult Q-Set (CAQ) are flawed in two respects. First, they misunderstand the meaning of Q-factors by claiming that high Q-correlations between the first Q-factor and item endorsements or the social desirability of items are an artifact. Second, their attempt to overcome this ‘artifact’ by conducting a Q-factor analysis of interindividually standardised items induces, ironically, a real artifact because this approach ignores meaningful interindividual differences in the intraindividual means and standard deviations of the standardised Q-sort profiles. Instead of closing doors on person-centred analyses of personality data, more of these doors should be passed through. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Rejoinder to Goldberg, Lee and Ashton (2008): Explaining counterintuitive findings

March 2008


150 Reads

In their critique of our erratum and addendum (Anderson & Ones, 2008), Goldberg, Lee, and Ashton (2008) allege clerical errors (1) where participants' HPI scores were incorrectly matched to other inventory scale scores and (2) in scoring of the OPQ and BPI scales. The first point was fully addressed by our erratum and addendum and Goldberg et al. do not present any new evidence that was not already considered. In this response, we further demonstrate that Goldberg et al. do not and cannot prove clerical errors in scoring OPQ and BPI scales. The circumstantial arguments presented by Goldberg et al. are shown to be fallacious. We respond to all conjectures and criticisms raised by their paper. We acknowledge, as we did in our previous publication (Anderson & Ones, 2003) that some of the specific convergent correlations and findings reported are not normative, but nonetheless explainable given psychometric and statistical artefacts that influence individual primary study results. Even basing our analyses upon the ‘reconstituted’ dataset generated and preferred by Goldberg et al., we demonstrate that our original conclusions do not change substantially. Responsible science requires the publication of all results, not only those confirming extant hypotheses and expectations. We continue to stand by the findings and conclusions reported in our previous publications (Anderson & Ones, 2003; Ones & Anderson, 2002). Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Comparability of Self‐Reported Conscientiousness Across 21 Countries

July 2011


295 Reads

In cross-national studies, mean levels of self-reported phenomena are often not congruent with more objective criteria. One prominent explanation for such findings is that people make self-report judgements in relation to culture-specific standards (often called the reference group effect), thereby undermining the cross-cultural comparability of the judgements. We employed a simple method called anchoring vignettes in order to test whether people from 21 different countries have varying standards for Conscientiousness, a Big Five personality trait that has repeatedly shown unexpected nation-level relationships with external criteria. Participants rated their own Conscientiousness and that of 30 hypothetical persons portrayed in short vignettes. The latter type of ratings was expected to reveal individual differences in standards of Conscientiousness. The vignettes were rated relatively similarly in all countries, suggesting no substantial culture-related differences in standards for Conscientiousness. Controlling for the small differences in standards did not substantially change the rankings of countries on mean self-ratings or the predictive validities of these rankings for objective criteria. These findings are not consistent with mean self-rated Conscientiousness scores being influenced by culture-specific standards. The technique of anchoring vignettes can be used in various types of studies to assess the potentially confounding effects of reference levels. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Locus of control and the flow experience: An experimental analysis. European Journal of Personality, 22, 589-607

November 2008


706 Reads

The present research addresses the notion that the compatibility of skills and task demands involved in a given activity elicits a flow experience that renders the respective activity rewarding. The study employed an experimental paradigm to document the causal impact of skills–demands compatibility on the emergence of flow and revealed that participants characterized by a strong internal locus of control (LOC) were most sensitive to the manipulation of skills–demands compatibility and experienced flow under conditions of a fit of skills and task demands, whereas individuals with a weak internal LOC did not enter the state of flow. In line with previous findings, this suggests that distinct personality attributes are of critical relevance for the experience of flow to emerge. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Digit Ratio (2D:4D) and Cattell’s personality traits.

June 2008


615 Reads

The ratio between second and fourth finger (2D:4D) is sexually dimorphic; it is lower in men than in women. Studies using broad personality domains yielded correlations of 2D:4D with neuroticism, extraversion or agreeableness, but the obtained results have been inconsistent. We correlated 2D:4D of 184 women and 101 men with their scores in Cattell's 16 Personality Factor (16PF) Questionnaire. We found women with a higher (more ‘feminine’) right hand 2D:4D to score lower in emotional stability and social boldness and higher in privateness. Mediator analysis showed emotional stability to be probably primarily correlated with 2D:4D and to act as a mediator between 2D:4D and social boldness. Privateness appears to be mediated by an even more complex path. We discuss the usefulness of primary-level personality questionnaires and mediator analyses in the investigation of psycho-morphological associations. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Category‐breadth and social‐desirability values for 573 personality terms

December 1987


30 Reads

Forty-five British adults rated 573 person-descriptive terms on category breadth (defined as the diversity of behavioural referents of a trait) and social desirability. These values are presented here, along with American values where available. The British ratings proved highly reliable, and they correlated substantially with the American values, thus demonstrating the generalizability of category-breadth judgements between these two cultures and the stability of the social-desirability values over a 20-year interval.

From Aal to Zyniker. Personality descriptive type nouns in the German language

June 1995


15 Reads

Up until now it has been assumed that the German language comprises far more personality descriptive adjectives (e.g. cynical) than type nouns (e.g. cynic); cf. the article by Angleitner, Ostendorf and John (1990). The present paper shows that this conclusion is unwarranted. Firstly, it is demonstrated that the German taxonomers considered only a small fraction of the relevant type nouns. Then follows a discussion of why the German language contains a huge number of personality type nouns. Finally, some pitfalls of the lexical approach to personality description are considered.

Table 4 . Correlation Matrix of NEO Facets and HPI HICs ( N = 30)
Clarification of Factor Five with the help of the AB5C Model

November 1994


560 Reads

The Abridged Big Five-Dimensional Circumplex (AB5C) Model of Hofstee, De Raad and Goldberg (1992) represents trait terms as blends of factors. Analyses suggest that different scales for measuring Factor V (Mentality) may reflect blends of this factor with either Factor 111 (Constraint) or Factor I (Extraversion/Surgency). Measures saturated primarily by Factor V alone (V+V+ in the AB5C terms of Hofstee et al.) represent Creative Mentality. Measures that blend Factor V with the positive pole of Factor III represent Constrained Mentality (V+III+ ), with the negative pole, Unconstrained Mentality (V+III–). Measures that blend Factors V and I represent Surgent Mentality (V+I+). While all of these variants are perfectly valid forms of Factor V, Creative Mentality seems to be the central core of Factor V and is represented by the Openness to Ideas and Openness to Aesthetics Scales of Costa and McCrae (1992) and by the Generates Ideas and Culture Scales of Hogan and Hogan (1992).

The dark side of normal: A psychopathy‐linked pattern called aberrant self‐promotion

September 1995


332 Reads

These studies investigate a personality and behavior pattern called aberrant self-promotion, conceptualized as a subclinical form of psychopathy. Aberrant self-promoters (ASPs) are theoretically defined as individuals characterized by a narcissistic personality configuration in combination with antisocial behavior. The first study verifies the existence of persons who manifest the ASP pattern. The second study validates the pattern, using as criteria the Revised Psychopathy Checklist (PCL-R) interview and records of antisocial behavior. In the first study a 179-item questionnaire, composed of five personality instruments, was administered to two separate samples of normal subjects (N = 214 and 367). ASPs were targeted by three methods: cluster analysis, item factor analysis, and person factor analysis. In Sample 1 the three methods demonstrated a convergence of 92 per cent in identifying the same individuals as ASPs; in Sample 2 the convergence rate was 94 per cent. In the second study 32 ASPs targeted in Study 1 were compared to 30 non-ASPS. The ASPs had significantly higher scores on the PCL-R and had committed significantly more antisocial acts than the non-ASPS. The general discussion focuses on the practical, theoretical, and measurement implications of considering aberrant self-promotion a distinct psychological motif.

Personality and Absenteeism: A Meta-Analysis of Integrity Tests

March 2003


3,542 Reads

Until recently, research focus has been on a variety of demographic, attitudinal, and organizational variables in predicting and explaining absenteeism. If personality traits predict absenteeism, then it may be possible to use measures of these traits to identify and select job applicants and thereby reduce absenteeism rates. In this research, our goal was to examine whether integrity tests could be used to predict absenteeism. Meta-analysis was applied to studies of the validity of pre-employment integrity tests for predicting voluntary absenteeism. Twenty-eight studies based on a total sample of 13 972 were meta-analysed. The estimated mean predictive validity of personality-based integrity tests was 0.33. This operational validity generalized across various predictor scales, organizations, settings, and jobs (SDρ = 0.00). Overt integrity tests, however, showed much lower predictive validity for absenteeism and greater variability than personality-based tests (ρ = 0.09; SDρ = 0.16). The results indicate that a personnel selection approach to reducing absenteeism in organizations may be a useful strategy, particularly if personality-based integrity tests are utilized. Potential explanations for differences between these results and those found for Big Five measures of personality are offered. Future research investigating models of absenteeism should incorporate the personality constructs assessed by integrity tests. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Personality and judgements of abstract, pop art, and representational paintings

January 2001


494 Reads

This study was concerned with the question of which personality variables are most predictive of judgements of particular types of painting. One hundred and twenty-one participants rated 24 slides of abstract, pop art, and representational paintings. They then completed two questionnaires which measured sensation seeking (SS) and the ‘Big Five’ personality dimensions. Thrill and Adventure Seeking was positively correlated with a liking of representational art while Disinhibition was associated with positive ratings of abstract art and pop art. Neuroticism was positively correlated with positive ratings of abstract and pop art, while conscientiousness was linked to liking of representational art. Openness to Experience was linked to positive ratings of all three art types. Agreeableness was negatively linked to liking of pop art. It was also found that art education and frequency of visits to art galleries were linked to positive ratings of abstract paintings. Regressional analyses showed about a fifth of the variance could be accounted for by personality and demographic variables. Personality variables were most strongly linked to positive judgements of representational art and least related to ratings of pop art. Overall the sensation seeking variables accounted for more of the variance than the big five dimensions. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Personality terms of abuse in three cultures: Type nouns between description and insult

March 2005


108 Reads

In this study terms of abuse are investigated in three different cultures. Spontaneous verbal aggression is to a certain extent reminiscent of the values of a certain culture. One hundred and ninety-two male subjects from Spain, Germany and the Netherlands were asked to write down terms of abuse that they would use given a certain stimulus situation, and in addition to give their rating of the offensive character of those terms. A total set of 830 useful expressions was thus collected. The frequencies of the expressions were established, and the total list of expressions was categorized in terms of what they were about. In Spanish abusive language is typically about family and relations, in Germany it is typically about anal aspects, and in the Netherlands it is mainly about genitals. Explanations are provided in terms of dimensions on which the three cultures differ. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The Relationship of Emotional Intelligence with Academic Intelligence and the Big Five

March 2002


1,348 Reads

The present study examines the relationship of self- and other ratings of emotional intelligence with academic intelligence and personality, as well as the incremental validity of emotional intelligence beyond academic intelligence and personality in predicting academic and social success. A sample of 116 students filled in measures for emotional and academic intelligence, the Big Five, and indicators of social and academic success. Moreover, other ratings were obtained from four different raters on emotional intelligence and social success. Factor analysis revealed three emotional intelligence dimensions that were labelled as ‘Empathy’, ‘Autonomy’, and ‘Emotional Control’. Little evidence was found for a relationship between emotional and academic intelligence. Academic intelligence was low and inconsistently related to emotional intelligence, revealing both negative and positive interrelations. Strong relationships were found of the emotional intelligence dimensions with the Big Five, particularly with Extraversion and Emotional Stability. Interestingly, the emotional intelligence dimensions were able to predict both academic and social success above traditional indicators of academic intelligence and personality. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Table 1 . Correlations, a reliabilities and descriptives of Study 1 variables (N ¼ 226)
Table 4 . Correlations, a reliabilities and descriptives of Study 2 variables
Broad Versus Narrow Traits: Conscientiousness and Honesty-Humility as Predictors of Academic Criteria

September 2011


923 Reads

Recent research has suggested that the six-dimensional personality model, and especially the dimension Honesty–Humility/Integrity, adds incremental validity to the prediction of important criteria. We expected both this dimension and the dimension Conscientiousness to explain incremental variance in two academic criteria, namely grade point average (GPA) and counterproductive academic behaviour (CAB). In addition, we expected the more specific, so-called narrow traits of Conscientiousness and Honesty–Humility/Integrity to be stronger predictors of academic criteria than the broad traits. To test these expectations, two studies were conducted using the HEXACO Personality Inventory Revised (HEXACO-PI-R) and the Multicultural Personality Test—Big Six (MPT-BS). The results confirmed our expectations and suggest that academic criteria may be predicted with greater accuracy by focusing on the narrow traits of Conscientiousness and Honesty–Humility/Integrity. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Personality and Approaches to Learning as Predictors of Academic Achievement

December 2002


1,766 Reads

The relationship between personality, approaches to learning, and academic achievement was investigated. Two different undergraduate student samples, totalling 310 students, participated in the study. Results showed the expected significant correlations between the personality factors of openness, neuroticism, and conscientiousness, on the one hand, and deep, surface, and strategic approaches to learning, on the other. A significant negative correlation between surface approach and achievement was observed in sample 1. In sample 2, achievement was positively correlated with neuroticism, openness, and deep approach, and negatively correlated with agreeableness. Path analysis showed that each approach to learning was predicted by multiple personality traits, and that academic achievement was predicted by approaches to learning. A separate analysis showed that the relationship between openness and achievement was mediated by a deep approach to learning. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Well‐being and the accessibility of pleasant and unpleasant concepts

March 2007


62 Reads

The trait–congruency hypothesis predicts that persons high in positive or negative trait affect more readily process pleasant or unpleasant stimuli, respectively. In two studies, participants were administered measures of personality and affect. Moreover, a yes/no lexical decision task with pleasant, unpleasant and neutral words was administered in Study 1, whereas a go/no-go task was used in Study 2. Several methods to increase reliabilities of differences in reaction times are explored. Correlations of measures of personality and trait affect with decision times were mostly consistent with the trait–congruency hypothesis, particularly for decision times in the go/no-go task that measured individual differences in valence-specific decision times more reliably. The findings suggest that trait-related concept accessibility is one source of trait congruity. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Table 1 . HiPIC facet scale means by caseness and gender. and MANOVA parameters per domain (factors caseness and gender, no interaction)
Personality of Children with Accident-Related Injuries

July 2003


245 Reads

Previous studies based on a variety of behaviour, temperament, and personality measures identified a pattern of over-activity, impulsiveness, emotional instability, and aggressiveness in children who are prone to accidents. The present study is the first to study accident-prone children by means of a comprehensive test for the assessment of the Five Factor model (Hierarchical Personality Inventory for Children (HiPIC) (Mervielde & De Fruyt, 1999). 118 children, aged 6–15 years, who were hospitalized due to an accident-related injury, were contrasted with 184 school-children of the same age. Lower socio-economic status was under-represented in both groups. Children who were exposed to accidents had higher scores on the facets of energy, optimism, and non-shyness (Extraversion domain), and lower scores on the facets of concentration and achievement striving (Conscientiousness domain). There was no indication of higher aggressiveness, impulsiveness, or emotional instability in the group exposed to accidents, and there were no gender-by-accident interactions. Results suggest that there is a relatively benign pattern of personality traits that is related to greater accident hazard in children. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Does Personality Smell? Accuracy of Personality Assessments Based on Body Odour

September 2012


1,906 Reads

People are able to assess some personality traits of others based on videotaped behaviour, short interaction or a photograph. In our study, we investigated the relationship between body odour and the Big Five personality dimensions and dominance. Sixty odour samples were assessed by 20 raters each. The main finding of the presented study is that for a few personality traits, the correlation between self-assessed personality of odour donors and judgments based on their body odour was above chance level. The correlations were strongest for extraversion (.36), neuroticism (.34) and dominance (.29). Further analyses showed that self–other agreement in assessments of neuroticism slightly differed between sexes and that the ratings of dominance were particularly accurate for assessments of the opposite sex. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The effect on mundane decision-making of need and ability to achieve cognitive structure

March 1994


89 Reads

It is proposed that coping with conflictual decision-making can be viewed as a special case of coping with uncertainty. It is further suggested that two factors determine coping with uncertainty: (1) the individuals‘ need for cognitive structure (NCS), and (2) the individuals’ ability to achieve cognitive structure (AACS). This paper demonstrates that the interaction between AACS and NCS may explain subjects' reaction to decisional conflict. The results show that high-NCS and low-AACS individuals experienced the greatest difficulties in their decision-making and showed a positive correlation between the extent to which they perceived the conflict in the situation and the amount of time that they spent making the decision. In contrast, high-AACS and high-NCS subjects showed a negative correlation between these factors. In addition, these subjects experienced the least difficulty in the situation.

Figure 1. The effect of NCS on negative traits listed as a function of AACS. 
Figure 2. The effect of NCS on the recall of negative traits as a function of AACS. 
Figure 3. The effect of PNS on out-group homogeneity effect as a function of AACS. 
Who Exhibits More Stereotypical Thinking? the Effect of Need and Ability to Achieve Cognitive Structure on Stereotyping

July 2002


542 Reads

Need for cognitive structure (NCS) could affect stereotypical thinking. In the present paper, it is suggested that the effect of NCS on stereotyping is moderated by the ability to achieve cognitive structure (AACS). NCS is defined as the preference to use cognitive structuring (versus piecemeal processing) as a way to achieve certainty. AACS is defined as the extent to which individuals are able to use information processing processes (cognitive structuring or piecemeal) consistent with their level of NCS. Two studies were conducted to examine this hypothesis. The first examined the effect of NCS and AACS on negative stereotypes held by Israelis towards Palestinians. The second examined the effect of NCS and AACS on perceived in-group (psychology students) and out-group (engineering students) variability. Results of both studies showed that for high-AACS participants, higher NCS was associated with greater stereotypical thinking, whereas for low-AACS participants, higher NCS was associated with less stereotyping. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Results of hierarchical logistic regression analyses predicting unemployment at time 3
Young Adults' Achievement and Attributional Strategies in the Transition from School to Work: Antecedents and Consequences

July 2002


215 Reads

This study focused on investigating the extent to which the achievement and attributional strategies individuals deploy influence their success in dealing with the transition from school to work, and whether their success or failure in this particular would have consequences for the kinds of strategy they deployed later in life. Two hundred and fifty young adults filled in the Cartoon-Attribution-Strategy Inventory, a revised version of Beck's Depression Inventory, and a work status questionnaire at the beginning of the last spring term of their curriculum, four months after their graduation, and a year and a half after it. The results showed that the deployment of maladaptive strategies, such as passive avoidance, led to problems in dealing with the transition from school to work. In turn, young adults' problems in dealing with this transition decreased their use of self-serving causal attributions, which was also found to lead to increased depressive symptomatology. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Predicting School Achievement in Boys and Girls

May 2008


379 Reads

This study investigates the extent to which girls' better school attainment is associated with sex differences in intelligence, personality and school-related motivation. In a sample of 1353 Austrian pupils (mean age 13.74 years), intelligence, the Big Five of personality, self-esteem, school anxiety, school-related intrinsic motivation and achievement goals were assessed as predictors and GPA as achievement criterion. Most predictors yielded significant mean differences between sexes and some of the variables predicted school achievement only for boys or only for girls. Intelligence and self-esteem were the strongest predictors of GPA for both sexes, and school-related intrinsic motivation, school anxiety and performance-avoidance goals explained additional variance in GPA only for boys, whereas work avoidance did so only for girls. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Type A behaviour and school achievement

March 1992


19 Reads

Type A behaviour related to school achievement was studied in 1640 randomly selected 12-, 15-, and 18-year-old subjects. Type A behaviour was both self-assessed by the subjects and evaluated by their mothers. Results indicated that school achievement was not related to the global score of Type A behaviour but correlated with three Type A dimensions, i.e. positively with Responsible Hard-driving and Leadership Competitiveness, and negatively with Aggressive Competitiveness. It has previously been shown that hard-driving correlates with a high level of somatic CHD risk factors, while leadership competition is a protective factor, i.e. it is associated with a low level of somatic CHD risk. So, school achievement differentiated adjusted and maladjusted Type A competitors, but not individuals with high and low somatic CHD risk. The results were manifest for boys and girls and for all age groups. Moreover, it was shown that the results were obtained independently of the methods used.

The nature and nurture of intelligence and motivation in the origins of sex differences in elementary school achievement

May 2008


624 Reads

This study investigates the roles of intelligence and school-related motivation in sex differences in school achievement and whether there are sex differences in the genetic and environmental influences on these variables. In a sample of 4464 9-year-old twins, intelligence, ablility self-perceptions, intrinsic values and achievement scores were assessed. Girls outperformed boys in English and had better corresponding ability self-perceptions, whereas in Math boys showed better attainment and ability self-perceptions. For both sexes and all three domains, intelligence was the strongest predictor of achievement and ability self-perceptions added incrementally to the prediction. Evidence of genetic influences was found for all measures but shared environmental influences were not important. These findings challenge some widely held assumptions about the development of children's motivation. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Children's need for approval and achievement motivation: An interactional approach

March 1993


14 Reads

This study examined the effects of children's need for approval (nApp) and a situational variable-frequency of expectancy statements-on children's achievement cognitions and behaviour. We replicated the Dweck and Gilliard (1975) paradigm, but also mea sured children's nApp. Ninety fifth grade boys and girls stated expectancies either prior to each trial, prior to the first and last trials, or prior to the last trial only. We found that although high and low nApp children lowered their expectancies after failure, high nApp children lowered them less than low nApp children. In contrast, persistence was influenced only by the frequency of expectancy statements and not by children's nApp. The results are discussed in the context of the interactional point of view in personality psychology.

Conscientious and achievement motivation predict performance

November 2009


651 Reads

A prospective survey was conducted to identify predictors of university students' grade point average (GPA) using separate samples of female (N = 472) and male (N = 142) students over 9 months. Big five personality traits and achievement motivation were measured. Correlations show that conscientiousness (C) and achievement motivation explained variation in GPA. Latent variable structural equation modelling showed that the effect of C on GPA is fully mediated by achievement motivation for both female and male students. Invariant factor and structural mediation models across the female and male groups are also reported. Finally, the mediation model is shown to remain significant after scholastic achievement is controlled. The findings are interpreted within the framework of Neo-Socioanalytic theory. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Sex differences in school achievement: What are the roles of personality and achievement motivation?

May 2008


567 Reads

It is consistently reported that despite equal cognitive ability, girls outperform boys in school. In several methodological steps, the present study examined sex differences in school achievement and some of the most important personality and motivational constructs in a sample of 204 females and 138 adolescent males (mean age M = 16.94 years; SD = 0.71). Grades in Math and German as well as grade point average (GPA) served as achievement criteria. Intelligence, the Big Five of personality and motivational variables (achievement motives, goal orientation, task values and ability self-concepts) served as predictors. After controlling for intelligence, girls' grades were significantly better than boys'. Mean sex differences were found for most variables. There were no gender-specific associations between predictors and grades. Agreeableness, work avoidance, ability self-concepts and values ascribed to German mediated the association between sex and grades in German. Controlling for ability self-concepts and values ascribed to Math enhanced the association between sex and math grades. We concluded that personality and motivation play important roles in explaining sex differences in school attainment. Results are discussed against the background of practical and methodological implications. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

A Closer Look at First Sight: Social Relations Lens Model Analysis of Personality and Interpersonal Attraction at Zero Acquaintance

May 2011


1,666 Reads

Based on a new theoretical framework—the Social Relations Lens Model—this study examined the influence of personality on real-life attraction at zero acquaintance. A group of psychology freshmen (N = 73) was investigated upon encountering one another for the first time. Personality traits, attraction ratings and metaperceptions were assessed using a large round-robin design (2628 dyads). In line with our model, personality differentially predicted who was a liker and who expected to be liked (perceiver effects), who was popular and who was seen as a liker (target effects), as well as who liked whom and who expected to be liked by whom (relationship effects). Moreover, the influence of personality on attraction was mediated by observable physical, nonverbal and audible cues. Results allowed a closer look at first sight and underline the importance of combining componential and process approaches in understanding the interplay of personality and social phenomena. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The g-factor of international cognitive ability comparisons: The homogeneity of results in PISA, TIMSS, PIRLS and IQ-tests across nations

August 2007


809 Reads

International cognitive ability and achievement comparisons stem from different research traditions. But analyses at the interindividual data level show that they share a common positive manifold. Correlations of national ability means are even higher to very high (within student assessment studies, r = .60–.98; between different student assessment studies [PISA-sum with TIMSS-sum] r = .82–.83; student assessment sum with intelligence tests, r = .85–.86). Results of factor analyses indicate a strong g-factor of differences between nations (variance explained by the first unrotated factor: 94–95%). Causes of the high correlations are seen in the similarities of tests within studies, in the similarities of the cognitive demands for tasks from different tests, and in the common developmental factors at the individual and national levels including known environmental and unknown genetic influences. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Associations between emotions: Correspondence across different types of data and componential basis

April 2004


38 Reads

Two issues regarding associations between negative emotions are addressed: (i) whether different types of data imply similar associations and (ii) whether these associations can be accounted for by the overlap between emotion components. In study 1, issue (i) was examined using individual differences covariation, situational covariation, and judged emotion similarity data. Results showed that the associations implied by the different data types were highly similar. Regarding issue (ii), we argue theoretically that component overlap may account for the obtained correspondence. Study 2 empirically demonstrated that the different types of association were strongly related to overlap in appraisals and action tendencies. Similarity judgments, however, seemed to be primarily based on emotion co-occurrence, and were only to a smaller degree directly related to component overlap. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Resilients, Overcontrollers, and Undercontrollers: The replicability of the three personality prototypes across informants

January 2004


287 Reads

The study of patterns in personality structure reveals three replicable prototypes: Resilients, Overcontrollers, and Undercontrollers. The three prototypes were first identified in children using ratings based on the California Child Q-set (see Block, 1971). Only recently, the three prototypes were replicated in self-reports on questionnaires intended to assess the Big Five (see e.g. Asendorpf, Borkenau, Ostendorf, & van Aken, 2001). This paper addresses the question of whether the three prototypes are replicable across different data sources. Cluster structures in self-, peer, and behaviour ratings, all based on the Big Five, were examined in a sample of 600 monozygotic and dizygotic twins ranging in age from 18 to 70 years. The three prototypes could be clearly identified in the self-reports only, whereas in ratings by others only the Resilient prototype could be replicated. In both peer and behaviour ratings, the second and the third cluster reflected a Non-desirable and an Average type. The analysis of cross-data consistency revealed only moderate agreement in assignments of individual subjects to types. The findings suggest that personality types depend strongly on personality measures and informants. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Congruence between social values and implicit motives: Effects on life satisfaction across three cultures

June 2006


174 Reads

This study examines the relationship between implicit motives for intimacy-affiliation and power, explicit value orientations, and life satisfaction. The Satisfaction With Life Scale, the Schwartz Value Survey, and a bias-free TAT-type picture-story-test were administered to 319 adult participants in Cameroon, Costa Rica, and Germany. The stories were coded for motive imagery reflecting needs for intimacy-affiliation and power. Based on motives associated with the domain intimacy-affiliation, the results revealed that an alignment of implicit motives and self-attributed values is associated with an enhanced life satisfaction across cultures. In contrast, no such relationship could be found for motives and values associated with the domain of power. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Analysis of genetic influences on the consistency and variability of the Big Five across different stressful situations

September 2001


104 Reads

Several studies have demonstrated that individual differences in personality traits, known as the Big Five, have a genetic component. These personality traits are considered important predictors of everyday behaviour. In addition to personality traits there are also factors in the environment that govern behaviour. This dual influence on behaviour is statistically reflected in a P × S interaction. This study examines the genetic and environmental influences on the interactions between a person and his daily life environment for the Big Five. Fifty-seven identical twin pairs and 43 fraternal twin pairs participated in this study. Trait related behaviour was measured in 30 different situations with the aid of an SR inventory. The heritability coefficients for the main effect of P were in the normal range, varying between 0.35 for Agreeableness and 0.53 for Conscientiousness. The heritability coefficients for the P × S interactions were moderately high, explaining between 26% and 69% of the total P × S variance. The consequences of these results for general and behavioural genetic research on the Big Five will be discussed. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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